US9567399B1 - Antibodies and immunocytokines - Google Patents

Antibodies and immunocytokines Download PDF

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US9567399B1
US9567399B1 US15211504 US201615211504A US9567399B1 US 9567399 B1 US9567399 B1 US 9567399B1 US 15211504 US15211504 US 15211504 US 201615211504 A US201615211504 A US 201615211504A US 9567399 B1 US9567399 B1 US 9567399B1
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Jamie Campbell
Nikole Sandy
Stephen D. Gillies
Volker Germaschewski
Cassandra VAN KRINKS
Ian Kirby
Miha Kosmac
Steve Arkinstall
Thomas Gallagher
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Kymab Ltd
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    • C07K16/00Immunoglobulins [IGs], e.g. monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies
    • C07K16/18Immunoglobulins [IGs], e.g. monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies against material from animals or humans
    • C07K16/28Immunoglobulins [IGs], e.g. monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies against material from animals or humans against receptors, cell surface antigens or cell surface determinants
    • C07K16/2803Immunoglobulins [IGs], e.g. monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies against material from animals or humans against receptors, cell surface antigens or cell surface determinants against the immunoglobulin superfamily
    • C07K16/2827Immunoglobulins [IGs], e.g. monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies against material from animals or humans against receptors, cell surface antigens or cell surface determinants against the immunoglobulin superfamily against B7 molecules, e.g. CD80, CD86
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    • C07K14/435Peptides having more than 20 amino acids; Gastrins; Somatostatins; Melanotropins; Derivatives thereof from animals; from humans
    • C07K14/52Cytokines; Lymphokines; Interferons
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    • C07K16/28Immunoglobulins [IGs], e.g. monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies against material from animals or humans against receptors, cell surface antigens or cell surface determinants
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K39/00Medicinal preparations containing antigens or antibodies
    • A61K2039/505Medicinal preparations containing antigens or antibodies comprising antibodies
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    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
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    • C07K2317/00Immunoglobulins specific features
    • C07K2317/20Immunoglobulins specific features characterized by taxonomic origin
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    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
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    • C07K2317/00Immunoglobulins specific features
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    • C07K2317/76Antagonist effect on antigen, e.g. neutralization or inhibition of binding
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    • C07K2317/92Affinity (KD), association rate (Ka), dissociation rate (Kd) or EC50 value
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    • C07K2319/01Fusion polypeptide containing a localisation/targetting motif
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    • C07K2319/70Fusion polypeptide containing domain for protein-protein interaction
    • C07K2319/74Fusion polypeptide containing domain for protein-protein interaction containing a fusion for binding to a cell surface receptor

Abstract

The present invention relates to anti-PD-L1 antibodies, bispecific antibodies containing one domain with specificity to PD-L1, and to immunocytokines comprising an anti-PD-L1 antibody fused to a cytokine, such as IL-2. The present invention also provides methods of treatment, uses and pharmaceutical compositions comprising the antibodies, bispecific antibodies and immunocytokines.

Description

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application claims benefit under 35 U.S.C. §119(e) of U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/352,291 filed Jun. 20, 2016, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

SEQUENCE LISTING

The instant application contains a Sequence Listing which has been submitted in ASCII format via EFS-Web and is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. Said ASCII copy, created on Aug. 4, 2016, is named 2016-08-05-Sequence_Listing_069496-086961.txt and is 335,137 bytes in size.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

Antibodies and methods of using the antibodies are described. In particular, antibodies that specifically bind human PD-L1 antigen and their use in treating various diseases are described. In some embodiments, described herein are PD-L1 specific antibodies and PD-L1 specific immunocytokines.

BACKGROUND

Immunocytokines (antibody-cytokine fusion proteins) were first reported in the literature in the early 1990s and consisted of whole antibody fusions with cytokines such as lymphotoxin (TNF-α) or interleukin 2 (IL-2). Subsequent studies in GD2-expressing tumour models in mice indicated that the ch14.18 antibody and ch14.18-IL2 immunocytokine both had anti-tumour activity but that the immunocytokine was far more potent than the antibody, even when combined with free IL-2, (see Sabzevari H et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1994, 91:9626-30; Pancook J D, et al., Cancer Immunol. Immunother., 1996, 42:88-92; Becker J C, et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1996, 93:2702-7). In addition, immune-competent mice treated with the immunocytokine, but not the antibody plus IL-2, developed an adaptive immune response dependent on CD8+ T-cells that prevented subsequent tumour challenge (Becker J C, et al., J. Exp. Med., 1996, 183:2361-6; Becker J C, et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1996, 93:7826-31). Thus, the targeting of IL-2 to the tumour microenvironment induces an anti-tumour vaccine effect that is not possible with the antibody, either alone or together with the free cytokine. A related humanized immunocytokine, hu 14.18-IL2, achieved clinical proof of concept in relapsed non-bulky neuroblastoma as monotherapy where it induced a significant number of complete responses in patients with no other treatment options (see Shusterman et al., Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2010, 28(33), 4969-4975). A number of publications describe the ability of this molecule to activate several components of the immune system to kill tumour cells (particularly NK cells and CD8+ T-cells), and develop T-cell memory in order to resist subsequent tumour challenge (Yamane et al. 2009; Expert Opi, Investig. Drugs, 18(7): 991-1000; Neal et al., 2004, Clin. Cancer Res., 1010, 4839-4847).

As IL-2 based immunocytokines can have significant side effects, recent efforts have focused on the reduction of toxicity whilst maintaining efficacy. One example is Selectikine (EMD 521873), which has a substitution of aspartic acid for threonine at position 20 of IL-2, a key residue in the binding of IL-2Rβ (Gillies et al., Clinical Cancer Research, 2011, 17(11), 3673-3685). Selectikine, which binds necrotic tissue, has been shown to have good anti-tumour activity, despite its selectivity for the high affinity IL-2R, over the intermediate IL-2R and good tolerability in Phase I studies (Laurent et al., Journal of Translational Medicine, 2013, 11(1), 5. Available on the World Wide Web at doi.org/10.1186/1479-5876-11-5)

WO2012/178137 (Gillies) describes light chain immunocytokine fusions with tumour targeting antibodies.

An adaptive immune response involves activation, selection, and clonal proliferation of two major classes of lymphocytes termed T-cells and B-cells. After encountering an antigen, T-cells proliferate and differentiate into antigen-specific effector cells, while B-cells proliferate and differentiate into antibody-secreting cells. T-cell activation is a multi-step process requiring several signalling events between the T-cell and an antigen-presenting cell (APC). For T-cell activation to occur, two types of signals must be delivered to a resting T-cell. The first type is mediated by the antigen-specific T-cell receptor (TcR), and confers specificity to the immune response. The second signal, a costimulatory type signal, regulates the magnitude of the response and is delivered through accessory receptors on the T-cell.

A primary costimulatory signal is delivered through the activating CD28 receptor upon engagement of its ligands B7-1 or B7-2. In contrast, engagement of the inhibitory CTLA-4 receptor by the same B7-1 or B7-2 ligands results in attenuation of a T cell response. Thus, CTLA-4 signals antagonize costimulation mediated by CD28. At high antigen concentrations, CD28 costimulation overrides the CTLA-4 inhibitory effect. Temporal regulation of the CD28 and CTLA-4 expression maintains a balance between activating and inhibitory signals and ensures the development of an effective immune response, while safeguarding against the development of autoimmunity.

Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is a 50-55 kDa type I transmembrane receptor that is a member of the CD28 family. PD-1 is involved in the regulation of T-cell activation and is expressed on T cells, B cells, and myeloid cells. Two ligands for PD-1, PD ligand 1 (PD-L1) and ligand 2 (PD-L2) have been identified and have co-stimulatory features.

Programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1), also known as cluster of differentiation (CD274) or B7 homolog 1 (B7-H1), is a member of the B7 family that modulates activation or inhibition of the PD-1 receptor. The open reading frame of PD-L1 encodes a putative type 1 transmembrane protein of 290 amino acids, which includes two extracellular Ig domains (a N-terminal V-like domain and a Ig C-like domain), a hydrophobic transmembrane domain and a cytoplasmic tail of 30 amino acids. The 30 amino acid intracellular (cytoplasmic) domain contains no obvious signalling motifs, but does have a potential site for protein kinase C phosphorylation.

The complete amino acid sequence for PD-L1 can be found in NCBI Reference Sequence: NP_054862.1 (SEQ ID NO: 1), which refers to many journal articles, including, for example, Dong, H., et al. (1999), “PD-L1, a third member of the B7 family, co-stimulates T-cell proliferation and interleukin-10 secretion,” Nat. Med. 5 (12), 1365-1369. The PD-L1 gene is conserved in chimpanzee, Rhesus monkey, dog, cow, mouse, rat, chicken, and zebrafish. The murine form of PD-L1 bears 69% amino acid identity with the human form of PD-L1, and also shares a conserved structure.

In humans, PD-L1 is expressed on a number of immune cell types including activated and anergic/exhausted T-cells, on naive and activated B-cells, as well as on myeloid dendritic cells (DC), monocytes and mast cells. It is also expressed on non-immune cells including islets of the pancreas, Kupffer cells of the liver, vascular endothelium and selected epithelia, for example airway epithelia and renal tubule epithelia, where its expression is enhanced during inflammatory episodes. PD-L1 expression is also found at increased levels on a number of tumours including, but not limited to breast (including but not limited to triple negative breast cancer), ovarian, cervical, colon, colorectal, lung, including non-small cell lung cancer, renal, including renal cell carcinoma, gastric, oesophageal, bladder, hepatocellular cancer, squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) and pancreatic cancer, melanoma and uveal melanoma.

PD-1/PD-L1 signalling is believed to serve a critical non-redundant function within the immune system by negatively regulating T cell responses. This regulation is involved in T cell development in the thymus, in regulation of chronic inflammatory responses and in maintenance of both peripheral tolerance and immune privilege. It appears that upregulation of PD-L1 may allow cancers to evade the host immune system and, in many cancers, the expression of PD-L1 is associated with reduced survival and an unfavourable prognosis. Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies that are able to block the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway may enhance anti-tumoural immune responses in patients with cancer. Published clinical data suggest a correlation between clinical responses with tumoural membranous expression of PD-L1 (Brahmer et al., Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2010, Topalian et al., NEJM, 2012) and a stronger correlation between lack of clinical responses and a lack of PD-L1 protein localized to the membrane (Brahmer et al., Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2010, Topalian et al., NEJM, 2012). Thus, PD-L1 expression in tumours or tumour-infiltrating leukocytes (Herbst R S, et al., “Predictive correlates of response to the anti-PD-L1 antibody MPDL3280A in cancer patients”, Nature, 2014, Nov. 27, 515(7528)563-7, doi: 10.1038/nature14011) is a candidate molecular marker for use in selecting patients for immunotherapy, for example, immunotherapy using anti-PD-L1 antibodies. Patient enrichment based on surface expression of PD-L1 may significantly enhance the clinical success of treatment with drugs targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway.

Further evidence of PD-L1 expression and correlation to disease will emerge from the numerous ongoing clinical trials. Atezolizumab is the most advanced, and recent data from Phase II trials shows therapeutic effects in metastatic urothelial carcinoma and NSCLC, particularly in patients with PD-L1+ immune cells in the tumour microenvironment (see Fehrenbacher et al., 2016, The Lancet, http://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)00587-0; Rosenberg et al., 2016, The Lancet, http://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)00561-4).

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Disclosed herein are antibodies and antigen binding fragment thereof that specifically binds to PD-L1. In one embodiment, the antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof specifically binds to surface expressed PD-L1.

In a first configuration, there is provided an antibody or a fragment thereof, that specifically binds to hPD-L1 as defined by Seq ID No:1, and competes for binding to said hPD-L1 with the antibody 1D05, wherein the antibody or fragment comprises a VH domain which comprises a CDRH3 comprising the motif X1GSGX2YGX3X4FD, wherein X1, X2 and X3 are independently any amino acid, and X4 is either present or absent, and if present, may be any amino acid.

In a second configuration, there is provided an antibody or a fragment thereof which specifically binds to hPD-L1, and competes for binding to said hPD-L1 with the antibody 1D05, wherein the antibody or fragment comprises a VH domain which comprises the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:29 or 32, or the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:29 or 32 comprising 6 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

In a third configuration, there is provided an antibody or fragment thereof which specifically binds to an epitope that is identical to an epitope to which the antibody 1D05 specifically binds.

In a fourth configuration, there is provided an antibody or fragment thereof which competes for binding to hPD-L1 with the antibody 1D05.

In a fifth configuration, there is provided a bispecific antibody or fusion protein comprising an antibody or fragment thereof as defined in any other configuration, embodiment or concept.

In a sixth configuration, there is provided an antibody or fragment as defined in any other configuration, embodiment or concept for use in treating or preventing a hPD-L1-mediated disease or condition.

In a seventh configuration, there is provided the use of an antibody or fragment as defined in any other configuration, embodiment or concept in the manufacture of a medicament for administration to a human for treating or preventing a hPD-L1 mediated disease or condition in the human.

In an eighth configuration, there is provided a method of treating or preventing a hPD-L1 mediated disease or condition in a human, comprising administering to said human a therapeutically effective amount of an antibody or fragment as defined in any other configuration, embodiment or concept, wherein the hPD-L1 mediated disease or condition is thereby treated or prevented.

In a ninth configuration, there is provided a pharmaceutical composition comprising an antibody of fragment as defined in any other configuration, embodiment or concept and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient, diluent or carrier.

In a tenth configuration, there is provided a kit comprising a pharmaceutical composition comprising an antibody of fragment as defined in any other configuration, embodiment or concept and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient, diluent or carrier.

In an eleventh configuration, there is provided a method of modulating PD-1/PD-L1 interaction in a patient, comprising administering an effective amount of an antibody or fragment as defined in any other configuration, embodiment or concept to said patient.

In a twelfth configuration, there is provided a method of inhibiting PD-L1 activity in a patient, comprising administering an effective amount of an antibody or fragment as defined in any other configuration, embodiment or concept to said patient.

In a thirteenth configuration, there is provided a method of treating a proliferative disease in an animal (e.g. a human), comprising administering an effective amount of an antibody or fragment as defined in any other configuration, embodiment or concept to said patient.

In a fourteenth configuration, there is provided a method of detecting PD-L1 expression in a sample, comprising contacting the sample with an antibody or fragment as defined in any other configuration, embodiment or concept.

In a fifteenth configuration, there is provided a method comprising contacting a biological sample with an antibody or fragment as defined in any other configuration, embodiment or concept to form a complex with PD-L1 present in the sample and measuring the presence, absence or level of the complex in the biological sample.

In a sixteenth configuration, there is provided a method of detecting PD-L1 expression in a sample, comprising contacting the sample with an antibody or fragment as defined in any other configuration, embodiment or concept.

In a seventeenth configuration, there is provided a method comprising contacting a biological sample with an antibody or fragment as defined in any other configuration, embodiment or concept to form a complex with PD-L1 present in the sample and measuring the presence, absence or level of the complex in the biological sample.

In a eighteenth configuration, there is provided a method for identifying binding partners for PD-L1, the method comprising immunoprecipitating an intact protein complex comprising PD-L1 using an antibody or fragment as defined in any other configuration, embodiment or concept.

In a nineteenth configuration, there is provided a method of diagnosing a disease in a human subject associated with altered PD-L1 expression comprising the steps of contacting a biological sample from the human subject with an antibody as defined in other configuration, embodiment or concept to form a complex between the antibody and PD-L1 present in the sample; and detecting the amount of the complex.

In a twentieth configuration, there is provided a nucleic acid that encodes the CDRH3 of an antibody or fragment as defined in any other configuration, embodiment or concept.

In a twenty-first configuration, there is provided a nucleic acid that encodes a VH domain and/or a VL domain of an antibody or fragment as defined in any other configuration, embodiment or concept.

In a twenty-second configuration, there is provided a vector comprising the nucleic acid of any other configuration, embodiment or concept; optionally wherein the vector is a CHO or HEK293 vector.

In a twenty-third configuration, there is provided a host comprising the nucleic acid of any other configuration, embodiment or concept or the vector of any other configuration, embodiment or concept.

In a first configuration, there is provided an immunocytokine comprising an immunoglobulin heavy chain and an immunoglobulin light chain, wherein the heavy chain comprises in N- to C-terminal direction:

    • a) A VH domain comprising CDRH1, CDRH2 and CDRH3; and
    • b) A heavy chain constant region;
    • and wherein the light chain comprises in N- to C-terminal direction:
    • c) A VL domain comprising CDRL1, CDRL2 and CDRL3;
    • d) A light chain constant region, (CL);
    • e) Optionally, a linker, (L); and
    • f) An IL-2 cytokine;
    • wherein the VH domain and VL domain are comprised by an antigen-binding site that specifically binds to hPD-L1 as defined by Seq ID No:1, and competes for binding to said hPD-L1 with the antibody 1D05; and
    • wherein the immunocytokine comprises a VH domain which comprises a CDRH3 comprising the motif X1GSGX2YGX3X4FD, wherein X1, X2 and X3 are independently any amino acid, and X4 is either present or absent, and if present, may be any amino acid.

In a second configuration, there is provided an immunocytokine comprising an immunoglobulin heavy chain and an immunoglobulin light chain, wherein the heavy chain comprises in N- to C-terminal direction:

    • a) A VH domain comprising CDRH1, CDRH2 and CDRH3; and
    • b) A heavy chain constant region;
    • and wherein the light chain comprises in N- to C-terminal direction:
    • c) A VL domain comprising CDRL1, CDRL2 and CDRL3;
    • d) A light chain constant region, (CL);
    • e) Optionally, a linker, (L); and
    • f) An IL-2 cytokine;
    • wherein the VH domain and VL domain are comprised by an antigen-binding site that specifically binds to hPD-L1, and competes for binding to said hPD-L1 with the antibody 1D05, wherein the antibody or fragment comprises a VH domain which comprises the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:29 or 32, or the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:29 or 32 comprising 6 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

In a third configuration, there is provided an immunocytokine comprising an immunoglobulin heavy chain and an immunoglobulin light chain, wherein the heavy chain comprises in N- to C-terminal direction:

    • a) A VH domain comprising CDRH1, CDRH2 and CDRH3; and
    • b) A heavy chain constant region;
    • and wherein the light chain comprises in N- to C-terminal direction:
    • c) A VL domain comprising CDRL1, CDRL2 and CDRL3;
    • d) A light chain constant region, (CL);
    • e) Optionally, a linker, (L); and
    • f) An IL-2 cytokine;
    • wherein the VH domain and VL domain are comprised by an antigen-binding site that specifically binds to hPD-L1; and
    • wherein the VH domain comprises a CDRH3 of from 12 to 20 amino acids and which is derived from the recombination of a human VH gene segment, a human D gene segment and a human JH gene segment, wherein the human JH gene segment is IGHJ5 (e.g. IGHJ5*02).

In a fourth configuration, there is provided an immunocytokine comprising an immunoglobulin heavy chain and an immunoglobulin light chain, wherein the heavy chain comprises in N- to C-terminal direction:

    • a) A VH domain comprising CDRH1, CDRH2 and CDRH3; and
    • b) A heavy chain constant region;
    • and wherein the light chain comprises in N- to C-terminal direction:
    • c) A VL domain comprising CDRL1, CDRL2 and CDRL3;
    • d) A light chain constant region, (CL);
    • e) Optionally, a linker, (L); and
    • f) An IL-2 cytokine;
    • wherein the VH domain and VL domain are comprised by an antigen-binding site that specifically binds to an epitope that is identical to an epitope to which the antibody 1D05 specifically binds.

In a fifth configuration, there is provided an immunocytokine comprising an immunoglobulin heavy chain and an immunoglobulin light chain, wherein the heavy chain comprises in N- to C-terminal direction:

    • a) A VH domain comprising CDRH1, CDRH2 and CDRH3; and
    • b) A heavy chain constant region;
    • and wherein the light chain comprises in N- to C-terminal direction:
    • c) A VL domain comprising CDRL1, CDRL2 and CDRL3;
    • d) A light chain constant region, (CL);
    • e) Optionally, a linker, (L); and
    • f) An IL-2 cytokine;
    • wherein the VH domain and VL domain are comprised by an antigen-binding site which competes for binding to hPD-L1 with the antibody 1D05.

In a sixth configuration, there is provided an immunocytokine as defined in any other configuration, embodiment or aspect for use in treating or preventing a hPD-L1-mediated disease or condition.

In a seventh configuration, there is provided the use of an immunocytokine as defined in any other configuration, embodiment or aspect in the manufacture of a medicament for administration to a human for treating or preventing a hPD-L1 mediated disease or condition in the human.

In an eighth configuration, there is provided a method of treating or preventing a hPD-L1 mediated disease or condition in a human, comprising administering to said human a therapeutically effective amount of an immunocytokine as defined in any other configuration, embodiment or aspect, wherein the hPD-L1 mediated disease or condition is thereby treated or prevented.

In a ninth configuration, there is provided a pharmaceutical composition comprising an immunocytokine as defined in any other configuration, embodiment or aspect, and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient, diluent or carrier.

In a tenth configuration, there is provided a kit comprising a pharmaceutical composition comprising an immunocytokine as defined in any other configuration, embodiment or aspect, and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient, diluent or carrier.

In an eleventh configuration, there is provided a nucleic acid that encodes a heavy chain and/or a light chain of an immunocytokine as defined in any other configuration, embodiment or aspect.

In a twelfth configuration, there is provided a vector comprising the nucleic acid that encodes a heavy chain and/or a light chain of an immunocytokine as defined in any other configuration, embodiment or aspect.

In a thirteenth configuration, there is provided a host comprising the nucleic acid of any other configuration, embodiment or aspect or the vector as defined in any other configuration, embodiment or aspect.

DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

FIG. 1: Analysis of selected antibodies in a dendritic cell-T-cell mixed lymphocyte reaction. Monocytes were cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 for seven days, before addition of allogeneic purified CD3+ T cells and titrations of antibodies. Supernatants were taken at day 5 for analysis of IFNγ production. Data is shown from one experiment. Note that for 84G09, there is a single point per concentration, as one replicate failed.

FIG. 2: PD-L1 direct neutralisation ELISA with PD-1 receptor. Neutralisation profiles of 1D05 and 84G09 compared to a benchmark anti-PD-L1 antibody and isotype control. Data representative of three independent experiments.

FIG. 3: Human PD-L1 CHO-S FACS neutralisation with PD-1 receptor. Neutralisation profiles of 1D05 and 84G09 compared to a benchmark anti-PD-L1 antibody and isotype control. Data representative of three independent experiments.

FIG. 4: Human PD-L1 CHO FACS neutralisation with CD80 receptor. Neutralisation profiles of the 1D05 and 84G09 compared to the benchmark anti-PD-L1 antibody and isotype control. Data representative of three independent experiments.

FIGS. 5A-5B: Binding of lead antibodies to PD-L1 but not PD-L2. Lead antibodies bind to plate bound PD-L1 (FIG. 5A) but not PD-L2 (FIG. 5B). An anti-PD-L2 antibody was used as a control. Data are expressed as time resolved fluorescence units at 615 nm. Data representative of two independent experiments.

FIG. 6: Lead antibodies induce IFNγ production in a Dendritic Cell-T-cell mixed lymphocyte reaction. Immature dendritic cells were co-cultured with allogeneic CD4+ T-cells in the presence of antibodies for 5 days. IFNγ was measured in supernatants by ELISA. Data are representative of three independent experiments. B1 refers to a benchmark antibody.

FIGS. 7A-7B: Lead antibodies bind to natively expressed PD-L1 on dendritic cells. Dendritic cells were generated from monocyte precursors with GM-CSF and IL-4 and stained with lead antibodies (FIG. 7A) 1D05 and (FIG. 7B) 84G09, and isotype control directly labelled with AlexaFluor647. Data shown is from one blood donor, representative of four donors.

FIG. 8: PD-L1 direct neutralisation ELISA with PD-1 receptor. Neutralisation profiles of KM121 hits compared to a benchmark anti-PD-L1 antibody and isotype control. Data representative of two independent experiments.

FIG. 9: PD-L1 direct neutralisation ELISA with CD80 receptor. Neutralisation profiles of KM121 hits compared to a benchmark anti-PD-L1 antibody and isotype control. Data representative of two independent experiments.

FIGS. 10A-10D: Bispecific binding as measured by SPR, with PD-L1 as first antigen, and TIGIT as second antigen. FIG. 10A) Bispecific 1, FIG. 10B) Bispecific 2, FIG. 10C) Bispecific 3, FIG. 10D) Bispecific 4. For detailed construction information of each Bispecific construct, see Table 4.

FIGS. 11A-11D: Bispecific binding as measured by SPR, with TIGIT as first antigen, and PD-L1 as second antigen. FIG. 11A) Bispecific 1, FIG. 11B) Bispecific 2, FIG. 11C) Bispecific 3, FIG. 11D) Bispecific 4. For detailed construction information of each Bispecific construct, see Table 4.

FIG. 12A-12C: Ability of immunocytokine constructs to induce proliferation in IL-2Rαβγ expressing TF-1 cells, compared with equimolar concentrations of free IL-2. Data shown are from a single experiment, representative of three experiments.

FIG. 12D-12F: Ability of immunocytokine constructs to induce proliferation in IL-2Rβγ expressing TF-1 cells, compared with equimolar concentrations of free IL-2. Data shown are from a single experiment, representative of four experiments.

FIG. 13A: Capacity of 1D05 antibody to neutralise the interaction between PD-1 and PD-L1 is unaffected by the fusion of IL-2 to the antibody, as measured in a neutralisation ELISA. Data shown are from a single experiment, representative of three experiments.

FIG. 13B: Capacity of 1D05 antibody to neutralise the interaction between CD80 and PD-L1 is unaffected by the fusion of IL-2 to the antibody, as measured in a neutralisation ELISA. Data shown are from a single experiment, representative of three experiments.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

Unless otherwise defined herein, scientific and technical terms shall have the meanings that are commonly understood by those of ordinary skill in the art. Further, unless otherwise required by context, singular terms shall include pluralities and plural terms shall include the singular.

The singular terms “a,” “an,” and “the” include plural referents unless context clearly indicates otherwise. Similarly, the word “or” is intended to include “and” unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. Although methods and materials similar or equivalent to those described herein can be used in the practice or testing of this disclosure, suitable methods and materials are described below. The abbreviation, “e.g.” is derived from the Latin exempli gratia, and is used herein to indicate a non-limiting example. Thus, the abbreviation “e.g.” is synonymous with the term “for example.”

In the specification and claims, the term “about” is used to modify, for example, the quantity of an ingredient in a composition, concentration, volume, process temperature, process time, yield, flow rate, pressure, and like values, and ranges thereof, employed in describing the embodiments of the disclosure. The term “about” refers to variation in the numerical quantity that can occur, for example, through typical measuring and handling procedures used for making compounds, compositions, concentrates or use formulations; through inadvertent error in these procedures; through differences in the manufacture, source, or purity of starting materials or ingredients used to carry out the methods, and like proximate considerations. The term “about” also encompasses amounts that differ due to aging of a formulation with a particular initial concentration or mixture, and amounts that differ due to mixing or processing a formulation with a particular initial concentration or mixture. Where modified by the term “about” the claims appended hereto include equivalents to these quantities.

As used herein, “administer” or “administration” refers to the act of injecting or otherwise physically delivering a substance as it exists outside the body (e.g., an anti-hPD-L1 antibody provided herein) into a patient, such as by mucosal, intradermal, intravenous, intramuscular delivery and/or any other method of physical delivery described herein or known in the art. When a disease, or a symptom thereof, is being treated, administration of the substance typically occurs after the onset of the disease or symptoms thereof. When a disease, or symptoms thereof, are being prevented, administration of the substance typically occurs before the onset of the disease or symptoms thereof.

The term “antibody”, “immunoglobulin” or “Ig” may be used interchangeably herein and means an immunoglobulin molecule that recognizes and specifically binds to a target, such as a protein, polypeptide, peptide, carbohydrate, polynucleotide, lipid, or combinations of the foregoing through at least one antigen recognition site within the variable region of the immunoglobulin molecule. As used herein, the term “antibody” encompasses intact polyclonal antibodies, intact monoclonal antibodies, antibody fragments (such as Fab, Fab′, F(ab′)2, and Fμ fragments), single chain Fμ (scFv) mutants, multispecific antibodies such as bispecific antibodies (including dual binding antibodies), chimeric antibodies, humanized antibodies, human antibodies, fusion proteins comprising an antigen determination portion of an antibody, and any other modified immunoglobulin molecule comprising an antigen recognition site so long as the antibodies exhibit the desired biological activity. The term “antibody” can also refer to a Y-shaped glycoprotein with a molecular weight of approximately 150 kDa that is made up of four polypeptide chains: two light (L) chains and two heavy (H) chains. There are five types of mammalian Ig heavy chain isotypes denoted by the Greek letters alpha (α), delta (δ), epsilon (ε), gamma (γ), and mu (μ). The type of heavy chain defines the class of antibody, i.e., IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM, respectively. The γ and α classes are further divided into subclasses on the basis of differences in the constant domain sequence and function, e.g., IgG1, IgG2A, IgG2B, IgG3, IgG4, IgA1 and IgA2. In mammals there are two types of immunoglobulin light chains, λ and κ. The “variable region” or “variable domain” of an antibody refers to the amino-terminal domains of the heavy or light chain of the antibody. The variable domains of the heavy chain and light chain may be referred to as “VH” and “VL”, respectively. These domains are generally the most variable parts of the antibody (relative to other antibodies of the same class) and contain the antigen binding sites.

The antibodies described herein may be oligoclonal, polyclonal, monoclonal (including full-length monoclonal antibodies), camelised, chimeric, CDR-grafted, multi-specific, bi-specific (including dual-binding antibodies), catalytic, chimeric, humanized, fully human, anti-idiotypic, including antibodies that can be labelled in soluble or bound form as well as fragments, variants or derivatives thereof, either alone or in combination with other amino acid sequences provided by known techniques. An antibody may be from any species. Antibodies described herein can be naked or conjugated to other molecules such as toxins, radioisotopes, etc.

The term “antigen binding domain,” “antigen binding region,” “antigen binding fragment,” and similar terms refer to that portion of an antibody which comprises the amino acid residues that interact with an antigen and confer on the binding agent its specificity and affinity for the antigen (e.g., the complementarity determining regions (CDRs)). The antigen binding region can be derived from any animal species, such as rodents (e.g., rabbit, rat or hamster) and humans. Preferably, the antigen binding region will be of human origin.

Antigen binding fragments described herein can include single-chain Fvs (scFv), single-chain antibodies, single domain antibodies, domain antibodies, Fv fragments, Fab fragments, F(ab′) fragments, F(ab′)2 fragments, antibody fragments that exhibit the desired biological activity, disulfide-stabilised variable region (dsFv), dimeric variable region (diabody), anti-idiotypic (anti-Id) antibodies (including, e.g., anti-Id antibodies to antibodies), intrabodies, linear antibodies, single-chain antibody molecules and multispecific antibodies formed from antibody fragments and epitope-binding fragments of any of the above. In particular, antibodies and antibody fragments described herein can include immunoglobulin molecules and immunologically active fragments of immunoglobulin molecules, i.e., molecules that contain an antigen-binding site. Digestion of antibodies with the enzyme, papain, results in two identical antigen-binding fragments, known also as “Fab” fragments, and a “Fc” fragment, having no antigen-binding activity but having the ability to crystallize. “Fab” when used herein refers to a fragment of an antibody that includes one constant and one variable domain of each of the heavy and light chains. The term “Fc region” herein is used to define a C-terminal region of an immunoglobulin heavy chain, including native-sequence Fc regions and variant Fc regions. The “Fc fragment” refers to the carboxy-terminal portions of both H chains held together by disulfides. The effector functions of antibodies are determined by sequences in the Fc region, the region which is also recognized by Fc receptors (FcR) found on certain types of cells. Digestion of antibodies with the enzyme, pepsin, results in the a F(ab′)2 fragment in which the two arms of the antibody molecule remain linked and comprise two-antigen binding sites. The F(ab′)2 fragment has the ability to crosslink antigen.

“Fv” when used herein refers to the minimum fragment of an antibody that retains both antigen-recognition and antigen-binding sites. This region consists of a dimer of one heavy and one light chain variable domain in tight, non-covalent or covalent association. It is in this configuration that the three CDRs of each variable domain interact to define an antigen-binding site on the surface of the VH-VL dimer. Collectively, the six CDRs confer antigen-binding specificity to the antibody. However, even a single variable domain (or half of an Fv comprising only three CDRs specific for an antigen) has the ability to recognize and bind antigen, although at a lower affinity than the entire binding site.

The term “monoclonal antibody” as used herein refers to an antibody obtained from a population of substantially homogeneous antibodies, i.e., the individual antibodies comprising the population are identical except for possible naturally occurring mutations and/or post-translation modifications (e.g., isomerizations, amidations) that may be present in minor amounts. Monoclonal antibodies are highly specific, and are directed against a single antigentic determinant or epitope. In contrast, polyclonal antibody preparations typically include different antibodies directed against different antigenic determinants (or epitopes). The term “monoclonal antibody” as used herein encompasses both intact and full-length monoclonal antibodies as well as antibody fragments (such as Fab, Fab′, F(ab′)2, Fv), single chain (scFv) mutants, fusion proteins comprising an antibody portion, and any other modified immunoglobulin molecule comprising an antigen recognition site. Furthermore, “monoclonal antibody” refers to such antibodies made in any number of ways including, but not limited to, hybridoma, phage selection, recombinant expression, and transgenic animals.

The monoclonal antibodies herein can include “chimeric” antibodies (immunoglobulins) in which a portion of the heavy and/or light chain is identical with or homologous to corresponding sequences in antibodies derived from a particular species or belonging to a particular antibody class or subclass, while the remainder of the chain(s) is(are) identical with or homologous to corresponding sequences in antibodies derived from another species or belonging to another antibody class or subclass, as well as fragments of such antibodies that exhibit the desired biological activity.

The term “humanized antibody” refers to a subset of chimeric antibodies in which a “hypervariable region” from a non-human immunoglobulin (the donor antibody) replaces residues from a hypervariable region in a human immunoglobulin (recipient antibody). In general, a humanized antibody will include substantially all of at least one, and typically two, variable domains, in which all or substantially all of the hypervariable loops correspond to those of a non-human immunoglobulin sequence, and all or substantially all of the framework regions are those of a human immunoglobulin sequence, although the framework regions may include one or more substitutions that improve antibody performance, such as binding affinity, isomerization, immunogenicity, etc.

The term “bispecific antibody” means an antibody which comprises specificity for two target molecules, and includes formats such as DVD-Ig (see DiGiammarino et al., “Design and generation of DVD-Ig™ molecules for dual-specific targeting”, Meth. Mo. Biol., 2012, 889, 145-156), mAb2 (see WO2008/003103), FIT-Ig (see WO2015/103072), mAb-dAb, dock and lock, Fab-arm exchange, SEEDbody, Triomab, LUZ-Y, Fcab, κλ-body, orthogonal Fab, scDiabody-Fc, diabody-Fc, tandem scFv-Fc, Fab-scFv-Fc, Fab-scFv, intrabody, BiTE, diabody, DART, TandAb, scDiabody, scDiabody-CH3, Diabody-CH3, Triple body, Miniantibody, minibody, TriBi minibody, scFv-CH3 KIH, scFv-CH-CL-scFv, F(ab′)2-scFv, scFv-KIH, Fab-scFv-Fc, tetravalent HCab, ImmTAC, knobs-in-holes, knobs-in-holes with common light chain, knobs-in-holes with common light chain and charge pairs, charge pairs, charge pairs with common light chain, DT-IgG, DutaMab, IgG(H)-scFv, scFv-(H)IgG, IgG(L)-scFv, scFv-(L)IgG, IgG(L,H)-Fv, IgG(H)-V, V(H)-IgG, IgG(L)-V, V(L)-IgG, KIH IgG-scFab, 2scFv-IgG, IgG-2scFv, scFv4-Ig and zybody. For a review of bispecific formats, see Spiess, C., et al., Mol. Immunol. (2015). In another embodiment, the bispecific molecule comprises an antibody which is fused to another non-Ig format, for example a T-cell receptor binding domain; an immunoglobulin superfamily domain; an agnathan variable lymphocyte receptor; a fibronectin domain (e.g., an Adnectin™); an antibody constant domain (e.g., a CH3 domain, e.g., a CH2 and/or CH3 of an Fcab™) wherein the constant domain is not a functional CH1 domain; an scFv; an (scFv)2; an sc-diabody; an scFab; a centyrin and an epitope binding domain derived from a scaffold selected from CTLA-4 (Evibody™); a lipocalin domain; Protein A such as Z-domain of Protein A (e.g., an Affibody™ or SpA); an A-domain (e.g., an Avimer™ or Maxibody™); a heat shock protein (such as and epitope binding domain derived from GroEI and GroES); a transferrin domain (e.g., a trans-body); ankyrin repeat protein (e.g., a DARPin™); peptide aptamer; C-type lectin domain (e.g., Tetranectin™); human γ-crystallin or human ubiquitin (an affilin); a PDZ domain; scorpion toxin; and a kunitz type domain of a human protease inhibitor.

In one embodiment, a “bispecific antibody” does not include a FIT-Ig format. In one embodiment, a “bispecific antibody” does not include a mAb2 format. In one embodiment, a “bispecific antibody” does not include either a FIT-Ig format or a mAb2 format.

In another embodiment, the bispecific antibody is a “dual binding antibody”. As used herein, the term “dual binding antibody” is a bispecific antibody wherein both antigen-binding domains are formed by a VH/VL pair, and includes FIT-Ig (see WO2015/103072), mAb-dAb, dock and lock, Fab-arm exchange, SEEDbody, Triomab, LUZ-Y, Fcab, κλ-body, orthogonal Fab, scDiabody-Fc, diabody-Fc, tandem scFv-Fc, Fab-scFv-Fc, Fab-scFv, intrabody, BiTE, diabody, DART, TandAb, scDiabody, scDiabody-CH3, Diabody-CH3, Triple body, Miniantibody, minibody, scFv-CH3 KIH, scFv-CH-CL-scFv, F(ab′)2-scFv, scFv-KIH, Fab-scFv-Fc, tetravalent HCab, ImmTAC, knobs-in-holes, knobs-in-holes with common light chain, knobs-in-holes with common light chain and charge pairs, charge pairs, charge pairs with common light chain, DT-IgG, DutaMab, IgG(H)-scFv, scFv-(H)IgG, IgG(L)-scFv, scFv-(L)IgG, IgG(L,H)-Fv, IgG(H)-V, V(H)—IgG, IgG(L)-V, V(L)-IgG, KIH IgG-scFab, 2scFv-IgG, IgG-2scFv and scFv4-Ig.

The term “hypervariable region”, “CDR region” or “CDR” refers to the regions of an antibody variable domain which are hypervariable in sequence and/or form structurally defined loops. Generally, antigen binding sites of an antibody include six hypervariable regions: three in the VH (CDRH1, CDRH2, CDRH3), and three in the VL (CDRL1, CDRL2, CDRL3). These regions of the heavy and light chains of an antibody confer antigen-binding specificity to the antibody. CDRs may be defined according to the Kabat system (see Kabat, E. A. et al., 1991, “Sequences of Proteins of Immunological Interest”, 5th edit., NIH Publication no. 91-3242, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). Other systems may be used to define CDRs, which as the system devised by Chothia et al (see Chothia, C. & Lesk, A. M., 1987, “Canonical structures for the hypervariable regions of immunoglobulins”, J. Mol. Biol., 196, 901-917) and the IMGT system (see Lefranc, M. P., 1997, “Unique database numbering system for immunogenetic analysis”, Immunol. Today, 18, 50). An antibody typically contains 3 heavy chain CDRs and 3 light chain CDRs. The term CDR or CDRs is used here to indicate one or several of these regions. A person skilled in the art is able to readily compare the different systems of nomenclature and determine whether a particular sequence may be defined as a CDR.

A “human antibody” is an antibody that possesses an amino-acid sequence corresponding to that of an antibody produced by a human and/or has been made using any of the techniques for making human antibodies and specifically excludes a humanized antibody comprising non-human antigen-binding residues. The term “specifically binds to” refers to measurable and reproducible interactions such as binding between a target and an antibody, which is determinative of the presence of the target in the presence of a heterogeneous population of molecules including biological molecules. For example, an antibody that specifically binds to a target (which can be an epitope) is an antibody that binds this target with greater affinity, avidity, more readily, and/or with greater duration than it binds to other targets. In one embodiment, the extent of binding of an antibody to an unrelated target is less than about 10% of the binding of the antibody to the target as measured, e.g., by a radioimmunoassay (RIA).

An antibody or a fragment thereof that specifically binds to a hPD-L1 antigen may be cross-reactive with related antigens. Preferably, an antibody or a fragment thereof that specifically binds to a hPD-L1 antigen does not cross-react with other antigens (but may optionally cross-react with PD-L1 of a different species, e.g., rhesus, or murine). An antibody or a fragment thereof that specifically binds to a hPD-L1 antigen can be identified, for example, by immunoassays, BIAcore™, or other techniques known to those of skill in the art. An antibody or a fragment thereof binds specifically to a PD-L1 antigen when it binds to a hPD-L1 antigen with higher affinity than to any cross-reactive antigen as determined using experimental techniques, such as radioimmunoassays (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Typically, a specific or selective reaction will be at least twice background signal or noise and more typically more than 10 times (such as more than 15 times, more than 20 times, more than 50 times or more than 100 times) background. See, e.g., Paul, ed., 1989, Fundamental Immunology Second Edition, Raven Press, New York at pages 332-336 for a discussion regarding antibody specificity

The term “aliphatic amino acid” means that the amino acid R groups are nonpolar and hydrophobic. Hydrophobicity increases with increasing number of C atoms in the hydrocarbon chain. Glycine, Alanine, Valine, Leucine and Isoleucine are aliphatic amino acids.

The term “aromatic amino acid” means that the amino acid R groups contain an aromatic ring system. Phenylalanine, Tyrosine and Tryptophan are aromatic amino acids.

The term “hydroxyl-containing amino acid” means that the amino acid R groups contain a hydroxyl group, and are hydrophilic. Serine, Cysteine, Threonine and Methionine are hydroxyl-containing amino acids.

The term “basic amino acid” means that the amino acid R groups are nitrogen containing and are basic at neutral pH. Histidine, Lysine and Arginine are basic amino acids.

The term “cyclic amino acid” means that the amino acid R groups have an aliphatic cyclic structure. Proline is the only cyclic aliphatic amino acid.

The term “acidic amino acid” means that the amino acid R groups are polar and are negatively charged at physiological pH. Aspartate and Glutamate are acidic amino acids.

The term “amide amino acid” means that the amino acid R groups contain an amide group. Asparagine and Glutamine are amide amino acids.

As used herein, “authorization number” or “marketing authorization number” refers to a number issued by a regulatory agency upon that agency determining that a particular medical product and/or composition may be marketed and/or offered for sale in the area under the agency's jurisdiction. As used herein “regulatory agency” refers to one of the agencies responsible for evaluating, e.g., the safety and efficacy of a medical product and/or composition and controlling the sales/marketing of such products and/or compositions in a given area. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the US and the European Medicines Agency (EPA) in Europe are but two examples of such regulatory agencies. Other non-limiting examples can include SDA, MPA, MHPRA, IMA, ANMAT, Hong Kong Department of Health-Drug Office, CDSCO, Medsafe, and KFDA.

As used herein, the term “biomarker” refers to a gene that is differentially expressed in individuals having a disease of interest, for example, a gene that is differentially expressed in individuals having cancer. In one embodiment, PD-L1 is a biomarker whose expression in tumours may be indicative as to whether or not a patient would respond to a particular type of treatment, in particular, whether a patient would response to treatment targeting PD-L1, for example, immunotherapy using anti-PD-L1 antibodies. In one embodiment, PD-L1 is a biomarker whose expression in tumours may be indicative as to whether or not a patient would respond to a particular type of treatment, in particular, whether a patient would response to treatment targeting PD-1, for example, immunotherapy using anti-PD-1 antibodies. In another embodiment, PD-L1 may be free or membrane bound. In another embodiment, PD-L1 may be fixed or unfixed.

As used herein, a “buffer” refers to a chemical agent that is able to absorb a certain quantity of acid or base without undergoing a strong variation in pH.

As used herein, the term “carrier” refers to a diluent, adjuvant (e.g., Freund's adjuvant (complete and incomplete)), excipient, or vehicle with which the therapeutic is administered. Such pharmaceutical carriers can be sterile liquids, such as water and oils, including those of petroleum, animal, vegetable or synthetic origin, such as peanut oil, soybean oil, mineral oil, sesame oil and the like. Water is a preferred carrier when the pharmaceutical composition is administered intravenously. Saline solutions and aqueous dextrose and glycerol solutions can also be employed as liquid carriers, particularly for injectable solutions.

The term “chemotherapeutic agent” or “chemotherapy” refers to a therapeutic agent whose primary purpose is to destroy cancer cells, typically by interfering with the tumour cell's ability to grow or multiply. There are many different types of chemotherapeutic agents, with more than 50 approved chemotherapy drugs available. Chemotherapeutic drugs can be classified based on how they work. Alkylating drugs kill cancer cells by directly attacking DNA, the genetic material of the genes. Cyclophosphamide is an alkylating drug. Antimetabolites interfere with the production of DNA and keep cells from growing and multiplying. An example of an antimetabolite is 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Anti-tumour antibiotics are made from natural substances such as fungi in the soil. They interfere with important cell functions, including production of DNA and cell proteins. Doxorubicin and bleomycin belong to this group of chemotherapy drugs. Plant alkaloids prevent cells from dividing normally. Vinblastine and vincristine are plant alkaloids obtained from the periwinkle plant. Steroid hormones slow the growth of some cancers that depend on hormones. For example, tamoxifen is used to treat breast cancers that depend on the hormone estrogen for growth. DNA damage response (DDR) inhibitors, such as PARP inhibitors, block DNA repair mechanisms following single or double stranded breaks.

Examples of chemotherapeutic agents include Adriamycin, Doxorubicin, 5-Fluorouracil, Cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C), Cyclophosphamide, Thiotepa, Taxotere (docetaxel), Busulfan, Cytoxin, Taxol, Methotrexate, Cisplatin, Melphalan, Vinblastine, Bleomycin, Etoposide, Ifosfamide, Mitomycin C, Mitoxantrone, Vincreistine, Vinorelbine, Carboplatin, Teniposide, Daunomycin, Carminomycin, Aminopterin, Dactinomycin, Mitomycins, Esperamicins (see, U.S. Pat. No. 4,675,187), Melphalan, and other related nitrogen mustards. Suitable toxins and chemotherapeutic agents are described in Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, 19th Ed. (Mack Publishing Co. 1995), and in Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 7th Ed. (MacMillan Publishing Co. 1985). Other suitable toxins and/or chemotherapeutic agents are known to those of skill in the art.

As used herein, the term “composition” is intended to encompass a product containing the specified ingredients (e.g., an antibody of the invention) in, optionally, the specified amounts, as well as any product which results, directly or indirectly, from combination of the specified ingredients in, optionally, the specified amounts.

As used herein the term “comprising” or “comprises” is used in reference to antibodies, fragments, uses, compositions, methods, and respective component(s) thereof, that are essential to the method or composition, yet open to the inclusion of unspecified elements, whether essential or not.

The term “consisting of” refers to antibodies, fragments, uses, compositions, methods, and respective components thereof as described herein, which are exclusive of any element not recited in that description of the embodiment.

As used herein the term “consisting essentially of” refers to those elements required for a given embodiment. The term permits the presence of elements that do not materially affect the basic and novel or functional characteristic(s) of that embodiment.

In the context of a polypeptide, the term “derivative” as used herein refers to a polypeptide that comprises an amino acid sequence of a hPD-L1 polypeptide, a fragment of a hPD-L1 polypeptide, or an antibody that specifically binds to a hPD-L1 polypeptide which has been altered by the introduction of amino acid residue substitutions, deletions or additions. The term “derivative” as used herein also refers to a hPD-L1 polypeptide, a fragment of a hPD-L1 polypeptide, or an antibody that specifically binds to a hPD-L1 polypeptide which has been chemically modified, e.g., by the covalent attachment of any type of molecule to the polypeptide. For example, but not by way of limitation, a hPD-L1 polypeptide, a fragment of a hPD-L1 polypeptide, or a hPD-L1 antibody may be chemically modified, e.g., by glycosylation, acetylation, pegylation, phosphorylation, amidation, derivatization by known protecting/blocking groups, proteolytic cleavage, linkage to a cellular ligand or other protein, etc. The derivatives are modified in a manner that is different from naturally occurring or starting peptide or polypeptides, either in the type or location of the molecules attached. Derivatives further include deletion of one or more chemical groups which are naturally present on the peptide or polypeptide. A derivative of a hPD-L1 polypeptide, a fragment of a hPD-L1 polypeptide, or a hPD-L1 antibody may be chemically modified by chemical modifications using techniques known to those of skill in the art, including, but not limited to specific chemical cleavage, acetylation, formulation, metabolic synthesis of tunicamycin, etc. Further, a derivative of a hPD-L1 polypeptide, a fragment of a hPD-L1 polypeptide, or a hPD-L1 antibody may contain one or more non-classical amino acids. A polypeptide derivative possesses a similar or identical function as a hPD-L1 polypeptide, a fragment of a hPD-L1 polypeptide, or a hPD-L1 antibody described herein.

An “effective amount” refers to an amount effective, at dosages and for periods of time necessary, to achieve the desired effect, including a therapeutic or prophylactic result. A “therapeutically effective amount” refers to the minimum concentration required to effect a measurable improvement or prevention of a particular disorder. A therapeutically effective amount herein may vary according to factors such as the disease state, age, sex, and weight of the patient, and the ability of the antibody to elicit a desired response in the individual. A therapeutically effective amount is also one in which toxic or detrimental effects of the antibody are outweighed by the therapeutically beneficial effects. A “prophylactically effective amount” refers to an amount effective, at the dosages and for periods of time necessary, to achieve the desired prophylactic result. In some embodiments, the effective amount of an antibody of the invention is from about 0.1 mg/kg (mg of antibody per kg weight of the subject) to about 100 mg/kg. In certain embodiments, an effective amount of an antibody provided therein is about 0.1 mg/kg, about 0.5 mg/kg, about 1 mg/kg, 3 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, about 10 mg/kg, about 15 mg/kg, about 20 mg/kg, about 25 mg/kg, about 30 mg/kg, about 35 mg/kg, about 40 mg/kg, about 45 mg/kg, about 50 mg/kg, about 60 mg/kg, about 70 mg/kg, about 80 mg/kg about 90 mg/kg or about 100 mg/kg (or a range therein). In some embodiments, “effective amount” as used herein also refers to the amount of an antibody of the invention to achieve a specified result (e.g., inhibition of a hPD-L1 biological activity of a cell).

The term “epitope” as used herein refers to a localized region on the surface of an antigen, such as hPD-L1 polypeptide or hPD-L1 polypeptide fragment, that is capable of being bound to one or more antigen binding regions of an antibody, and that has antigenic or immunogenic activity in an animal, preferably a mammal, and most preferably in a human, that is capable of eliciting an immune response. An epitope having immunogenic activity is a portion of a polypeptide that elicits an antibody response in an animal. An epitope having antigenic activity is a portion of a polypeptide to which an antibody specifically binds as determined by any method well known in the art, for example, by the immunoassays described herein. Antigenic epitopes need not necessarily be immunogenic. Epitopes usually consist of chemically active surface groupings of molecules such as amino acids or sugar side chains and have specific three dimensional structural characteristics as well as specific charge characteristics. A region of a polypeptide contributing to an epitope may be contiguous amino acids of the polypeptide or the epitope may come together from two or more non-contiguous regions of the polypeptide. The epitope may or may not be a three-dimensional surface feature of the antigen. In certain embodiments, a hPD-L1 epitope is a three-dimensional surface feature of a hPD-L1 polypeptide (e.g., in a trimeric form of a hPD-L1 polypeptide). In other embodiments, a hPD-L1 epitope is linear feature of a hPD-L1 polypeptide (e.g., in a trimeric form or monomeric form of the hPD-L1 polypeptide). Antibodies provided herein may specifically bind to an epitope of the monomeric (denatured) form of hPD-L1, an epitope of the trimeric (native) form of hPD-L1, or both the monomeric (denatured) form and the trimeric (native) form of hPD-L1. In specific embodiments, the antibodies provided herein specifically bind to an epitope of the trimeric form of hPD-L1 but do not specifically bind the monomeric form of hPD-L1.

The term “excipients” as used herein refers to inert substances which are commonly used as a diluent, vehicle, preservatives, binders, or stabilizing agent for drugs and includes, but not limited to, proteins (e.g., serum albumin, etc.), amino acids (e.g., aspartic acid, glutamic acid, lysine, arginine, glycine, histidine, etc.), fatty acids and phospholipids (e.g., alkyl sulfonates, caprylate, etc.), surfactants (e.g., SDS, polysorbate, nonionic surfactant, etc.), saccharides (e.g., sucrose, maltose, trehalose, etc.) and polyols (e.g., mannitol, sorbitol, etc.). See, also, Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences (1990) Mack Publishing Co., Easton, Pa., which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

As used herein, the term “fixed” or “fixation” refers to a chemical process by which biological tissues are preserved from decay, to prevent autolysis or putrefaction. In general, fixation involves exposing the tissue to chemical compounds such as alcohols or aldehydes such as formaldehyde to terminate ongoing biochemical reactions. In some instances, fixation may also increase the mechanical strength or stability of the treated tissues. The term “unfixed” refers to a tissue that has not been subjected to a chemical process to prevent tissue decay. As used herein, the term “surface expressed” means that the protein is embedded in or spans a cell membrane or is associated with a protein that is embedded in or spans a cell membrane (i.e., a membrane associated protein). In one embodiment, a surface expressed protein includes one or more transmembrane domains. In another embodiment, the protein is associated with the exterior or interior surface of a cell membrane indirectly via association with another membrane spanning protein (i.e., the surface expressed protein is not spanning the cell membrane itself). In general, surface expressed proteins that are integrated into a cell membrane or expressed endogenously within a cell are more likely to fold in the correct conformation than recombinantly produced free forms of the same protein.

In the context of a peptide or polypeptide, the term “fragment” as used herein refers to a peptide or polypeptide that comprises less than the full length amino acid sequence. Such a fragment may arise, for example, from a truncation at the amino terminus, a truncation at the carboxy terminus, and/or an internal deletion of a residue(s) from the amino acid sequence. Fragments may, for example, result from alternative RNA splicing or from in vivo protease activity. In certain embodiments, PD-L1 fragments include polypeptides comprising an amino acid sequence of at least 5 contiguous amino acid residues, at least 10 contiguous amino acid residues, at least 15 contiguous amino acid residues, at least 20 contiguous amino acid residues, at least 25 contiguous amino acid residues, at least 40 contiguous amino acid residues, at least 50 contiguous amino acid residues, at least 60 contiguous amino residues, at least 70 contiguous amino acid residues, at least 80 contiguous amino acid residues, at least 90 contiguous amino acid residues, at least contiguous 100 amino acid residues, at least 125 contiguous amino acid residues, at least 150 contiguous amino acid residues, at least 175 contiguous amino acid residues, at least 200 contiguous amino acid residues, or at least 250 contiguous amino acid residues of the amino acid sequence of a hPD-L1 polypeptide or an antibody that specifically binds to a hPD-L1 polypeptide. In a specific embodiment, a fragment of a hPD-L1 polypeptide or an antibody that specifically binds to a hPD-L1 antigen retains at least 1, at least 2, or at least 3 functions of the polypeptide or antibody.

The term “free” refers to a polypeptide, for example, PD-L1 or fragments and variants thereof, that is combined with a buffer, wherein the polypeptide is not associated with a cell surface or cell membrane. As such, the term “free” can refer to a polypeptide that is capable of surface expression (i.e., includes one or more transmembrane domains or membrane association domains), but that is not, in its present state, expressed on the surface of a cell or bound to a protein that is expressed on the surface of a cell. A free polypeptide can also refer to a free recombinant or native or unbound polypeptide. In the context of phage display, a free antigen can be selected in solution (referred to herein as a “soluble selection”) or adsorbed to a surface, for example, adsorbed to the surface of a 96 well plate (referred to herein as “biopanning selection”).

The term “fusion protein” as used herein refers to a polypeptide that comprises an amino acid sequence of an antibody and an amino acid sequence of a heterologous polypeptide or protein (i.e., a polypeptide or protein not normally a part of the antibody (e.g., a non-anti-hPD-L1 antigen antibody)). The term “fusion” when used in relation to hPD-L1 or to an anti-hPD-L1 antibody refers to the joining of a peptide or polypeptide, or fragment, variant and/or derivative thereof, with a heterologous peptide or polypeptide. Preferably, the fusion protein retains the biological activity of the hPD-L1 or anti-hPD-L1 antibody. In certain embodiments, the fusion protein comprises a hPD-L1 antibody VH domain, VL domain, VH CDR (one, two or three VH CDRs), and/or VL CDR (one, two or three VL CDRs), wherein the fusion protein specifically binds to a hPD-L1 epitope.

The term “heavy chain” when used in reference to an antibody refers to five distinct types, called alpha (α), delta (δ), epsilon (ε), gamma (γ) and mu (μ), based on the amino acid sequence of the heavy chain constant domain. These distinct types of heavy chains are well known and give rise to five classes of antibodies, IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG and IgM, respectively, including four subclasses of IgG, namely IgG1, IgG1, IgG3 and IgG4. Preferably the heavy chain is a human heavy chain. In one example, the heavy chain is a disabled IgG isotype, e.g. a disabled IgG4. In certain embodiments, the antibodies of the invention comprise a human gamma 4 constant region. In another embodiment, the heavy chain constant region does not bind Fc-γ receptors, and e.g. comprises a Leu235Glu mutation. In another embodiment, the heavy chain constant region comprises a Ser228Pro mutation to increase stability. In another embodiment, the heavy chain constant region is IgG4-PE.

The term “host” as used herein refers to an animal, preferably a mammal, and most preferably a human.

The term “host cell” as used herein refers to the particular subject cell transfected with a nucleic acid molecule and the progeny or potential progeny of such a cell. Progeny of such a cell may not be identical to the parent cell transfected with the nucleic acid molecule due to mutations or environmental influences that may occur in succeeding generations or integration of the nucleic acid molecule into the host cell genome.

The term “an IL-2 cytokine” as used herein refers to a cytokine-like molecule which has a similar activity to a wild-type IL-2. It may have activity at the high (αβγ) affinity IL-2 receptor and/or the intermediate affinity (αβ) IL-2 receptor. The cytokine may be a variant IL-2 cytokine having one or more amino acid deletions, substitutions or additions.

The term “immunomodulatory agent” and variations thereof including, but not limited to, immunomodulatory agents, as used herein refer to an agent that modulates a host's immune system. In certain embodiments, an immunomodulatory agent is an immunosuppressant agent. In certain other embodiments, an immunomodulatory agent is an immunostimulatory agent. In accordance with the invention, an immunomodulatory agent used in the combination therapies of the invention does not include an anti-hPD-L1 antibody or antigen-binding fragment. Immunomodulatory agents include, but are not limited to, small molecules, peptides, polypeptides, proteins, fusion proteins, antibodies, inorganic molecules, mimetic agents, and organic molecules.

The term “in combination” in the context of the administration of other therapies refers to the use of more than one therapy. The use of the term “in combination” does not restrict the order in which therapies are administered to a subject with a disease. A first therapy can be administered before (e.g., 1 minute, 45 minutes, 30 minutes, 45 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 4 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours, 72 hours, 96 hours, 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, 4 weeks, 5 weeks, 6 weeks, 8 weeks, or 12 weeks), concurrently, or after (e.g., 1 minute, 45 minutes, 30 minutes, 45 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 4 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours, 72 hours, 96 hours, 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, 4 weeks, 5 weeks, 6 weeks, 8 weeks, or 12 weeks) the administration of a second therapy to a subject which had, has, or is susceptible to a hPD-L1-mediated disease. Any additional therapy can be administered in any order with the other additional therapies. In certain embodiments, the antibodies of the invention can be administered in combination with one or more therapies (e.g., therapies that are not the antibodies of the invention that are currently administered to prevent, treat, manage, and/or ameliorate a hPD-L1-mediated disease. Non-limiting examples of therapies that can be administered in combination with an antibody of the invention include analgesic agents, anaesthetic agents, antibiotics, or immunomodulatory agents or any other agent listed in the U.S. Pharmacopoeia and/or Physician's Desk Reference.

The term “immunocytokine”, as used herein refers to an antibody format which is fused to a cytokine molecule. The antibody format may be any of those described herein, and the cytokine may be fused directly, or by means of a linker or chemical conjugation to either the N- or C-terminus of the heavy or the light chain of the antibody format.

As used herein, “injection device” refers to a device that is designed for carrying out injections, an injection including the steps of temporarily fluidically coupling the injection device to a person's tissue, typically the subcutaneous tissue. An injection further includes administering an amount of liquid drug into the tissue and decoupling or removing the injection device from the tissue. In some embodiments, an injection device can be an intravenous device or IV device, which is a type of injection device used when the target tissue is the blood within the circulatory system, e.g., the blood in a vein. A common, but non-limiting example of an injection device is a needle and syringe.

As used herein, “instructions” refers to a display of written, printed or graphic matter on the immediate container of an article, for example the written material displayed on a vial containing a pharmaceutically active agent, or details on the composition and use of a product of interest included in a kit containing a composition of interest. Instructions set forth the method of the treatment as contemplated to be administered or performed.

An “isolated” or “purified” antibody or protein is one that has been identified, separated and/or recovered from a component of its production environment (e.g., natural or recombinant). For example, the antibody or protein is substantially free of cellular material or other contaminating proteins from the cell or tissue source from which the antibody is derived, or substantially free of chemical precursors or other chemicals when chemically synthesized. The language “substantially free of cellular material” includes preparations of an antibody in which the antibody is separated from cellular components of the cells from which it is isolated or recombinantly produced. Thus, an antibody that is substantially free of cellular material includes preparations of antibody having less than about 30%, 20%, 10%, or 5% (by dry weight) of heterologous protein (also referred to herein as a “contaminating protein”). When the antibody is recombinantly produced, it is also preferably substantially free of culture medium, i.e., culture medium represents less than about 20%, 10%, or 5% of the volume of the protein preparation. When the antibody is produced by chemical synthesis, it is preferably substantially free of chemical precursors or other chemicals, i.e., it is separated from chemical precursors or other chemicals which are involved in the synthesis of the protein. Accordingly such preparations of the antibody have less than about 30%, 20%, 10%, 5% (by dry weight) of chemical precursors or compounds other than the antibody of interest. In a preferred embodiment, antibodies of the invention are isolated or purified.

The terms “Kabat numbering,” and like terms are recognized in the art and refer to a system of numbering amino acid residues which are more variable (i.e. hypervariable) than other amino acid residues in the heavy chain variable regions of an antibody, or an antigen binding portion thereof (Kabat et al. (1971) Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 190:382-391 and, Kabat et al. (1991) Sequences of Proteins of Immunological Interest, Fifth Edition, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, NIH Publication No. 91-3242). For the heavy chain variable region, the hypervariable region typically ranges from amino acid positions 31 to 35 for CDR1, amino acid positions 50 to 65 for CDR2, and amino acid positions 95 to 102 for CDR3.

“Label” or “labelled” as used herein refers to the addition of a detectable moiety to a polypeptide, for example, a radiolabel, fluorescent label, enzymatic label, chemiluminescent label or a biotinyl group or gold. Radioisotopes or radionuclides may include 3H, 14C, 15N, 35S, 90Y, 99Tc, 115In, 125I, 131I, fluorescent labels may include rhodamine, lanthanide phosphors or FITC and enzymatic labels may include horseradish peroxidase, β-galactosidase, luciferase, alkaline phosphatase. Additional labels include, by way of illustration and not limitation: enzymes, such as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (“G6PDH”), alpha-D-galactosidase, glucose oxydase, glucose amylase, carbonic anhydrase, acetylcholinesterase, lysozyme, malate dehydrogenase and peroxidase; dyes (e.g. cyanine dyes, e.g. Cy5™, Cy5.5™ or Cy7™); additional fluorescent labels or fluorescers include, such as fluorescein and its derivatives, fluorochrome, GFP (GFP for “Green Fluorescent Protein”), other fluorescent proteins (e.g. mCherry, mTomato), dansyl, umbelliferone, phycoerythrin, phycocyanin, allophycocyanin, o-phthaldehyde, and fluorescamine; fluorophores such as lanthanide cryptates and chelates e.g. Europium etc (Perkin Elmer and Cisbio Assays); chemoluminescent labels or chemiluminescers, such as isoluminol, luminol and the dioxetanes; sensitisers; coenzymes; enzyme substrates; particles, such as latex or carbon particles; metal sol; crystallite; liposomes; cells, etc., which may be further labelled with a dye, catalyst or other detectable group; molecules such as biotin, digoxygenin or 5-bromodeoxyuridine; toxin moieties, such as for example a toxin moiety selected from a group of Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE or a cytotoxic fragment or mutant thereof), Diptheria toxin or a cytotoxic fragment or mutant thereof, a botulinum toxin A, B, C, D, E or F, ricin or a cytotoxic fragment thereof e.g. ricin A, abrin or a cytotoxic fragment thereof, saporin or a cytotoxic fragment thereof, pokeweed antiviral toxin or a cytotoxic fragment thereof and bryodin 1 or a cytotoxic fragment thereof.

“Percent (%) amino acid sequence identity” and “homology” with respect to a peptide, polypeptide or antibody sequence are defined as the percentage of amino acid residues in a candidate sequence that are identical with the amino acid residues in the specific peptide or polypeptide sequence, after aligning the sequences and introducing gaps, if necessary, to achieve the maximum percent sequence identity, and not considering any conservative substitutions as part of the sequence identity. Alignment for purposes of determining percent amino acid sequence identity can be achieved in various ways that are within the skill in the art, for instance, using publicly available computer software such as BLAST, BLAST-2, ALIGN or MEG ALIGN™ (DNASTAR) software. In one embodiment, the % homology is about 70%. In one embodiment, the % homology is about 75%. In one embodiment, the % homology is about 80%. In one embodiment, the % homology is about 85%. In one embodiment, the % homology is about 90%. In one embodiment, the % homology is about 92%. In one embodiment, the % homology is about 95%. In one embodiment, the % homology is about 97%. In one embodiment, the % homology is about 98%. In one embodiment, the % homology is about 99%. In one embodiment, the % homology is 100%.

The term “naturally occurring” or “native” when used in connection with biological materials such as nucleic acid molecules, polypeptides, host cells, and the like, refers to those which are found in nature and not manipulated by a human being.

As used herein, “packaging” refers to how the components are organized and/or restrained into a unit fit for distribution and/or use. Packaging can include, e.g., boxes, bags, syringes, ampoules, vials, tubes, clamshell packaging, barriers and/or containers to maintain sterility, labelling, etc.

The term “pharmaceutically acceptable” as used herein means being approved by a regulatory agency of the Federal or a state government, or listed in the U.S. Pharmacopeia, European Pharmacopeia or other generally recognized Pharmacopeia for use in animals, and more particularly in humans.

As used herein, the term “polynucleotide,” “nucleotide,” nucleic acid” “nucleic acid molecule” and other similar terms are used interchangeable and include DNA, RNA, mRNA and the like.

As used herein, the terms “prevent,” “preventing,” and “prevention” refer to the total or partial inhibition of the development, recurrence, onset or spread of a hPD-L1-mediated disease and/or symptom related thereto, resulting from the administration of a therapy or combination of therapies provided herein (e.g., a combination of prophylactic or therapeutic agents, such as an antibody of the invention).

The term “soluble” refers to a polypeptide, such as PD-L1 and variants or fragments thereof, that is lacking one or more transmembrane or cytoplasmic domains found in the native or membrane-associated form. In one embodiment, the “soluble” form of PD-L1 lacks both the transmembrane domain and the cytoplasmic domain.

The term “subject” or “patient” refers to any animal, including, but not limited to, mammals. As used herein, the term “mammal” refers to any vertebrate animal that suckle their young and either give birth to living young (eutharian or placental mammals) or are egg-laying (metatharian or nonplacental mammals). Examples of mammalian species include, but are not limited to, humans and other primates, including non-human primates such as chimpanzees and other apes and monkey species; farm animals such as cattle, sheep, pigs, goats and horses; domestic mammals such as dogs and cats; laboratory animals including rodents such as mice, rats (including cotton rats) and guinea pigs; birds, including domestic, wild and game birds such as chickens, turkeys and other gallinaceous birds, ducks, geese, and the like.

As used herein “substantially all” refers to refers to at least about 60%, at least about 70%, at least about 75%, at least about 80%, at least about 85%, at least about 90%, at least about 95%, at least about 98%, at least about 99%, or about 100%.

The term “substantially free of surfactant” as used herein refers to a formulation of an antibody that specifically binds to a hPD-L1 antigen, said formulation containing less than 0.0005%, less than 0.0003%, or less than 0.0001% of surfactants and/or less than 0.0005%, less than 0.0003%, or less than 0.0001% of surfactants.

The term “substantially free of salt” as used herein refers to a formulation of an antibody that specifically binds to a hPD-L1 antigen, said formulation containing less than 0.0005%, less than 0.0003%, or less than 0.0001% of inorganic salts.

The term “surfactant” as used herein refers to organic substances having amphipathic structures; namely, they are composed of groups of opposing solubility tendencies, typically an oil-soluble hydrocarbon chain and a water-soluble ionic group. Surfactants can be classified, depending on the charge of the surface-active moiety, into anionic, cationic, and non-ionic surfactants. Surfactants are often used as wetting, emulsifying, solubilizing, and dispersing agents for various pharmaceutical compositions and preparations of biological materials.

As used herein, the term “tag” refers to any type of moiety that is attached to, e.g., a polypeptide and/or a polynucleotide that encodes a hPD-L1 or hPD-L1 antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof. For example, a polynucleotide that encodes a hPD-L1, hPD-L1 antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof can contain one or more additional tag-encoding nucleotide sequences that encode a, e.g., a detectable moiety or a moiety that aids in affinity purification. When translated, the tag and the antibody can be in the form of a fusion protein. The term “detectable” or “detection” with reference to a tag refers to any tag that is capable of being visualized or wherein the presence of the tag is otherwise able to be determined and/or measured (e.g., by quantitation). A non-limiting example of a detectable tag is a fluorescent tag.

As used herein, the term “therapeutic agent” refers to any agent that can be used in the treatment, management or amelioration of a hPD-L1-mediated disease and/or a symptom related thereto. In certain embodiments, the term “therapeutic agent” refers to an antibody of the invention. In certain other embodiments, the term “therapeutic agent” refers to an agent other than an antibody of the invention. Preferably, a therapeutic agent is an agent which is known to be useful for, or has been or is currently being used for the treatment, management or amelioration of a hPD-L1-mediated disease or one or more symptoms related thereto. In specific embodiments, the therapeutic agent is a fully human anti-hPD-L1 antibody, such as a fully human anti-hPD-L1 monoclonal antibody.

As used herein, the term “therapy” refers to any protocol, method and/or agent that can be used in the prevention, management, treatment and/or amelioration of a hPD-L1-mediated disease (e.g. cancer). In certain embodiments, the terms “therapies” and “therapy” refer to a biological therapy, supportive therapy, and/or other therapies useful in the prevention, management, treatment and/or amelioration of a hPD-L1-mediated disease known to one of skill in the art such as medical personnel.

The terms “treat,” “treatment” and “treating” refer to the reduction or amelioration of the progression, severity, and/or duration of a hPD-L1-mediated disease (e.g., cancer) resulting from the administration of one or more therapies (including, but not limited to, the administration of one or more prophylactic or therapeutic agents, such as an antibody of the invention). In specific embodiments, such terms refer to the reduction or inhibition of the binding of hPD-L1 to PD-1, the reduction or inhibition of the binding of hPD-L1 to CD80, and/or the inhibition or reduction of one or more symptoms associated with a hPD-L1-mediated disease, such as cancer. In specific embodiments, such terms refer to the reduction or inhibition of the binding of hPD-L1 to PD-1 and/or CD80, and/or the inhibition or reduction of one or more symptoms associated with a hPD-L1-mediated disease, such as cancer. In an example, the cell is a human cell. In specific embodiments, a prophylactic agent is a fully human anti-hPD-L1 antibody, such as a fully human anti-hPD-L1 monoclonal antibody.

The term “variable region” or “variable domain” refers to a portion of the PD-L1 and heavy chains, typically about the amino-terminal 120 to 130 amino acids in the heavy chain and about 100 to 110 amino acids in the light chain, which differ extensively in sequence among antibodies and are used in the binding and specificity of each particular antibody for its particular antigen. The variability in sequence is concentrated in those regions called complimentarily determining regions (CDRs) while the more highly conserved regions in the variable domain are called framework regions (FR). The CDRs of the PD-L1 and heavy chains are primarily responsible for the interaction of the antibody with antigen. Numbering of amino acid positions used herein is according to the EU Index, as in Kabat et al. (1991) Sequences of proteins of immunological interest. (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C.) 5th ed. (“Kabat et al.”). In preferred embodiments, the variable region is a human variable region.

Definitions of common terms in cell biology and molecular biology can be found in “The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy”, 19th Edition, published by Merck Research Laboratories, 2006 (ISBN 0-911910-19-0); Robert S. Porter et al. (eds.), The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, published by Blackwell Science Ltd., 1994 (ISBN 0-632-02182-9); Benjamin Lewin, Genes X, published by Jones & Bartlett Publishing, 2009 (ISBN-10: 0763766321); Kendrew et al. (Eds.), Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: a Comprehensive Desk Reference, published by VCH Publishers, Inc., 1995 (ISBN 1-56081-569-8) and Current Protocols in Protein Sciences 2009, Wiley Intersciences, Coligan et al., eds.

Unless otherwise stated, the present invention was performed using standard procedures, as described, for example in Sambrook et al., Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual (4 ed.), Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y., USA (2012); Davis et al., Basic Methods in Molecular Biology, Elsevier Science Publishing, Inc., New York, USA (1995); or Methods in Enzymology: Guide to Molecular Cloning Techniques Vol. 152, S. L. Berger and A. R. Kimmel Eds., Academic Press Inc., San Diego, USA (1987); Current Protocols in Protein Science (CPPS) (John E. Coligan, et al., ed., John Wiley and Sons, Inc.), Current Protocols in Cell Biology (CPCB) (Juan S. Bonifacino et al. ed., John Wiley and Sons, Inc.), and Culture of Animal Cells: A Manual of Basic Technique by R. Ian Freshney, Publisher: Wiley-Liss; 5th edition (2005), Animal Cell Culture Methods (Methods in Cell Biology, Vol. 57, Jennie P. Mather and David Barnes editors, Academic Press, 1st edition, 1998) which are all incorporated by reference herein in their entireties.

Other terms are defined herein within the description of the various aspects of the invention.

Many tumour cells express surface molecules that are specific to cancer that can serve as diagnostic and/or therapeutic antibody targets. Examples of cell surface proteins expressed by tumour molecules that can be useful as biomarkers include, for example, members of the B7 family of proteins, major histocompatibility complex molecules (MHC), cytokine and growth factor receptors such as the receptor for eipdermal growth factor (EGFR). The B7 family is a group of proteins that are members of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily of cell-surface proteins that bind to receptors on lymphocytes to regulate immune responses. The family includes transmembrane or glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked proteins characterized by extracellular Ig-like domains (IgV and IgC domains related to the variable and constant domains of immunoglobulins). All members have short cytoplasmic domains. There are seven known members of the B7 family: B7-1, B7-2, PD-L1 (B7-H1), PD-L2, B7-H2, B7-H3, and B7-H4.

The complete amino acid sequence for PD-L1 can be found in NCBI Reference Sequence: NP_054862.1 (SEQ ID No:1), which refers to many journal articles, including, for example, Dong, H., et al. (1999), “PD-L1, a third member of the B7 family, co-stimulates T-cell proliferation and interleukin-10 secretion,” Nat. Med. 5 (12), 1365-1369, the disclosure of which is hereby incorporated by reference herein in its entirety. The amino acid sequence of PD-L1 includes a 30 amino acid long cytoplasmic domain that is unique to PD-L1, which shows little homology to other molecules, including other B7 family members.

In one embodiment, the antibody is a polyclonal antibody. Methods for generating polyclonal antibodies are known, and include, for example, inoculating a suitable mammal with an antigen to induce the immune system of the animal to produce immunoglobulins (IgGs) that specifically bind the injected antigen. Examples of suitable mammals include, for example, mouse, guinea pig, hamster, rat, rabbit sheep or goat. The polyclonal IgG is then typically purified from the mammal's serum. In one embodiment, the antibody is a polyclonal antibody that binds to a surface expressed protein. In another embodiment, the antibody is a polyclonal antibody that specifically binds to a member of the B7 family of proteins. In a more specific embodiment, the antibody is a polyclonal antibody that specifically binds PD-L1. In another embodiment, the antibody is a polyclonal antibody that specifically binds surface expressed PD-LI. In a more particular embodiment, the polyclonal antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof specifically binds human PD-L1. In another embodiment, the antibody is a polyclonal antibody that specifically binds soluble PD-L1. The term “soluble” also refers to a protein, such as PD-L1 that is lacking one or more transmembrane domain or cytoplasmic domains. In one embodiment, the “soluble” form of PD-L1 lacks both the transmembrane domain and the cytoplasmic domain. In one embodiment, the antibody is a polyclonal antibody that binds “free” PD-L1 (i.e., PD-L1 that is not associated with a cell membrane or surface, either directly or indirectly).

In another embodiment, the antibody can be a monoclonal antibody. Methods of making monoclonal antibodies are known and include, for example, fusing myeloma cells with the cells from an animal that was immunized with the desired antigen. In other embodiments, the monoclonal antibodies may be generated using recombinant DNA technology. In one embodiment, the antibody is a monoclonal antibody that specifically binds a surface expressed protein. In one embodiment, the antibody is a fully human monoclonal antibody. In another embodiment, the antibody is a monoclonal antibody that specifically binds to a member of the B7 family of proteins. In a more specific embodiment, the antibody is a monoclonal antibody that specifically binds PD-L1. In another embodiment, the antibody is a monoclonal antibody that specifically binds surface expressed PD-L1. In a more particular embodiment, the monoclonal antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof specifically binds human PD-L1. In another embodiment, the antibody is a monoclonal antibody that specifically binds soluble PD-L1. In one embodiment, the antibody is a monoclonal antibody that specifically binds soluble PD-L1 that is lacking one or more transmembrane domain or cytoplasmic domains. In one embodiment, the antibody is a monoclonal antibody that specifically binds soluble PD-L1 that is lacking both the transmembrane domain and the cytoplasmic domain. In one embodiment, the antibody is a monoclonal antibody that binds “free” PD-L1 (i.e., PD-L1 that is not associated with a cell membrane or surface, either directly or indirectly).

In an example the binding site(s) of the antibody or fragment are selected from a plurality (e.g., library) of binding sites. For example, the plurality of binding sites comprises or consists of a plurality of 4-chain antibodies or fragments thereof, e.g., dAbs, Fabs or scFvs. Suitable methods for producing pluralities of binding sites for screening include phage display (producing a phage display library of antibody binding sites), ribosome display (producing a ribosome display library of antibody binding sites), yeast display (producing a yeast display library of antibody binding sites), or immunisation of a non-human vertebrate (e.g., a rodent, e.g., a mouse or rat, e.g., a Velocimouse™, Kymouse™, Xenomouse™, Aliva Mouse™, HuMab Mouse™, Omnimouse™, Omnirat™ or MeMo Mouse™) with hPD-L1 or a hPD-L1 epitope and isolation of a repertoire of antibody-producing cells (e.g., a B-cell, plasma cell or plasmablast repertoire) and/or a repertoire of isolated antibodies, fragments or binding sites.

PD-L1 binding ability, specificity and affinity (Kd, Koff and/or Kon) can be determined by any routine method in the art, e.g., by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The term “Kd” or as used herein, is intended to refer to the equilibrium dissociation constant of a particular antibody-antigen interaction. Such binding measurements can be made using a variety of binding assays known in the art, e.g., using surface plasmon resonance (SPR), such as by Biacore™ or using the ProteOn XPR36™ (Bio-Rad®), using KinExA® (Sapidyne Instruments, Inc), or using ForteBio Octet (Pall ForteBio Corp.).

In one embodiment, the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is carried out at 25° C. In another embodiment, the SPR is carried out at 37° C.

In one embodiment, the SPR is carried out at physiological pH, such as about pH7 or at pH7.6 (e.g., using Hepes buffered saline at pH7.6 (also referred to as HBS-EP)).

In one embodiment, the SPR is carried out at a physiological salt level, e.g., 150 mM NaCl.

In one embodiment, the SPR is carried out at a detergent level of no greater than 0.05% by volume, e.g., in the presence of P20 (polysorbate 20; e.g., Tween-20™) at 0.05% and EDTA at 3 mM.

In one example, the SPR is carried out at 25° C. or 37° C. in a buffer at pH7.6, 150 mM NaCl, 0.05% detergent (e.g., P20) and 3 mM EDTA. The buffer can contain 10 mM Hepes. In one example, the SPR is carried out at 25° C. or 37° C. in HBS-EP. HBS-EP is available from Teknova Inc (California; catalogue number H8022).

In an example, the affinity of the antibody or fragment is determined using SPR by:

    • 1. Coupling anti-mouse (or other relevant human, rat or non-human vertebrate antibody constant region species-matched) IgG (e.g., Biacore™ BR-1008-38) to a biosensor chip (e.g., GLM chip) such as by primary amine coupling;
    • 2. Exposing the anti-mouse IgG (or other matched species antibody) to a test IgG antibody to capture test antibody on the chip;
    • 3. Passing the test antigen over the chip's capture surface at 1024 nM, 256 nM, 64 nM, 16 nM, 4 nM with a 0 nM (i.e. buffer alone); and
    • 4. And determining the affinity of binding of test antibody to test antigen using surface plasmon resonance, e.g., under an SPR condition discussed above (e.g., at 25° C. in physiological buffer). SPR can be carried out using any standard SPR apparatus, such as by Biacore™ or using the ProteOn XPR36™ (Bio-Rad®).

Regeneration of the capture surface can be carried out with 10 mM glycine at pH1.7. This removes the captured antibody and allows the surface to be used for another interaction. The binding data can be fitted to 1:1 model inherent using standard techniques, e.g., using a model inherent to the ProteOn XPR36™ analysis software.

The present inventors have identified a number of antibodies having specificity for hPD-L1, which have a number of potential utilities and benefits over existing antibodies. For example, the antibodies described herein may have one or more of the following properties:

    • a. Specificity for blocking only one of the ligands of PD-L1 (e.g. blocks CD80/PD-L1 interaction, but not PD-1/PD-L1 interaction)
    • b. Immunogenicity/lack of side effects
    • c. Solubility
    • d. Stability
    • e. Ease of formulation
    • f. Frequency of dosing and/or route of administration
    • g. Manufacturability (e.g. expression, ease of purification, isoforms)

1D05 has a heavy chain variable region (VH) amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:33, comprising the CDRH1 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:27 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:30 (Kabat), the CDRH2 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:28 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:31 (Kabat), and the CDRH3 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:29 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:32 (Kabat). The heavy chain nucleic acid sequence of the VH domain is Seq ID No:34. 1D05 has a light chain variable region (VL) amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:43, comprising the CDRL1 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:37 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:40 (Kabat), the CDRL2 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:38 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:41 (Kabat), and the CDRL3 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:39 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:42 (Kabat). The light chain nucleic acid sequence of the VL domain is Seq ID No:44. The VH domain may be combined with any of the heavy chain constant region sequences described herein, e.g. Seq ID No:193, Seq ID No:195, Seq ID No:197, Seq ID No:199, Seq ID No:201, Seq ID No:203, Seq ID No:205 or Seq ID No:340. The VL domain may be combined with any of the light chain constant region sequences described herein, e.g. Seq ID Nos:207, 209, 211, 213, 215, 217, 219, 221, 223, 225, 227, 229, 231, 233, 235 and 237. A full length heavy chain amino acid sequence is Seq ID No:35 (heavy chain nucleic acid sequence Seq ID No:36). A full length light chain amino acid sequence is Seq ID No:45 (light chain nucleic acid sequence Seq ID No:46).

84G09 has a heavy chain variable (VH) region amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:13, comprising the CDRH1 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:7 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:10 (Kabat), the CDRH2 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:8 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:11 (Kabat), and the CDRH3 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:9 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:12 (Kabat). The heavy chain nucleic acid sequence of the VH domain is Seq ID No:14. 84G09 has a light chain variable region (VL) amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:23, comprising the CDRL1 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:17 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:20 (Kabat), the CDRL2 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:18 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:21 (Kabat), and the CDRL3 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:19 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:22 (Kabat). The light chain nucleic acid sequence of the VL domain is Seq ID No:24. The VH domain may be combined with any of the heavy chain constant region sequences described herein, e.g. Seq ID No:193, Seq ID No:195, Seq ID No:197, Seq ID No:199, Seq ID No:201, Seq ID No:203, Seq ID No:205 or Seq ID No:340. The VL domain may be combined with any of the light chain constant region sequences described herein, e.g. Seq ID Nos:207, 209, 211, 213, 215, 217, 219, 221, 223, 225, 227, 229, 231, 233, 235 and 237. A full length heavy chain amino acid sequence is Seq ID No:15 (heavy chain nucleic acid sequence Seq ID No:16). A full length light chain amino acid sequence is Seq ID No:25 (light chain nucleic acid sequence Seq ID No:26).

1D05 HC mutant 1 has a heavy chain variable (VH) region amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:47, comprising the CDRH1 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:27 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:30 (Kabat), the CDRH2 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:28 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:31 (Kabat), and the CDRH3 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:29 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:32 (Kabat). 1D05 HC mutant 1 has a light chain variable region (VL) amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:43, comprising the CDRL1 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:37 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:40 (Kabat), the CDRL2 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:38 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:41 (Kabat), and the CDRL3 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:39 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:42 (Kabat). The light chain nucleic acid sequence of the VL domain is Seq ID No:44. The VH domain may be combined with any of the heavy chain constant region sequences described herein, e.g. Seq ID No:193, Seq ID No:195, Seq ID No:197, Seq ID No:199, Seq ID No:201, Seq ID No:203, Seq ID No:205 or Seq ID No:340. The VL domain may be combined with any of the light chain constant region sequences described herein, e.g. Seq ID Nos:207, 209, 211, 213, 215, 217, 219, 221, 223, 225, 227, 229, 231, 233, 235 and 237. A full length light chain amino acid sequence is Seq ID No:45 (light chain nucleic acid sequence Seq ID No:46).

1D05 HC mutant 2 has a heavy chain variable (VH) region amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:48, comprising the CDRH1 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:27 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:30 (Kabat), the CDRH2 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:28 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:31 (Kabat), and the CDRH3 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:29 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:32 (Kabat). 1D05 HC mutant 2 has a light chain variable region (VL) amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:43, comprising the CDRL1 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:37 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:40 (Kabat), the CDRL2 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:38 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:41 (Kabat), and the CDRL3 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:39 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:42 (Kabat). The light chain nucleic acid sequence of the VL domain is Seq ID No:44. The VH domain may be combined with any of the heavy chain constant region sequences described herein, e.g. Seq ID No:193, Seq ID No:195, Seq ID No:197, Seq ID No:199, Seq ID No:201, Seq ID No:203, Seq ID No:205 or Seq ID No:340. The VL domain may be combined with any of the light chain constant region sequences described herein, e.g. Seq ID Nos:207, 209, 211, 213, 215, 217, 219, 221, 223, 225, 227, 229, 231, 233, 235 and 237. A full length light chain amino acid sequence is Seq ID No:45 (light chain nucleic acid sequence Seq ID No:46).

1D05 HC mutant 3 has a heavy chain variable (VH) region amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:49, comprising the CDRH1 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:27 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:30 (Kabat), the CDRH2 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:28 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:31 (Kabat), and the CDRH3 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:29 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:32 (Kabat). 1D05 HC mutant 3 has a light chain variable region (VL) amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:43, comprising the CDRL1 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:37 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:40 (Kabat), the CDRL2 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:38 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:41 (Kabat), and the CDRL3 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:39 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:42 (Kabat). The light chain nucleic acid sequence of the VL domain is Seq ID No:44. The VH domain may be combined with any of the heavy chain constant region sequences described herein, e.g. Seq ID No:193, Seq ID No:195, Seq ID No:197, Seq ID No:199, Seq ID No:201, Seq ID No:203, Seq ID No:205 or Seq ID No:340. The VL domain may be combined with any of the light chain constant region sequences described herein, e.g. Seq ID Nos:207, 209, 211, 213, 215, 217, 219, 221, 223, 225, 227, 229, 231, 233, 235 and 237. A full length light chain amino acid sequence is Seq ID No:45 (light chain nucleic acid sequence Seq ID No:46).

1D05 HC mutant 4 has a heavy chain variable (VH) region amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:342, comprising the CDRH1 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:27 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:30 (Kabat), the CDRH2 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:28 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:31 (Kabat), and the CDRH3 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:29 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:32 (Kabat). 1D05 HC mutant 4 has a light chain variable region (VL) amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:43, comprising the CDRL1 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:37 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:40 (Kabat), the CDRL2 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:38 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:41 (Kabat), and the CDRL3 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:39 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:42 (Kabat). The light chain nucleic acid sequence of the VL domain is Seq ID No:44. The VH domain may be combined with any of the heavy chain constant region sequences described herein, e.g. Seq ID No:193, Seq ID No:195, Seq ID No:197, Seq ID No:199, Seq ID No:201, Seq ID No:203, Seq ID No:205 or Seq ID No:340. The VL domain may be combined with any of the light chain constant region sequences described herein, e.g. Seq ID Nos:207, 209, 211, 213, 215, 217, 219, 221, 223, 225, 227, 229, 231, 233, 235 and 237. A full length light chain amino acid sequence is Seq ID No:45 (light chain nucleic acid sequence Seq ID No:46).

1D05 LC mutant 1 has a heavy chain variable (VH) region amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:33, comprising the CDRH1 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:27 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:30 (Kabat), the CDRH2 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:28 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:31 (Kabat), and the CDRH3 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:29 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:32 (Kabat). The heavy chain nucleic acid sequence of the VH domain is Seq ID No:34. 1D05 LC mutant 1 has a light chain variable region (VL) amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:50, comprising the CDRL1 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:37 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:40 (Kabat), and the CDRL3 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:39 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:42 (Kabat). The CDRL2 sequence of 1D05 LC Mutant 1 is as defined by the Kabat or IMGT systems from the VL sequence of Seq ID No:50. The VH domain may be combined with any of the heavy chain constant region sequences described herein, e.g. Seq ID No:193, Seq ID No:195, Seq ID No:197, Seq ID No:199, Seq ID No:201, Seq ID No:203, Seq ID No:205 or Seq ID No:340. The VL domain may be combined with any of the light chain constant region sequences described herein, e.g. Seq ID Nos:207, 209, 211, 213, 215, 217, 219, 221, 223, 225, 227, 229, 231, 233, 235 and 237. A full length heavy chain amino acid sequence is Seq ID No:35 (heavy chain nucleic acid sequence Seq ID No:36).

1D05 LC mutant 2 has a heavy chain variable (VH) region amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:33, comprising the CDRH1 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:27 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:30 (Kabat), the CDRH2 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:28 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:31 (Kabat), and the CDRH3 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:29 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:32 (Kabat). The heavy chain nucleic acid sequence of the VH domain is Seq ID No:34. 1D05 LC mutant 2 has a light chain variable region (VL) amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:51, comprising the CDRL1 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:37 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:40 (Kabat), the CDRL2 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:38 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:41 (Kabat), and the CDRL3 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:39 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:42 (Kabat). The VH domain may be combined with any of the heavy chain constant region sequences described herein, e.g. Seq ID No:193, Seq ID No:195, Seq ID No:197, Seq ID No:199, Seq ID No:201, Seq ID No:203, Seq ID No:205 or Seq ID No:340. The VL domain may be combined with any of the light chain constant region sequences described herein, e.g. Seq ID Nos:207, 209, 211, 213, 215, 217, 219, 221, 223, 225, 227, 229, 231, 233, 235 and 237. A full length heavy chain amino acid sequence is Seq ID No:35 (heavy chain nucleic acid sequence Seq ID No:36).

1D05 LC mutant 3 has a heavy chain variable (VH) region amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:33, comprising the CDRH1 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:27 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:30 (Kabat), the CDRH2 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:28 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:31 (Kabat), and the CDRH3 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:29 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:32 (Kabat). The heavy chain nucleic acid sequence of the VH domain is Seq ID No:34. 1D05 LC mutant 3 has a light chain variable region (VL) amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:298, comprising the CDRL1 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:37 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:40 (Kabat), and the CDRL3 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:39 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:42 (Kabat). The CDRL2 sequence of 1D05 LC Mutant 3 is as defined by the Kabat or IMGT systems from the VL sequence of Seq ID No:298. The light chain nucleic acid sequence of the VL domain is Seq ID No:44. The VH domain may be combined with any of the heavy chain constant region sequences described herein, e.g. Seq ID No:193, Seq ID No:195, Seq ID No:197, Seq ID No:199, Seq ID No:201, Seq ID No:203, Seq ID No:205 or Seq ID No:340. The VL domain may be combined with any of the light chain constant region sequences described herein, e.g. Seq ID Nos:207, 209, 211, 213, 215, 217, 219, 221, 223, 225, 227, 229, 231, 233, 235 and 237. A full length heavy chain amino acid sequence is Seq ID No:35 (heavy chain nucleic acid sequence Seq ID No:36). A full length light chain amino acid sequence is Seq ID No:45 (light chain nucleic acid sequence Seq ID No:46).

411B08 has a heavy chain variable (VH) region amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:58, comprising the CDRH1 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:52 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:55 (Kabat), the CDRH2 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:53 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:56 (Kabat), and the CDRH3 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:54 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:57 (Kabat). The heavy chain nucleic acid sequence of the VH domain is Seq ID No:59. 411B08 has a light chain variable region (VL) amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:68, comprising the CDRL1 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:62 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:65 (Kabat), the CDRL2 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:63 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:66 (Kabat), and the CDRL3 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:64 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:67 (Kabat). The light chain nucleic acid sequence of the VL domain is Seq ID No:69. The VH domain may be combined with any of the heavy chain constant region sequences described herein, e.g. Seq ID No:193, Seq ID No:195, Seq ID No:197, Seq ID No:199, Seq ID No:201, Seq ID No:203, Seq ID No:205 or Seq ID No:340. The VL domain may be combined with any of the light chain constant region sequences described herein, e.g. Seq ID Nos:207, 209, 211, 213, 215, 217, 219, 221, 223, 225, 227, 229, 231, 233, 235 and 237. A full length heavy chain amino acid sequence is Seq ID No:60 (heavy chain nucleic acid sequence Seq ID No:61). A full length light chain amino acid sequence is Seq ID No:70 (light chain nucleic acid sequence Seq ID No:71).

411C04 has a heavy chain variable (VH) region amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:78, comprising the CDRH1 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:72 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:75 (Kabat), the CDRH2 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:73 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:76 (Kabat), and the CDRH3 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:74 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:77 (Kabat). The heavy chain nucleic acid sequence of the VH domain is Seq ID No:79. 411C04 has a light chain variable region (VL) amino acid sequence of Seq ID No: 88, comprising the CDRL1 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No: 82 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:85 (Kabat), the CDRL2 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:83 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:86 (Kabat), and the CDRL3 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:84 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:87 (Kabat). The light chain nucleic acid sequence of the VL domain is Seq ID No:89. The VH domain may be combined with any of the heavy chain constant region sequences described herein, e.g. Seq ID No:193, Seq ID No:195, Seq ID No:197, Seq ID No:199, Seq ID No:201, Seq ID No:203, Seq ID No:205 or Seq ID No:340. The VL domain may be combined with any of the light chain constant region sequences described herein, e.g. Seq ID Nos:207, 209, 211, 213, 215, 217, 219, 221, 223, 225, 227, 229, 231, 233, 235 and 237. A full length heavy chain amino acid sequence is Seq ID No:80 (heavy chain nucleic acid sequence Seq ID No:81). A full length light chain amino acid sequence is Seq ID No:90 (light chain nucleic acid sequence Seq ID No:91).

411D07 has a heavy chain variable (VH) region amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:98, comprising the CDRH1 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:92 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:95 (Kabat), the CDRH2 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:93 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:96 (Kabat), and the CDRH3 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:94 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:97 (Kabat). The heavy chain nucleic acid sequence of the VH domain is Seq ID No:99. 411D07 has a light chain variable region (VL) amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:108, comprising the CDRL1 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:102 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:105 (Kabat), the CDRL2 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:103 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:106 (Kabat), and the CDRL3 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:104 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:107 (Kabat). The light chain nucleic acid sequence of the VL domain is Seq ID No:109. The VH domain may be combined with any of the heavy chain constant region sequences described herein, e.g. Seq ID No:193, Seq ID No:195, Seq ID No:197, Seq ID No:199, Seq ID No:201, Seq ID No:203, Seq ID No:205 or Seq ID No:340. The VL domain may be combined with any of the light chain constant region sequences described herein, e.g. Seq ID Nos:207, 209, 211, 213, 215, 217, 219, 221, 223, 225, 227, 229, 231, 233, 235 and 237. A full length heavy chain amino acid sequence is Seq ID No:100 (heavy chain nucleic acid sequence Seq ID No:101). A full length light chain amino acid sequence is Seq ID No: 110 (light chain nucleic acid sequence Seq ID No:111).

385F01 has a heavy chain variable (VH) region amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:118, comprising the CDRH1 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:112 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:115 (Kabat), the CDRH2 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:113 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:116 (Kabat), and the CDRH3 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:114 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:117 (Kabat). The heavy chain nucleic acid sequence of the VH domain is Seq ID No:119. 385F01 has a light chain variable region (VL) amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:128, comprising the CDRL1 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:122 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:125 (Kabat), the CDRL2 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:123 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:126 (Kabat), and the CDRL3 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:124 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:127 (Kabat). The light chain nucleic acid sequence of the VL domain is Seq ID No:129. The VH domain may be combined with any of the heavy chain constant region sequences described herein, e.g. Seq ID No:193, Seq ID No:195, Seq ID No:197, Seq ID No:199, Seq ID No:201, Seq ID No:203, Seq ID No:205 or Seq ID No:340. The VL domain may be combined with any of the light chain constant region sequences described herein, e.g. Seq ID Nos:207, 209, 211, 213, 215, 217, 219, 221, 223, 225, 227, 229, 231, 233, 235 and 237. A full length heavy chain amino acid sequence is Seq ID No:120 (heavy chain nucleic acid sequence Seq ID No:121). A full length light chain amino acid sequence is Seq ID No:130 (light chain nucleic acid sequence Seq ID No:131).

386H03 has a heavy chain variable (VH) region amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:158, comprising the CDRH1 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:152 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:155 (Kabat), the CDRH2 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:153 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:156 (Kabat), and the CDRH3 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:154 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:157 (Kabat). The heavy chain nucleic acid sequence of the VH domain is Seq ID No:159. 386H03 has a light chain variable region (VL) amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:168, comprising the CDRL1 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:162 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:165 (Kabat), the CDRL2 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:163 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:166 (Kabat), and the CDRL3 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:164 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:167 (Kabat). The light chain nucleic acid sequence of the VL domain is Seq ID No:169. The VH domain may be combined with any of the heavy chain constant region sequences described herein, e.g. Seq ID No:193, Seq ID No:195, Seq ID No:197, Seq ID No:199, Seq ID No:201, Seq ID No:203, Seq ID No:205 or Seq ID No:340. The VL domain may be combined with any of the light chain constant region sequences described herein, e.g. Seq ID Nos:207, 209, 211, 213, 215, 217, 219, 221, 223, 225, 227, 229, 231, 233, 235 and 237. A full length heavy chain amino acid sequence is Seq ID No:160 (heavy chain nucleic acid sequence Seq ID No:161). A full length light chain amino acid sequence is Seq ID No:170 (light chain nucleic acid sequence Seq ID No:171).

389A03 has a heavy chain variable (VH) region amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:178, comprising the CDRH1 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:172 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:175 (Kabat), the CDRH2 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:173 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:176 (Kabat), and the CDRH3 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:174 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:177 (Kabat). The heavy chain nucleic acid sequence of the VH domain is Seq ID No:179. 389A03 has a light chain variable region (VL) amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:188, comprising the CDRL1 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:182 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:185 (Kabat), the CDRL2 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:183 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:186 (Kabat), and the CDRL3 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:184 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:187 (Kabat). The light chain nucleic acid sequence of the VL domain is Seq ID No:189. The VH domain may be combined with any of the heavy chain constant region sequences described herein, e.g. Seq ID No:193, Seq ID No:195, Seq ID No:197, Seq ID No:199, Seq ID No:201, Seq ID No:203, Seq ID No:205 or Seq ID No:340. The VL domain may be combined with any of the light chain constant region sequences described herein, e.g. Seq ID Nos:207, 209, 211, 213, 215, 217, 219, 221, 223, 225, 227, 229, 231, 233, 235 and 237. A full length heavy chain amino acid sequence is Seq ID No:180 (heavy chain nucleic acid sequence Seq ID No:181). A full length light chain amino acid sequence is Seq ID No:190 (light chain nucleic acid sequence Seq ID No:191).

413D08 has a heavy chain variable (VH) region amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:138, comprising the CDRH1 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:132 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:135 (Kabat), the CDRH2 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:133 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:136 (Kabat), and the CDRH3 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:134 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:137 (Kabat). The heavy chain nucleic acid sequence of the VH domain is Seq ID No:139. 413D08 has a light chain variable region (VL) amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:148, comprising the CDRL1 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:142 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:145 (Kabat), the CDRL2 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:143 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:146 (Kabat), and the CDRL3 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:144 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:147 (Kabat). The light chain nucleic acid sequence of the VL domain is Seq ID No:149. The VH domain may be combined with any of the heavy chain constant region sequences described herein, e.g. Seq ID No:193, Seq ID No:195, Seq ID No:197, Seq ID No:199, Seq ID No:201, Seq ID No:203, Seq ID No:205 or Seq ID No:340. The VL domain may be combined with any of the light chain constant region sequences described herein, e.g. Seq ID Nos:207, 209, 211, 213, 215, 217, 219, 221, 223, 225, 227, 229, 231, 233, 235 and 237. A full length heavy chain amino acid sequence is Seq ID No: 140 (heavy chain nucleic acid sequence Seq ID No:141). A full length light chain amino acid sequence is Seq ID No:150 (light chain nucleic acid sequence Seq ID No:151).

413G05 has a heavy chain variable (VH) region amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:244, comprising the CDRH1 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:238 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:241 (Kabat), the CDRH2 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:239 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:242 (Kabat), and the CDRH3 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:240 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:243 (Kabat). The heavy chain nucleic acid sequence of the VH domain is Seq ID No:245. 413G05 has a light chain variable region (VL) amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:254, comprising the CDRL1 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:248 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:251 (Kabat), the CDRL2 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:249 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:252 (Kabat), and the CDRL3 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:250 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:253 (Kabat). The light chain nucleic acid sequence of the VL domain is Seq ID No:255. The VH domain may be combined with any of the heavy chain constant region sequences described herein, e.g. Seq ID No:193, Seq ID No:195, Seq ID No:197, Seq ID No:199, Seq ID No:201, Seq ID No:203, Seq ID No:205 or Seq ID No:340. The VL domain may be combined with any of the light chain constant region sequences described herein, e.g. Seq ID Nos:207, 209, 211, 213, 215, 217, 219, 221, 223, 225, 227, 229, 231, 233, 235 and 237. A full length heavy chain amino acid sequence is Seq ID No:246 (heavy chain nucleic acid sequence Seq ID No:247). A full length light chain amino acid sequence is Seq ID No:256 (light chain nucleic acid sequence Seq ID No:257).

413F09 has a heavy chain variable (VH) region amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:264, comprising the CDRH1 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:258 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:261 (Kabat), the CDRH2 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:259 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:262 (Kabat), and the CDRH3 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:260 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:263 (Kabat). The heavy chain nucleic acid sequence of the VH domain is Seq ID No:265. 413F09 has a light chain variable region (VL) amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:274, comprising the CDRL1 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:268 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:271 (Kabat), the CDRL2 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:269 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:272 (Kabat), and the CDRL3 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:270 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:273 (Kabat). The light chain nucleic acid sequence of the VL domain is Seq ID No:275. The VH domain may be combined with any of the heavy chain constant region sequences described herein, e.g. Seq ID No:193, Seq ID No:195, Seq ID No:197, Seq ID No:199, Seq ID No:201, Seq ID No:203, Seq ID No:205 or Seq ID No:340. The VL domain may be combined with any of the light chain constant region sequences described herein, e.g. Seq ID Nos:207, 209, 211, 213, 215, 217, 219, 221, 223, 225, 227, 229, 231, 233, 235 and 237. A full length heavy chain amino acid sequence is Seq ID No:266 (heavy chain nucleic acid sequence Seq ID No:267). A full length light chain amino acid sequence is Seq ID No:276 (light chain nucleic acid sequence Seq ID No:277).

414B06 has a heavy chain variable (VH) region amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:284, comprising the CDRH1 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:278 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:281 (Kabat), the CDRH2 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:279 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:282 (Kabat), and the CDRH3 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:280 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:283 (Kabat). The heavy chain nucleic acid sequence of the VH domain is Seq ID No:285. 414B06 has a light chain variable region (VL) amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:294, comprising the CDRL1 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:288 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:291(Kabat), the CDRL2 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:289 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:292 (Kabat), and the CDRL3 amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:290 (IMGT) or Seq ID No:293 (Kabat). The light chain nucleic acid sequence of the VL domain is Seq ID No:295. The VH domain may be combined with any of the heavy chain constant region sequences described herein, e.g. Seq ID No:193, Seq ID No:195, Seq ID No:197, Seq ID No:199, Seq ID No:201, Seq ID No:203, Seq ID No:205 or Seq ID No:340. The VL domain may be combined with any of the light chain constant region sequences described herein, e.g. Seq ID Nos:207, 209, 211, 213, 215, 217, 219, 221, 223, 225, 227, 229, 231, 233, 235 and 237. A full length heavy chain amino acid sequence is Seq ID No:286 (heavy chain nucleic acid sequence Seq ID No:287). A full length light chain amino acid sequence is Seq ID No:296 (light chain nucleic acid sequence Seq ID No:297).

The antibodies of the invention are described with respect to the following concepts, aspects and embodiments. Unless otherwise stated, all concepts, embodiments and aspects are to be read as being able to be combined with any other concept, aspect or embodiment, unless such combination would not make technical sense or is explicitly stated otherwise.

Concept 1. An antibody or a fragment thereof, which specifically binds to hPD-L1 as defined by Seq ID No:1, and competes for binding to said hPD-L1 with the antibody 1D05, wherein the antibody or fragment comprises a VH domain which comprises a CDRH3 comprising the motif X1GSGX2YGX3X4FD, wherein X1, X2 and X3 are independently any amino acid, and X4 is either present or absent, and if present, may be any amino acid.

In these concepts, antibodies or fragments may include or may not include bispecific antibodies. In one embodiment, in these concepts, antibodies or fragments includes bispecific antibodies. In one embodiment, a bispecific antibody does not include a FIT-Ig format. In one embodiment, a bispecific antibody does not include a mAb2 format. In one embodiment, a bispecific antibody does not include either a FIT-Ig format or a mAb2 format. In one embodiment, the antibody or fragment in these concepts includes a bispecific antibody, but does not include a bispecific antibody having a FIT-Ig format. In one embodiment, the antibody or fragment in these concepts includes a bispecific antibody, but does not include a bispecific antibody having a mAb2 format. In one embodiment, the antibody or fragment in these concepts includes a bispecific antibody, but does not include a bispecific antibody having a FIT-Ig format or a mAb2 format. In another embodiment, in these concepts, antibodies or fragments include dual binding antibodies.

Preferably, an antibody or a fragment thereof that specifically binds to a hPD-L1 antigen does not cross-react with other antigens (but may optionally cross-react with PD-L1 of a different species, e.g., rhesus, cynomolgus, or murine). An antibody or a fragment thereof that specifically binds to a hPD-L1 antigen can be identified, for example, by immunoassays, BIAcore™, or other techniques known to those of skill in the art. An antibody or a fragment thereof binds specifically to a hPD-L1 antigen when it binds to a hPD-L1 antigen with higher affinity than to any cross-reactive antigen as determined using experimental techniques, such as radioimmunoassays (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Typically, a specific or selective reaction will be at least twice background signal or noise and more typically more than 10 times background. See, e.g., Paul, ed., 1989, Fundamental Immunology Second Edition, Raven Press, New York at pages 332-336 for a discussion regarding antibody specificity.

In one embodiment, the antibody or fragment is a human antibody. In one embodiment, the antibody or fragment is a human antibody or fragment. In one embodiment, the antibody or fragment is a fully human antibody or fragment. In one embodiment, the antibody or fragment is a fully human monoclonal antibody or fragment.

There is also provided concept 1a: An antibody or a fragment thereof, that specifically binds to hPD-L1 as defined by Seq ID No:1, and competes for binding to said hPD-L1 with the antibody 411B08, wherein the antibody or fragment comprises a VH domain which comprises a CDRH3 comprising the motif ARX1RX2X3SDX4X5D, wherein X1, X2, X3, X4 and X5 are independently any amino acid.

There is also provided concept 1b: An antibody or a fragment thereof, that specifically binds to hPD-L1 as defined by Seq ID No:1, and competes for binding to said hPD-L1 with the antibody 411B08, wherein the antibody or fragment comprises a VH domain which comprises a CDRH3 comprising the motif X1RDGSGSY, wherein X1 is any amino acid.

Concept 2. The antibody or fragment according to concept 1, wherein X1 is a hydroxyl-containing amino acid, optionally T.

In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is Serine. In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is Cysteine. In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is Threonine. In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is Methionine. In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is Serine or Cysteine. In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is Serine or Threonine. In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is Serine or Methionine. In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is Cysteine or Threonine. In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is Cysteine or Methionine. In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is Threonine or Methionine.

In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is selected from serine, cysteine, threonine and methionine.

Concept 2a. The antibody or fragment according to concept 1a, wherein X1 is an aliphatic amino acid or an amide amino acid.

In one embodiment, X1 is selected from Asparagine (N) and valine (V). In one embodiment, X1 is valine. In one embodiment, X1 is asparagine.

Concept 2b. The antibody or fragment according to concept 1b, wherein X1 is an aliphatic amino acid.

In one embodiment, X1 is selected from alanine (A) or valine (V). In one embodiment, X1 is valine. In one embodiment, X1 is alanine.

Concept 3. The antibody or fragment according to concept 1 or concept 2, wherein X2 is a basic amino acid, optionally K.

In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is Histidine. In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is Lysine. In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is Arginine. In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is Histidine or Lysine. In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is Histidine or Arginine. In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is Lysine or Arginine.

In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is selected from Histidine, Lysine and Arginine.

Concept 3a. The antibody or fragment according to concept 1a or concept 2a, wherein X2 is an aliphatic amino acid or an amide amino acid.

In one embodiment, X2 is selected from leucine (L), isoleucine (I), Valine (V), Asparagine (N) and glutamine (Q). In one embodiment, X2 is selected from leucine (L), isoleucine (I) and Valine (V). In one embodiment, X2 is selected from Asparagine (N) and glutamine (Q) In one embodiment, X2 is selected from leucine (L) and glutamine (Q). In one embodiment, X2 is leucine (L). In one embodiment, X2 is glutamine (Q).

Concept 4. The antibody or fragment according to any one of concepts 1 to 3, wherein X2 is a hydroxyl-containing amino acid, optionally S or T.

In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is Serine. In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is Cysteine. In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is Threonine. In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is Methionine. In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is Serine or Cysteine. In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is Serine or Threonine. In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is Serine or Methionine. In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is Cysteine or Threonine. In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is Cysteine or Methionine. In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is Threonine or Methionine.

In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is selected from serine, cysteine, threonine and methionine.

Concept 4a. The antibody or fragment according to any one of concepts 1a, 2a or 3a, wherein X3 is an aromatic amino acid.

In one embodiment, X3 is selected from Phenylalanine (F), Tyrosine (Y) and Tryptophan (W). In one embodiment, X3 is selected from Tyrosine (Y) and Tryptophan (W). In one embodiment, X3 is Tyrosine (Y). In one embodiment, X3 is Tryptophan (W).

Concept 5. The antibody or fragment according to any one of concepts 1 to 4, wherein X3 is an aromatic amino acid, optionally W.

In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is Phenylalanine. In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is Tyrosine. In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is Tryptophan. In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is Phenylalanine or Tyrosine. In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is Phenylalanine or Tryptophan. In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is Tyrosine or Tryptophan.

In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is selected from Phenylalanine, Tyrosine and Tryptophan.

Concept 5a. The antibody or fragment according to any one of concepts 1a, 2a, 3a or 4a wherein X4 is an aromatic amino acid.

In one embodiment, X4 is selected from Phenylalanine (F), Tyrosine (Y) and Tryptophan (W). In one embodiment, X4 is selected from Tyrosine (Y) and Phenylalanine (F). In one embodiment, X4 is Tyrosine (Y). In one embodiment, X4 is Phenylalanine (F).

Concept 6. The antibody or fragment according to any one of concepts 1 to 5, wherein X4 is absent.

Concept 6a. The antibody or fragment according to any one of concepts 1a, 2a, 3a, 4a or 5a wherein X5 is an aliphatic amino acid or an hydroxyl-containing amino acid.

In one embodiment, X5 is selected from leucine (L), isoleucine (I), Valine (V), Serine (S), Cysteine (C) and Threonine (T). In one embodiment, X5 is selected from leucine (L), isoleucine (I) and Valine (V). In one embodiment, X5 is selected from Serine (S), Cysteine (C) and Threonine (T). In one embodiment, X5 is selected from leucine (L) and Serine (S). In one embodiment, X5 is Serine (S). In one embodiment, X5 is leucine (L).

Concept 7. The antibody or fragment according to any one of concepts 1 to 5, wherein X4 is present.

Concept 8. The antibody or fragment according to concept 7, wherein X4 is an aliphatic amino acid, optionally G.

In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is selected from Glycine, Alanine, Valine, Leucine and Isoleucine.

In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is selected from Glycine and Alanine. In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is selected from Glycine and Valine. In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is selected from Glycine and Leucine. In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is selected from Glycine and Isoleucine. In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is selected from Alanine and Valine. In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is selected from Alanine and Leucine. In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is selected from Alanine and Isoleucine. In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is selected from Valine and Leucine. In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is selected from Valine and Isoleucine. In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid is selected from, Leucine and Isoleucine.

In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid selected from three of each of Glycine, Alanine, Valine, Leucine and Isoleucine. In one embodiment, the hydroxyl-containing amino acid selected from four of each of Glycine, Alanine, Valine, Leucine and Isoleucine.

Concept 9. An antibody or a fragment thereof, optionally according to any one of concepts 1 to 8, which specifically binds to hPD-L1, and competes for binding to said hPD-L1 with the antibody 1D05, wherein the antibody or fragment comprises a VH domain which comprises the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:29 or 32, or the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:29 or 32 comprising 6 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

Concept 9a: An antibody or a fragment thereof, optionally according to any one of concepts 1 to 8, which specifically binds to hPD-L1, and competes for binding to said hPD-L1 with the antibody 84G09, wherein the antibody or fragment comprises a VH domain which comprises the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:9 or 12, or the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:9 or 12 comprising 6 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

Concept 9b: An antibody or a fragment thereof, optionally according to any one of concepts 1 to 8, which specifically binds to hPD-L1, and competes for binding to said hPD-L1 with the antibody 411B08, wherein the antibody or fragment comprises a VH domain which comprises the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:54 or 57, or the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:54 or 57 comprising 6 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

Concept 9c: An antibody or a fragment thereof, optionally according to any one of concepts 1 to 8, which specifically binds to hPD-L1, and competes for binding to said hPD-L1 with the antibody 411C04, wherein the antibody or fragment comprises a VH domain which comprises the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID No:74 or 77, or the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:74 or 77 comprising 6 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

Concept 9d: An antibody or a fragment thereof, optionally according to any one of concepts 1 to 8, which specifically binds to hPD-L1, and competes for binding to said hPD-L1 with the antibody 411D07, wherein the antibody or fragment comprises a VH domain which comprises the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:94 or 97, or the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:94 or 97 comprising 3 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

Concept 9e: An antibody or a fragment thereof, optionally according to any one of concepts 1 to 8, which specifically binds to hPD-L1, and competes for binding to said hPD-L1 with the antibody 385F01, wherein the antibody or fragment comprises a VH domain which comprises the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:114 or 117, or the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:114 or 117 comprising 6 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

Concept 9f: An antibody or a fragment thereof, optionally according to any one of concepts 1 to 8, which specifically binds to hPD-L1, and competes for binding to said hPD-L1 with the antibody 386H03, wherein the antibody or fragment comprises a VH domain which comprises the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:144 or 147, or the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:144 or 147 comprising 3 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

Concept 9g: An antibody or a fragment thereof, optionally according to any one of concepts 1 to 8, which specifically binds to hPD-L1, and competes for binding to said hPD-L1 with the antibody 389A03, wherein the antibody or fragment comprises a VH domain which comprises the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:174 or 177, or the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:174 or 177 comprising 6 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

Concept 9h: An antibody or a fragment thereof, optionally according to any one of concepts 1 to 8, which specifically binds to hPD-L1, and competes for binding to said hPD-L1 with the antibody 413D08, wherein the antibody or fragment comprises a VH domain which comprises the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:134 or 137, or the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:134 or 137 comprising 5 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

Concept 9i: An antibody or a fragment thereof, optionally according to any one of concepts 1 to 8, which specifically binds to hPD-L1, and competes for binding to said hPD-L1 with the antibody 413G05, wherein the antibody or fragment comprises a VH domain which comprises the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:240 or 243, or the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:240 or 243 comprising 6 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

Concept 9j: An antibody or a fragment thereof, optionally according to any one of concepts 1 to 8, which specifically binds to hPD-L1, and competes for binding to said hPD-L1 with the antibody 413F09, wherein the antibody or fragment comprises a VH domain which comprises the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:260 or 263, or the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:260 or 263 comprising 6 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

Concept 9k: An antibody or a fragment thereof, optionally according to any one of concepts 1 to 8, which specifically binds to hPD-L1, and competes for binding to said hPD-L1 with the antibody 414B06, wherein the antibody or fragment comprises a VH domain which comprises the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:280 or 283, or the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:280 or 283 comprising 6 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

In all of concepts 9, 9a to k, 17, 17a to k, 18, 18a to k, 19, 19a to k, 22, 22a to k, 23, 23a to k, 24 and 24a to k, in one embodiment, the CDR comprises one amino acid substitution, which may be a conservative amino acid substitution. In all of concepts 9, 9a to k, 17, 17a to k, 18, 18a to k, 19, 19a to k, 22, 22a to k, 23, 23a, 24 and 24a to k, in one embodiment, the CDR comprises two amino acid substitutions, which may be conservative amino acid substitutions. In all of concepts 9, 9a to k, 17, 17a to k, 18, 18a to k, 19, 19a to k, 22, 22a, 22b, 22d, 22f, 22g, 24 and 24a to k, in one embodiment, the CDR comprises three amino acid substitutions, which may be conservative amino acid substitutions. In all of concepts 9, 9a to c, 9e, 9g to k, 17, 17a to c, 17e, 17g to k, 19, 19a, 22, 22d, 22f, 22g, 24 and 24a to k, in one embodiment, the CDR comprises four amino acid substitutions, which may be conservative amino acid substitutions. In all of concepts 9, 9a to c, 9e, 9g to k, 17, 17a to c, 17e, 17g to k, 22d, 22f and 22g, in one embodiment, the CDR comprises five amino acid substitutions, which may be conservative amino acid substitutions. In all of concepts 9, 9a to c, 9e, 9g, 9i to k, 17, 17a to c, 17e, 17g and 17i to k, in one embodiment, the CDR comprises six amino acid substitutions, which may be conservative amino acid substitutions.

Amino acid substitutions include alterations in which an amino acid is replaced with a different naturally-occurring amino acid residue. Such substitutions may be classified as “conservative”, in which case an amino acid residue contained in a polypeptide is replaced with another naturally occurring amino acid of similar character either in relation to polarity, side chain functionality or size. Such conservative substitutions are well known in the art. Substitutions encompassed by the present invention may also be “non-conservative”, in which an amino acid residue which is present in a peptide is substituted with an amino acid having different properties, such as naturally-occurring amino acid from a different group (e.g. substituting a charged or hydrophobic amino; acid with alanine), or alternatively, in which a naturally-occurring amino acid is substituted with a non-conventional amino acid.

In one embodiment, the conservative amino acid substitutions are as described herein. For example, the substitution may be of Y with F, T with S or K, P with A, E with D or Q, N with D or G, R with K, G with N or A, T with S or K, D with N or E, I with L or V, F with Y, S with T or A, R with K, G with N or A, K with R, A with S, K or P. In another embodiment, the conservative amino acid substitutions may be wherein Y is substituted with F, T with A or S, I with L or V, W with Y, M with L, N with D, G with A, T with A or S, D with N, I with L or V, F with Y or L, S with A or T and A with S, G, T or V.

Concept 10. An antibody or fragment which specifically binds to hPD-L1 and comprises a VH domain comprising a CDRH3 of from 12 to 20 amino acids and which is derived from the recombination of a human VH gene segment, a human D gene segment and a human JH gene segment, wherein the human JH gene segment is IGHJ5 (e.g. IGHJ5*02).

In one embodiment, the CDRH3 is from 14 to 17 amino acids and the human JH gene segment is IGHJ5 (e.g. IGHJ5*02).

There is also provided as concept 10a an antibody or fragment which specifically binds to hPD-L1 and comprises a VH domain comprising a CDRH3 of from 8 to 16 amino acids and which is derived from the recombination of a human VH gene segment, a human D gene segment and a human JH gene segment, wherein the human JH gene segment is selected from IGHJ4 (e.g. IGHJ4*02), IGHJ5 (e.g. IGHJ5*02) and IGHJ6 (e.g. IGHJ6*02).

In another embodiment, the human JH gene segment is IGHJ6 (e.g. IGHJ6*02). In another embodiment, the CDRH3 is of from 10 to 17 amino acids and the human JH gene segment is IGHJ6 (e.g. IGHJ6*02).

In another embodiment, the human JH gene segment is IGHJ4 (e.g. IGHJ4*02). In another embodiment, the CDRH3 is from 7 to 17 amino acids and the human JH gene segment is IGHJ4 (e.g. IGHJ4*02).

Concept 11. The antibody or fragment according to concept 10 or 10a, wherein the human VH gene segment is IGHV3 (e.g. IGHV3-9, such as IGHV3-9*01).

There is also provided as concept 11a an antibody or fragment according to concept 10 or 10a, wherein the human VH gene segment is selected from IGHV3 (e.g. IGHV3-9, such as IGHV3-9*01 or e.g. IGHV3-7, such as IGHV3-7*01 or e.g. IGHV3-33, such as IGHV3-33*01 or e.g. IGHV3-11, such as IGHV3-11*01 or e.g. IGHV3-23, such as IGHV3-23*04), or IGHV4 (e.g. IGHV4-4, such as IGHV4-4*02 or e.g. IGHV4-39, such as IGHV4-39*01).

In one embodiment, the human VH gene segment is IGHV3 (e.g. IGHV3-7, such as IGHV3-7*01). In one embodiment, the human VH gene segment is IGHV3 (e.g. IGHV3-33, such as IGHV3-33*01). In one embodiment, the human VH gene segment is IGHV3 (e.g. IGHV3-11, such as IGHV3-11*01). In one embodiment, the human VH gene segment is IGHV3 (e.g. IGHV3-23, such as IGHV3-23*04).

In one embodiment, the human VH gene segment is IGHV4 (e.g. e.g. IGHV4-4, such as IGHV4-4*02). In one embodiment, the human VH gene segment is IGHV4 (e.g. IGHV4-39, such as IGHV4-39*01).

There is also provided as concept 11b an antibody or fragment according to concept 10, 10a, 11 or 11a, wherein the human D gene segment is selected from IGHD1 (e.g. IGHD1-20, such as IGHD1-20*01), IGHD3 (e.g. IGHD3-10, such as IGHD3-10*01), IGHD4 (e.g. IGHD4-11, such as IGHD4-11*01), IGHD5 (e.g. IGHD5-7, such as IGHD5-18*01), and IGHD6 (e.g. IGHD6-13, such as IGHD6-13*01).

In one embodiment, the human D gene segment is IGHD1 (e.g. IGHD1-20, such as IGHD1-20*01). In one embodiment, the human D gene segment is IGHD3 (e.g. IGHD3-10, such as IGHD3-10*01). In one embodiment, the human D gene segment is IGHD4 (e.g. IGHD4-11, such as IGHD4-11*01). In one embodiment, the human D gene segment is IGHD5 (e.g. IGHD5-18, such as IGHD5-19*01). In one embodiment, the human D gene segment is IGHD6 (e.g. IGHD6-13, such as IGHD6-13*01).

Concept 12. The antibody or fragment according to concept 10, 10a, 11, 11a or 11b, wherein the antibody or fragment comprises a VL domain which is derived from the recombination of a human Vκ gene segment, and a human Jκ gene segment, wherein the human Vκ gene segment is IGκV1D (e.g. IGκV1D-39, such as IGκV1D-39*01).

There is also provided as concept 12a an antibody or fragment according to any of concepts 10, 10a, 11, 11a or 11b, wherein the human Vκ gene segment is selected from IGκV1 (e.g. IGκV1-17, such as IGκV1-17*01 or e.g. IGκV1-9, such as IGκV1-9*d01 or e.g. IGκV1D-12, such as IGκV1D-12*02 or e.g. IGκV1D-39, such as IGκV1D-39*01), and IGκV4 (e.g. IGκV4-1, such as IGκV4-1*01).

In one embodiment, the human Vκ gene segment is IGκV1 (e.g. IGκV1-17, such as IGκV1-17*01). In one embodiment, the human Vκ gene segment is IGκV1 (e.g. IGκV1-9, such as IGκV1-9*d01). In one embodiment, the human Vκ gene segment is IGκV1 (e.g. IGκV1D-12, such as IGκV1D-12*02). In one embodiment, the human Vκ gene segment is IGκV1 (e.g. IGκV1D-39, such as IGκV1D-39*01).

In one embodiment, the human Vκ gene segment is IGκV1 IGκV4 (e.g. IGκV4-1, such as IGκV4-1*01)

There is also provided as concept 12b an antibody or fragment according to concept 10, 10a, 11 or 11a, wherein the human Jκ gene segment is selected from IGκJ1 (e.g. IGκJ1*01), IGκJ2 (e.g. IGκJ2*04), IGκJ3 (e.g. IGκJ3*01), IGκJ4 (e.g. IGκJ4*01) or IGκJ5 (e.g. IGκJ5*01).

In one embodiment, the human Jκ gene segment is IGκJ1 (e.g. IGκJ1*01). In one embodiment, the human Jκ gene segment is IGκJ2 (e.g. IGκJ2*04). In one embodiment, the human Jκ gene segment is IGκJ3 (e.g. IGκJ3*01). In one embodiment, the human Jκ gene segment is IGκJ4 (e.g. IGκJ4*01). In one embodiment, the human Jκ gene segment is IGκJ5 (e.g. IGκJ5*01).

Concept 13. An antibody or fragment thereof which specifically binds to an epitope that is identical to an epitope to which the antibody 1D05 specifically binds.

Concept 13a. An antibody or fragment thereof which specifically binds to an epitope that is identical to an epitope to which the antibody 84G09 specifically binds.

Concept 13b. An antibody or fragment thereof which specifically binds to an epitope that is identical to an epitope to which the antibody 411B08 specifically binds.

Concept 13c. An antibody or fragment thereof which specifically binds to an epitope that is identical to an epitope to which the antibody 411C04 specifically binds.

Concept 13d. An antibody or fragment thereof which specifically binds to an epitope that is identical to an epitope to which the antibody 411D07 specifically binds.

Concept 13e. An antibody or fragment thereof which specifically binds to an epitope that is identical to an epitope to which the antibody 385F01 specifically binds.

Concept 13f. An antibody or fragment thereof which specifically binds to an epitope that is identical to an epitope to which the antibody 386H03 specifically binds.

Concept 13g. An antibody or fragment thereof which specifically binds to an epitope that is identical to an epitope to which the antibody 389A03 specifically binds.

Concept 13h. An antibody or fragment thereof which specifically binds to an epitope that is identical to an epitope to which the antibody 413D08 specifically binds.

Concept 13i. An antibody or fragment thereof which specifically binds to an epitope that is identical to an epitope to which the antibody 413G05 specifically binds.

Concept 13j. An antibody or fragment thereof which specifically binds to an epitope that is identical to an epitope to which the antibody 413F09 specifically binds.

Concept 13k. An antibody or fragment thereof which specifically binds to an epitope that is identical to an epitope to which the antibody 414B06 specifically binds.

The antibodies described in these concepts have the sequences as described hereinabove.

In one embodiment, there is provided an antibody which specifically bind to an epitope which is substantially similar to an epitope to which any of the antibodies in concept 13, 13 a to 13k bind.

Contact amino acid residues involved in the interaction of antibody and antigen may be determined by various known methods to those skilled in the art.

In one embodiment, sequential replacement of the amino acids of the antigen sequence (using standard molecular biology techniques to mutate the DNA of the coding sequence of the antigen), in this case hPD-L1 with Alanine (a.k.a Alanine scan), or another unrelated amino acid, may provide residues whose mutation would reduce or ablate the ability of the antibody to recognise the antigen in question. Binding may be assessed using standard techniques, such as, but not limited to, SPR, HTRF, ELISA (which are described elsewhere herein). Other substitutions could be made to enhance the disruption of binding such as changing the charge on the side chain of antigen sequence amino acids (e.g. Lysine change to glutamic acid), switching polar and non-polar residues (e.g. Serine change to leucine). The alanine scan or other amino substitution method may be carried out either with recombinant soluble antigen, or where the target is a cell membrane target, directly on cells using transient or stable expression of the mutated versions.

In one embodiment, protein crystallography may be used to determine contact residues between antibody and antigen (i.e. to determine the epitope to which the antibody binds), crystallography allows the direct visualisation of contact residues involved in the antibody-antigen interaction. As well as standard X-ray crystallography, cryo-electro microscopy has been used to determine contact residues between antibodies and HIV capsid protein (see Lee, Jeong Hyun, et al. “Antibodies to a conformational epitope on gp41 neutralize HIV-1 by destabilizing the Env spike.”, Nature communications, 6, (2015)).

In one embodiment, if the antibody recognises a linear epitope, short peptides based on the antigen sequence can be produced and binding of the antibody to these peptides can be assessed using standard techniques, such as, but not limited to, SPR, HTRF, ELISA (which are described elsewhere herein). Further investigation of the epitope could be provided by performing an Alanine scan on any peptides that show binding Alternative to linear peptides, conformational scans could be carried out using Pepscan technology (http://www.pepscan.com/) using their chemical linkage of peptides onto scaffolds, which has been used to determine discontinuous epitopes on CD20 targeting antibodies (Niederfellner, Gerhard, et al. “Epitope characterization and crystal structure of GA101 provide insights into the molecular basis for type I/II distinction of CD20 antibodies.”, Blood, 118.2, (2011), 358-367.).

In one embodiment, limited proteolytic digestion and mass spectrophotometry can be used to identify binding epitopes. The antibody-antigen complex is digested by a protease, such as, but not limited to, trypsin. The digested complex peptides are compared to antibody-alone and antigen-alone digestion mass spectrophotometry to determine if a particular epitope is protected by the complexation. Further work involving amino acid substitution, competition binding, may then be employed to narrow down to individual amino acid residues involved in the interaction (see, for example, Suckau, Detlev, et al. “Molecular epitope identification by limited proteolysis of an immobilized antigen-antibody complex and mass spectrometric peptide mapping.”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 87.24, (1990), 9848-9852).

Thus, in one embodiment, the contact residues of the epitope are identified with an unrelated amino acid scan (e.g. alanine scan). In another embodiment, an unrelated amino acid scan (e.g. alanine scan) is carried out using a technique selected from SPR, HTRF, ELISA, X-ray crystallography, cryo-electro microscopy and a combination of limited proteolytic digestion and mass spectrometry. In one embodiment, the unrelated amino acid scan (e.g. alanine scan) is carried out using HTRF. In one embodiment, the unrelated amino acid scan (e.g. alanine scan) is carried out using ELISA.

When the alanine scan is carried out with either ELISA or HTRF, an amino acid residue is identified as contributing to the epitope if the reduction in signal is at least 25%. In one embodiment, the reduction in signal is at least 30%. In one embodiment, the reduction in signal is at least 35%. In one embodiment, the reduction in signal is at least 40%. In one embodiment, the reduction in signal is at least 45%. In one embodiment, the reduction in signal is at least 50%. In one embodiment, the reduction in signal is at least 55%. In one embodiment, the reduction in signal is at least 60%. In one embodiment, the reduction in signal is at least 70%. In one embodiment, the reduction in signal is at least 75%. In one embodiment, the reduction in signal is at least 80%. In one embodiment, the reduction in signal is at least 85%. In one embodiment, the reduction in signal is at least 90%.

When the alanine scan is carried out with SPR, an amino acid residue is identified as contributing to the epitope if there is at least a 10-fold reduction in affinity. In one embodiment, the reduction in affinity is at least 15 fold. In one embodiment, the reduction in affinity is at least 20 fold. In one embodiment, the reduction in affinity is at least 30 fold. In one embodiment, the reduction in affinity is at least 40 fold. In one embodiment, the reduction in affinity is at least 50 fold. In one embodiment, the reduction in affinity is at least 100 fold.

In one embodiment, the contact residues of the epitope are identified by X-ray crystallography. In one embodiment, the contact residues of the epitope are identified by cryo-electro microscopy. In one embodiment, the contact residues of the epitope are identified by a combination of limited proteolytic digestion and mass spectrometry.

Concept 14. The antibody or fragment according to concept 13, wherein the epitope is identified by unrelated amino acid scanning, or by X-ray crystallography.

Concept 15. The antibody or fragment according to concept 14, wherein the contact residues of the epitope are defined by a reduction in affinity of at least 10-fold in an unrelated amino acid scan, e.g. an alanine scan as determined by SPR.

In one embodiment, the reduction in affinity is at least 15 fold. In one embodiment, the reduction in affinity is at least 20 fold. In one embodiment, the reduction in affinity is at least 30 fold. In one embodiment, the reduction in affinity is at least 40 fold. In one embodiment, the reduction in affinity is at least 50 fold. In one embodiment, the reduction in affinity is at least 100 fold.

SPR may be carried out as described hereinabove.

Concept 16. An antibody or fragment thereof which competes for binding to hPD-L1 with the antibody 1D05.

Competition may be determined by surface plasmon resonance (SPR), such techniques being readily apparent to the skilled person. SPR may be carried out using Biacore™, Proteon™ or another standard SPR technique. Such competition may be due, for example, to the antibodies or fragments binding to identical or overlapping epitopes of hPD-L1. In one embodiment, competition is determined by ELISA, such techniques being readily apparent to the skilled person. In one embodiment, competition is determined by homogenous time resolved fluorescence (HTRF), such techniques being readily apparent to the skilled person. In one embodiment, competition is determined by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), such techniques being readily apparent to the skilled person. In one embodiment, competition is determined by ForteBio Octet® Bio-Layer Interferometry (BLI) such techniques being readily apparent to the skilled person.

In one embodiment, the antibody or fragment competes (e.g., in a dose-dependent manner) with hPD-1 (or a fusion protein thereof) for binding to cell surface-expressed hPD-L1. In one embodiment, the antibody or fragment competes (e.g., in a dose-dependent manner) with hPD-1 (or a fusion protein thereof) for binding to soluble hPDL-1.

In one embodiment, the antibody or fragment partially or completely inhibits binding of PD-1 and/or CD80 to cell surface-expressed PD-L1, such as hPD-L1. In another embodiment, the antibody or fragment partially or completely inhibits binding of hPD-1 and/or CD80 to soluble hPD-L1. In some embodiments, the antibody or fragment partially or completely increases the secretion of IFNγ, CD25 and IL-2 from a cell having cell surface-expressed PD-1. In one embodiment, the antibody or fragment partially or completely inhibits binding of CD80 to soluble hPD-L1, but does not show any detectable inhibition of the binding of PD-1 to cell surface-expressed PD-L1. In one embodiment, the antibody or fragment partially or completely inhibits binding of CD80 to soluble hPD-L1, but does not show any detectable inhibition of the binding of PD-1 to soluble PD-L1.

Concept 16a. An antibody or fragment thereof which competes for binding to hPD-L1 with the antibody 84G09.

Concept 16b. An antibody or fragment thereof which competes for binding to hPD-L1 with the antibody 411B08.

Concept 16c. An antibody or fragment thereof which competes for binding to hPD-L1 with the antibody 411C04.

Concept 16d. An antibody or fragment thereof which competes for binding to hPD-L1 with the antibody 411D07.

Concept 16e. An antibody or fragment thereof which competes for binding to hPD-L1 with the antibody 385F01.

Concept 16f. An antibody or fragment thereof which competes for binding to hPD-L1 with the antibody 386H03.

Concept 16g. An antibody or fragment thereof which competes for binding to hPD-L1 with the antibody 389A03.

Concept 16h. An antibody or fragment thereof which competes for binding to hPD-L1 with the antibody 413D08.

Concept 16i. An antibody or fragment thereof which competes for binding to hPD-L1 with the antibody 413G05.

Concept 16j. An antibody or fragment thereof which competes for binding to hPD-L1 with the antibody 413F09.

Concept 16k. An antibody or fragment thereof which competes for binding to hPD-L1 with the antibody 414B06.

The antibodies have the sequences as described hereinabove.

Concept 17. The antibody or fragment according to any one of concepts 10 to 16, wherein the VH domain comprises the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:29 or 32, or the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:29 or 32 comprising 6 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

Concept 17a: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any one of concepts 10 to 16 (but when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13a, and when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16a), wherein the VH domain comprises the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:9 or 12, or the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:9 or 12 comprising 6 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

Concept 17b: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any one of concepts 10 to 16 (but when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13b, and when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16b), wherein the VH domain comprises the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:54 or 57, or the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:54 or 57 comprising 6 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

Concept 17c: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any one of concepts 10 to 16 (but when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13c, and when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16c), wherein the a VH domain comprises the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:74 or 77, or the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:74 or 77 comprising 6 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

Concept 17d: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any one of concepts 10 to 16 (but when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13d, and when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16d), wherein the VH domain comprises the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:94 or 97, or the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:94 or 97 comprising 3 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

Concept 17e: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any one of concepts 10 to 16 (but when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13e, and when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16e), wherein the VH domain comprises the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:114 or 117, or the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:114 or 117 comprising 6 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

Concept 17f: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any one of concepts 10 to 16 (but when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13f, and when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 160, wherein the VH domain comprises the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:144 or 147, or the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:144 or 147 comprising 3 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

Concept 17g: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any one of concepts 10 to 16 (but when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13g, and when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16g), wherein the VH domain comprises the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:174 or 177, or the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:174 or 177 comprising 6 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

Concept 17h: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any one of concepts 10 to 16 (but when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13h, and when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16h), wherein the VH domain comprises the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO134 or 137, or the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:134 or 137 comprising 5 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

Concept 17i: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any one of concepts 10 to 16 (but when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13i, and when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16i), wherein the VH domain comprises the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:240 or 243, or the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:240 or 243 comprising 6 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

Concept 17j: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any one of concepts 10 to 16 (but when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13j, and when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16j), wherein the a VH domain comprises the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:260 or 263, or the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:260 or 263 comprising 6 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

Concept 17k: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any one of concepts 10 to 16 (but when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13k, and when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16k), wherein the VH domain comprises the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:280 or 283, or the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:280 or 283 comprising 6 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

Concept 18. The antibody or fragment according to any preceding concept, wherein the VH domain comprises the CDRH1 sequence of SEQ ID NO:27 or 30 or the CDRH1 sequence of SEQ ID NO:27 or 30 comprising 3, 2 or 1 amino acid substitution(s).

Concept 18a: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9a, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13a, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16a, and when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17a), wherein the VH domain comprises the CDRH1 sequence of SEQ ID NO: 7 or 10, or the CDRH1 sequence of SEQ ID NO: 7 or 10 comprising 3, 2 or 1 amino acid substitution(s).

Concept 18b: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9b, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13b, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16b, and when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17b), wherein the VH domain comprises the CDRH1 sequence of SEQ ID NO: 52 or 55, or the CDRH1 sequence of SEQ ID NO: 52 or 55 comprising 3, 2 or 1 amino acid substitution(s).

Concept 18c: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9c, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13c, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16c, and when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17c), wherein the VH domain comprises the CDRH1 sequence of SEQ ID NO: 72 or 75, or the CDRH1 sequence of SEQ ID NO: 72 or 75 comprising 3, 2 or 1 amino acid substitution(s).

Concept 18d: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9d, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13d, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16d, and when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17d), wherein the VH domain comprises the CDRH1 sequence of SEQ ID NO: 92 or 95, or the CDRH1 sequence of SEQ ID NO: 92 or 95 comprising 3, 2 or 1 amino acid substitution(s).

Concept 18e: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9e, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13e, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16e, and when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17e), wherein the VH domain comprises the CDRH1 sequence of SEQ ID NO: 112 or 115, or the CDRH1 sequence of SEQ ID NO:112 or 115 comprising 3, 2 or 1 amino acid substitution(s).

Concept 18f: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9f, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13f, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16f, and when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17f), wherein the VH domain comprises the CDRH1 sequence of SEQ ID NO: 142 or 145, or the CDRH1 sequence of SEQ ID NO: 142 or 145 comprising 3, 2 or 1 amino acid substitution(s).

Concept 18g: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9g, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13g, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16g, and when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17g), wherein the VH domain comprises the CDRH1 sequence of SEQ ID NO: 172 or 175, or the CDRH1 sequence of SEQ ID NO: 172 or 175 comprising 3, 2 or 1 amino acid substitution(s).

Concept 18h: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9h, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13h, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16h, and when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17h), wherein the VH domain comprises the CDRH1 sequence of SEQ ID NO:132 or 135, or the CDRH1 sequence of SEQ ID NO:132 or 135 comprising 3, 2 or 1 amino acid substitution(s).

Concept 18i: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9i, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13i, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16i, and when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17i), wherein the VH domain comprises the CDRH1 sequence of SEQ ID NO: 238 or 241, or the CDRH1 sequence of SEQ ID NO: 238 or 241 comprising 3, 2 or 1 amino acid substitution(s).

Concept 18j: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9j, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13j, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16j, and when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17j), wherein the VH domain comprises the CDRH1 sequence of SEQ ID NO: 258 or 261, or the CDRH1 sequence of SEQ ID NO: 258 or 261 comprising 3, 2 or 1 amino acid substitution(s).

Concept 18k: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9k, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13k, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16k, and when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17k), wherein the VH domain comprises the CDRH1 sequence of SEQ ID NO: 278 or 281, or the CDRH1 sequence of SEQ ID NO: 278 or 281 comprising 3, 2 or 1 amino acid substitution(s).

Concept 19. The antibody or fragment according to any preceding concept, wherein the VH domain comprises the CDRH2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:28 or 31, or the CDRH2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:28 or 31 comprising 4 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

Concept 19a: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9a, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13a, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16a, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17a, and when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18a), wherein the VH domain comprises the CDRH2 sequence of SEQ ID NO: 8 or 11, or the CDRH2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:8 or 11 comprising 4 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

Concept 19b: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9b, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13b, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16b, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17b, and when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18b), wherein the VH domain comprises the CDRH2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:53 or 56, or the CDRH2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:53 or 56 comprising 3, 2 or 1 amino acid substitution(s).

Concept 19c: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9c, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13c, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16c, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17c, and when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18c), wherein the VH domain comprises the CDRH2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:73 or 76, or the CDRH2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:73 or 76 comprising 3, 2 or 1 amino acid substitution(s).

Concept 19d: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9d, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13d, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16d, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17d, and when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18d), wherein the VH domain comprises the CDRH2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:93 or 96, or the CDRH2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:93 or 96 comprising 3, 2 or 1 amino acid substitution(s).

Concept 19e: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9e, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13e, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16e, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17e, and when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18e), wherein the VH domain comprises the CDRH2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:113 or 116, or the CDRH2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:113 or 116 comprising 3, 2 or 1 amino acid substitution(s).

Concept 19f: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9f, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13f, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16f, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17f, and when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18f), wherein the VH domain comprises the CDRH2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:143 or 146, or the CDRH2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:143 or 146 comprising 3, 2 or 1 amino acid substitution(s).

Concept 19g: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9g, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13g, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16g, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17g, and when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18g), wherein the VH domain comprises the CDRH2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:173 or 176, or the CDRH2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:173 or 176 comprising 3, 2 or 1 amino acid substitution(s).

Concept 19h: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9h, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13h, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16h, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17h, and when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18h), wherein the VH domain comprises the CDRH2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:133 or 136, or the CDRH2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:133 or 136 comprising 3, 2 or 1 amino acid substitution(s).

Concept 19i: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9i, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13i, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16i, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17i, and when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18i), wherein the VH domain comprises the CDRH2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:239 or 242, or the CDRH2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:239 or 242 comprising 3, 2 or 1 amino acid substitution(s).

Concept 19j: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9j, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13j, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16j, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17j, and when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18j), wherein the VH domain comprises the CDRH2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:259 or 262, or the CDRH2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:259 or 262 comprising 3, 2 or 1 amino acid substitution(s).

Concept 19k: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9k, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13k, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16k, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17k, and when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18k), wherein the VH domain comprises the CDRH2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:279 or 282, or the CDRH2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:279 or 282 comprising 3, 2 or 1 amino acid substitution(s).

Concept 20. The antibody or fragment according to any preceding concept, wherein the VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:33, or a heavy chain variable domain amino acid sequence that is at least 80% (e.g. at least 85%, or at least 90%) identical to SEQ ID NO:33.

Concept 20a: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9a, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13a, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16a, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17a, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18a, and when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19a), wherein the VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:13, or a heavy chain variable domain amino acid sequence that is at least 80% (e.g. at least 85%, or at least 90%) identical to SEQ ID NO:13.

Concept 20b: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9b, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13b, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16b, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17b, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18b, and when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19b), wherein the VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:58, or a heavy chain variable domain amino acid sequence that is at least 80% (e.g. at least 85%, or at least 90%) identical to SEQ ID NO:58.

Concept 20c: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9c, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13c, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16c, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17c, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18c, and when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19c), wherein the VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:78, or a heavy chain variable domain amino acid sequence that is at least 80% (e.g. at least 85%, or at least 90%) identical to SEQ ID NO:78.

Concept 20d: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9d, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13d, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16d, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17d, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18d, and when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19d), wherein the VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:98, or a heavy chain variable domain amino acid sequence that is at least 80% (e.g. at least 85%, or at least 90%) identical to SEQ ID NO:98.

Concept 20e: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9e, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13e, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16e, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17e, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18e, and when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19e), wherein the VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:118, or a heavy chain variable domain amino acid sequence that is at least 80% (e.g. at least 85%, or at least 90%) identical to SEQ ID NO:118.

Concept 20f: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9f, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13f, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16f, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17f, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18f, and when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19f), wherein the VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:158, or a heavy chain variable domain amino acid sequence that is at least 80% (e.g. at least 85%, or at least 90%) identical to SEQ ID NO:158.

Concept 20g: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9g, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13g, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16g, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17g, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18g, and when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19g), wherein the VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:178, or a heavy chain variable domain amino acid sequence that is at least 80% (e.g. at least 85%, or at least 90%) identical to SEQ ID NO:178.

Concept 20h: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9h, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13h, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16h, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17h, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18h, and when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19h), wherein the VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:138, or a heavy chain variable domain amino acid sequence that is at least 80% (e.g. at least 85%, or at least 90%) identical to SEQ ID NO:138.

Concept 20i: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9i, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13i, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16i, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17i, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18i, and when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19i), wherein the VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:244, or a heavy chain variable domain amino acid sequence that is at least 80% (e.g. at least 85%, or at least 90%) identical to SEQ ID NO:244.

Concept 20j: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9j, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13j, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16j, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17j, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18j, and when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19j), wherein the VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:264, or a heavy chain variable domain amino acid sequence that is at least 80% (e.g. at least 85%, or at least 90%) identical to SEQ ID NO:264.

Concept 20k: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9k, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13k, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16k, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17k, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18k, and when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19k), wherein the VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:284, or a heavy chain variable domain amino acid sequence that is at least 80% (e.g. at least 85%, or at least 90%) identical to SEQ ID NO:284.

In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 70% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 75% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 95% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 96% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 97% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 98% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 99% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 99.5% identical to the specified Seq ID No.

Concept 21. The antibody or fragment according to any preceding concept comprising first and second copies of said VH domain.

Concept 22. The antibody or fragment according to any preceding concept, comprising a VL domain which comprises the CDRL1 sequence of SEQ ID NO:37 or 40, or the CRDL1 sequence of SEQ ID NO:37 or 40 comprising 3 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

Concept 22a: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9a, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13a, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16a, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17a, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18a, when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19a, and when dependent on concept 20, it is dependent on concept 20a), comprising a VL domain, which comprises the CDRL1 sequence of SEQ ID NO:17 or 20, or the CDRL1 sequence of SEQ ID NO:17 or 20 comprising 3 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

Concept 22b: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9b, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13b, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16b, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17b, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18b, when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19b, and when dependent on concept 20, it is dependent on concept 20b), comprising a VL domain which comprises the CDRL1 sequence of SEQ ID NO:62 or 65, or the CDRL1 sequence of SEQ ID NO:62 or 65 comprising 3 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

Concept 22c: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9c, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13c, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16c, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17c, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18c, when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19c, and when dependent on concept 20, it is dependent on concept 20c), comprising a VL domain which comprises the CDRL1 sequence of SEQ ID NO:82 or 85, or the CDRL1 sequence of SEQ ID NO:82 or 85 comprising 2 or 1 amino acid substitution(s).

Concept 22d: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9d, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13d, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16d, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17d, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18d, when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19d, and when dependent on concept 20, it is dependent on concept 20d), comprising a VL domain which comprises the CDRL1 sequence of SEQ ID NO:102 or 105, or the CDRL1 sequence of SEQ ID NO:102 or 105 comprising 5 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

Concept 22e: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9e, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13e, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16e, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17e, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18e, when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19e, and when dependent on concept 20, it is dependent on concept 20e), comprising a VL domain which comprises the CDRL1 sequence of SEQ ID NO:122 or 125, or the CDRL1 sequence of SEQ ID NO:122 or 125 comprising 2 or 1 amino acid substitution(s).

Concept 22f: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9f, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13f, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16f, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17f, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18f, when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19f, and when dependent on concept 20, it is dependent on concept 20f), comprising a VL domain which comprises the CDRL1 sequence of SEQ ID NO:162 or 165, or the CDRL1 sequence of SEQ ID NO:162 or 165 comprising 5 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

Concept 22g: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9g, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13g, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16g, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17g, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18g, when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19g, and when dependent on concept 20, it is dependent on concept 20g), comprising a VL domain which comprises the CDRL1 sequence of SEQ ID NO:182 or 185, or the CDRL1 sequence of SEQ ID NO:182 or 185 comprising 5 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

Concept 22h: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9h, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13h, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16h, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17h, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18h, when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19h, and when dependent on concept 20, it is dependent on concept 20h), comprising a VL domain which comprises the CDRL1 sequence of SEQ ID NO:142 or 145, or the CDRL1 sequence of SEQ ID NO:142 or 145 comprising 2 or 1 amino acid substitution(s).

Concept 22i: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9i, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13i, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16i, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17i, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18i, when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19i, and when dependent on concept 20, it is dependent on concept 20i), comprising a VL domain which comprises the CDRL1 sequence of SEQ ID NO:248 or 251, or the CDRL1 sequence of SEQ ID NO:248 or 251 comprising 2 or 1 amino acid substitution(s).

Concept 22j: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9j, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13j, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16j, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17j, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18j, when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19j, and when dependent on concept 20, it is dependent on concept 20j), comprising a VL domain which comprises the CDRL1 sequence of SEQ ID NO:268 or 271, or the CDRL1 sequence of SEQ ID NO:268 or 271 comprising 2 or 1 amino acid substitution(s).

Concept 22k: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9k, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13k, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16k, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17k, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18k, when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19k, and when dependent on concept 20, it is dependent on concept 20k), comprising a VL domain which comprises the CDRL1 sequence of SEQ ID NO:288 or 291, or the CDRL1 sequence of SEQ ID NO:288 or 291 comprising 2 or 1 amino acid substitution(s).

Concept 23. The antibody or fragment according to any preceding concept, comprising a or said VL domain, which VL domain comprises the CDRL2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:38 or 41, or the CRDL2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:38 or 41 comprising 2 or 1 amino acid substitution(s), for example a CDRL2 sequence of Seq ID No:50.

Concept 23a: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9a, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13a, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16a, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17a, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18a, when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19a, when dependent on concept 20, it is dependent on concept 20a, and when dependent on concept 22, it is dependent on concept 22a), comprising a or said VL domain, which VL domain comprises the CDRL2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:18 or 21, or the CDRL2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:18 or 21 comprising 2 or 1 amino acid substitution(s).

Concept 23b: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9b, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13b, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16b, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17b, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18b, when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19b, when dependent on concept 20, it is dependent on concept 20b, and when dependent on concept 22, it is dependent on concept 22b), comprising a or said VL domain, which VL domain comprises the CDRL2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:63 or 66, or the CDRL2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:63 or 66 comprising one amino acid substitution.

Concept 23c: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9c, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13c, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16c, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17c, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18c, when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19c, when dependent on concept 20, it is dependent on concept 20c, and when dependent on concept 22, it is dependent on concept 22c), comprising a or said VL domain, which VL domain comprises the CDRL2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:83 or 86, or the CDRL2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:83 or 86 comprising one amino acid substitution.

Concept 23d: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9d, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13d, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16d, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17d, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18d, when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19d, when dependent on concept 20, it is dependent on concept 20d, and when dependent on concept 22, it is dependent on concept 22d), comprising a or said VL domain, which VL domain comprises the CDRL2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:103 or 106, or the CDRL2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:103 or 106 comprising one amino acid substitution.

Concept 23e: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9e, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13e, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16e, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17e, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18e, when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19e, when dependent on concept 20, it is dependent on concept 20e, and when dependent on concept 22, it is dependent on concept 22e), comprising a or said VL domain, which VL domain comprises the CDRL2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:123 or 126, or the CDRL2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:123 or 126 comprising one amino acid substitution.

Concept 23f: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9f, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13f, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16f, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17f, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18f, when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19f, when dependent on concept 20, it is dependent on concept 20f, and when dependent on concept 22, it is dependent on concept 22f), comprising a or said VL domain, which VL domain comprises the CDRL2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:153 or 156, or the CDRL2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:153 or 156 comprising one amino acid substitution.

Concept 23g: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9g, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13g, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16g, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17g, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18g, when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19g, when dependent on concept 20, it is dependent on concept 20g, and when dependent on concept 22, it is dependent on concept 22g), comprising a or said VL domain, which VL domain comprises the CDRL2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:183 or 186, or the CDRL2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:183 or 186 comprising one amino acid substitution.

Concept 23h: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9h, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13h, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16h, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17h, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18h, when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19h, when dependent on concept 20, it is dependent on concept 20h, and when dependent on concept 22, it is dependent on concept 22h), comprising a or said VL domain, which VL domain comprises the CDRL2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:143 or 146, or the CDRL2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:143 or 146 comprising one amino acid substitution.

Concept 23i: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9i, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13i, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16i, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17i, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18i, when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19i, when dependent on concept 20, it is dependent on concept 20i, and when dependent on concept 22, it is dependent on concept 22i), comprising a or said VL domain, which VL domain comprises the CDRL2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:249 or 252, or the CDRL2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:249 or 252 comprising one amino acid substitution.

Concept 23j: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9j, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13j, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16j, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17j, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18j, when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19j, when dependent on concept 20, it is dependent on concept 20j, and when dependent on concept 22, it is dependent on concept 22j), comprising a or said VL domain, which VL domain comprises the CDRL2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:269 or 272, or the CDRL2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:269 or 272 comprising one amino acid substitution.

Concept 23k: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9k, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13k, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16k, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17k, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18k, when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19k, when dependent on concept 20, it is dependent on concept 20k, and when dependent on concept 22, it is dependent on concept 22k), comprising a or said VL domain, which VL domain comprises the CDRL2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:289 or 292, or the CDRL2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:289 or 292 comprising one amino acid substitution.

Concept 24. The antibody or fragment according to any preceding concept, comprising a or said VL domain, which VL domain comprises the CDRL3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:39 or 42, or the CRDL3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:39 or 42 comprising 4 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

Concept 24a: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9a, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13a, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16a, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17a, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18a, when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19a, when dependent on concept 20, it is dependent on concept 20a, when dependent on concept 22, it is dependent on concept 22a, and when dependent on concept 23, it is dependent on concept 23a), comprising a or said VL domain, which VL domain comprises the CDRL3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:19 or 22, or the CDRL3 sequence of SEQ ID NO: 19 or 22 comprising 4 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

Concept 24b: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9b, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13b, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16b, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17b, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18b, when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19b, when dependent on concept 20, it is dependent on concept 20b, when dependent on concept 22, it is dependent on concept 22b, and when dependent on concept 23, it is dependent on concept 23b), comprising a or said VL domain, which VL domain comprises the CDRL3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:64 or 67, or the CDRL3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:64 or 67 comprising 4 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

Concept 24c: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9c, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13c, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16c, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17c, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18c, when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19c, when dependent on concept 20, it is dependent on concept 20c, when dependent on concept 22, it is dependent on concept 22c, and when dependent on concept 23, it is dependent on concept 23c), comprising a or said VL domain, which VL domain comprises the CDRL3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:84 or 87, or the CDRL3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:84 or 87 comprising 4 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

Concept 24d: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9d, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13d, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16d, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17d, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18d, when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19d, when dependent on concept 20, it is dependent on concept 20d, when dependent on concept 22, it is dependent on concept 22d, and when dependent on concept 23, it is dependent on concept 23d), comprising a or said VL domain, which VL domain comprises the CDRL3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:104 or 107, or the CDRL3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:104 or 107 comprising 4 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

Concept 24e: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9e, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13e, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16e, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17e, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18e, when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19e, when dependent on concept 20, it is dependent on concept 20e, when dependent on concept 22, it is dependent on concept 22e, and when dependent on concept 23, it is dependent on concept 23e), comprising a or said VL domain, which VL domain comprises the CDRL3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:124 or 127, or the CDRL3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:124 or 127 comprising 4 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

Concept 24f: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9f, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13f, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16f, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17f, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18f, when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19f, when dependent on concept 20, it is dependent on concept 20f, when dependent on concept 22, it is dependent on concept 22f, and when dependent on concept 23, it is dependent on concept 23f), comprising a or said VL domain, which VL domain comprises the CDRL3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:164 or 167, or the CDRL3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:164 or 167 comprising 4 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

Concept 24g: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9g, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13g, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16g, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17g, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18g, when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19g, when dependent on concept 20, it is dependent on concept 20g, when dependent on concept 22, it is dependent on concept 22g, and when dependent on concept 23, it is dependent on concept 23g), comprising a or said VL domain, which VL domain comprises the CDRL3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:184 or 187, or the CDRL3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:184 or 187 comprising 4 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

Concept 24h: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9h, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13h, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16h, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17h, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18h, when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19h, when dependent on concept 20, it is dependent on concept 20h, when dependent on concept 22, it is dependent on concept 22h, and when dependent on concept 23, it is dependent on concept 23h), comprising a or said VL domain, which VL domain comprises the CDRL3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:144 or 147, or the CDRL3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:144 or 147 comprising 4 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

Concept 24i: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9i, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13i, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16i, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17i, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18i, when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19i, when dependent on concept 20, it is dependent on concept 20i, when dependent on concept 22, it is dependent on concept 22i, and when dependent on concept 23, it is dependent on concept 23i), comprising a or said VL domain, which VL domain comprises the CDRL3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:250 or 253, or the CDRL3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:250 or 253 comprising 4 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

Concept 24j: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9j, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13j, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16j, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17j, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18j, when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19j, when dependent on concept 20, it is dependent on concept 20j, when dependent on concept 22, it is dependent on concept 22j, and when dependent on concept 23, it is dependent on concept 23j), comprising a or said VL domain, which VL domain comprises the CDRL3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:270 or 273, or the CDRL3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:270 or 273 comprising 4 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

Concept 24k: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9k, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13k, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16k, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17k, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18k, when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19k, when dependent on concept 20, it is dependent on concept 20k, when dependent on concept 22, it is dependent on concept 22k, and when dependent on concept 23, it is dependent on concept 23k), comprising a or said VL domain, which VL domain comprises the CDRL3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:290 or 293, or the CDRL3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:290 or 293 comprising 4 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

Concept 25. The antibody or fragment according to any preceding concept, comprising a or said VL domain, which VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:43, or a light chain variable domain amino acid sequence that is at least 80% (e.g. at least 85%, or at least 90%) identical to SEQ ID NO:43 (for example the VL domain sequence in the light chain sequence of Seq ID No:50, 51 or 298).

Concept 25a: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9a, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13a, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16a, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17a, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18a, when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19a, when dependent on concept 20, it is dependent on concept 20a, when dependent on concept 22, it is dependent on concept 22a, when dependent on concept 23, it is dependent on concept 23a, and when dependent on concept 24, it is dependent on concept 24a), wherein the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:23, or a light chain variable domain amino acid sequence that is at least 80% (e.g. at least 85%, or at least 90%) identical to SEQ ID NO:23.

Concept 25b: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9b, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13b, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16b, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17b, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18b, when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19b, when dependent on concept 20, it is dependent on concept 20b, when dependent on concept 22, it is dependent on concept 22a, when dependent on concept 23, it is dependent on concept 23b, and when dependent on concept 24, it is dependent on concept 24b), wherein the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:68, or a light chain variable domain amino acid sequence that is at least 80% (e.g. at least 85%, or at least 90%) identical to SEQ ID NO:68.

Concept 25c: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9c, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13c, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16c, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17c, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18c, when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19c, when dependent on concept 20, it is dependent on concept 20c, when dependent on concept 22, it is dependent on concept 22c, when dependent on concept 23, it is dependent on concept 23c, and when dependent on concept 24, it is dependent on concept 24c), wherein the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:88, or a light chain variable domain amino acid sequence that is at least 80% (e.g. at least 85%, or at least 90%) identical to SEQ ID NO:88.

Concept 25d: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9d, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13d, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16d, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17d, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18d, when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19d, when dependent on concept 20, it is dependent on concept 20d, when dependent on concept 22, it is dependent on concept 22d, when dependent on concept 23, it is dependent on concept 23d, and when dependent on concept 24, it is dependent on concept 24d), wherein the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:108, or a light chain variable domain amino acid sequence that is at least 80% (e.g. at least 85%, or at least 90%) identical to SEQ ID NO:108.

Concept 25e: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9e, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13e, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16e, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17e, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18e, when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19e, when dependent on concept 20, it is dependent on concept 20e, when dependent on concept 22, it is dependent on concept 22e, when dependent on concept 23, it is dependent on concept 23e, and when dependent on concept 24, it is dependent on concept 24e), wherein the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:128, or a light chain variable domain amino acid sequence that is at least 80% (e.g. at least 85%, or at least 90%) identical to SEQ ID NO:128.

Concept 25f: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9f, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13f, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16f, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17f, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18f, when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19f, when dependent on concept 20, it is dependent on concept 20f, when dependent on concept 22, it is dependent on concept 22f, when dependent on concept 23, it is dependent on concept 23f, and when dependent on concept 24, it is dependent on concept 24f), wherein the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:168, or a light chain variable domain amino acid sequence that is at least 80% (e.g. at least 85%, or at least 90%) identical to SEQ ID NO:168.

Concept 25g: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9g, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13g, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16g, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17g, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18g, when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19g, when dependent on concept 20, it is dependent on concept 20g, when dependent on concept 22, it is dependent on concept 22g, when dependent on concept 23, it is dependent on concept 23g, and when dependent on concept 24, it is dependent on concept 24g), wherein the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:188, or a light chain variable domain amino acid sequence that is at least 80% (e.g. at least 85%, or at least 90%) identical to SEQ ID NO:188.

Concept 25h: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9h, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13h, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16h, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17h, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18h, when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19h, when dependent on concept 20, it is dependent on concept 20h, when dependent on concept 22, it is dependent on concept 22h, when dependent on concept 23, it is dependent on concept 23h, and when dependent on concept 24, it is dependent on concept 24h), wherein the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:148, or a light chain variable domain amino acid sequence that is at least 80% (e.g. at least 85%, or at least 90%) identical to SEQ ID NO:148.

Concept 25i: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9i, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13i, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16i, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17i, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18i, when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19i, when dependent on concept 20, it is dependent on concept 20i, when dependent on concept 22, it is dependent on concept 22i, when dependent on concept 23, it is dependent on concept 23i, and when dependent on concept 24, it is dependent on concept 24i), wherein the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:254, or a light chain variable domain amino acid sequence that is at least 80% (e.g. at least 85%, or at least 90%) identical to SEQ ID NO:254.

Concept 25j: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9j, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13j, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16j, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17j, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18j, when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19j, when dependent on concept 20, it is dependent on concept 20j, when dependent on concept 22, it is dependent on concept 22j, when dependent on concept 23, it is dependent on concept 23j, and when dependent on concept 24, it is dependent on concept 24j), wherein the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:274, or a light chain variable domain amino acid sequence that is at least 80% (e.g. at least 85%, or at least 90%) identical to SEQ ID NO:274.

Concept 25k: An antibody or a fragment thereof according to any preceding concept (but when dependent on concept 9, it is dependent on concept 9k, when dependent on concept 13, it is dependent on concept 13k, when dependent on concept 16, it is dependent on concept 16k, when dependent on concept 17, it is dependent on concept 17k, when dependent on concept 18, it is dependent on concept 18k, when dependent on concept 19, it is dependent on concept 19k, when dependent on concept 20, it is dependent on concept 20k, when dependent on concept 22, it is dependent on concept 22k, when dependent on concept 23, it is dependent on concept 23k, and when dependent on concept 24, it is dependent on concept 24k), wherein the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:294, or a light chain variable domain amino acid sequence that is at least 80% (e.g. at least 85%, or at least 90%) identical to SEQ ID NO:294.

In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 70% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 75% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 95% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 96% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 97% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 98% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 99% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 99.5% identical to the specified Seq ID No.

Concept 26. The antibody or fragment according to any one of concepts 12 to 21, comprising first and second copies of a or said VL domain.

Concept 27. The antibody or fragment according to any preceding concept which specifically binds to cynomolgus PD-L1 as defined by Seq ID No:2.

In one embodiment, the antibody or fragment binds to cynomolgus PDL-1 with an affinity of less than 1 nM (e.g. from 1 nM to 0.01 pM or from 1 nM to 0.1 pM, or from 1 nM to 1 pM). In one embodiment, the antibody or fragment binds to cynomolgus PDL-1 with an affinity of less than 10 nM (e.g. from 10 nM to 0.01 pM or from 10 nM to 0.1 pM, or from 10 nM to 1 pM). In one embodiment, the antibody or fragment binds to cynomolgus PDL-1 with an affinity of less than 0.1 nM (e.g. from 0.1 nM to 0.01 pM or from 0.1 nM to 0.1 pM, or from 0.1 nM to 1 pM). In one embodiment, the antibody or fragment binds to cynomolgus PDL-1 with an affinity of less than 0.01 nM (e.g. from 0.011 nM to 0.01 pM or from 0.01 nM to 0.1 pM).

In one embodiment, the antibody or fragment binds to cynomolgus PD-L1 with an affinity of within 2-fold of the affinity to hPD-L1. In one embodiment, the antibody or fragment binds to cynomolgus PD-L1 with an affinity of within 4-fold of the affinity to hPD-L1. In one embodiment, the antibody or fragment binds to cynomolgus PD-L1 with an affinity of within 5-fold of the affinity to hPD-L1. In one embodiment, the antibody or fragment binds to cynomolgus PD-L1 with an affinity of within 6-fold of the affinity to hPD-L1. In one embodiment, the antibody or fragment binds to cynomolgus PD-L1 with an affinity of within 8-fold of the affinity to hPD-L1. In one embodiment, the antibody or fragment binds to cynomolgus PD-L1 with an affinity of within 10-fold of the affinity to hPD-L1.

In one embodiment, the antibody or fragment does not detectably bind to cynomolgus PD-L1. In one embodiment, the antibody or fragment does not detectably bind to murine PD-L1.

In one embodiment, the antibody or fragment binds to murine PDL-1 with an affinity of less than 1 nM (e.g. from 1 nM to 0.01 pM or from 1 nM to 0.1 pM, or from 1 nM to 1 pM). In one embodiment, the antibody or fragment binds to murine PDL-1 with an affinity of less than 10 nM (e.g. from 10 nM to 0.01 pM or from 10 nM to 0.1 pM, or from 10 nM to 1 pM). In one embodiment, the antibody or fragment binds to murine PDL-1 with an affinity of less than 0.1 nM (e.g. from 0.1 nM to 0.01 pM or from 0.1 nM to 0.1 pM, or from 0.1 nM to 1 pM). In one embodiment, the antibody or fragment binds to murine PDL-1 with an affinity of less than 0.01 nM (e.g. from 0.011 nM to 0.01 pM or from 0.01 nM to 0.1 pM).

Concept 28. The antibody or fragment according to any preceding concept, wherein the antibody or fragment comprises a kappa light chain.

Kappa light chain constant region amino acid and nucleotide sequences can be found in Seq ID Nos:206 to 215.

In one embodiment, the light chain may be a lambda light chain. Lambda light chain constant region amino acid and nucleotide sequences can be found in Seq ID Nos:216 to 237.

Concept 29. The antibody or fragment according to any one of concepts 9 to 28, wherein the amino acid substitutions are conservative amino acid substitutions, optionally wherein the conservative substitutions are from one of six groups (each group containing amino acids that are conservative substitutions for one another) selected from:

    • 1) Alanine (A), Serine (S), Threonine (T);
    • 2) Aspartic acid (D), Glutamic acid (E);
    • 3) Asparagine (N), Glutamine (Q);
    • 4) Arginine (R), Lysine (K);
    • 5) Isoleucine (I), Leucine (L), Methionine (M), Valine (V); and
    • 6) Phenylalanine (F), Tyrosine (Y), Tryptophan (W).

Conservative substitutions may be as described above in concept 9.

Concept 30. The antibody or fragment according to any preceding concept, wherein the antibody or fragment comprises a constant region, such as a human constant region, for example an effector-null human constant region, e.g. an IgG4 constant region or an IgG1 constant region, optionally wherein the constant region is IgG4-PE (Seq ID No:199), or a disabled IgG1 as defined in Seq ID No:205.

In other embodiments, the antibody or fragment is any of the isotypes or constant regions as defined hereinabove. In one embodiment, the constant region is wild-type human IgG1 (Seq ID No:340). For example, the constant region is an effector-enabled IgG1 constant region, optionally having ADCC and/or CDC activity. In one embodiment, the constant region is engineered for enhanced ADCC and/or CDC and/or ADCP.

The IgG4 constant region may be any of the IgG4 constant region amino acid sequences, or encoded by any of the nucleic acid sequences of Seq ID Nos:192 to 203.

The antibody-dependent cell phagocytosis (ADCP) mechanism is discussed in Gül et al., “Antibody-Dependent Phagocytosis of Tumor Cells by Macrophages: A Potent Effector Mechanism of Monoclonal Antibody Therapy of Cancer”, Cancer Res., 75(23), Dec. 1, 2015.

The potency of Fc-mediated effects may be enhanced by engineering the Fc domain by various established techniques. Such methods increase the affinity for certain Fc-receptors, thus creating potential diverse profiles of activation enhancement. This can achieved by modification of one or several amino acid residues (e.g. as described in Lazar et al., 2006, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., March 14; 103(11):4005-10) or by altering the natural glycosylation profile of the Fc domain by, for example, generating under fucosylated or de-fucosylated variants (as described in Natsume et al., 2009, Drug Des. Devel. Ther., 3:7-16 or by Zhou Q., Biotechnol. Bioeng., 2008, Feb. 15, 99(3):652-65)). For example, to increase ADCC, residues in the hinge region can be altered to increase binding to Fc-gamma RIII (see, for example, Shields et al., 2001, J. Biol. Chem., March 2; 276(9):6591-604).

Equally, the enhancement of CDC may be achieved by amino acid changes that increase affinity for C1q, the first component of the classic complement activation cascade (see Idusogie et al., J. Immunol., 2001, 166:2571-2575). Another approach is to create a chimeric Fc domain created from human IgG1 and human IgG3 segments that exploit the higher affinity if IgG3 for C1q (Natsume et al., 2008, Cancer Res., 68: 3863-3872).

Concept 31. The antibody or fragment according to concept 30, wherein the constant region is a murine constant region.

In other embodiments, the constant region may be of any non-human mammalian origin, e.g. rat, mouse, hamster, guinea pig, dog, cat, horse, chicken, llama, dromedary, etc. In one embodiment, the constant region is a rat constant region. In another embodiment, the constant region is a llama constant region.

Concept 32. The antibody or fragment according to concept 30 or concept 31, wherein the constant region has CDC and/or ADCC activity.

Concept 33. The antibody according to any preceding concept wherein the:

    • a) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:33 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:43;
    • b) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:33, and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:43;
    • c) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VH domain of SEQ ID No:47 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:43;
    • d) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VH domain of SEQ ID No:48 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:43;
    • e) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VH domain of SEQ ID No:49 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:43;
    • f) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VH domain of SEQ ID No:342 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:43;
    • g) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:33 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VL domain of SEQ ID No:50;
    • h) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VH domain of SEQ ID No:47 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VL domain of SEQ ID No:50;
    • i) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VH domain of SEQ ID No:48 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VL domain of SEQ ID No:50;
    • j) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VH domain of SEQ ID No:49 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VL domain of SEQ ID No:50;
    • k) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VH domain of SEQ ID No:342 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VL domain of SEQ ID No:50;
    • l) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:33 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VL domain of SEQ ID No:51;
    • m) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VH domain of SEQ ID No:47 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VL domain of SEQ ID No:51;
    • n) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VH domain of SEQ ID No:48 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VL domain of SEQ ID No:51;
    • o) VH domain comprise an amino acid sequence of the VH domain of SEQ ID No:49 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VL domain of SEQ ID No:51;
    • p) VH domain comprise an amino acid sequence of the VH domain of SEQ ID No:342 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VL domain of SEQ ID No:51;
    • q) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:33 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VL domain of SEQ ID No:298;
    • r) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VH domain of SEQ ID No:47 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VL domain of SEQ ID No:298;
    • s) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VH domain of SEQ ID No:48 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VL domain of SEQ ID No:298;
    • t) VH domain comprise an amino acid sequence of the VH domain of SEQ ID No:49 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VL domain of SEQ ID No:298;
    • u) VH domain comprise an amino acid sequence of the VH domain of SEQ ID No:342 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VL domain of SEQ ID No:298;
    • v) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:58 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:68;
    • w) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:58, and the VL domain comprise an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:68;
    • x) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:78 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:88;
    • y) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:78, and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:88;
    • z) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:98 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:108;
    • aa) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:98, and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:108;
    • bb) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:118 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:128;
    • cc) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:118, and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:128;
    • dd) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:158 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:168;
    • ee) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:158, and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:168;
    • ff) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:178 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:188;
    • gg) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:178, and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:188;
    • hh) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:138 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:148;
    • ii) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:138 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:148;
    • jj) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:244 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:254;
    • kk) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:244, and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:254;
    • ll) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:264 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:274;
    • mm) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:264, and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:274;
    • nn) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:284 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:294; and
    • oo) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:284, and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:294.

In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 70% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 75% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 95% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 96% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 97% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 98% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 99% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 99.5% identical to the specified Seq ID No

Concept 34. The antibody according to any preceding concept wherein the antibody comprises a heavy chain and a light chain, and

    • a) the heavy chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:35 and the light chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:45;
    • b) the heavy chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:35 and the light chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:45;
    • c) the heavy chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:47 and the light chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:45;
    • d) the heavy chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:48 and the light chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:45;
    • e) the heavy chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:49 and the light chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:45;
    • f) the heavy chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:342 and the light chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:45;
    • g) the heavy chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:35 and the light chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:50;
    • h) the heavy chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:47 and the light chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:50;
    • i) the heavy chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:48 and the light chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:50;
    • j) the heavy chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:49 and the light chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:50;
    • k) the heavy chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:342 and the light chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:50;
    • l) the heavy chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:35 and the light chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:51;
    • m) the heavy chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:47 and the light chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:51;
    • n) the heavy chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:48 and the light chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:51;
    • o) the heavy chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:49 and the light chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:51;
    • p) the heavy chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:342 and the light chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:51;
    • q) the heavy chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:35 and the light chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:298;
    • r) the heavy chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:47 and the light chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:298;
    • s) the heavy chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:48 and the light chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:298;
    • t) the heavy chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:49 and the light chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:298;
    • u) the heavy chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:342 and the light chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:298;
    • v) the heavy chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:60 and the light chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:70;
    • w) the heavy chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:60, and the light chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:70;
    • x) the heavy chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:80 and the light chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:90;
    • y) the heavy chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:80, and the light chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:90;
    • z) the heavy chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:100 and the light chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:110;
    • aa) the heavy chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:100, and the light chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:110;
    • bb) the heavy chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:120 and the light chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:130;
    • cc) the heavy chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:120, and the light chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:130;
    • dd) the heavy chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:160 and the light chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:170;
    • ee) the heavy chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:160, and the light chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:170;
    • ff) the heavy chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:180 and the light chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:190;
    • gg) the heavy chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:180, and the light chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:190
    • hh) the heavy chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:140 and the light chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:150;
    • ii) the heavy chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:140, and the light chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:150;
    • jj) the heavy chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:246 and the light chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:256;
    • kk) the heavy chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:246, and the light chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:256;
    • ll) the heavy chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:266 and the light chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:276;
    • mm) the heavy chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:266, and the light chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:276;
    • nn) the heavy chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:286 and the light chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:296; and
    • oo) the heavy chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:286, and the light chain amino acid sequence comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:296.

In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 70% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 75% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 95% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 96% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 97% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 98% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 99% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 99.5% identical to the specified Seq ID No.

Concept 35. The antibody or fragment according to any preceding concept which competes for binding to hPD-L1 with the antibody 1D05, optionally wherein the competition for binding to hPDL-1 is conducted using SPR.

SPR may be carried out as described hereinabove, or as described in concept 16.

Concept 36. The antibody or fragment according to any preceding concept wherein the antibody or fragment is capable of inhibiting PD-L1-mediated suppression of T-cells, optionally wherein the suppression of T-cells is measured by an increase in one or more of IFNγ, IL-2, CD25 or proliferation of T-cells in an assay that provides co-stimulation by either direct CD3/CD28 stimulation, superantigen stimulation or provides co-stimulation by co-incubation with cells capable of inducing a T-cell response.

The measurements may be carried out with any suitable technique. For example, the measurements may be taken with ELISA, HTRF, BRDU incorporation (proliferation), electrochemiluminescence (ECL) or flow cytometry (e.g. FACS). These techniques are well-known to those skilled in the art and are described elsewhere herein. In one embodiment, the assay is flow cytometry. In one embodiment, the assay is ELISA. In one embodiment, the assay is HTRF.

In one embodiment, the suppression of T-cells is measured by an increase in IFNγ. In one embodiment, the suppression of T-cells is measured by an increase in IL-2. In one embodiment, the suppression of T-cells is measured by an increase in CD25. In one embodiment, the suppression of T-cells is measured by an increase in IFNγ and IL-2. In one embodiment, the suppression of T-cells is measured by an increase in IFNγ and CD25. In one embodiment, the suppression of T-cells is measured by an increase in CD25 and IL-2. In one embodiment, the suppression of T-cells is measured by an increase in IFNγ, IL-2 and CD25.

In one embodiment, the co-stimulation is provided by direct CD3/CD28 stimulation.

In one embodiment, the co-stimulation is provided by a superantigen, such as staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB).

In one embodiment, the assay provides co-stimulation by co-incubation with cells capable of inducing a T-cell response. Such cells may be antigen-presenting cells (APCs), for example monocytes, B-cells or dendritic cells. In one embodiment, the assay provides co-stimulation by co-incubation with APCs. In one embodiment, the assay provides co-stimulation by co-incubation with monocytes. In one embodiment, the assay provides co-stimulation by co-incubation with B-cells. In one embodiment, the assay provides co-stimulation by co-incubation with dendritic cells.

Concept 37. A bispecific antibody or fusion protein comprising an antibody or fragment thereof as defined in any preceding concept.

Concept 37a. A dual binding antibody or fusion protein comprising an antibody or fragment thereof as defined in any preceding concept.

A dual binding antibody has the meaning as set out above.

Concept 38. The bispecific antibody according to concept 37, wherein the bispecific format is selected from DVD-Ig, mAb2, FIT-Ig, mAb-dAb, dock and lock, SEEDbody, scDiabody-Fc, diabody-Fc, tandem scFv-Fc, Fab-scFv-Fc, Fab-scFv, intrabody, BiTE, diabody, DART, TandAb, scDiabody, scDiabody-CH3, Diabody-CH3, minibody, knobs-in-holes, knobs-in-holes with common light chain, knobs-in-holes with common light chain and charge pairs, charge pairs, charge pairs with common light chain, in particular mAb2, knob-in-holes, knob-in-holes with common light chain, knobs-in-holes with common light chain and charge pairs and FIT-Ig, e.g. mAb2 and FIT-Ig.

In one embodiment, the bispecific format is selected from DVD-Ig, mAb2, FIT-Ig, mAb-dAb, dock and lock, Fab-arm exchange, SEEDbody, Triomab, LUZ-Y, Fcab, κλ-body, orthogonal Fab, scDiabody-Fc, diabody-Fc, tandem scFv-Fc, Fab-scFv-Fc, Fab-scFv, intrabody, BiTE, diabody, DART, TandAb, scDiabody, scDiabody-CH3, Diabody-CH3, Triple body, Miniantibody, minibody, TriBi minibody, scFv-CH3 KIH, scFv-CH-CL-scFv, F(ab′)2-scFv, scFv-KIH, Fab-scFv-Fc, tetravalent HCab, ImmTAC, knobs-in-holes, knobs-in-holes with common light chain, knobs-in-holes with common light chain and charge pairs, charge pairs, charge pairs with common light chain, DT-IgG, DutaMab, IgG(H)-scFv, scFv-(H)IgG, IgG(L)-scFv, scFv-(L)IgG, IgG(L,H)-Fv, IgG(H)-V, V(H)—IgG, IgG(L)-V, V(L)-IgG, KIH IgG-scFab, 2scFv-IgG, IgG-2scFv, scFv4-Ig and zybody.

In one embodiment, the bispecific format is selected from DVD-Ig, FIT-Ig, mAb-dAb, dock and lock, Fab-arm exchange, SEEDbody, Triomab, LUZ-Y, Fcab, κλ-body, orthogonal Fab, scDiabody-Fc, diabody-Fc, tandem scFv-Fc, Fab-scFv-Fc, Fab-scFv, intrabody, BiTE, diabody, DART, TandAb, scDiabody, scDiabody-CH3, Diabody-CH3, Triple body, Miniantibody, minibody, TriBi minibody, scFv-CH3 KIH, scFv-CH-CL-scFv, F(ab′)2-scFv, scFv-KIH, Fab-scFv-Fc, tetravalent HCab, ImmTAC, knobs-in-holes, knobs-in-holes with common light chain, knobs-in-holes with common light chain and charge pairs, charge pairs, charge pairs with common light chain, DT-IgG, DutaMab, IgG(H)-scFv, scFv-(H)IgG, IgG(L)-scFv, scFv-(L)IgG, IgG(L,H)-Fv, IgG(H)-V, V(H)—IgG, IgG(L)-V, V(L)-IgG, KIH IgG-scFab, 2scFv-IgG, IgG-2scFv, scFv4-Ig and zybody, for example DVD-Ig, FIT-Ig, mAb-dAb, dock and lock, SEEDbody, scDiabody-Fc, diabody-Fc, tandem scFv-Fc, Fab-scFv-Fc, Fab-scFv, intrabody, BiTE, diabody, DART, TandAb, scDiabody, scDiabody-CH3, Diabody-CH3, minibody, knobs-in-holes, knobs-in-holes with common light chain, knobs-in-holes with common light chain and charge pairs, charge pairs, charge pairs with common light chain, in particular knob-in-holes, knob-in-holes with common light chain, knobs-in-holes with common light chain and charge pairs and FIT-Ig, e.g. FIT-Ig.

In one embodiment, the bispecific format is selected from DVD-Ig, mAb2, mAb-dAb, dock and lock, Fab-arm exchange, SEEDbody, Triomab, LUZ-Y, Fcab, κλ-body, orthogonal Fab, scDiabody-Fc, diabody-Fc, tandem scFv-Fc, Fab-scFv-Fc, Fab-scFv, intrabody, BiTE, diabody, DART, TandAb, scDiabody, scDiabody-CH3, Diabody-CH3, Triple body, Miniantibody, minibody, TriBi minibody, scFv-CH3 KIH, scFv-CH-CL-scFv, F(ab′)2-scFv, scFv-KIH, Fab-scFv-Fc, tetravalent HCab, ImmTAC, knobs-in-holes, knobs-in-holes with common light chain, knobs-in-holes with common light chain and charge pairs, charge pairs, charge pairs with common light chain, DT-IgG, DutaMab, IgG(H)-scFv, scFv-(H)IgG, IgG(L)-scFv, scFv-(L)IgG, IgG(L,H)-Fv, IgG(H)-V, V(H)—IgG, IgG(L)-V, V(L)-IgG, KIH IgG-scFab, 2scFv-IgG, IgG-2scFv, scFv4-Ig and zybody, for example DVD-Ig, mAb2, mAb-dAb, dock and lock, SEEDbody, scDiabody-Fc, diabody-Fc, tandem scFv-Fc, Fab-scFv-Fc, Fab-scFv, intrabody, BiTE, diabody, DART, TandAb, scDiabody, scDiabody-CH3, Diabody-CH3, minibody, knobs-in-holes, knobs-in-holes with common light chain, knobs-in-holes with common light chain and charge pairs, charge pairs, charge pairs with common light chain, in particular mAb2, knob-in-holes, knobs-in-holes with common light chain and charge pairs, and knob-in-holes with common light chain, e.g. mAb2.

In one embodiment, the bispecific format is selected from DVD-Ig, mAb-dAb, dock and lock, Fab-arm exchange, SEEDbody, Triomab, LUZ-Y, Fcab, κλ-body, orthogonal Fab, scDiabody-Fc, diabody-Fc, tandem scFv-Fc, Fab-scFv-Fc, Fab-scFv, intrabody, BiTE, diabody, DART, TandAb, scDiabody, scDiabody-CH3, Diabody-CH3, Triple body, Miniantibody, minibody, TriBi minibody, scFv-CH3 KIH, scFv-CH-CL-scFv, F(ab′)2-scFv, scFv-KIH, Fab-scFv-Fc, tetravalent HCab, ImmTAC, knobs-in-holes, knobs-in-holes with common light chain, knobs-in-holes with common light chain and charge pairs, charge pairs, charge pairs with common light chain, DT-IgG, DutaMab, IgG(H)-scFv, scFv-(H)IgG, IgG(L)-scFv, scFv-(L)IgG, IgG(L,H)-Fv, IgG(H)-V, V(H)—IgG, IgG(L)-V, V(L)-IgG, KIH IgG-scFab, 2scFv-IgG, IgG-2scFv, scFv4-Ig and zybody, for example DVD-Ig, mAb-dAb, dock and lock, SEEDbody, scDiabody-Fc, diabody-Fc, tandem scFv-Fc, Fab-scFv-Fc, Fab-scFv, intrabody, BiTE, diabody, DART, TandAb, scDiabody, scDiabody-CH3, Diabody-CH3, minibody, knobs-in-holes, knobs-in-holes with common light chain, knobs-in-holes with common light chain and charge pairs, charge pairs, charge pairs with common light chain, in particular knob-in-holes, knobs-in-holes with common light chain and charge pairs, and knob-in-holes with common light chain.

Concept 39. The bispecific antibody according to concept 37 or concept 38, wherein the bispecific antibody specifically binds to hPD-L1 and another target antigen selected from immune checkpoint inhibitors (such as PD-1, CTLA-4, TIGIT, TIM-3, LAG-3 and VISTA, e.g. TIGIT, TIM-3 and LAG-3), immune modulators (such as BTLA, hHVEM, CSF1R, CCR4, CD39, CD40, CD73, CD96, CXCR2, CXCR4, CD200, GARP, SIRPα, CXCL9, CXCL10 and CD155, e.g. GARP, SIRPα, CXCR4, BTLA, hVEM and CSF1R), immune activators (such as CD137, GITR, OX40, CD40, CXCR3 (e.g. agonistic anti-CXCR3 antibodies), CD3, ICOS (e.g. agonistic anti-ICOS antibodies), for example. ICOS, CD137, GITR and OX40).

In one embodiment, the another target antigen is an immune checkpoint inhibitor, such as PD-1, CTLA-4, TIGIT, TIM-3, LAG-3 and VISTA, e.g. TIGIT, CTLA-4, TIM-3 and LAG-3. In one embodiment, the another target antigen is an immune modulator, such as BTLA, hHVEM, CSF1R, CCR4, CD39, CD40, CD73, CD96, CXCR2, CXCR4, CD200, GARP, SIRPα, CXCL9, CXCL10 and CD155, e.g. GARP, SIRPα, CXCR4, BTLA, hVEM and CSF1R. In one embodiment, the another target antigen is an immune activator, such as CD137, GITR, OX40, CD40, CXCR3 (e.g. agonistic anti-CXCR3 antibodies), CD3 and ICOS (e.g. agonistic anti-ICOS antibodies), for example ICOS, CD137, GITR and OX40). In one embodiment, the another target antigen is CTLA-4. In one embodiment, the another target antigen is TIGIT. In one embodiment, the another target antigen is TIM-3. In one embodiment, the another target antigen is LAG-3. In one embodiment, the another target antigen is GITR. In one embodiment, the another target antigen is VISTA. In one embodiment, the another target antigen is CD137. In one embodiment, the another target antigen is SIRPα. In one embodiment, the another target antigen is CXCL10. In one embodiment, the another target antigen is CD155. In one embodiment, the another target antigen is CD40.

Concept 40. The bispecific antibody according to concept 39, wherein the another target antigen is TIGIT or LAG3.

In any of concepts 37 to 40, if the antibody or fragment thereof has the heavy and light variable region sequences of 84G09, then the bispecific antibody shall be interpreted as not including a mAb2 format wherein the Fcab has binding affinity to LAG3.

In one embodiment, the bispecific antibody has a FIT-Ig format which comprises a full antibody (e.g. an antibody comprising a light chain comprising a VL and CL and a heavy chain comprising VH, CH1, CH2 and CH3) which binds hPD-L1 (optionally wherein the antibody has a structure as defined in any one of concepts 1 to 40) and a Fab which binds TIGIT. In one embodiment, the bispecific antibody has a FIT-Ig format which comprises a full antibody (e.g. an antibody comprising a light chain comprising a VL and CL and a heavy chain comprising VH, CH1, CH2 and CH3) which binds TIGIT and a Fab which binds hPD-L1 (optionally wherein the antibody has a structure as defined in any one of concepts 1 to 40).

In one embodiment, the bispecific antibody has a FIT-Ig format which comprises a full antibody (e.g. an antibody comprising a light chain comprising a VL and CL and a heavy chain comprising VH, CH1, CH2 and CH3) which binds hPD-L1 (optionally wherein the antibody has a structure as defined in any one of concepts 1 to 40) and a Fab which binds GITR. In one embodiment, the bispecific antibody has a FIT-Ig format which comprises a full antibody (e.g. an antibody comprising a light chain comprising a VL and CL and a heavy chain comprising VH, CH1, CH2 and CH3) which binds GITR and a Fab which binds hPD-L1 (optionally wherein the antibody has a structure as defined in any one of concepts 1 to 40).

In one embodiment, the bispecific antibody has a FIT-Ig format which comprises a full antibody (e.g. an antibody comprising a light chain comprising a VL and CL and a heavy chain comprising VH, CH1, CH2 and CH3) which binds hPD-L1 (optionally wherein the antibody has a structure as defined in any one of concepts 1 to 40) and a Fab which binds ICOS (e.g. binds with agonistic activity). In one embodiment, the bispecific antibody has a FIT-Ig format which comprises a full antibody (e.g. an antibody comprising a light chain comprising a VL and CL and a heavy chain comprising VH, CH1, CH2 and CH3) which binds ICOS (e.g. binds with agonistic activity) and a Fab which binds hPD-L1 (optionally wherein the antibody has a structure as defined in any one of concepts 1 to 40).

In one embodiment, the bispecific antibody has a FIT-Ig format which comprises a full antibody (e.g. an antibody comprising a light chain comprising a VL and CL and a heavy chain comprising VH, CH1, CH2 and CH3) which binds hPD-L1 (optionally wherein the antibody has a structure as defined in any one of concepts 1 to 40) and a Fab which binds TIM-3. In one embodiment, the bispecific antibody has a FIT-Ig format which comprises a full antibody (e.g. an antibody comprising a light chain comprising a VL and CL and a heavy chain comprising VH, CH1, CH2 and CH3) which binds TIM-3 and a Fab which binds hPD-L1 (optionally wherein the antibody has a structure as defined in any one of concepts 1 to 40).

In one embodiment, the bispecific antibody has a FIT-Ig format which comprises a full antibody (e.g. an antibody comprising a light chain comprising a VL and CL and a heavy chain comprising VH, CH1, CH2 and CH3) which binds hPD-L1 (optionally wherein the antibody has a structure as defined in any one of concepts 1 to 40) and a Fab which binds CD137. In one embodiment, the bispecific antibody has a FIT-Ig format which comprises a full antibody (e.g. an antibody comprising a light chain comprising a VL and CL and a heavy chain comprising VH, CH1, CH2 and CH3) which binds CD137 and a Fab which binds hPD-L1 (optionally wherein the antibody has a structure as defined in any one of concepts 1 to 40).

In one embodiment, the bispecific antibody has a FIT-Ig format which comprises a full antibody (e.g. an antibody comprising a light chain comprising a VL and CL and a heavy chain comprising VH, CH1, CH2 and CH3) which binds hPD-L1 (optionally wherein the antibody has a structure as defined in any one of concepts 1 to 40) and a Fab which binds CD3. In one embodiment, the bispecific antibody has a FIT-Ig format which comprises a full antibody (e.g. an antibody comprising a light chain comprising a VL and CL and a heavy chain comprising VH, CH1, CH2 and CH3) which binds CD3 and a Fab which binds hPD-L1 (optionally wherein the antibody has a structure as defined in any one of concepts 1 to 40).

Any of the targets listed above may be applied to the FIT-Ig structure.

Concept 41. An antibody or fragment as defined in any preceding concept for use in treating or preventing a hPD-L1-mediated disease or condition, e.g. selected from neoplastic or non-neoplastic disease, chronic viral infections, and malignant tumours, such as melanoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer (squamous and non-squamous), renal cell cancer, bladder cancer, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, mesothelioma, virally induced cancers (such as cervical cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer), soft tissue sarcomas, haematological malignancies such as Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's disease and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (for example melanoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer (squamous and non-squamous), renal cell cancer, bladder cancer, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and mesothelioma or for example virally induced cancers (such as cervical cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer) and soft tissue sarcomas).

Concept 42. Use of an antibody or fragment as defined in any one of concepts 1 to 40 in the manufacture of a medicament for administration to a human for treating or preventing a hPD-L1 mediated disease or condition in the human, e.g. selected from neoplastic or non-neoplastic disease, chronic viral infections, and malignant tumours, such as melanoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer (squamous and non-squamous), renal cell cancer, bladder cancer, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, mesothelioma, virally induced cancers (such as cervical cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer), soft tissue sarcomas, haematological malignancies such as Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's disease and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (for example melanoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer (squamous and non-squamous), renal cell cancer, bladder cancer, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and mesothelioma or for example virally induced cancers (such as cervical cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer) and soft tissue sarcomas).

Concept 43. A method of treating or preventing a hPD-L1 mediated disease or condition, e.g. selected from neoplastic or non-neoplastic disease, chronic viral infections, and malignant tumours, such as melanoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer (squamous and non-squamous), renal cell cancer, bladder cancer, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, mesothelioma, virally induced cancers (such as cervical cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer), soft tissue sarcomas, haematological malignancies such as Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's disease and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (for example melanoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer (squamous and non-squamous), renal cell cancer, bladder cancer, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and mesothelioma or for example virally induced cancers (such as cervical cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer) and soft tissue sarcomas) in a human, comprising administering to said human a therapeutically effective amount of an antibody or fragment as defined in any one of concepts 1 to 40, wherein the hPD-L1 mediated disease or condition is thereby treated or prevented.

In any of concepts 41 to 43, the hPD-L1 mediated disease may be any of those as described herein. In one embodiment, in any of concepts 41 to 43, the hPD-L1 mediated disease is a virally induced cancer, such as cervical cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer, for example cervical cancers caused by HPV infection. In one embodiment, in any of concepts 41 to 43, the hPD-L1 mediated disease is a chronic viral infection. In one embodiment, in any of concepts 41 to 43, the hPD-L1 mediated disease is a neoplastic disease. In one embodiment, in any of concepts 41 to 43, the hPD-L1 mediated disease is a non-neoplastic disease. In one embodiment, in any of concepts 41 to 43, the hPD-L1 mediated disease is a malignant tumour. In one embodiment, in any of concepts 41 to 43, the hPD-L1 mediated disease is a cancer which is known to be responsive to PD-L1 therapy, such as melanoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer (squamous and non-squamous), renal cell cancer, bladder cancer, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, mesothelioma. In one embodiment, in any of concepts 41 to 43, the hPD-L1 mediated disease is a cancer which is a soft tissue sarcoma.

Concept 44. The antibody or fragment according to concept 41, the use according to concept 42 or the method according to concept 43, wherein the hPD-L1-mediated disease or condition is cancer.

Concept 45. The antibody or fragment, the use or the method according to concept 44, wherein the cancer is selected from melanoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer (squamous and non-squamous), renal cell cancer, bladder cancer, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and mesothelioma or is selected from virally induced cancers (such as cervical cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer) and soft tissue sarcomas.

Concept 46. The antibody or fragment, use or the method according to any one of concepts 41 to 45, further comprising administering to the human a further therapy, for example a further therapeutic agent, optionally wherein the further therapeutic agent is independently selected from the group consisting of:

    • a. other immune checkpoint inhibitors (such as anti-TIM-3 antibodies, anti-CTLA-4 antibodies, anti-TIGIT antibodies and anti-LAG-3 antibodies);
    • b. immune stimulators (such as anti-OX40 antibodies, anti-GITR antibodies, anti-CD137 antibodies, anti-ICOS antibodies and anti-CD40 antibodies);
    • c. chemokine receptor antagonists (such as CXCR4, CCR4 and CXCR2);
    • d. targeted kinase inhibitors (such as CSF-1R or VEGFR inhibitors);
    • e. angiogenesis inhibitors (such as anti-VEGF-A or Delta-like Ligand-4);
    • f. immune stimulating peptides or chemokines (such as CXCL9 or CXCL10);
    • g. cytokines (such as IL-15 and IL-21);
    • h. bispecific T-cell engagers (BiTEs) having at least one specificity against CD3 (e.g. CD3/CD19 BiTE);
    • i. other bi-specific molecules (for example IL-15-containing molecules targeted towards tumour associated antigens, for example Epidermal growth factor receptors such as EGFR, Her-2, New York Esophageal Cancer-1 (NY-ESO-1), GD2, EpCAM or Melanoma Associated Antigen-3 (MAGE-A3));
    • j. oncolytic viruses (such as HSV virus (optionally which secretes GMCSF), Newcastle disease virus and Vaccinia virus);
    • k. vaccination with tumour associated antigens (such as New York Esophageal Cancer-1 [NY-ESO-1], Melanoma Associated Antigen-3 [MAGE-3]);
    • l. cell-based therapies (such as chimeric Antigen Receptor-T cells (CAR-T) for example expressing anti-CD19, anti-EpCam or anti-mesothelin); and
    • m. adoptive transfer of tumour specific T-cells or LAK cells,
      or optionally wherein the further therapy is chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgical removal of tumours.

Chemotherapeutic agents may any as described hereinabove, in particular agents that induce immunogenic cell death, for example platinum therapies, such as oxaliplatin. In one embodiment, the chemotherapy is a standard of care cytotoxic chemotherapy for the cancer being treated.

In this aspect, the bispecific molecules include “bispecific antibodies” and antibody fusion proteins, including those formats and molecules described in concepts 37 to 40.

The further therapeutic agents of this concept may be delivered by any method, which methods are well-known to those skilled in the art. For example, the further therapeutic agents may be delivered orally, systemically or locally (to the tumour environment). In one embodiment, the further therapeutic agent is delivered orally. In one embodiment, the further therapeutic agent is delivered systemically (e.g. intravenously). In one embodiment, the further therapeutic agent is delivered locally to the tumour environment.

Compositions and routes of administration are described in more detail hereinbelow.

Concept 47. The antibody or fragment, use or the method according to concept 46, wherein the further therapeutic agent is administered sequentially or simultaneously with the anti-hPD-L1 antibody or fragment.

Concept 48. A pharmaceutical composition comprising an antibody of fragment as defined in any one of concepts 1 to 40 and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient, diluent or carrier and optionally further comprising a further therapeutic agent independently selected from the group consisting of:

    • a) other immune checkpoint inhibitors (such as anti-TIM-3 antibodies, anti-CTLA-4 antibodies, anti-TIGIT antibodies and anti-LAG-3 antibodies);
    • b) immune stimulators (such as anti-OX40 antibodies, anti-GITR antibodies, anti-CD137 antibodies, anti-ICOS antibodies and anti-CD40 antibodies);
    • c) chemokine receptor antagonists (such as CXCR4, CCR4 and CXCR2);
    • d) targeted kinase inhibitors (such as CSF-1R or VEGFR inhibitors);
    • e) angiogenesis inhibitors (such as anti-VEGF-A or Delta-like Ligand-4);
    • f) immune stimulating peptides or chemokines (such as CXCL9 or CXCL10);
    • g) cytokines (such as IL-15 and IL-21);
    • h) bispecific T-cell engagers (BiTEs) having at least one specificity against CD3 (e.g. CD3/CD19 BiTE);
    • i) other bi-specific molecules (for example IL-15-containing molecules targeted towards tumour associated antigens, for example Epidermal growth factor receptors such as EGFR, Her-2, New York Esophageal Cancer-1 (NY-ESO-1), GD2, EpCAM or Melanoma Associated Antigen-3 (MAGE-A3));
    • j) oncolytic viruses (such as HSV virus (optionally which secretes GMCSF), Newcastle disease virus and Vaccinia virus);
    • k) vaccination with tumour associated antigens (such as New York Esophageal Cancer-1 [NY-ESO-1], Melanoma Associated Antigen-3 [MAGE-3]);
    • l) cell-based therapies (such as chimeric Antigen Receptor-T cells (CAR-T) for example expressing anti-CD19, anti-EpCam or anti-mesothelin); and
    • m) adoptive transfer of tumour specific T-cells or LAK cells.

Pharmaceutical formulations are well-known to those skilled in the art. In one embodiment, the antibody or fragment is administered intravenously. In one embodiment, the antibody or fragment is administered subcutaneously.

In an example, an antibody or fragment as disclosed herein is contained in a medical container, e.g., a vial, syringe, IV container or an injection device (such as an intraocular or intravitreal injection device). In an example, the antibody or fragment is in vitro, for example, in a sterile container.

In one embodiment, the composition is formulated in accordance with routine procedures as a pharmaceutical composition adapted for intravenous administration to human beings. Typically, compositions for intravenous administration are solutions in sterile isotonic aqueous buffer. Where necessary, the composition may also include a solubilizing agent and a local anesthetic such as lignocamne to ease pain at the site of the injection. Such compositions, however, may be administered by a route other than intravenous.

Generally, the ingredients of compositions are supplied either separately or mixed together in unit dosage form, for example, as a dry lyophilized powder or water free concentrate in a hermetically sealed container such as an ampoule or sachette indicating the quantity of active agent. Where the composition is to be administered by infusion, it can be dispensed with an infusion bottle containing sterile pharmaceutical grade water or saline. Where the composition is administered by injection, an ampoule of sterile water for injection or saline can be provided so that the ingredients may be mixed prior to administration.

In this aspect, the bispecific molecules include “bispecific antibodies” and antibody fusion proteins, including those formats and molecules described in concepts 37 to 40.

The further therapeutic agents of this concept may be delivered by any method, which methods are well-known to those skilled in the art. For example, the further therapeutic agents may be delivered orally, systemically or locally (to the tumour environment). In one embodiment, the further therapeutic agent is delivered orally. In one embodiment, the further therapeutic agent is delivered systemically (e.g. intravenously). In one embodiment, the further therapeutic agent is delivered locally to the tumour environment.

Concept 49. A pharmaceutical composition according to concept 48, or a kit comprising a pharmaceutical composition as defined in concept 48, wherein the composition is for treating and/or preventing a hPD-L1-mediated condition or disease, e.g. selected from neoplastic or non-neoplastic disease, chronic viral infections, and malignant tumours, such as melanoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer (squamous and non-squamous), renal cell cancer, bladder cancer, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, mesothelioma, virally induced cancers (such as cervical cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer), soft tissue sarcomas, haematological malignancies such as Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's disease, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

Concept 50. A pharmaceutical composition according to concept 48 or concept 49 in combination with, or kit according to concept 49 comprising, a label or instructions for use to treat and/or prevent said disease or condition in a human; optionally wherein the label or instructions comprise a marketing authorisation number (e.g., an FDA or EMA authorisation number); optionally wherein the kit comprises an IV or injection device that comprises the antibody or fragment.

Concept 51. A method of modulating PD-1/PD-L1 interaction in a patient, comprising administering an effective amount of an antibody or fragment as defined in any one of concepts 1 to 40 to said patient.

In another embodiment, there is provided a method of modulating CD80/PD-L1 interaction in a patient, comprising administering an effective amount of an antibody or fragment as defined in any one of concepts 1 to 40 to said patient. In another embodiment, the antibody or fragment modulates CD80/PD-L1 interaction, but does not modulate PD-1/PD-L1 interaction. In another embodiment, the antibody or fragment blocks CD80/PD-L1 interaction, but does not block PD-1/PD-L1 interaction. In another embodiment, the antibody or fragment inhibits CD80/PD-L1 interaction, but does not inhibit PD-1/PD-L1 interaction.

Concept 52. A method of inhibiting PD-L1 activity in a patient, comprising administering an effective amount of an antibody or fragment as defined in any one of concepts 1 to 40 to said patient.

In one embodiment, the antibody or fragment blocks or inhibits PD-1 binding to PD-L1. In one embodiment, the antibody or fragment blocks or inhibits CD80 binding to PD-L1.

Concept 53. A method of treating a proliferative disease in an animal (e.g. a human), comprising administering an effective amount of an antibody or fragment as defined in any one of concepts 1 to 40 to said patient.

Proliferative diseases may be any as described elsewhere herein.

Concept 54. A method of detecting PD-L1 expression in a sample, comprising contacting the sample with an antibody or fragment as defined in any one of concepts 1 to 40.

Concept 55. A method comprising contacting a biological sample with an antibody or fragment as defined in any one of concepts 1 to 40 to form a complex with PD-L1 present in the sample and measuring the presence, absence or level of the complex in the biological sample.

Concept 56. The method according to concept 55, wherein the presence, absence and/or level of PD-L1 expression is detected prior to treatment and a high level of surface expressed PD-L1 is indicative of successful treatment.

Concept 57. The method according to concept 55, wherein the presence, absence and/or level of PD-L1 expression is detected during treatment as an early response biomarker.

Concept 58. The method according to concept 55 or concept 57, wherein the presence, absence and/or level of PD-L1 expression is detected during or after treatment to help determine one or more of: whether treatment has been successful, whether treatment should continue, and/or whether treatment should be modified.

Concept 59. The method according to any one of concepts 55 to 58, wherein therapy comprises treatment with an anti-PD-L1 antibody, optionally as defined in any one of concepts 1 to 40.

Concept 60. A method for monitoring therapy efficacy, the method comprising detecting expression of surface expressed PD-L1 in a patient prior to therapy, and during or after therapy, wherein an antibody or fragment as defined in any one of concepts 1 to 40 is used to detect expression of surface expressed PD-L1.

Concept 61. The method according to concept 60, wherein surface expressed PD-L1 expression is detected in vivo.

Concept 62. The method according to concept 60, wherein surface expressed PD-L1 expression is detected in a tissue sample in vitro.

Concept 63. A method for identifying binding partners for PD-L1, the method comprising immunoprecipitating an intact protein complex comprising PD-L1 using an antibody or fragment as defined in any one of concepts 1 to 40.

Concept 64. A method of diagnosing a disease in a human subject associated with altered PD-L1 expression comprising the steps of contacting a biological sample from the human subject with an antibody as defined in concepts 1 to 40 to form a complex between the antibody and PD-L1 present in the sample; and detecting the amount of the complex.

Concept 65. A nucleic acid that encodes the CDRH3 of an antibody or fragment as defined in any one of concepts 1 to 40.

Concept 65a. There is also provided a nucleic acid that encodes the CDRH2 of an antibody or fragment as defined in any one of concepts 1 to 40.

Concept 65b. There is also provided a nucleic acid that encodes the CDRH1 of an antibody or fragment as defined in any one of concepts 1 to 40.

Concept 65c. There is also provided a nucleic acid that encodes the CDRL1 of an antibody or fragment as defined in any one of concepts 1 to 40.

Concept 65d. There is also provided a nucleic acid that encodes the CDRL2 of an antibody or fragment as defined in any one of concepts 1 to 40.

Concept 65e. There is also provided a nucleic acid that encodes the CDRL3 of an antibody or fragment as defined in any one of concepts 1 to 40.

In one embodiment, the nucleic acid is an isolated and purified nucleic acid.

Concept 66. A nucleic acid that encodes a VH domain and/or a VL domain of an antibody or fragment as defined in any one of concepts 1 to 40.

The VH and VL domain nucleic acid sequences of the invention are provided in the sequence listing. In one embodiment, the nucleic acid sequence is at least 70% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the nucleic acid sequence is at least 75% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the nucleic acid sequence is at least 95% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the nucleic acid sequence is at least 96% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the nucleic acid sequence is at least 97% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the nucleic acid sequence is at least 98% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the nucleic acid sequence is at least 99% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the nucleic acid sequence is at least 99.5% identical to the specified Seq ID No.

Concept 67. The nucleic acid according to concept 66 comprising a nucleotide sequence that is at least 80% identical to the sequence of SEQ ID NO:36 and/or SEQ ID NO:46.

Concept 67a. A nucleic acid according to concept 66 comprising a nucleotide sequence that is at least 80% identical to the sequence of SEQ ID NO:16 and/or SEQ ID NO:26.

Concept 67b. A nucleic acid according to concept 66 comprising a nucleotide sequence that is at least 80% identical to the sequence of SEQ ID NO:61 and/or SEQ ID NO:71.

Concept 67c. A nucleic acid according to concept 66 comprising a nucleotide sequence that is at least 80% identical to the sequence of SEQ ID NO:81 and/or SEQ ID NO:91.

Concept 67d. A nucleic acid according to concept 66 comprising a nucleotide sequence that is at least 80% identical to the sequence of SEQ ID NO:101 and/or SEQ ID NO: iii.

Concept 67e. A nucleic acid according to concept 66 comprising a nucleotide sequence that is at least 80% identical to the sequence of SEQ ID NO:121 and/or SEQ ID NO:131.

Concept 67f. A nucleic acid according to concept 66 comprising a nucleotide sequence that is at least 80% identical to the sequence of SEQ ID NO:161 and/or SEQ ID NO:171.

Concept 67g. A nucleic acid according to concept 66 comprising a nucleotide sequence that is at least 80% identical to the sequence of SEQ ID NO:181 and/or SEQ ID NO:191.

Concept 67h. A nucleic acid according to concept 66 comprising a nucleotide sequence that is at least 80% identical to the sequence of SEQ ID NO:141 and/or SEQ ID NO:151.

Concept 67i. A nucleic acid according to concept 66 comprising a nucleotide sequence that is at least 80% identical to the sequence of SEQ ID NO:247 and/or SEQ ID NO:257.

Concept 67j. A nucleic acid according to concept 66 comprising a nucleotide sequence that is at least 80% identical to the sequence of SEQ ID NO:267 and/or SEQ ID NO:277.

Concept 67k. A nucleic acid according to concept 66 comprising a nucleotide sequence that is at least 80% identical to the sequence of SEQ ID NO:287 and/or SEQ ID NO:297.

In one embodiment, the nucleic acid sequence is at least 70% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the nucleic acid sequence is at least 75% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the nucleic acid sequence is at least 95% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the nucleic acid sequence is at least 96% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the nucleic acid sequence is at least 97% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the nucleic acid sequence is at least 98% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the nucleic acid sequence is at least 99% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the nucleic acid sequence is at least 99.5% identical to the specified Seq ID No.

Concept 68. A nucleic acid that encodes a heavy chain or a light chain of an antibody as defined in any one of concepts 1 to 40.

Concept 69. A vector comprising the nucleic acid of any one of concepts 65 to 68; optionally wherein the vector is a CHO or HEK293 vector.

Concept 70. A host comprising the nucleic acid of any one of concepts 65 to 68 or the vector of concept 69.

The inventors have described immunocytokines which comprise an antibody which binds to an immune checkpoint inhibitor, such as PD-L1 fused to either the N-terminus or C-terminus of the heavy chain or the light chain (for example, the C-terminus of the heavy or light chain, and in particular the light chain). The immunocytokines comprise a cytokine molecule, which may be IL-2 or a variant thereof (including variant having a 1 to 10 amino acid deletion at the N-terminus). The antibodies as described hereinabove may be used in any immunocytokine described herein.

Without being bound by theory, immunocytokines of the invention may provide one or more of the following advantageous properties:

    • synergistic activity (by virtue of therapeutic activity of antibody Fab portion in combination with the cytokine)
    • improved tumour targeting
    • ability to retain effector functions such as CDC, ADCC and/or ADCP
    • reduced off-target effects
    • reduced toxicity (e.g. compared to free cytokine or cytokine when fused to the heavy chain of an immunocytokine)
    • reduced immunogenicity
    • lower dose/frequency of dosing
    • Specificity for blocking only one of the ligands of PD-L1 (e.g. blocks CD80/PD-L1 interaction, but not PD-1/PD-L1 interaction)
    • Solubility
    • Stability
    • Ease of formulation
    • Frequency of dosing and/or route of administration
    • Manufacturability (e.g. expression, ease of purification, isoforms)

1D05 ICK comprises a heavy chain amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:299, and a light chain amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:300. The light chain comprises a VL domain comprising the CDRs and VL sequence of antibody 1D05 described hereinabove, fused at the heavy chain to full length, wild-type, human IL-2 cytokine. It does not contain a linker peptide. The heavy chain comprises a VH domain comprising the CDRs and VH sequence of antibody 1D05 described hereinabove, fused to a disabled IgG constant region (Seq ID No:205).

1D05 D5-9 ICK comprises a heavy chain comprising a VH region amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:33 (comprising the CDRs of 1D05 as described hereinabove) fused to a disabled IgG1 constant region with an amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:205. The light chain comprises a VL amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:43 (comprising the CDRs of 1D05 as described hereinabove) directly fused at the C-terminus to IL-2 D5-9 (Seq ID No:303), which is directly fused to amino acids 21 to 133 of hIL-2 (Seq ID No:324).

1D05 D1-9 ICK comprises a heavy chain comprising a VH region amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:33 (comprising the CDRs of 1D05 as described hereinabove) fused to a disabled IgG1 constant region with an amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:205. The light chain comprises a VL amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:43 (comprising the CDRs of 1D05 as described hereinabove) directly fused at the C-terminus to IL-2 D1-9 (Seq ID No:304), which is directly fused to amino acids 21 to 133 of hIL-2 (Seq ID No:324).

1D05 D5-7 ICK comprises a heavy chain comprising a VH region amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:33 (comprising the CDRs of 1D05 as described hereinabove) fused to a disabled IgG1 constant region with an amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:205. The light chain comprises a VL amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:43 (comprising the CDRs of 1D05 as described hereinabove) directly fused at the C-terminus to IL-2 D5-7 (Seq ID No:305), which is directly fused to amino acids 21 to 133 of hIL-2 (Seq ID No:324).

1D05 D1 ICK comprises a heavy chain comprising a VH region amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:33 (comprising the CDRs of 1D05 as described hereinabove) fused to a disabled IgG1 constant region with an amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:205. The light chain comprises a VL amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:43 (comprising the CDRs of 1D05 as described hereinabove) directly fused at the C-terminus to IL-2 D1 (Seq ID No:306), which is directly fused to amino acids 21 to 133 of hIL-2 (Seq ID No:324).

1D05 D1-2 ICK comprises a heavy chain comprising a VH region amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:33 (comprising the CDRs of 1D05 as described hereinabove) fused to a disabled IgG1 constant region with an amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:205. The light chain comprises a VL amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:43 (comprising the CDRs of 1D05 as described hereinabove) directly fused at the C-terminus to IL-2 D1-2 (Seq ID No:307), which is directly fused to amino acids 21 to 133 of hIL-2 (Seq ID No:324).

1D05 D1-3 ICK comprises a heavy chain comprising a VH region amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:33 (comprising the CDRs of 1D05 as described hereinabove) fused to a disabled IgG1 constant region with an amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:205. The light chain comprises a VL amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:43 (comprising the CDRs of 1D05 as described hereinabove) directly fused at the C-terminus to IL-2 D1-3 (Seq ID No:308), which is directly fused to amino acids 21 to 133 of hIL-2 (Seq ID No:324).

1D05 D1-4 ICK comprises a heavy chain comprising a VH region amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:33 (comprising the CDRs of 1D05 as described hereinabove) fused to a disabled IgG1 constant region with an amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:205. The light chain comprises a VL amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:43 (comprising the CDRs of 1D05 as described hereinabove) directly fused at the C-terminus to IL-2 D1-4 (Seq ID No:309), which is directly fused to amino acids 21 to 133 of hIL-2 (Seq ID No:324).

1D05 D1-5 ICK comprises a heavy chain comprising a VH region amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:33 (comprising the CDRs of 1D05 as described hereinabove) fused to a disabled IgG1 constant region with an amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:205. The light chain comprises a VL amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:43 (comprising the CDRs of 1D05 as described hereinabove) directly fused at the C-terminus to IL-2 D1-5 (Seq ID No:310), which is directly fused to amino acids 21 to 133 of hIL-2 (Seq ID No:324).

1D05 D1-6 ICK comprises a heavy chain comprising a VH region amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:33 (comprising the CDRs of 1D05 as described hereinabove) fused to a disabled IgG1 constant region with an amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:205. The light chain comprises a VL amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:43 (comprising the CDRs of 1D05 as described hereinabove) directly fused at the C-terminus to IL-2 D1-6 (Seq ID No:311), which is directly fused to amino acids 21 to 133 of hIL-2 (Seq ID No:324).

1D05 D1-7 ICK comprises a heavy chain comprising a VH region amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:33 (comprising the CDRs of 1D05 as described hereinabove) fused to a disabled IgG1 constant region with an amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:205. The light chain comprises a VL amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:43 (comprising the CDRs of 1D05 as described hereinabove) directly fused at the C-terminus to IL-2 D1-7 (Seq ID No:312), which is directly fused to amino acids 21 to 133 of hIL-2 (Seq ID No:324).

1D05 D1-8 ICK comprises a heavy chain comprising a VH region amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:33 (comprising the CDRs of 1D05 as described hereinabove) fused to a disabled IgG1 constant region with an amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:205. The light chain comprises a VL amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:43 (comprising the CDRs of 1D05 as described hereinabove) directly fused at the C-terminus to IL-2 D1-8 (Seq ID No:313), which is directly fused to amino acids 21 to 133 of hIL-2 (Seq ID No:324).

1D05 D9 ICK comprises a heavy chain comprising a VH region amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:33 (comprising the CDRs of 1D05 as described hereinabove) fused to a disabled IgG1 constant region with an amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:205. The light chain comprises a VL amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:43 (comprising the CDRs of 1D05 as described hereinabove) directly fused at the C-terminus to IL-2 D9 (Seq ID No:314), which is directly fused to amino acids 21 to 133 of hIL-2 (Seq ID No:324).

1D05 D9-8 ICK comprises a heavy chain comprising a VH region amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:33 (comprising the CDRs of 1D05 as described hereinabove) fused to a disabled IgG1 constant region with an amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:205. The light chain comprises a VL amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:43 (comprising the CDRs of 1D05 as described hereinabove) directly fused at the C-terminus to IL-2 D9-8 (Seq ID No:315), which is directly fused to amino acids 21 to 133 of hIL-2 (Seq ID No:324).

1D05 D9-7 ICK comprises a heavy chain comprising a VH region amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:33 (comprising the CDRs of 1D05 as described hereinabove) fused to a disabled IgG1 constant region with an amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:205. The light chain comprises a VL amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:43 (comprising the CDRs of 1D05 as described hereinabove) directly fused at the C-terminus to IL-2 D9-7 (Seq ID No:316), which is directly fused to amino acids 21 to 133 of hIL-2 (Seq ID No:324).

1D05 D9-6 ICK comprises a heavy chain comprising a VH region amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:33 (comprising the CDRs of 1D05 as described hereinabove) fused to a disabled IgG1 constant region with an amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:205. The light chain comprises a VL amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:43 (comprising the CDRs of 1D05 as described hereinabove) directly fused at the C-terminus to IL-2 D9-6 (Seq ID No:317), which is directly fused to amino acids 21 to 133 of hIL-2 (Seq ID No:324).

1D05 D9-4 ICK comprises a heavy chain comprising a VH region amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:33 (comprising the CDRs of 1D05 as described hereinabove) fused to a disabled IgG1 constant region with an amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:205. The light chain comprises a VL amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:43 (comprising the CDRs of 1D05 as described hereinabove) directly fused at the C-terminus to IL-2 D9-4 (Seq ID No:318), which is directly fused to amino acids 21 to 133 of hIL-2 (Seq ID No:324).

1D05 D9-3 ICK comprises a heavy chain comprising a VH region amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:33 (comprising the CDRs of 1D05 as described hereinabove) fused to a disabled IgG1 constant region with an amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:205. The light chain comprises a VL amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:43 (comprising the CDRs of 1D05 as described hereinabove) directly fused at the C-terminus to IL-2 D9-3 (Seq ID No:319), which is directly fused to amino acids 21 to 133 of hIL-2 (Seq ID No:324).

1D05 D9-2 ICK comprises a heavy chain comprising a VH region amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:33 (comprising the CDRs of 1D05 as described hereinabove) fused to a disabled IgG1 constant region with an amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:205. The light chain comprises a VL amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:43 (comprising the CDRs of 1D05 as described hereinabove) directly fused at the C-terminus to IL-2 D9-2 (Seq ID No:320), which is directly fused to amino acids 21 to 133 of hIL-2 (Seq ID No:324).

1D05 D2-6 ICK comprises a heavy chain comprising a VH region amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:33 (comprising the CDRs of 1D05 as described hereinabove) fused to a disabled IgG1 constant region with an amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:205. The light chain comprises a VL amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:43 (comprising the CDRs of 1D05 as described hereinabove) directly fused at the C-terminus to IL-2 D2-6 (Seq ID No:321), which is directly fused to amino acids 21 to 133 of hIL-2 (Seq ID No:324).

1D05 D3-7 ICK comprises a heavy chain comprising a VH region amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:33 (comprising the CDRs of 1D05 as described hereinabove) fused to a disabled IgG1 constant region with an amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:205. The light chain comprises a VL amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:43 (comprising the CDRs of 1D05 as described hereinabove) directly fused at the C-terminus to IL-2 D3-7 (Seq ID No:322), which is directly fused to amino acids 21 to 133 of hIL-2 (Seq ID No:324).

IL-2 D4-8 ICK comprises a heavy chain comprising a VH region amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:33 (comprising the CDRs of 1D05 as described hereinabove) fused to a disabled IgG1 constant region with an amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:205. The light chain comprises a VL amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:43 (comprising the CDRs of 1D05 as described hereinabove) directly fused at the C-terminus to IL-2 D4-8 (Seq ID No:323), which is directly fused to amino acids 21 to 133 of hIL-2 (Seq ID No:324).

In any of the ICK constructs above, the VH region of the 1D05 antibody may be exchanged for the VH region of mutated 1D05—Heavy Chain mutant 1 (Seq ID No:47), mutated 1D05—Heavy Chain mutant 2 (Seq ID No:48), mutated 1D05—Heavy Chain mutant 3 (Seq ID No:49) or mutated 1D05—Heavy Chain mutant 4 (Seq ID No:342).

In any of the ICK constructs above, the VL region of the 1D05 antibody may be exchanged for the VL region of mutated 1D05—Light Chain mutant 1 (Seq ID No:50), mutated 1D05—Light Chain mutant 2 (Seq ID No:51) or mutated 1D05—Light Chain mutant 3 (Seq ID No:298).

In any of the ICK constructs above, both the VH and VL region of the 1D05 antibody may be exchanged for both the VH and VL regions of any of the other antibodies described herein, i.e. 84G09, 411B08, 411C04, 411D07, 385F01, 413D08, 386H03, 389A03, 413G05, 413F09 and 414B06.

Immunocytokines may be described in the following sentences or aspects. Unless otherwise apparent, the features of any of the concepts described hereinabove apply mutatis mutandis to any of the aspects hereinbelow.

Aspect 1. An immunocytokine comprising an immunoglobulin heavy chain and an immunoglobulin light chain, wherein the heavy chain comprises in N- to C-terminal direction:

    • a) A VH domain comprising CDRH1, CDRH2 and CDRH3; and
    • b) A heavy chain constant region;
    • and wherein the light chain comprises in N- to C-terminal direction:
    • c) A VL domain comprising CDRL1, CDRL2 and CDRL3;
    • d) A light chain constant region, (CL);
    • e) Optionally, a linker, (L); and
    • f) An IL-2 cytokine;
    • wherein the VH domain and VL domain are comprised by an antigen-binding site that specifically binds to hPD-L1 as defined by Seq ID No:1, and competes for binding to said hPD-L1 with the antibody 1D05; and
    • wherein the immunocytokine comprises a VH domain which comprises a CDRH3 comprising the motif X1GSGX2YGX3X4FD, wherein X1, X2 and X3 are independently any amino acid, and X4 is either present or absent, and if present, may be any amino acid.

In the aspects described herein, CDR sequences may be determined according to any method known to those skilled in the art, such as using the Kabat method, the IMGT method or the Chothia method, each of which are described in more detail herein. In one embodiment, the CDR regions are human CDR regions.

In addition to the CDR regions, the VH and/or VL domains may further comprise framework regions, such as FW1, FW2 and FW3. The VH and/or VL domains may be of any origin described herein, and may be for example, fully human, humanised, murine or camelid. In one embodiment, the VH and/or VL domains are human VH and/or VL domains. CDRs may be of a non-human origin (e.g. mouse origin) and be grafted onto human framework regions. In another embodiment, the CDRs are synthetic.

In another embodiment, VH regions may be selected from the group consisting of an antibody variable domain (e.g., a VL or a VH, an antibody single variable domain (domain antibody or dAb), a camelid VHH antibody single variable domain, a shark immunoglobulin single variable domain (NARV), a Nanobody™ or a camelised VH single variable domain); a T-cell receptor binding domain; an immunoglobulin superfamily domain; an agnathan variable lymphocyte receptor; a fibronectin domain (e.g., an Adnectin™); an antibody constant domain (e.g., a CH3 domain, e.g., a CH2 and/or CH3 of an Fcab™) wherein the constant domain is not a functional CH1 domain; an scFv; an (scFv)2; an sc-diabody; an scFab; a centyrin and an epitope binding domain derived from a scaffold selected from CTLA-4 (Evibody™); a lipocalin domain; Protein A such as Z-domain of Protein A (e.g., an Affibody™ or SpA); an A-domain (e.g., an Avimer™ or Maxibody™); a heat shock protein (such as and epitope binding domain derived from GroEI and GroES); a transferrin domain (e.g., a trans-body); ankyrin repeat protein (e.g., a DARPin™); peptide aptamer; C-type lectin domain (e.g., Tetranectin™); human γ-crystallin or human ubiquitin (an affilin); a PDZ domain; scorpion toxin; and a kunitz type domain of a human protease inhibitor.

The constant region comprises at least two heavy chain constant region domains selected from CH1, CH2, CH3 and CH4. In one embodiment, the constant region comprises (or consists of) a CH1 domain and a CH2 domain. In one embodiment, the constant region comprises (or consists of) a CH1 domain, a hinge region and a CH2 domain. In one embodiment, the constant region comprises (or consists of) a CH1 domain and a CH3 domain, and optionally a hinge region. In one embodiment, the constant region comprises (or consists of) a CH1 domain and a CH4 domain, and optionally a hinge region. In one embodiment, the constant region comprises (or consists of) a CH1 domain, a CH2 domain and a CH3 domain, and optionally a hinge region. In one embodiment, the constant region comprises (or consists of) a CH1 domain, a CH2 domain and a CH4 domain, and optionally a hinge region. In one embodiment, the constant region comprises (or consists of) a CH1 domain, a CH3 domain and a CH4 domain, and optionally a hinge region. In one embodiment, the constant region comprises (or consists of) a full constant region.

The constant region may be of any isotype described herein, e.g. IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. In one embodiment, the constant region is of any origin described herein, and may be for example, human, murine or camelid. In one embodiment, the constant region is a (full) human constant region. In one embodiment, the constant region is a human IgG constant region. In one embodiment, the constant region is a (full) human IgG1 constant region. In one embodiment, the constant region is an effector null (full) human IgG1 constant region. In one embodiment, the constant region has CDC and/or ADCC and/or ADCP activity. In one embodiment, the constant region is engineered to enhance the CDC and/or ADCC and/or ADCP activity. The constant region may be any of the constant regions described in concepts 30 to 32 hereinabove.

The light chain constant region may be a kappa or lambda light chain constant region. The light chain constant region may be as described in concept 28 hereinabove.

An IL-2 cytokine is a cytokine molecule which confers IL-2 activity on one or both of the intermediate affinity IL-2 Receptor (αβ) and the high affinity IL-2 receptor (αβγ). An IL-2 cytokine includes variant IL-2 cytokines. An IL-2 cytokine may be of human origin or of non-human origin, for example of a non-human mammal, including, but not limit to, primates (e.g. monkeys such a rhesus macaque or cynomolgus), rodents (such as mice, rats and guinea pigs) farm animals, (such as cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, horses, chickens, turkeys, ducks and geese), and domestic mammals (such as dogs and cats). In one embodiment, an IL-2 cytokine is a human IL-2 cytokine.

As used herein, a “variant IL-2 cytokine” is a cytokine having up to 10 amino acids deleted from the N terminal sequence, in combination with up to 5 amino acid substitutions, deletions or additions elsewhere in the IL-2 cytokine. In one embodiment, the variant IL-2 cytokine comprises (or consists of) up to 10 (e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 or 10) amino acid deletions from the N-terminal sequence (e.g. within the first 20, or first 15, or first 10 amino acids of the wild-type IL-2 sequence in question), in combination with up to 5 (e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5) amino acid substitutions elsewhere in the IL-2 cytokine. In one embodiment, the variant IL-2 cytokine comprises (or consists of) up to 10 (e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 or 10) amino acid deletions from the N-terminal sequence (e.g. within the first 15 amino acids of the wild-type IL-2 sequence in question), in combination with up to 5 (e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5) amino acid substitutions elsewhere in the IL-2 cytokine. In one embodiment, the variant IL-2 cytokine comprises (or consists of) up to 10 (e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 or 10) amino acid deletions from the N-terminal sequence (e.g. within the first 10 amino acids of the wild-type IL-2 sequence in question), in combination with up to 5 (e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5) amino acid substitutions elsewhere in the IL-2 cytokine. In one embodiment, the variant IL-2 cytokine comprises (or consists of) up to 10 (e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 or 10) amino acid deletions from the N-terminal sequence (e.g. within the first 10 amino acids of the wild-type IL-2 sequence in question), in combination with up to 4 (e.g. 1, 2, 3 or 4) amino acid substitutions elsewhere in the IL-2 cytokine. In one embodiment, the variant IL-2 cytokine comprises (or consists of) up to 10 (e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 or 10) amino acid deletions from the N-terminal sequence (e.g. within the first 10 amino acids of the wild-type IL-2 sequence in question), in combination with up to 3 (e.g. 1, 2 or 3) amino acid substitutions elsewhere in the IL-2 cytokine. In one embodiment, the variant IL-2 cytokine comprises (or consists of) up to 10 (e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 or 10) amino acid deletions from the N-terminal sequence (e.g. within the first 10 amino acids of the wild-type IL-2 sequence in question), in combination with up to 2 (e.g. 1 or 2) amino acid substitutions elsewhere in the IL-2 cytokine. In one embodiment, the variant IL-2 cytokine comprises (or consists of) up to 10 (e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 or 10) amino acid deletions from the N-terminal sequence (e.g. within the first 10 amino acids of the wild-type IL-2 sequence in question), in combination with 1 amino acid substitution elsewhere in the IL-2 cytokine.

In one embodiment, the variant IL-2 cytokine comprises (or consists of) up to 9 (e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 or 9) amino acid deletions from the N-terminal sequence (e.g. within the first 20, or first 15, or first 10 amino acids of the wild-type IL-2 sequence in question), in combination with up to 4 (e.g. 1, 2, 3 or 4) amino acid substitutions elsewhere in the IL-2 cytokine. In one embodiment, the variant IL-2 cytokine comprises (or consists of) up to 9 (e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 or 9) amino acid deletions from the N-terminal sequence (e.g. within the first 20, or first 15, or first 10 amino acids of the wild-type IL-2 sequence in question), in combination with up to 4 (e.g. 1, 2, 3 or 4) amino acid substitutions elsewhere in the IL-2 cytokine. In one embodiment, the variant IL-2 cytokine comprises (or consists of) up to 9 (e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 or 9) amino acid deletions from the N-terminal sequence (e.g. within the first 20, or first 15, or first 10 amino acids of the wild-type IL-2 sequence in question), in combination with up to 4 (e.g. 1, 2, 3 or 4) amino acid substitutions elsewhere in the IL-2 cytokine.

In one embodiment, the variant IL-2 cytokine comprises (or consists of) up to 8 (e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8) amino acid deletions from the N-terminal sequence (e.g. within the first 20, or first 15, or first 10 amino acids of the wild-type IL-2 sequence in question), in combination with up to 4 (e.g. 1, 2, 3 or 4) amino acid substitutions elsewhere in the IL-2 cytokine. In one embodiment, the variant IL-2 cytokine comprises (or consists of) up to 8 (e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8) amino acid deletions from the N-terminal sequence (e.g. within the first 20, or first 15, or first 10 amino acids of the wild-type IL-2 sequence in question), in combination with up to 4 (e.g. 1, 2, 3 or 4) amino acid substitutions elsewhere in the IL-2 cytokine. In one embodiment, the variant IL-2 cytokine comprises (or consists of) up to 8 (e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8) amino acid deletions from the N-terminal sequence (e.g. within the first 20, or first 15, or first 10 amino acids of the wild-type IL-2 sequence in question), in combination with up to 4 (e.g. 1, 2, 3 or 4) amino acid substitutions elsewhere in the IL-2 cytokine.

In one embodiment, the variant IL-2 cytokine comprises (or consists of) up to 7 (e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7) amino acid deletions from the N-terminal sequence (e.g. within the first 20, or first 15, or first 10 amino acids of the wild-type IL-2 sequence in question), in combination with up to 4 (e.g. 1, 2, 3 or 4) amino acid substitutions elsewhere in the IL-2 cytokine. In one embodiment, the variant IL-2 cytokine comprises (or consists of) up to 7 (e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7) amino acid deletions from the N-terminal sequence (e.g. within the first 20, or first 15, or first 10 amino acids of the wild-type IL-2 sequence in question), in combination with up to 4 (e.g. 1, 2, 3 or 4) amino acid substitutions elsewhere in the IL-2 cytokine. In one embodiment, the variant IL-2 cytokine comprises (or consists of) up to 7 (e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7) amino acid deletions from the N-terminal sequence (e.g. within the first 20, or first 15, or first 10 amino acids of the wild-type IL-2 sequence in question), in combination with up to 4 (e.g. 1, 2, 3 or 4) amino acid substitutions elsewhere in the IL-2 cytokine.

In one embodiment, the variant IL-2 cytokine comprises (or consists of) up to 6 (e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6) amino acid deletions from the N-terminal sequence (e.g. within the first 20, or first 15, or first 10 amino acids of the wild-type IL-2 sequence in question), in combination with up to 4 (e.g. 1, 2, 3 or 4) amino acid substitutions elsewhere in the IL-2 cytokine. In one embodiment, the variant IL-2 cytokine comprises (or consists of) up to 6 (e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6) amino acid deletions from the N-terminal sequence (e.g. within the first 20, or first 15, or first 10 amino acids of the wild-type IL-2 sequence in question), in combination with up to 4 (e.g. 1, 2, 3 or 4) amino acid substitutions elsewhere in the IL-2 cytokine. In one embodiment, the variant IL-2 cytokine comprises (or consists of) up to 6 (e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6) amino acid deletions from the N-terminal sequence (e.g. within the first 20, or first 15, or first 10 amino acids of the wild-type IL-2 sequence in question), in combination with up to 4 (e.g. 1, 2, 3 or 4) amino acid substitutions elsewhere in the IL-2 cytokine.

In one embodiment, the variant IL-2 cytokine comprises (or consists of) up to 5 (e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5) amino acid deletions from the N-terminal sequence (e.g. within the first 20, or first 15, or first 10 amino acids of the wild-type IL-2 sequence in question), in combination with up to 4 (e.g. 1, 2, 3 or 4) amino acid substitutions elsewhere in the IL-2 cytokine. In one embodiment, the variant IL-2 cytokine comprises (or consists of) up to 5 (e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5) amino acid deletions from the N-terminal sequence (e.g. within the first 20, or first 15, or first 10 amino acids of the wild-type IL-2 sequence in question), in combination with up to 4 (e.g. 1, 2, 3 or 4) amino acid substitutions elsewhere in the IL-2 cytokine. In one embodiment, the variant IL-2 cytokine comprises (or consists of) up to 5 (e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5) amino acid deletions from the N-terminal sequence (e.g. within the first 20, or first 15, or first 10 amino acids of the wild-type IL-2 sequence in question), in combination with up to 4 (e.g. 1, 2, 3 or 4) amino acid substitutions elsewhere in the IL-2 cytokine.

In one embodiment, the variant IL-2 cytokine comprises (or consists of) up to 4 (e.g. 1, 2, 3 or 4) amino acid deletions from the N-terminal sequence (e.g. within the first 20, or first 15, or first 10 amino acids of the wild-type IL-2 sequence in question), in combination with up to 4 (e.g. 1, 2, 3 or 4) amino acid substitutions elsewhere in the IL-2 cytokine. In one embodiment, the variant IL-2 cytokine comprises (or consists of) up to 4 (e.g. 1, 2, 3 or 4) amino acid deletions from the N-terminal sequence (e.g. within the first 20, or first 15, or first 10 amino acids of the wild-type IL-2 sequence in question), in combination with up to 4 (e.g. 1, 2, 3 or 4) amino acid substitutions elsewhere in the IL-2 cytokine. In one embodiment, the variant IL-2 cytokine comprises (or consists of) up to 4 (e.g. 1, 2, 3 or 4) amino acid deletions from the N-terminal sequence (e.g. within the first 20, or first 15, or first 10 amino acids of the wild-type IL-2 sequence in question), in combination with up to 4 (e.g. 1, 2, 3 or 4) amino acid substitutions elsewhere in the IL-2 cytokine.

In one embodiment, the variant IL-2 cytokine comprises (or consists of) up to 3 (e.g. 1, 2 or 3) amino acid deletions from the N-terminal sequence (e.g. within the first 20, or first 15, or first 10 amino acids of the wild-type IL-2 sequence in question), in combination with up to 4 (e.g. 1, 2, 3 or 4) amino acid substitutions elsewhere in the IL-2 cytokine. In one embodiment, the variant IL-2 cytokine comprises (or consists of) up to 3 (e.g. 1, 2 or 3) amino acid deletions from the N-terminal sequence (e.g. within the first 20, or first 15, or first 10 amino acids of the wild-type IL-2 sequence in question), in combination with up to 4 (e.g. 1, 2, 3 or 4) amino acid substitutions elsewhere in the IL-2 cytokine. In one embodiment, the variant IL-2 cytokine comprises (or consists of) up to 3 (e.g. 1, 2 or 3) amino acid deletions from the N-terminal sequence (e.g. within the first 20, or first 15, or first 10 amino acids of the wild-type IL-2 sequence in question), in combination with up to 4 (e.g. 1, 2, 3 or 4) amino acid substitutions elsewhere in the IL-2 cytokine.

In one embodiment, the variant IL-2 cytokine comprises (or consists of) 1 or 2 amino acid deletions from the N-terminal sequence (e.g. within the first 20, or first 15, or first 10 amino acids of the wild-type IL-2 sequence in question), in combination with up to 4 (e.g. 1, 2, 3 or 4) amino acid substitutions elsewhere in the IL-2 cytokine. In one embodiment, the variant IL-2 cytokine comprises (or consists of) 1 or 2 amino acid deletions from the N-terminal sequence (e.g. within the first 20, or first 15, or first 10 amino acids of the wild-type IL-2 sequence in question), in combination with up to 4 (e.g. 1, 2, 3 or 4) amino acid substitutions elsewhere in the IL-2 cytokine. In one embodiment, the variant IL-2 cytokine comprises (or consists of) 1 or 2 amino acid deletions from the N-terminal sequence (e.g. within the first 20, or first 15, or first 10 amino acids of the wild-type IL-2 sequence in question), in combination with up to 4 (e.g. 1, 2, 3 or 4) amino acid substitutions elsewhere in the IL-2 cytokine.

Substitutions elsewhere in the IL-2 cytokine are defined further in aspect 44 hereinbelow.

Particular IL-2 cytokines and variant IL-2 cytokines are further defined in aspects 40 to 45 hereinbelow.

The amino acid sequence of the α-chain of human IL-2 is provided in Seq ID No:327. The amino acid sequence of the β-chain of human IL-2 is provided in Seq ID No:328. The amino acid sequence of the γ-chain of human IL-2 is provided in Seq ID No:239.

Aspect 1a. An immunocytokine comprising an immunoglobulin heavy chain and an immunoglobulin light chain, wherein the heavy chain comprises in N- to C-terminal direction:

    • a) A VH domain comprising CDRH1, CDRH2 and CDRH3; and
    • b) A heavy chain constant region;
      and wherein the light chain comprises in N- to C-terminal direction:
    • c) A VL domain comprising CDRL1, CDRL2 and CDRL3;
    • d) A light chain constant region, (CL);
    • e) Optionally, a linker, (L); and
    • f) An IL-2 cytokine;
    • wherein the VH domain and VL domain are comprised by an antigen-binding site that specifically binds to an antigen selected from: an immune checkpoint inhibitor (such as PD-1, CTLA-4, TIGIT, TIM-3, LAG-3 and VISTA, e.g. TIGIT, TIM-3 and LAG-3), an immune modulator (such as BTLA, hHVEM, CSF1R, CCR4, CD39, CD40, CD73, CD96, CXCR2, CXCR4, CD200, GARP, SIRPα, CXCL9, CXCL10 and CD155, e.g. GARP, SIRPα, CXCR4, BTLA, hVEM and CSF1R), and an immune activator (such as CD137, GITR, OX40, CD40, CXCR3 (e.g. agonistic activity against CXCR3), CD3 and ICOS (e.g. agonistic activity against ICOS), for example, ICOS, CD137, GITR and OX40).

Any of the embodiments of aspect 1 apply mutatis mutandis to aspect 1a. Any of the features or embodiments of aspects 2 to 54 apply mutatis mutandis to aspect 1a. Any of the features of the antibodies or other embodiments or features of concepts 1 to 70 apply mutatis mutandis to aspect 1a.

In one embodiment, the antigen-binding site specifically binds PD-L1, e.g. hPD-L1. In one embodiment, the PD-L1 antigen-binding site comprises the CDRH1, CDRH2, CDR3, CDRL1, CDRL2 and CDRL3 from any one of the anti-PD-L1 antibodies selected from atezolizumab (Roche), avelumab (Merck), BMS-936559 (BMS), durvalumab (Medimmune) and any of the PD-L1 antibodies disclosed in WO2016/061142, WO2016/022630, WO2016/007235, WO2015/173267, WO2015/181342, WO2015/109124, WO2015/112805, WO2015/061668, WO2014/159562, WO2014/165082, WO2014/100079, WO2014/055897, WO2013/181634, WO2013/173223, WO2013/079174, WO2012/145493, WO2011/066389, WO2010/077634, WO2010/036959 or WO2007/005874.

In one embodiment, the antigen-binding site specifically binds ICOS, e.g. hICOS. In one embodiment, the antigen-binding site specifically binds ICOS, e.g. hICOS and is an agonist to ICOS, e.g. hICOS. In one embodiment, the antigen-binding site specifically binds ICOS, e.g. hICOS and is an antagonist to ICOS, e.g. hICOS.

In any of the following embodiments, a particular antigen-binding site specifically binds to a human target. In one embodiment, the antigen-binding site specifically binds an immune checkpoint inhibitor. In one embodiment, the antigen-binding site specifically binds an immune checkpoint inhibitor selected from PD-1, CTLA-4, TIGIT, TIM-3, LAG-3 and VISTA. In one embodiment, the antigen-binding site specifically binds an immune checkpoint inhibitor selected from TIGIT, CTLA-4, TIM-3 and LAG-3. In one embodiment, the antigen-binding site specifically binds TIGIT. In one embodiment, the antigen-binding site specifically binds TIM-3. In one embodiment, the antigen-binding site specifically binds LAG-3. In one embodiment, the antigen-binding site specifically binds CTLA-4.

In one embodiment, the antigen-binding site specifically binds an immune modulator. In one embodiment, the antigen-binding site specifically binds an immune modulator selected from BTLA, hHVEM, CSF1R, CCR4, CD39, CD40, CD73, CD96, CXCR2, CXCR4, CD200, GARP, SIRPα, CXCL9, CXCL10 and CD155. In one embodiment, the antigen-binding site specifically binds an immune modulator selected from GARP, SIRPα, CXCR4, BTLA, hVEM and CSF1R. In one embodiment, the antigen-binding site specifically binds GARP. In one embodiment, the antigen-binding site specifically binds SIRPα. In one embodiment, the antigen-binding site specifically binds CXCR4. In one embodiment, the antigen-binding site specifically binds BTLA. In one embodiment, the antigen-binding site specifically binds hVEM. In one embodiment, the antigen-binding site specifically binds CSF1R.

In one embodiment, the antigen-binding site specifically binds an immune activator. In one embodiment, the antigen-binding site specifically binds an immune activator selected from CD137, GITR, OX40, CD40, CXCR3 (e.g. agonistic activity against CXCR3), CD3 and ICOS (e.g. agonistic activity against ICOS). In one embodiment, the antigen-binding site specifically binds an immune activator selected from ICOS, CD137, GITR and OX40. In one embodiment, the antigen-binding site specifically binds CD137, e.g. hCD137. In one embodiment, the antigen-binding site specifically binds GITR, e.g. hGITR. In one embodiment, the antigen-binding site specifically binds OX40, e.g. hOX40.

Aspect 1b. An immunocytokine comprising an immunoglobulin heavy chain and an immunoglobulin light chain, wherein the heavy chain comprises in N- to C-terminal direction:

    • a) A VH domain comprising CDRH1, CDRH2 and CDRH3; and
    • b) A heavy chain constant region;
    • c) Optionally, a linker, (L); and
    • d) An IL-2 cytokine;
      and wherein the light chain comprises in N- to C-terminal direction:
    • e) A VL domain comprising CDRL1, CDRL2 and CDRL3; and
    • f) A light chain constant region, (CL);
    • wherein the VH domain and VL domain are comprised by an antigen-binding site that specifically binds to an antigen selected from: an immune checkpoint inhibitor (such as PD-1, CTLA-4, TIGIT, TIM-3, LAG-3 and VISTA, e.g. TIGIT, TIM-3 and LAG-3), an immune modulator (such as BTLA, hHVEM, CSF1R, CCR4, CD39, CD40, CD73, CD96, CXCR2, CXCR4, CD200, GARP, SIRPα, CXCL9, CXCL10 and CD155, e.g. GARP, SIRPα, CXCR4, BTLA, hVEM and CSF1R), and an immune activator (such as CD137, GITR, OX40, CD40, CXCR3 (e.g. agonistic anti-CXCR3 antibodies), CD3 and ICOS (e.g. agonistic anti-ICOS antibodies), for example ICOS, CD137, GITR and OX40).

Any of the embodiments of aspect 1 and/or aspect 1a apply mutatis mutandis to aspect 1b. Any of the features or embodiments of aspects 2 to 54 apply mutatis mutandis to aspect 1b. Any of the features of the antibodies or other embodiments or features of concepts 1 to 70 apply mutatis mutandis to aspect 1b.

In one embodiment, the antigen binding site specifically binds any of the antigens as set out in aspect 1a.

In one embodiment, the antigen-binding site specifically bind to hPD-L1 as defined by Seq ID No:1, and competes for binding to said hPD-L1 with the antibody 1D05; and wherein the immunocytokine comprises a VH domain which comprises a CDRH3 comprising the motif X1GSGX2YGX3X4FD, wherein X1, X2 and X3 are independently any amino acid, and X4 is either present or absent, and if present, may be any amino acid.

In either of aspect 1 or 1a, the wording of part f) may be substituted to read: “f) a cytokine, e.g. selected from IL-7, IL-15, IL-21, IL-12, GM-CSF, TNFα, TGFβ, CXCL9, CXCL10 and interferon-α”. In 1b, the wording of part d) may be substituted for “d) a cytokine, e.g. selected from IL-7, IL-15, IL-21, IL-12, GM-CSF, TNFα, TGFβ, CXCL9, CXCL10 and interferon-α”. Thus, the immunocytokines as disclosed herein may contain cytokines other than a cytokine having IL-2 cytokine activity. In one embodiment, the cytokine is IL-7 (Seq ID No:330). In one embodiment, the cytokine is IL-15 (Seq ID No:331). In one embodiment, the cytokine is IL-21 (Seq ID No:332). In one embodiment, the cytokine is IL-12, comprising the α-chain (Seq ID No:336) and the β-chain (Seq ID No:337). In one embodiment, the cytokine is GM-CSF (Seq ID No:333). In one embodiment, the cytokine is TNFα (Seq ID No:335). In one embodiment, the cytokine is TGFβ. In one embodiment, the cytokine is CXCL9 (Seq ID No:338). In one embodiment, the cytokine is CXCL10 (Seq ID No:339). In one embodiment, the cytokine is interferon-α (Seq ID No:334).

In another embodiment, the cytokine is an immune-stimulating cytokine. In another embodiment, the cytokine is a T-cell stimulating cytokine.

Aspect 2. An immunocytokine according to aspect 1, wherein X1 is a hydroxyl-containing amino acid, optionally T.

Aspect 3. An immunocytokine according to aspect 1 or aspect 2, wherein X2 is a basic amino acid, optionally K.

Aspect 4. An immunocytokine according to any one of aspects 1 to 3, wherein X2 is a hydroxyl-containing amino acid, optionally S or T.

Aspect 5. The immunocytokine according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein X3 is an aromatic amino acid, optionally W.

Aspect 6. An immunocytokine according to any one of aspects 1 to 5, wherein X4 is absent.

Aspect 7. An immunocytokine according to any one of aspects 1 to 5, wherein X4 is present.

Aspect 8. An immunocytokine according to aspect 7, wherein X4 is an aliphatic amino acid, optionally G.

The features of aspects 2 to 7 may be as defined in any of concepts 2 to 7 hereinabove

Aspect 9. An immunocytokine comprising an immunoglobulin heavy chain and an immunoglobulin light chain, wherein the heavy chain comprises in N- to C-terminal direction:

    • a) A VH domain comprising CDRH1, CDRH2 and CDRH3; and
    • b) A heavy chain constant region;
    • and wherein the light chain comprises in N- to C-terminal direction:
    • c) A VL domain comprising CDRL1, CDRL2 and CDRL3;
    • d) A light chain constant region, (CL);
    • e) Optionally, a linker, (L); and
    • f) An IL-2 cytokine;
    • wherein the VH domain and VL domain are comprised by an antigen-binding site that specifically binds to hPD-L1, and competes for binding to said hPD-L1 with the antibody 1D05, wherein the antibody or fragment comprises a VH domain which comprises the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:29 or 32, or the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:29 or 32 comprising 6 or fewer amino acid substitutions, optionally, wherein the immunocytokine is according to any one of aspects 2 to 8.

In this aspect, any of the features of CDRH3 described in concepts 9, and 9a to k, and any of the embodiments of concept 9 apply mutatis mutandis

Aspect 10. An immunocytokine comprising an immunoglobulin heavy chain and an immunoglobulin light chain, wherein the heavy chain comprises in N- to C-terminal direction:

    • a) A VH domain comprising CDRH1, CDRH2 and CDRH3; and
    • b) A heavy chain constant region;
    • and wherein the light chain comprises in N- to C-terminal direction:
    • c) A VL domain comprising CDRL1, CDRL2 and CDRL3;
    • d) A light chain constant region, (CL);
    • e) Optionally, a linker, (L); and
    • f) An IL-2 cytokine;
    • wherein the VH domain and VL domain are comprised by an antigen-binding site that specifically binds to hPD-L1; and
    • wherein the VH domain comprises a CDRH3 of from 12 to 20 amino acids and which is derived from the recombination of a human VH gene segment, a human D gene segment and a human JH gene segment, wherein the human JH gene segment is IGHJ5 (e.g. IGHJ5*02).

In this aspect, any of the features of CDRH3 described in concepts 10 and 10a apply mutatis mutandis

Aspect 11. An immunocytokine according to aspect 10, wherein the human VH gene segment is IGHV3 (e.g. IGHV3-9, such as IGHV3-9*01).

In this aspect, any of the features of the gene segments described in concept 11, 11a or 11b apply mutatis mutandis.

Aspect 12. An immunocytokine according to aspect 10 or aspect 11, wherein the antibody or fragment comprises a VL domain which is derived from the recombination of a human Vκ gene segment, and a human Jκ gene segment, wherein the human VL gene segment is IGκV1D (e.g. IGκV1D-39, such as IGκV1D-39*01).

In this aspect, any of the features of the gene segments described in concept 12, 12a or 12b apply mutatis mutandis.

Aspect 13. An immunocytokine comprising an immunoglobulin heavy chain and an immunoglobulin light chain, wherein the heavy chain comprises in N- to C-terminal direction:

    • a) A VH domain comprising CDRH1, CDRH2 and CDRH3; and
    • b) A heavy chain constant region;
    • and wherein the light chain comprises in N- to C-terminal direction:
    • c) A VL domain comprising CDRL1, CDRL2 and CDRL3;
    • d) A light chain constant region, (CL);
    • e) Optionally, a linker, (L); and
    • f) An IL-2 cytokine;
    • wherein the VH domain and VL domain are comprised by an antigen-binding site that specifically binds to an epitope that is identical to an epitope to which the antibody 1D05 specifically binds.

In this aspect, any of the features of the epitopes, assays and other embodiments described in any of concepts 13 and 13a to 13k apply mutatis mutandis

Aspect 14. An immunocytokine according to aspect 13, wherein the epitope is identified by an unrelated amino acid scan, or by X-ray crystallography.

Aspect 15. An immunocytokine according to aspect 14, wherein the contact residues of the epitope are defined by a reduction in affinity of at least 10-fold in an unrelated amino acid scan, e.g. an alanine scan as determined by SPR.

In this aspect, any of the features of concept 15 apply mutatis mutandis.

Aspect 16. An immunocytokine comprising an immunoglobulin heavy chain and an immunoglobulin light chain, wherein the heavy chain comprises in N- to C-terminal direction:

    • a) A VH domain comprising CDRH1, CDRH2 and CDRH3; and
    • b) A heavy chain constant region;
    • and wherein the light chain comprises in N- to C-terminal direction:
    • c) A VL domain comprising CDRL1, CDRL2 and CDRL3;
    • d) A light chain constant region, (CL);
    • e) Optionally, a linker, (L); and
    • f) An IL-2 cytokine;
    • wherein the VH domain and VL domain are comprised by an antigen-binding site which competes for binding to hPD-L1 with the antibody 1D05.

In this aspect, any of the features of the antibodies of concepts 16a to 16k or any of the competitive assays and other embodiments described in concept 16, or the features of concept 35 apply mutatis mutandis.

Aspect 17. An immunocytokine according to any one of aspects 10 to 16, wherein the VH domain comprises the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:29 or 32, or the CDRH3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:29 or 32 comprising 6 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

In this aspect, any of the features of the antibodies of concepts 17a to 17k apply mutatis mutandis.

Aspect 18. An immunocytokine according to any preceding aspect, wherein the VH domain comprises the CDRH1 sequence of SEQ ID NO:27 or 30 or the CDRH1 sequence of SEQ ID NO:27 or 30 comprising 3, 2 or 1 amino acid substitution(s).

In this aspect, any of the features of the antibodies of concepts 18a to 18k apply mutatis mutandis.

Aspect 19. An immunocytokine according to any preceding aspect, wherein the VH domain comprises the CDRH2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:28 or 31, or the CDRH2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:28 or 31 comprising 4 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

In this aspect, any of the features of the antibodies of concepts 19a to 19k apply mutatis mutandis.

Aspect 20. An immunocytokine according to any preceding aspect, wherein the VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:33, or a heavy chain variable domain amino acid sequence that is at least 80% (e.g. at least 85%, or at least 90%) identical to SEQ ID NO:33 (for example the VH domain sequence in any of the heavy chain sequences of Seq ID Nos:47 to 49).

In this aspect, any of the features of the antibodies of concepts 20a to 20k or any of the embodiments of concept 20 apply mutatis mutandis.

Aspect 21. An immunocytokine according to any preceding aspect comprising first and second copies of said heavy chain.

Aspect 22. An immunocytokine according to any preceding aspect, comprising a VL domain which comprises the CDRL1 sequence of SEQ ID NO:37 or 40, or the CRDL1 sequence of SEQ ID NO:37 or 40 comprising 3 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

In this aspect, any of the features of the antibodies of concepts 22a to 22k apply mutatis mutandis.

Aspect 23. An immunocytokine according to any preceding aspect, comprising a VL domain which comprises the CDRL2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:38 or 41, or the CRDL2 sequence of SEQ ID NO:38 or 41 comprising 2 or 1 amino acid substitution(s), for example a CDRL2 sequence of Seq ID No:50.

In this aspect, any of the features of the antibodies of concepts 23a to 23k apply mutatis mutandis.

Aspect 24. An immunocytokine according to any preceding aspect, comprising a VL domain which comprises the CDRL3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:39 or 42, or the CRDL3 sequence of SEQ ID NO:39 or 42 comprising 4 or fewer amino acid substitutions.

In this aspect, any of the features of the antibodies of concepts 24a to 24k apply mutatis mutandis.

Aspect 25. An immunocytokine according to any preceding aspect, comprising a VL domain which comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:43, or a light chain variable domain amino acid sequence that is at least 80% (e.g. at least 85%, or at least 90%) identical to SEQ ID NO:43 (for example the VL domain sequence in the light chain sequence of Seq ID No:50 or 51).

In this aspect, any of the features of the antibodies of concepts 25a to 25k or any of the embodiments of concept 25 apply mutatis mutandis.

Aspect 26. An immunocytokine according to any preceding aspect comprising first and second copies of said light chain.

Aspect 27. An immunocytokine according to any preceding aspect which specifically binds to cynomolgus PD-L1 as defined by Seq ID No:2.

In this aspect, any of embodiments of concept 27 apply mutatis mutandis.

Aspect 28. An immunocytokine according to any preceding aspect, wherein the antibody or fragment comprises a kappa light chain.

In this aspect, any of the embodiments of concept 28 apply mutatis mutandis.

Aspect 29. An immunocytokine according to any one of aspects 9 to 28, wherein the amino acid substitutions are conservative amino acid substitutions, optionally wherein the conservative substitutions are from one of six groups (each group containing amino acids that are conservative substitutions for one another) selected from:

    • 1) Alanine (A), Serine (S), Threonine (T);
    • 2) Aspartic acid (D), Glutamic acid (E);
    • 3) Asparagine (N), Glutamine (Q);
    • 4) Arginine (R), Lysine (K);
    • 5) Isoleucine (I), Leucine (L), Methionine (M), Valine (V); and
    • 6) Phenylalanine (F), Tyrosine (Y), Tryptophan (W).

In this aspect, any of the embodiments of concept 9 apply mutatis mutandis.

Aspect 30. An immunocytokine according to any preceding aspect, wherein the antibody or fragment comprises a constant region, e.g. an IgG1 constant region, optionally wherein the constant region is a disabled IgG1 as defined in Seq ID No:205.

In this aspect, any of the features or the embodiments of concept 30, 31 or 32 apply mutatis mutandis.

Aspect 31. An immunocytokine according to any preceding aspect wherein the:

    • A) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:33 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:43;
    • B) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:33, and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:43;
    • C) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VH domain of SEQ ID No:47 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:43;
    • D) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VH domain of SEQ ID No:48 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:43;
    • E) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VH domain of SEQ ID No:49 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:43;
    • F) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:33 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VL domain of SEQ ID No:50;
    • G) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VH domain of SEQ ID No:47 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VL domain of SEQ ID No:50;
    • H) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VH domain of SEQ ID No:48 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VL domain of SEQ ID No:50;
    • I) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VH domain of SEQ ID No:49 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VL domain of SEQ ID No:50;
    • J) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:33 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VL domain of SEQ ID No:51;
    • K) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VH domain of SEQ ID No:47 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VL domain of SEQ ID No:51;
    • L) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VH domain of SEQ ID No:48 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VL domain of SEQ ID No:51;
    • M) VH domain comprise an amino acid sequence of the VH domain of SEQ ID No:49 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VL domain of SEQ ID No:51;
    • N) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:33 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VL domain of SEQ ID No:298;
    • O) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VH domain of SEQ ID No:47 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VL domain of SEQ ID No:298;
    • P) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VH domain of SEQ ID No:48 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VL domain of SEQ ID No:298;
    • Q) VH domain comprise an amino acid sequence of the VH domain of SEQ ID No:49 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of the VL domain of SEQ ID No:298;
    • R) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:58 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:68;
    • S) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:58, and the VL domain comprise an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:68;
    • T) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:78 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:88;
    • U) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:78, and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:88;
    • V) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:98 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:108;
    • W) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:98, and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:108;
    • X) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:118 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:128;
    • Y) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:118, and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:128;
    • Z) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:158 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:168;
    • AA) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:158, and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:168;
    • BB) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:178 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:188;
    • CC) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:178, and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:188;
    • DD) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:138 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:148;
    • EE) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:13, and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:148;
    • FF) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:244 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:254;
    • GG) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:244, and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:254;
    • HH) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:264 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:274;
    • II) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:264, and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:274;
    • JJ) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:284 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:294;
    • KK) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:284, and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:294;
    • LL) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:13 and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:23; and
    • MM) VH domain comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:13, and the VL domain comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:23.

In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 70% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 75% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 95% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 96% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 97% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 98% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 99% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 99.5% identical to the specified Seq ID No

Aspect 32. An immunocytokine according to any preceding aspect wherein the:

    • A) VH and the constant region comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:299 and VL and CL comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:45;
    • B) VH and the constant region comprise an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:299, and the VL and CL comprise an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:45;
    • C) VH and the constant region comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:47 and VL and CL comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:45;
    • D) VH and the constant region comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:48 and VL and CL comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:45;
    • E) VH and the constant region comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:49 and VL and CL comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:45;
    • F) VH and the constant region comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:238 and VL and CL comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:50;
    • G) VH and the constant region comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:47 and VL and CL comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:50;
    • H) VH and the constant region comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:48 and VL and CL comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:50;
    • I) VH and the constant region comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:49 and VL and CL comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:50;
    • J) VH and the constant region comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:299 and VL and CL comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:51;
    • K) VH and the constant region comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:47 and VL and CL comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:51;
    • L) VH and the constant region comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:48 and VL and CL comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:51;
    • M) VH and the constant region comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:49 and VL and CL comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:51;
    • N) VH and the constant region comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:299 and VL and CL comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:298;
    • O) VH and the constant region comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:47 and VL and CL comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:298;
    • P) VH and the constant region comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:48 and VL and CL comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:298;
    • Q) VH and the constant region comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:49 and VL and CL comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:298;
    • R) VH and the constant region comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:60 and VL and CL comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:70;
    • S) VH and the constant region comprise an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:60, and the VL and CL comprise an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:70;
    • T) VH and the constant region comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:80 and VL and CL comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:90;
    • U) VH and the constant region comprise an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:80, and the VL and CL comprise an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:90;
    • V) VH and the constant region comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:100 and VL and CL comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:110;
    • W) VH and the constant region comprise an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:100, and the VL and CL comprise an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:110;
    • X) VH and the constant region comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:120 and VL and CL comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:130;
    • Y) VH and the constant region comprise an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:120, and the VL and CL comprise an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:130;
    • Z) VH and the constant region comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:160 and VL and CL comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:170;
    • AA) VH and the constant region comprise an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:160, and the VL and CL comprise an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:170;
    • BB) VH and the constant region comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:180 and VL and CL comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:190;
    • CC) VH and the constant region comprise an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:180, and the VL and CL comprise an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:190;
    • DD) VH and the constant region comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:140 and VL and CL comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:150;
    • EE) VH and the constant region comprise an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:140, and the VL and CL comprise an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:150;
    • FF) VH and the constant region comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:246 and VL and CL comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:256;
    • GG) VH and the constant region comprise an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:246, and the VL and CL comprise an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:256;
    • HH) VH and the constant region comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:266 and VL and CL comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:276;
    • II) VH and the constant region comprise an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:266, and the VL and CL comprise an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:276;
    • JJ) VH and the constant region comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:286 and VL and CL comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:296; and
    • KK) VH and the constant region comprise an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:286, and the VL and CL comprise an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:296;
    • LL) VH and the constant region comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:15 and VL and CL comprise an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No:25; and
    • MM) VH and the constant region comprise an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:15, and the VL and CL comprise an amino acid sequence that is at least 85% identical to SEQ ID No:25.

In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 70% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 75% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 95% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 96% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 97% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 98% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 99% identical to the specified Seq ID No. In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence is at least 99.5% identical to the specified Seq ID No.

Aspect 33. An immunocytokine according to any preceding aspect wherein the antigen-binding site specifically binds PD-L1, whilst the IL-2 cytokine binds the high affinity (αβγ) IL-2 receptor (IL-2R).

In one embodiment, the antigen binding site binds PD-L1 simultaneously to the IL-2 cytokine binding the αβγ IL-2R. In one embodiment, the antigen binding site binds PD-L1 sequentially to the IL-2 cytokine binding the αβγ IL-2R. In one embodiment, the IL-2 cytokine additionally binds the intermediate (βγ) IL-2R.

Aspect 34. An immunocytokine according to any preceding aspect wherein the immunocytokine is capable of inhibiting PD-L1-mediated suppression of T-cells.

In one embodiment, the immunocytokine inhibits PD-L1-mediated suppression of T-cells. In one embodiment, the immunocytokine inhibits PD-L1-mediated suppression of T-cells in an in vitro assay. In another embodiment, the antigen binding site has any of the features or embodiments of concept 51 or 52.

In another embodiment, the antigen binding site blocks or inhibits PD-1 binding to PD-L1. In one embodiment, the antigen binding site blocks or inhibits CD80 binding to PD-L1.

Aspect 35. An immunocytokine according to any preceding aspect wherein the immunocytokine is capable of increasing IL-2R-mediated T-cell activation.

In one embodiment, the immunocytokine increases IL-2R-mediated T-cell activation. In one embodiment, the immunocytokine increases IL-2R-mediated T-cell activation in an in vitro assay.

Aspect 36. An immunocytokine according to aspect 34 or aspect 35, wherein the suppression of T-cells or the increase in IL-2R-mediated T-cell activation is measured by an increase in one or more of IFNγ, IL-2, CD25 or proliferation of T-cells in an assay that provides co-stimulation by either direct CD3/CD28 stimulation, superantigen stimulation or provides co-stimulation by co-incubation with cells capable of inducing a T-cell response.

The measurements may be carried out with any suitable technique. For example, the measurements may be taken with ELISA, HTRF, BRDU incorporation (proliferation), electrochemiluminescence (ECL) or flow cytometry (e.g. FACS). These techniques are well-known to those skilled in the art and are described elsewhere herein. In one embodiment, the assay is flow cytometry. In one embodiment, the assay is ELISA. In one embodiment, the assay is HTRF.

In this aspect, when aspect 36 is dependent on aspect 34, any of the features or embodiments of concept 36 apply mutatis mutandis.

When Aspect 36 is dependent on Aspect 35, in one embodiment, the increase in IL-2R-mediated T-cell activation is measured by an increase in one or both of IFNγ and CD25.

When Aspect 36 is dependent on Aspect 35, in one embodiment, the co-stimulation is provided by direct CD3/CD28 stimulation.

When Aspect 36 is dependent on Aspect 35, in one embodiment, the co-stimulation is provided by a superantigen, such as staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB).

When Aspect 36 is dependent on Aspect 35, in one embodiment, the assay provides co-stimulation by co-incubation with cells capable of inducing a T-cell response. Such cells may be antigen-presenting cells (APCs), for example monocytes, B-cells or dendritic cells. In one embodiment, the assay provides co-stimulation by co-incubation with APCs. In one embodiment, the assay provides co-stimulation by co-incubation with monocytes. In one embodiment, the assay provides co-stimulation by co-incubation with B-cells. In one embodiment, the assay provides co-stimulation by co-incubation with dendritic cells.

Aspect 37. An immunocytokine according to any preceding aspect which does not comprise a linker (L), or an immunocytokine according to any preceding claim wherein the CL of d) is directly fused to the cytokine off).

In one embodiment, the CL of the light chain or the heavy chain is directly fused to the cytokine.

In one embodiment of aspect 1b, the CL of b) is directly fused to the cytokine of d).

Aspect 38. An immunocytokine according to any one of aspects 1 to 37, wherein the linker is a peptide linker of 1 to 20 amino acids in length.

In one embodiment, the linker is peptide linker of 1 to 15 amino acids in length. In one embodiment, the linker is peptide linker of 1 to 10 amino acids in length. In one embodiment, the linker is peptide linker of 1 to 5 amino acids in length.

In one embodiment, the linker may be a chemical linker. In the case of recombinant fusion proteins, the linkers are encoded by nucleic acid sequences located in frame, in between the coding regions for the different immunocytokine portions. In the case of synthetic proteins, the linker peptides are introduced during synthesis.

Linkers are well-known to those skilled in the art. For example, see described in Denardo et al., 1998, Clin. Cancer Res., 4(10):2483-90; Peterson et al., 1999, Bioconjug. Chem. 10(4):553-7; and Zimmerman et al., 1999, Nucl. Med. Biol., 26(8):943-50.

Aspect 39. An immunocytokine according to aspect 38, wherein the linker peptide is selected from poly-G or (G4S)X, wherein X is 1, 2, 3 or 4.

In other embodiments, the linker may be selected from STG, GSTG, RS, TVAAPS, GGGGS, GSTVAAPS, TVAAPSGS or GSTVAAPSGS. In another embodiment, the linker is Gln-Arg-Val-Asp (derived from N-terminus of canine kappa constant region). In another embodiment, the linker is GGNGT or YGNGT.

Aspect 40. An immunocytokine according to any preceding aspect wherein the IL-2 cytokine is human IL-2 (hIL-2) or a variant thereof.

IL-2 variants are as described in aspect 1.

There is also provided a variant cytokine, which may be any of the non-IL-2 cytokines described herein (including the non-IL-2 cytokines described in aspect 1, e.g. selected from IL-7, IL-15, IL-21, IL-12, GM-CSF, TNFα, CXCL9, CXCL10 and interferon-α). The definition of a variant IL-2 cytokine applies mutatis mutandis to the other cytokines (including immune stimulating cytokines and T-cell stimulating cytokines) described herein.

Aspect 41. An immunocytokine according to aspect 40, wherein the hIL-2 comprises or consists of the amino acid sequence of Seq ID No:301.

Aspect 42. An immunocytokine according to aspect 40, wherein the hIL-2 comprises a variant of IL-2 which comprises a modification at the N-terminus, optionally a deletion of from 1 to 10 amino acids.

As used in this aspect, a modification at the N-terminus of any of the cytokines described herein (including the non-IL-2 cytokines described in aspect 1, e.g. selected from IL-7, IL-15, IL-21, IL-12, GM-CSF, TNFα, CXCL9, CXCL10 and interferon-α) refers to one or more (such as 1 to 10, e.g. 1 to 5) amino acid substitutions, deletions or additions.

In one embodiment, the modification is one or more (such as 1 to 10, e.g. 1 to 5) amino acid substitutions at the N-terminus of the cytokine. Substitutions may be conservative substitutions, for example, as defined in concept 9, concept 29 or aspect 29. In one embodiment, the modification is a deletion. In another embodiment, the modification is an N-terminal deletion, for example, any of the deletions described in concept 9. In one embodiment, the modification (such as a deletion of 1 to 10 amino acids) is within the final 50 amino acids of the N-terminus of the cytokine, e.g. the IL-2 cytokine. In one embodiment, the modification (such as a deletion of 1 to 10 amino acids) within the final 30 amino acids of the N-terminus of the cytokine, e.g. the IL-2 cytokine. In one embodiment, the modification (such as a deletion of 1 to 10 amino acids) within the final 25 amino acids of the N-terminus of the cytokine, e.g. the IL-2 cytokine. In one embodiment, the modification (such as a deletion of 1 to 10 amino acids) within the final 20 amino acids of the N-terminus of the cytokine, e.g. the IL-2 cytokine. In one embodiment, the modification (such as a deletion of 1 to 10 amino acids) within the final 15 amino acids of the N-terminus of the cytokine, e.g. the IL-2 cytokine. In one embodiment, the modification (such as a deletion of 1 to 10 amino acids) within the final 10 amino acids of the N-terminus of the cytokine, e.g. the IL-2 cytokine.

In one embodiment, the modification is a deletion of 1 to 9 amino acids from within the final 10 amino acids of the N-terminus of the cytokine, such as a deletion of the final 1 to 9 amino acids of the N-terminus of the cytokine. In one embodiment, the modification is a deletion of 1 to 8 amino acids from within the final 10 amino acids of the N-terminus of the cytokine, such as a deletion of the final 1 to 8 amino acids of the N-terminus of the cytokine. In one embodiment, the modification is a deletion of 1 to 7 amino acids from within the final 10 amino acids of the N-terminus of the cytokine, such as a deletion of the final 1 to 7 amino acids of the N-terminus of the cytokine. In one embodiment, the modification is a deletion of 1 to 6 amino acids from within the final 10 amino acids of the N-terminus of the cytokine, such as a deletion of the final 1 to 6 amino acids of the N-terminus of the cytokine. In one embodiment, the modification is a deletion of 1 to 5 amino acids from within the final 10 amino acids of the N-terminus of the cytokine, such as a deletion of the final 1 to 5 amino acids of the N-terminus of the cytokine. In one embodiment, the modification is a deletion of 1 to 4 amino acids from within the final 10 amino acids of the N-terminus of the cytokine, such as a deletion of the final 1 to 4 amino acids of the N-terminus of the cytokine. In one embodiment, the modification is a deletion of 1 to 3 amino acids from within the final 10 amino acids of the N-terminus of the cytokine, such as a deletion of the final 1 to 3 amino acids of the N-terminus of the cytokine. In one embodiment, the modification is a deletion of 1 or 2 amino acids from within the final 10 amino acids of the N-terminus of the cytokine, such as a deletion of the final 1 or 2 amino acids of the N-terminus of the cytokine. In one embodiment, the modification is a deletion of 1 amino acid from within the final 10 amino acids of the N-terminus of the cytokine, such as a deletion of the final amino acid of the N-terminus of the cytokine. In a particular embodiment, the cytokine is an IL-2 cytokine, such as a human IL-2 cytokine.

In one embodiment, the deletion is of the 9th amino acid from the N-terminus of the cytokine, e.g. the IL-2 cytokine, for example the human IL-2 cytokine. In one embodiment, the deletion is of the 8th and 9th amino acid from the N-terminus of the cytokine, e.g. the IL-2 cytokine, for example the human IL-2 cytokine. In one embodiment, the deletion is of the 7th, 8th and 9th amino acid from the N-terminus of the cytokine, e.g. the IL-2 cytokine, for example the human IL-2 cytokine. In one embodiment, the deletion is of the 6th to 9th amino acid from the N-terminus of the cytokine, e.g. the IL-2 cytokine, for example the human IL-2 cytokine. In one embodiment, the deletion is of the 4th to 9th amino acid from the N-terminus of the cytokine, e.g. the IL-2 cytokine, for example the human IL-2 cytokine. In one embodiment, the deletion is of the 3rd to 9th amino acid from the N-terminus of the cytokine, e.g. the IL-2 cytokine, for example the human IL-2 cytokine. In one embodiment, the deletion is of the 2nd to 9th amino acid from the N-terminus of the cytokine, e.g. the IL-2 cytokine, for example the human IL-2 cytokine. In one embodiment, the deletion is of the 2nd to 6th amino acid from the N-terminus of the cytokine, e.g. the IL-2 cytokine, for example the human IL-2 cytokine. In one embodiment, the deletion is of the 3rd to 7th amino acid from the N-terminus of the cytokine, e.g. the IL-2 cytokine, for example the human IL-2 cytokine. In one embodiment, the deletion is of the 4th to 8th amino acid from the N-terminus of the cytokine, e.g. the IL-2 cytokine, for example the human IL-2 cytokine.

Aspect 42a. A variant hIL-2 comprising an N-terminal modification of any of the aspects or features of aspect 42. In one embodiment of aspect 42a, the variant hIL-2 is a purified variant hIL-2. In another embodiment of aspect 42a, the variant hIL-2 is an isolated and purified variant hIL-2.

Aspect 43. An immunocytokine according to aspect 40 or aspect 42, wherein the hIL-2 comprises a variant IL-2 comprising an N-terminal sequence selected from Seq ID No:303 to 323.

Aspect 43a. A variant hIL-2 comprising an N-terminal sequence selected from Seq ID No:303 to 323.

In one embodiment of aspect 43a, the variant hIL-2 is a purified variant hIL-2. In another embodiment of aspect 43a, the variant hIL-2 is an isolated and purified variant hIL-2.

Aspect 44. An immunocytokine according to any one of aspects 40, 42 or 43 wherein the hIL-2 variant comprises one or more (such as 1 to 5, e.g. one or two) mutations independently selected from the following:

    • 1) D20 (such as D20T);
    • 2) R38 (such as R38W, R38A or R38Q);
    • 3) F42 (such as F42A or F42K);
    • 4) Y45 (such as Y45A);
    • 5) E62 (such as E62A);
    • 6) N88 (such as N88R);
    • 7) C125 (such as C125S);
    • 8) Q126 (such as Q126W); or
    • 9) R38 and F42 (such as R38W and F42K or R38A and F42A);
    • wherein the residue numbering is defined with reference to the human wild-type IL-2 sequence, Seq ID No:301.

Aspect 44a. A variant hIL-2 according to any one of aspects 42a or 43a wherein the hIL-2 variant comprises one or more (such as 1 to 5, e.g. one or two) mutations independently selected from the following:

    • 1) D20 (such as D20T);
    • 2) R38 (such as R38W, R38A or R38Q);
    • 3) F42 (such as F42A or F42K);
    • 4) Y45 (such as Y45A);
    • 5) E62 (such as E62A);
    • 6) N88 (such as N88R);
    • 7) C125 (such as C125S);
    • 8) Q126 (such as Q126W); or
    • 9) R38 and F42 (such as R38W and F42K or R38A and F42A);
      wherein the residue numbering is defined with reference to the human wild-type IL-2 sequence, Seq ID No:301.

In one embodiment, the variant hIL-2 comprises (or consists) of an R38 (such as R38W, R38A or R38Q, e.g. R38A) mutation. In one embodiment, the variant hIL-2 comprises (or consists) of an F42 (such as F42A or F42K, e.g. F42A) mutation. In one embodiment, the variant hIL-2 comprises (or consists) of a Y45 (such as Y45A) mutation. In one embodiment, the variant hIL-2 comprises (or consists) of an E62 (such as E62A) mutation.

In one embodiment, the variant hIL-2 comprises (or consists) of an R38 (such as R38W, R38A or R38Q, e.g. R38A) mutation and an F42 (such as F42A or F42K, e.g. F42A) mutation. In one embodiment, the variant hIL-2 comprises (or consists) of an R38 (such as R38W, R38A or R38Q, e.g. R38A) and a Y45 (such as Y45A) mutation. In one embodiment, the variant hIL-2 comprises (or consists) of an R38 (such as R38W, R38A or R38Q, e.g. R38A) mutation and an E62 (such as E62A). In one embodiment, the variant hIL-2 comprises (or consists) of a Y45 (such as Y45A) mutation and an E62 (such as E62A). In one embodiment, the variant hIL-2 comprises (or consists) of an F42 (such as F42A or F42K, e.g. F42A) mutation and an E62 (such as E62A) mutation. In one embodiment, the variant hIL-2 comprises (or consists) of an F42 (such as F42A or F42K, e.g. F42A) mutation and a Y45 (such as Y45A) mutation.

In one embodiment, the variant hIL-2 comprises (or consists) of an R38 (such as R38W, R38A or R38Q, e.g. R38A) mutation, an F42 (such as F42A or F42K, e.g. F42A) mutation and a Y45 (such as Y45A) mutation. In one embodiment, the variant hIL-2 comprises (or consists) of an R38 (such as R38W, R38A or R38Q, e.g. R38A) mutation, an F42 (such as F42A or F42K, e.g. F42A) mutation and an E62 (such as E62A) mutation. In one embodiment, the variant hIL-2 comprises (or consists) of an R38 (such as R38W, R38A or R38Q, e.g. R38A) mutation, a Y45 (such as Y45A) mutation and an E62 (such as E62A) mutation.

In one embodiment, the variant hIL-2 comprises (or consists) of an R38 (such as R38W, R38A or R38Q, e.g. R38A) mutation, an F42 (such as F42A or F42K, e.g. F42A) mutation, a Y45 (such as Y45A) mutation and an E62 (such as E62A) mutation. In one embodiment, the variant hIL-2 comprises (or consists) of an R38A, F42A, Y45A and an E62A mutation.

Other hIL-2 mutations are known to those skilled in the art. In one embodiment, the hIL-2 mutations are those described in WO2012/062228 (see claims 2 to 7, incorporated herein by reference). In one embodiment, the hIL-2 mutations are those described in WO1999/60128 (see claims 6, 7, 8, 10, 11 and 12 incorporated herein by reference). In one embodiment, the hIL-2 mutations are those described in WO1993/20849 (see claims 4 and 5 incorporated herein by reference). In one embodiment, the hIL-2 mutations are those described in WO2003/015697 (see claims 7 and 10 incorporated herein by reference). In one embodiment, the hIL-2 mutations are those described in WO2005/007121 (see claims 9 to 14 incorporated herein by reference). In one embodiment, the hIL-2 mutations are those described in WO2005/086798 (see claims 5 to 10 incorporated herein by reference). In one embodiment, the hIL-2 mutations are those described in WO2005/086751 (see claims 5 to 9 incorporated herein by reference). In one embodiment, the hIL-2 mutations are those described in WO2009/061853 (see claim 5 incorporated herein by reference). In one embodiment, the hIL-2 mutations are those described in WO2012/088446 (see claims 3 to 8 and 11 to 13 incorporated herein by reference). In one embodiment, the hIL-2 mutations are those described in WO2012/107417 (see claims 2, 4, 6 and 9, incorporated herein by reference). In one embodiment, the hIL-2 mutations are those described in WO2012/119093 (see claims 1 to 7, incorporated herein by reference). In one embodiment, the hIL-2 mutations are those described in WO2015/164815 (see claims 3 to 19, incorporated herein by reference).

In these aspects, where the residue numbering is defined with reference to the human wild-type IL-2 sequence, if, for example, there is a single amino acid deletion from the N-terminus of the cytokine, and the claim described an N88 amino acid mutation, then, for the variant IL-2 having the single amino acid deletion, the N will in fact be at position 87. If the cytokine has 3 amino acids deleted from the N terminus, and the mutation is an F42A mutation, then the position to be mutated, will in fact be F39 in the variant sequence.

Aspect 45. An immunocytokine according to aspect 40, wherein the hIL-2 comprises a variant IL-2 consists of an N-terminal sequence selected from Seq ID No:242 to 262 fused to the amino acids sequence of Seq ID No:324.

In one embodiment, the immunocytokine is 1D05 D1-9 ICK. In one embodiment, the immunocytokine is 1D05 D1-9. In one embodiment, the immunocytokine is 1D05 D9-2 ICK. In one embodiment, the immunocytokine is 1D05 D9-7 ICK.

Aspect 45a. A variant hIL-2 comprising an N-terminal sequence selected from Seq ID No:303 to 323 fused to the amino acids sequence of Seq ID No:324.

In one embodiment of aspect 44a, the variant hIL-2 is a purified variant hIL-2. In another embodiment of aspect 44a, the variant hIL-2 is an isolated and purified variant hIL-2.

Aspect 46. An immunocytokine according to any preceding aspect, wherein the IL-2 cytokine binds to the high affinity (αβγ) IL-2 receptor with a potency less than free IL-2, for example with an EC50 of greater than 20 pM, greater than 50 pM or greater than 100 pM, e.g. when measured in a cell-based proliferative assay.

Free IL-2 has a potency of approximately 10 pM against the αβγ (high affinity) receptor in a cell-based proliferative assay. As used herein, EC50 refers to the effective concentration to give 50% of maximal activation of the IL2R. The higher the EC50, the less potent the substance is, thus a substance having an EC50 of 1 pM is more potent than a substance with an EC50 of 1 nM. The sequences of the α-chain, β-chain and γ-chain are provided in Seq ID Nos:327, 328 and 329 respectively.

In one embodiment, the IL-2 cytokine has an EC50 in the range of 5 pM to 20 pM. In one embodiment, the EC50 is in the range of 5 pM to 1 nM. In one embodiment, the EC50 is in the range of 5 pM to 750 pM, 5 pM to 500 pM, 5 pM to 250 pM or 5 pm to 100 pM, e.g. 5 pM to 50 pM.

In one embodiment, the EC50 is in the range of 10 pM to 1 nM. In one embodiment, the EC50 is in the range of 10 pM to 750 pM, 10 pM to 500 pM, 10 pM to 250 pM or 10 pm to 100 pM, e.g. 10 pM to 50 pM, or 10 pM to 30 pM.

In one embodiment, the EC50 is in the range of 20 pM to 1 nM. In one embodiment, the EC50 is in the range of 20 pM to 750 pM, 20 pM to 500 pM, 20 pM to 250 pM or 20 pm to 100 pM, e.g. 20 pM to 50 pM.

In another embodiment, the IL-2 cytokine has an EC50 in the range of 50 pM to 1 nM. In one embodiment, the EC50 is in the range of 50 pM to 750 pM, 50 pM to 500 pM, 50 pM to 250 pM or 50 pm to 100 pM, e.g. 50 pM to 75 pM. In another embodiment, the IL-2 cytokine has an EC50 in the range of 100 pM to 1 nM. In one embodiment, the EC50 is in the range of 100 pM to 800 pM, 100 pM to 700 pM, 100 pM to 600 pM or 100 pm to 500 pM, e.g. 100 pM to 400 pM. In another embodiment, the IL-2 cytokine has an EC50 in the range of 100 pm to 300 pM. In another embodiment, the IL-2 cytokine has an EC50 in the range of 100 pm to 200 pM.

In another embodiment, the EC50 is greater than 5 pM. In another embodiment, the EC50 is greater than 10 pM. In another embodiment, the EC50 is greater than 20 pM. In another embodiment, the EC50 is greater than 30 pM, greater than 40 pM, greater than 50 pM, greater than 60 pM or greater than 70 pM. In another embodiment, the EC50 is greater than 100 pM, greater than 125 pM, greater than 150 pM, greater than 175 pM or greater than 200 pM. In another embodiment, the EC50 is greater than 250 pM, greater than 300 pM, greater than 350 pM, greater than 400 pM. In another embodiment, the EC50 is greater than 500 pM, greater than 600 pM, greater than 700 pM or greater than 800 pM.

In one embodiment, the EC50 is less than 5 nM. In one embodiment, the EC50 is less than 1 nM. In one embodiment, the EC50 is less than 800 pM. In one embodiment, the EC50 is less than 700 pM. In one embodiment, the EC50 is less than 600 pM. In one embodiment, the EC50 is less than 500 pM. In one embodiment, the EC50 is less than 400 pM. In one embodiment, the EC50 is less than 300 pM. In one embodiment, the EC50 is less than 200 pM. In one embodiment, the EC50 is less than 100 pM. In one embodiment, the EC50 is less than 50 pM.

The potency of the immunocytokine against the αβγ IL-2R may be measured in a cell-based proliferative assay, which are well-known to those skilled in the art and are detailed more in the Examples hereinbelow (see Example 13 and FIG. 12A-12F).

Aspect 47. An immunocytokine according to any preceding aspect, wherein the IL-2 binds to the intermediate affinity (βγ) IL-2 receptor with a potency less than free IL-2, for example with an EC50 of greater than 1 nM, greater than 5 nM or greater than 10 nM, e.g. when measured in a cell-based proliferative assay.

Free IL-2 has a potency of approximately 100 pM against the βγ (intermediate affinity) receptor in a cell-based proliferative assay. As used herein, EC50 refers to the effective concentration to give 50% of maximal activation of the IL-2R. The higher the EC50, the less potent the substance is, thus a substance having an EC50 of 1 pM is more potent than a substance with an EC50 of 1 nM. The sequences of the α-chain, β-chain and γ-chain are provided in Seq ID Nos:327, 328 and 329 respectively.

In one embodiment, the EC50 is in the range of 1 to 100 nM. In one embodiment, the EC50 is in the range of 10 nM to 100 nM. In one embodiment, the EC50 is in the range of 20 nM to 100 nM. In another embodiment, the IL-2 cytokine has an EC50 in the range of 30 nM to 100 nM, 40 nM to 100 nM, 50 nM to 100 nM. In one embodiment, the EC50 is in the range of 50 nM to 100 nM, 60 nM to 100 nM, 70 nM to 100 nM.

In one embodiment, the EC50 is in the range of 1 to 50 nM. In one embodiment, the EC50 is in the range of 10 nM to 50 nM. In one embodiment, the EC50 is in the range of 20 nM to 50 nM. In another embodiment, the IL-2 cytokine has an EC50 in the range of 30 nM to 50 nM or 40 nM to 50 nM.

In one embodiment, the EC50 is in the range of 1 to 10 nM. In one embodiment, the EC50 is in the range of 1 to 20 nM. In one embodiment, the EC50 is in the range of 1 to 3 0 nM. In one embodiment, the EC50 is in the range of 1 nM to 9 nM. In one embodiment, the EC50 is in the range of 1 nM to 8 nM. In another embodiment, the IL-2 cytokine has an EC50 in the range of 1 nM to 7 nM, 1 nM to 6 nM or 1 nM to 5 nM.

In another embodiment, the EC50 is greater than 0.5 nM, greater than 0.6 nM, greater than 0.7 nM, greater than 0.8 nM or greater than 0.9 nM. In another embodiment, the EC50 is greater than 1 nM, greater than 1.25 nM, greater than 1.5 nM, greater than 1.75 nM or greater than 2 nM. In another embodiment, the EC50 is greater than 2.5 nM, greater than 3 nM, greater than 3.5 nM, greater than 4 nM. In another embodiment, the EC50 is greater than 5 nM, greater than 6 nM, greater than 7 nM or greater than 8 nM. In a particular embodiment, the EC50 is greater than 1 nM.

In one embodiment, the EC50 is less than 10 nM. In one embodiment, the EC50 is less than 20 nM. In one embodiment, the EC50 is less than 30 nM. In one embodiment, the EC50 is less than 40 nM. In one embodiment, the EC50 is less than 50 nM.

In one embodiment, the EC50 is less than 100 nM. In one embodiment, the EC50 is less than 200 nM. In one embodiment, the EC50 is less than 300 nM.

In another embodiment, the EC50 is less than 75 nM or less than 50 nM.

In one embodiment, the IL-2 shows no detectable potency against the βγ IL-2R in a cell-based proliferative assay.

The potency of the immunocytokine against the βγ IL-2R may be measured in a cell-based proliferative assay, which are well-known to those skilled in the art and are detailed more in the Examples hereinbelow (see Example 13 and FIG. 12A-12F).

Aspect 48. An immunocytokine according to any preceding aspect, wherein the IL-2 preferentially binds to the high affinity (αβγ) IL-2 receptor over the intermediate affinity (βγ) IL-2 receptor.

Aspect 49. An immunocytokine according to aspect 48, wherein the ratio of IL-2 potency against the high affinity (αβγ) IL-2 receptor: intermediate affinity (βγ) IL-2 receptor is at least 2:1.

In one embodiment, the ratio is at least 3:1. In one embodiment, the ratio is at least 4:1. In one embodiment, the ratio is at least 5:1. In one embodiment, the ratio is at least 7.5:1. In one embodiment, the ratio is at least 10:1. In one embodiment, the ratio is at least 12.5:1. In one embodiment, the ratio is at least 15:1. In one embodiment, the ratio is at least 17.5:1. In one embodiment, the ratio is at least 20:1.

In another embodiment, the ratio is at least 50:1. In another embodiment, the ratio is at least 75:1. In another embodiment, the ratio is at least 100:1. In another embodiment, the ratio is at least 250:1. In another embodiment, the ratio is at least 500:1. In another embodiment, the ratio is at least 750:1. In another embodiment, the ratio is at least 1000:1.

In another embodiment, the ratio is at least 1250:1. In another embodiment, the ratio is at least 1500:1. In another embodiment, the ratio is at least 1750:1. In another embodiment, the ratio is at least 2000:1.

Aspect 50. An immunocytokine according to any preceding aspect, wherein the antigen binding site binds to hPD-L1 with an affinity of less than 500 pM (e.g. less than 300 pM or less than 200 pM), optionally wherein the immunocytokine provides a ratio of the potency of the IL-2 cytokine against the high affinity (αβγ) receptor: affinity of the anti-PD-L1 antigen binding site against hPD-L1 of at least 2:1.

In one embodiment, the antigen binding site binds to hPD-L1 with an affinity of less than 200 pM. In one embodiment, the antigen binding site binds to hPD-L1 with an affinity of less than 100 pM, or less than 50 pM.

In one embodiment, the antigen binding site binds to hPD-L1 with an affinity of between 50 pM and 500 pM, or between 75 pM and 500 pM, or between 100 pM and 500 pM or between 200 pM and 500 pM.

In one embodiment, the antigen binding site binds to hPD-L1 with an affinity of between 50 pM and 400 pM, or between 50 pM and 300 pM, or between 50 pM and 200 pM or between 50 pM and 100 pM.

In one embodiment, the antigen binding site binds to hPD-L1 with an affinity of between 100 pM and 500 pM, or between 100 pM and 400 pM, or between 100 pM and 300 pM.

In one embodiment, the ratio of the potency of the IL-2 cytokine against the high affinity (αβγ) receptor: affinity of the anti-PD-L1 antigen binding site against hPD-L1 is at least 3:1. In one embodiment, the ratio of the potency of the IL-2 cytokine against the high affinity (αβγ) receptor: affinity of the anti-PD-L1 antigen binding site against hPD-L1 is at least 4:1. In one embodiment, the ratio of the potency of the IL-2 cytokine against the high affinity (αβγ) receptor: affinity of the anti-PD-L1 antigen binding site against hPD-L1 is at least 5:1. In one embodiment, the ratio of the potency of the IL-2 cytokine against the high affinity (αβγ) receptor: affinity of the anti-PD-L1 antigen binding site against hPD-L1 is at least 7:1. In one embodiment, the ratio of the potency of the IL-2 cytokine against the high affinity (αβγ) receptor: affinity of the anti-PD-L1 antigen binding site against hPD-L1 is at least 10:1

Aspect 50a. An immunocytokine according to any preceding aspect, wherein the antigen binding site binds to mPD-L1 (Seq ID No:325) with an affinity of less than 500 nM (e.g. less than 100 nM, less than 10 nM or less than mm).

In one embodiment, the antigen binding site binds to hPD-L1 with an affinity of between 1 nM and 500 nM, or between 1 nM and 250 nM, or between 1 nM and 100 nM, or between 1 nM and 50 nM.

In one embodiment, the antigen binding site binds to hPD-L1 with an affinity of between 10 nM and 500 nM, or between 10 nM and 250 nM, or between 10 nM and 100 nM, or between 1 nM and 50 nM, in particular between 10 nM and 100 nM.

In one embodiment, the antigen binding site binds to hPD-L1 with an affinity of between 100 nM and 500 nM, or between 100 nM and 400 nM, or between 100 nM and 300 nM, or between 100 nM and 200 nM.

The affinity of the antigen-binding site to hPD-L1 or mPD-L1 may be measured by any technique well-known to those skilled in the art. In one embodiment, the affinity is measured using SPR, the details of which are provided hereinabove.

Aspect 51. An immunocytokine as defined in any preceding aspect for use in treating or preventing a hPD-L1-mediated disease or condition, e.g. selected from neoplastic or non-neoplastic disease, chronic viral infections, and malignant tumours, such as melanoma, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, Merkel cell carcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer (squamous and non-squamous), renal cell cancer, bladder cancer, colorectal cancer (without MSI or microsatellite instability), head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, mesothelioma, virally induced cancers (such as cervical cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer), soft tissue sarcomas, haematological malignancies such as Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's disease, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (for example melanoma, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, Merkel cell carcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer (squamous and non-squamous), renal cell cancer, bladder cancer, colorectal cancer (without MSI or microsatellite instability), head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and mesothelioma or for example virally induced cancers (such as cervical cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer) and soft tissue sarcomas).

Aspect 52. Use of an immunocytokine as defined in any one of aspects 1 to 50 in the manufacture of a medicament for administration to a human for treating or preventing a hPD-L1 mediated disease or condition in the human, e.g. wherein the hPD-L1 mediated disease or condition is selected from neoplastic or non-neoplastic disease, chronic viral infections, and malignant tumours, such as melanoma, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, Merkel cell carcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer (squamous and non-squamous), renal cell cancer, bladder cancer, colorectal cancer (without MSI or microsatellite instability), head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, mesothelioma, virally induced cancers (such as cervical cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer), soft tissue sarcomas, haematological malignancies such as Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's disease, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (for example melanoma, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, Merkel cell carcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer (squamous and non-squamous), renal cell cancer, bladder cancer, colorectal cancer (without MSI or microsatellite instability), head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and mesothelioma or for example virally induced cancers (such as cervical cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer) and soft tissue sarcomas).

Aspect 53. A method of treating or preventing a hPD-L1 mediated disease or condition, e.g. selected from neoplastic or non-neoplastic disease, chronic viral infections, and malignant tumours, such as melanoma, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, Merkel cell carcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer (squamous and non-squamous), renal cell cancer, bladder cancer, colorectal cancer (without MSI or microsatellite instability), head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, mesothelioma, virally induced cancers (such as cervical cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer), soft tissue sarcomas, haematological malignancies such as Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's disease, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (for example melanoma, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, Merkel cell carcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer (squamous and non-squamous), renal cell cancer, bladder cancer, colorectal cancer (without MSI or microsatellite instability), head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and mesothelioma or for example virally induced cancers (such as cervical cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer) and soft tissue sarcomas) in a human, comprising administering to said human a therapeutically effective amount of an immunocytokine as defined in any one of aspects 1 to 50, wherein the hPD-L1 mediated disease or condition is thereby treated or prevented.

In any of aspects 51 to 13, the hPD-L1 mediated disease may be any of those as described herein. In one embodiment, in any of aspects 51 to 53, the hPD-L1 mediated disease is a virally induced cancer, such as cervical cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer, for example cervical cancers caused by HPV infection. In one embodiment, in any of aspects 51 to 53, the hPD-L1 mediated disease is a chronic viral infection. In one embodiment, in any of aspects 51 to 53, the hPD-L1 mediated disease is a neoplastic disease. In one embodiment, in any of aspects 51 to 53, the hPD-L1 mediated disease is a non-neoplastic disease. In one embodiment, in any of aspects 51 to 53, the hPD-L1 mediated disease is a malignant tumour. In one embodiment, in any of aspects 51 to 53, the hPD-L1 mediated disease is a cancer which is known to be responsive to PD-L1 therapy, such as melanoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer (squamous and non-squamous), renal cell cancer, bladder cancer, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, mesothelioma. In one embodiment, in any of aspects 51 to 53, the hPD-L1 mediated disease is a cancer which is a soft tissue sarcoma.

Aspect 54. The immunocytokine according to aspect 51, the use according to aspect 52 or the method according to aspect 53, wherein the hPD-L1-mediated disease or condition is cancer.

Aspect 55. The immunocytokine, the use or the method according to aspect 54, wherein the cancer is selected from melanoma, Merkel cell cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, bladder cancer, Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, colorectal cancer with microsatellite instability (MSI) or a cancer selected from breast cancer, ovarian cancer, colorectal cancer (without MSI or microsatellite instability), in particular melanoma and renal cell cancer.

In one embodiment, the cancer is a cancer which is known to be responsive to both IL-2 therapy and PD-L1 therapy, such as melanoma and renal cell cancer.

In one embodiment, the cancer is colorectal cancer with microsatellite instability (MSI). In one embodiment, the cancer is breast cancer. In one embodiment, the cancer is ovarian cancer.

Aspect 56. The immunocytokine, use or the method according to any one of aspects 51 to 55, further comprising administering to the human a further therapy, for example a further therapeutic agent, optionally wherein the further therapeutic agent is independently selected from the group consisting of:

    • A) other immune checkpoint inhibitors (such as anti-TIM-3 antibodies, anti-CTLA-4 antibodies, anti-TIGIT antibodies and anti-LAG-3 antibodies);
    • B) immune stimulators (such as anti-OX40 antibodies, anti-GITR antibodies, anti-CD137 antibodies, anti-ICOS antibodies and anti-CD40 antibodies);
    • C) chemokine receptor antagonists (such as CXCR4, CCR4 and CXCR2);
    • D) targeted kinase inhibitors (such as CSF-1R or VEGFR inhibitors);
    • E) angiogenesis inhibitors (such as anti-VEGF-A or Delta-like Ligand-4);
    • F) immune stimulating peptides or chemokines (such as CXCL9 or CXCL10);
    • G) cytokines (such as IL-15 and IL-21);
    • H) bispecific T-cell engagers (BiTEs) having at least one specificity against CD3 (e.g. CD3/CD19 BiTE);
    • I) other bi-specific molecules (for example IL-15-containing molecules targeted towards tumour associated antigens, for example Epidermal growth factor receptors such as EGFR, Her-2, New York Esophageal Cancer-1 (NY-ESO-1), GD2, EpCAM or Melanoma Associated Antigen-3 (MAGE-A3));
    • J) oncolytic viruses (such as HSV virus (optionally which secretes GMCSF), Newcastle disease virus and Vaccinia virus);
    • K) vaccination with tumour associated antigens (such as New York Esophageal Cancer-1 [NY-ESO-1], Melanoma Associated Antigen-3 [MAGE-3]);
    • L) cell-based therapies (such as chimeric Antigen Receptor-T cells (CAR-T) for example expressing anti-CD19, anti-EpCam or anti-mesothelin); and
    • M) adoptive transfer of tumour specific T-cells or LAK cells,
    • or optionally wherein the further therapy is chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgical removal of tumours.

In this aspect, any of the features and embodiments of concept 46 apply mutatis mutandis.

In this aspect, the bispecific molecules include “bispecific antibodies” and antibody fusion proteins, including those formats and molecules described in concepts 37 to 40.

Aspect 57. A pharmaceutical composition comprising an immunocytokine as defined in any one of aspects 1 to 50 and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient, diluent or carrier and optionally further comprising a further therapeutic agent independently selected from the group consisting of:

    • A) other immune checkpoint inhibitors (such as anti-TIM-3 antibodies, anti-CTLA-4 antibodies, anti-TIGIT antibodies and anti-LAG-3 antibodies);
    • B) immune stimulators (such as anti-OX40 antibodies, anti-GITR antibodies, anti-CD137 antibodies, anti-ICOS antibodies and anti-CD40 antibodies);
    • C) chemokine receptor antagonists (such as CXCR4, CCR4 and CXCR2);
    • D) targeted kinase inhibitors (such as CSF-1R or VEGFR inhibitors);
    • E) angiogenesis inhibitors (such as anti-VEGF-A or Delta-like Ligand-4);
    • F) immune stimulating peptides or chemokines (such as CXCL9 or CXCL10);
    • G) cytokines (such as IL-15 and IL-21);
    • H) bispecific T-cell engagers (BiTEs) having at least one specificity against CD3 (e.g. CD3/CD19 BiTE);
    • I) other bi-specific molecules (for example IL-15-containing molecules targeted towards tumour associated antigens, for example Epidermal growth factor receptors such as EGFR, Her-2, New York Esophageal Cancer-1 (NY-ESO-1), GD2, EpCAM or Melanoma Associated Antigen-3 (MAGE-A3));
    • J) oncolytic viruses (such as HSV virus (optionally which secretes GMCSF), Newcastle disease virus and Vaccinia virus);
    • K) vaccination with tumour associated antigens (such as New York Esophageal Cancer-1 [NY-ESO-1], Melanoma Associated Antigen-3 [MAGE-3]);
    • L) cell-based therapies (such as chimeric Antigen Receptor-T cells (CAR-T) for example expressing anti-CD19, anti-EpCam or anti-mesothelin); and
    • M) adoptive transfer of tumour specific T-cells or LAK cells.

In one embodiment, the further therapeutic agent is administered sequentially or simultaneously with the immunocytokine.

In this aspect, any of the features and embodiments of concept 48 apply mutatis mutandis.

In this aspect, the bispecific molecules include “bispecific antibodies” and antibody fusion proteins.

Aspect 58. A pharmaceutical composition according to aspect 57, or a kit comprising a pharmaceutical composition as defined in aspect 57, wherein the composition is for treating and/or preventing a hPD-L1 mediated disease or condition, e.g. selected from neoplastic or non-neoplastic disease, chronic viral infections, and malignant tumours, such as melanoma, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, Merkel cell carcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer (squamous and non-squamous), renal cell cancer, bladder cancer, colorectal cancer (without MSI or microsatellite instability), head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, mesothelioma, virally induced cancers (such as cervical cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer), soft tissue sarcomas, haematological malignancies such as Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's disease, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (for example melanoma, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, Merkel cell carcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer (squamous and non-squamous), renal cell cancer, bladder cancer, colorectal cancer (without MSI or microsatellite instability), head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and mesothelioma or for example virally induced cancers (such as cervical cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer) and soft tissue sarcomas).

Aspect 59. A pharmaceutical composition according to aspect 57 or aspect 58 in combination with, or kit according to aspect 58 comprising a label or instructions for use to treat and/or prevent said disease or condition in a human; optionally wherein the label or instructions comprise a marketing authorisation number (e.g., an FDA or EMA authorisation number); optionally wherein the kit comprises an IV or injection device that comprises the immunocytokine.

Aspect 60. A method of treating a proliferative disease in an animal (e.g. a human), comprising administering an effective amount of an immunocytokine as defined in any one of aspects 1 to 50 to said patient.

Proliferative diseases may be any as described elsewhere herein.

Aspect 61. A nucleic acid that encodes a heavy chain and/or a light chain of an immunocytokine as defined in any one of aspects 1 to 50.

In one embodiment, the nucleic acid encodes a light chain of an immunocytokine as defined in any one of aspects 1 to 50.

Aspect 62. A vector comprising the nucleic acid as defined in aspect 61; optionally wherein the vector is a CHO or HEK293 vector.

Aspect 63. A host comprising the nucleic acid as defined in aspect 61 or the vector as defined in aspect 62.

Unless otherwise apparent from the context, the uses for antibodies or fragments applies mutatis mutandis to the immunocytokines of the invention.

In one embodiment, the PD-L1 specific antibodies described herein and antigen binding fragments thereof can be used for therapeutic modulation of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway. In one embodiment, the PD-L1 specific antibody or fragment thereof is as described in any concept, aspect or embodiment herein.

In one embodiment, the antibody or antibody binding fragment specifically binds to PD-L1 and thereby inhibits PD-L1 activity. In another embodiment, the antibody or antibody binding fragment specifically binds to PD-L1 and thereby inhibits binding of PD-L1 to PD-1. In another embodiment, the antibody or antibody binding fragment specifically binds to PD-L1 and thereby inhibits binding of PD-L1 to B7-1. In yet another embodiment, the antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof blocks PD-L1 induced T-cell suppression and thereby enhance anti-tumour immunity.

In yet another embodiment, the antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof is capable of stimulating one or more of the following activities: T-cell proliferation, IFN-γ, CD25 and/or IL-2 secretion in mixed lymphocyte reactions.

In one embodiment, the antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof specifically binds PD-L1 and inhibits PD-L1 induced cell proliferation, for example, tumour cell proliferation and/or inhibits tumour cell survival. In another embodiment, the antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof specifically binds PD-L1 and thereby inhibits PD-L1 mediated suppression of T-cells, including, but not limited to, tumour reactive T-cells, thereby enhancing anti-tumour cytolytic T-cell activity. In other embodiments, the antibodies or binding fragments thereof as described herein inhibit tumour cell adhesion, motility, invasion and cellular metastasis, and reduce tumour growth. In other embodiments, the antibodies or binding fragments thereof can bind to cells expressing PD-L1, including tumour and non-tumour cells, and recruit, by means of interaction with the Fc portion of the antibody, cellular effector functions against the target cells by mechanisms including but not limited to antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP).

Still further embodiments include methods of treating a proliferative or invasion-related disease in a mammal by administering to the animal a therapeutically effective dose of an antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof. In another embodiment, the antibodies or antigen binding fragments thereof can be used in a method for treating a mammal suffering from a disease selected from: neoplastic or non-neoplastic disease, chronic viral infection, and a malignant tumour, wherein the method includes administering to the mammal a therapeutically effective dose of an antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof.

Still further embodiments include methods of treating a disease of immunological dysfunction in a mammal by administering to the animal a therapeutically effective dose of an antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof as described herein. Exemplary immunological dysfunction in humans includes diseases of neurological deficit, such as Alzheimer's disease.

Exemplary cancers in humans include a Merkel cell carcinoma, breast cancer, prostate cancer, basal cell carcinoma, biliary tract cancer, bladder cancer, bone cancer, brain and CNS cancer (e.g. gliomblastoma), cervical cancer, choriocarcinoma, colon and rectum cancer, connective tissue cancer, cancer of the digestive system; endometrial cancer, esophageal cancer; eye cancer; cancer of the head and neck; nasopharyngeal cancer; gastric cancer; intra-epithelial neoplasm; kidney cancer; larynx cancer; leukemia; liver cancer; lung cancer (e.g. small cell and non-small cell); lymphoma including Hodgkin's and Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma including but not limited to DLBCL; Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, melanoma; uveal melanoma, myeloma, neuroblastoma, oral cavity cancer (e.g., lip, tongue, mouth, and pharynx); ovarian cancer; pancreatic cancer, retinoblastoma; rhabdomyosarcoma; rectal cancer, renal cancer (renal cell carcinoma (RCC)), cancer of the respiratory system; sarcoma, skin cancer; stomach cancer, testicular cancer, thyroid cancer; uterine cancer, cancer of the urinary system, as well as other carcinomas and sarcomas. Further examples of virally induced cancers including; Nasopharyngeal carcinoma, certain Types of NHL (for example but not limited to EBV+ CNS lymphomas, DLBCL and BL, Hodgkins lymphoma (thought to be EBV driven) HPV-related cervical and head an neck squamous cell carcinomas); HBV hepatocellular carcinoma.

Exemplary chronic infections in humans include HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV).

Proliferative or invasion-related diseases that can be treated with the antibodies or antigen binding fragments described herein include neoplastic diseases, and the metastasis associated with such neoplastic disease, such as, melanoma, uveal melanoma, skin cancer, small cell lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, salivary gland, glioma, hepatocellular (liver) carcinoma, gallbladder cancer, thyroid tumour, bone cancer, gastric (stomach) cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer (including triple negative breast cancer), ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, uterine cancer, vulval cancer, endometrial cancer, testicular cancer, bladder cancer, lung cancer, glioblastoma, thyroid cancer, endometrial cancer, kidney cancer, colon cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, esophageal carcinoma, brain/CNS cancers, neuronal cancers, head and neck cancers (including but not limited to squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN)), mesothelioma, sarcomas, biliary (cholangiocarcinoma), small bowel adenocarcinoma, pediatric malignancies, epidermoid carcinoma, sarcomas, cancer of the pleural/peritoneal membranes and leukaemia, including acute myeloid leukaemia, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, and multiple myeloma. Treatable chronic viral infections include HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in humans, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in monkeys, and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) in mice.

The antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof can be administered alone, or in combination with other antibodies or chemo therapeutic drugs, radiation therapy or therapeutic vaccines. In one embodiment, the antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof is administered as an antibody-drug conjugate in which the antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof is linked to a drug moiety such as a cytotoxic or cytostatic agent. The use of antibody-drug conjugates for the local delivery of cytotoxic or cytostatic agents in the treatment of cancer allows targeted delivery of the drug moiety to tumours, and intracellular accumulation therein, where systemic administration of unconjugated drug may result in unacceptable levels of toxicity. Drugs in antibody drug conjugates can include, but are not limited to, daunomycin, doxorubicin, methotrexate, and vindesine. Toxins can also be used in antibody-toxin conjugates, including, for example, bacterial toxins such as diphtheria toxin, plant toxins such as ricin, small molecule toxins such as geldanamycin. The toxins may effect their cytotoxic and cytostatic effects by mechanisms including tubulin binding, DNA binding, or topoisomerase.

In another embodiment, the antibodies or antigen binding fragments can be used to detect the presence, absence and/or level of surface expressed PD-L1 expression in a sample. PD-L1 surface expression can be detected in vivo and/or in vitro and is useful in helping diagnose diseases or conditions that involve expression and/or overexpression of PD-L1.

In another embodiment, the PD-L1 specific antibodies or antigen binding fragments thereof can be used for the assessment of expression and localization of PD-L1 in a biological sample from a patient. In one embodiment, the biological sample is a tissue sample and PD-L1 expression is detected using known methods such as FLOW cytometry, IHC in fresh tissue, IHC in FFPE tissue and/or IHC in frozen tissue. In other embodiments, the biological sample is blood, plasma or serum.

In one embodiment, the antibody or antibody fragment described herein is labeled with a detectable moiety, for example, a radiolabel, fluorescent label, enzymatic label chemiluminescent labeled or a biotinyl group. Radioisotopes or radionuclides may include 3H, 14C, 15N, 35S, 90Y, 99Tc, 115In, 125I, 131I, fluorescent labels may include rhodamine, lanthanide phosphors or FITC and enzymatic labels may include horseradish peroxidase, β-galactosidase, luciferase, alkaline phosphatase. Additional labels include, by way of illustration and not limitation: enzymes, such as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (“G6PDH”), alpha-D-galactosidase, glucose oxydase, glucose amylase, carbonic anhydrase, acetylcholinesterase, lysozyme, malate dehydrogenase and peroxidase; dyes; additional fluorescent labels or fluorescers include, such as fluorescein and its derivatives, fluorochrome, GFP (GFP for “Green Fluorescent Protein”), dansyl, umbelliferone, phycoerythrin, phycocyanin, allophycocyanin, o-phthaldehyde, and fluorescamine; fluorophores such as lanthanide cryptates and chelates e.g. Europium etc (Perkin Elmer and Cisbio Assays); chemoluminescent labels or chemiluminescers, such as isoluminol, luminol and the dioxetanes; sensitisers; coenzymes; enzyme substrates; particles, such as latex or carbon particles; metal sol; crystallite; liposomes; cells, etc., which may be further labelled with a dye, catalyst or other detectable group; molecules such as biotin, digoxygenin or 5-bromodeoxyuridine; toxin moieties, such as for example a toxin moiety selected from a group of Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE or a cytotoxic fragment or mutant thereof), Diptheria toxin or a cytotoxic fragment or mutant thereof, a botulinum toxin A, B, C, D, E or F, ricin or a cytotoxic fragment thereof e.g. ricin A, abrin or a cytotoxic fragment thereof, saporin or a cytotoxic fragment thereof, pokeweed antiviral toxin or a cytotoxic fragment thereof and bryodin 1 or a cytotoxic fragment thereof.

In one embodiment, the antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof can be administered to a patient, wherein the antibody or antigen binding fragment is conjugated to a label. The presence of the label in the patient can be measured or observed, wherein a relatively high amount of the label may indicate a high risk of disease and a relatively low amount of the label may indicate a relatively low risk of the disease. In one embodiment, the label is a contrast agent, isotopic tag, or fluorescent marker, such as green fluorescent protein.

In one embodiment, the antibody or antigen binding fragment is used to monitor therapy that involves the use of other therapeutic agents, including, for example, chemotherapeutic agents or other antibodies that specifically bind PD-L1. In one embodiment, the antibody does not compete with the therapeutic PD-L1 antibodies.

In one embodiment, detection of PD-L1 expression can be used to guide patient selection. In one embodiment, the antibodies or antigen binding fragments thereof can be used to assist in patient selection for therapeutic antibody treatment with an anti-PD-L1 antibody, including, but not limited to anti-PD-L1 antibodies disclosed in WO2011/066389, entitled “Targeted Binding Agents Against B7-H1.” In another embodiment, the antibodies or antigen binding fragments thereof can be used to assist in patient selection for treatment with immunotherapies such as anti-PD-L1, anti-CTLA4, anti-OX40, anti-PD-1, vaccines etc. In some cases, higher levels of PD-L1 may be indicative of successful therapy, whereas lower levels may indicate a reduced likelihood of success. Preferential expression of splice variants and/or protein processing may produce unique protein mixture profiles which may impact a patient's response to treatment or may change following treatment. These profiles may help to identify patients and define patient subsets who should receive treatment, continue to receive treatment or who should receive an alternative treatment. In another embodiment, the antibodies or antigen binding fragments thereof can be used for detection of PD-L1 isoforms. Patient samples can include, for example, blood, plasma, serum, sputum, saliva, urine, CSF, tears, exhaled exogenous particle samples, cell supernatant, cell or tissue lysate or tissue samples.

In one embodiment, the antibodies or antigen binding fragments thereof can be used to identify the presence, absence and/or level of PD-L1 expression at baseline, i.e., before treatment.

In another embodiment, the PD-L1 specific antibodies or antigen binding fragments thereof can be used as an exclusion marker to suggest treatment with therapies that do not target PD-L1. In another embodiment, the PD-L1 specific antibodies or antigen binding fragments thereof can be used as a prognostic marker for life expectancy. In particular, PD-L1 expression on tumours is linked to poor prognosis and life expectancy can be estimated based on historical data within tumour types.

Methods for detection of proteins are known, and include, for example, IHC, FLOW cytometery, Western blotting and Mass Spectroscopy, Immunoprecipitation, aptamers, immuno-PCR, and protein array.

The antibodies can be used to guide therapy. For example, the antibodies or antigen binding fragments thereof can be used to identify the presence, absence and/or level of PD-L1 expression during or after treatment. In one embodiment, the antibodies or antigen binding fragments thereof can be used as early response biomarkers to assist in patient management, drug approval and reimbursement. In another embodiment, the antibodies or antigen binding fragments thereof can be used to identify the presence, absence and/or level of PD-L1 expression to help guide therapy. For example, PD-L1 expression can help determine whether the treatment is effective, and hence, whether or not treatment should be continued, or whether the dose should be adjusted (increased or decreased) and whether a combination regimen should be changed. For example, in one embodiment, the PD-L1 specific antibodies or antigen binding fragments thereof can be used for determining receptor occupancy of PD-L1 on cells in a patient treated with anti-PD-L1 therapy for dose setting (PK/PD). In particular, receptor occupancy can be used as a measure of target engagement or target coverage. Estimates of the amount or duration of target engagement needed to elicit a biological or clinical response could be used to determine if a patient has been dosed sufficiently or not. In particular, the antibodies can be used to assist in evaluating the relationship between, dose, exposure, receptor occupancy, pharmacodynamic response and clinical benefit.

In another embodiment, the PD-L1 specific antibodies or antigen binding fragments thereof can be used for patient monitoring, to help evaluate whether a course of treatment is effective and whether or not treatment should be continued. For example, in one embodiment, the antibodies or antigen binding fragments thereof can be used detect expression before a patient receives therapeutic treatment that targets PD-L1. In another embodiment, the antibodies or antigen binding fragments thereof can be used to detect expression during therapy or after a patient has received therapeutic anti-PD-L1 treatment. In another embodiment, the antibodies or antigen binding fragments thereof can be used as an early response marker to assist in the determination as to whether or not a course of therapy is effective and should be continued or discontinued. In one embodiment, the expression of PD-L1 is detected after washout, wherein the term “washout” refers to a period of time after which the administered drug has been eliminated from the body. In particular, expression of PD-L1 may be detected after washout if the patient is treated with anti-PD-L1 therapy that competes with the detection antibody. However, if the patient is treated with an antibody that does not compete with an anti-PD-L1 antibody, such as anti-CTLA-4 or anti-PD-1, detection can be performed without waiting for washout. In another embodiment, the detection antibody can bind to PD-L1 but not compete with a therapeutic antibody that binds to PD-L1. In this situation, washout may not be necessary. The washout period can vary depending upon many factors, but is generally a period of at least about 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 weeks and up to about 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 months from the most recent chemotherapy or immunotherapy treatment. The antibodies or antigen binding fragments thereof can be used to determine expression of PD-L1 on biopsy samples or on circulating tumour cells (CTC).

In one embodiment, labelled antibodies or antigen binding fragments thereof can be used to identify a peripheral correlate to enable non-invasive assessment of tumour status pre, during and post treatment.

Methods for detection of proteins are known, and include, for example, IHC, flow cytometery, Western blotting and Mass Spectroscopy, immunoprecipitation, aptamers, immuno-PCR, and protein array.

In another embodiment, antibodies or antigen binding fragments thereof can be used as a capture reagent or detection reagent for examination of the protein binding partners of PD-L1 protein species in the context of a protein “pull-down.” A protein “pull down” refers to immunoprecipitation of intact protein complexes, such as antigen along with any proteins or ligands that are bound to it—also known as co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP). Co-IP works by selecting an antibody that targets a known protein that is believed to be a member of a larger complex of proteins. By targeting the known member with an antibody it may become possible to pull the entire protein complex out of solution and thereby identify unknown members of the complex. Complete understanding of the regulation of immune recognition through and PD-1 axis vs. CTLA-4 etc. is not fully understood. As such, antibodies and antigen binding fragments could improve knowledge of the interplay among accessory proteins and factors, which may determine a patient's propensity to respond to specific therapies or immunotherapy in general.

Unless otherwise apparent from the context, the compositions for antibodies or fragments applies mutatis mutandis to the immunocytokines of the invention.

In one embodiment, there is provided a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of an antibody or antigen binding fragment and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. An effective amount of antibody to be employed therapeutically will depend, for example, upon the therapeutic objectives, the route of administration, and the condition of the patient. In one embodiment, the composition includes other excipients or stabilizers.

Pharmaceutically acceptable carriers are known and include carriers, excipients, or stabilizers that are nontoxic to the cell or mammal being exposed thereto at the dosages and concentrations employed. Often the physiologically acceptable carrier is an aqueous pH buffered solution. Examples of physiologically acceptable carriers include buffers such as phosphate, citrate, and other organic acids; antioxidants including ascorbic acid; low molecular weight (less than about 10 residues) polypeptide; proteins, such as serum albumin, gelatin, or immunoglobulins; hydrophilic polymers such as polyvinylpyrrolidone; amino acids such as glycine, glutamine, asparagine, arginine or lysine; monosaccharides, disaccharides, and other carbohydrates including glucose, mannose, or dextrins; chelating agents such as Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA); sugar alcohols such as mannitol or sorbitol; salt-forming counterions such as sodium; and/or nonionic surfactants such as TWEEN™, polyethylene glycol (PEG), and PLURONICS™.

The antibodies or antigen binding fragments can be administered intravenously or through the nose, lung, for example, as a liquid or powder aerosol (lyophilized). The composition can also be administered parenterally or subcutaneously. When administered systemically, the composition should be sterile, pyrogen-free and in a physiologically acceptable solution having due regard for pH, isotonicity and stability. These conditions are known to those skilled in the art.

Methods of administering a prophylactic or therapeutic agent (e.g., an antibody as disclosed herein), or pharmaceutical composition include, but are not limited to, parenteral administration (e.g., intradermal, intramuscular, intraperitoneal, intravenous and subcutaneous), epidural, and mucosal (e.g., intranasal and oral routes). In a specific embodiment, a prophylactic or therapeutic agent (e.g., an antibody as disclosed herein), or a pharmaceutical composition is administered intranasally, intramuscularly, intravenously, or subcutaneously. The prophylactic or therapeutic agents, or compositions may be administered by any convenient route, for example by infusion or bolus injection, by absorption through epithelial or mucocutaneous linings (e.g., oral mucosa, intranasal mucosa, rectal and intestinal mucosa, etc.) and may be administered together with other biologically active agents. Administration can be systemic or local. Each dose may or may not be administered by an identical route of administration. In one embodiment, an anti-PD-L1 antibody or fragment as disclosed herein may be administered via multiple routes of administration simultaneously or subsequently to other doses of the same or a different anti-PD-L1 antibody or fragment as disclosed herein.

Various delivery systems are known and can be used to administer a prophylactic or therapeutic agent (e.g., an antibody or fragment as disclosed herein), including, but not limited to, encapsulation in liposomes, microparticles, microcapsules, recombinant cells capable of expressing the antibody, receptor-mediated endocytosis (see, e.g., Wu and Wu, J. Biol. Chem. 262:4429-4432 (1987)), construction of a nucleic acid as part of a retroviral or other vector, etc. In addition, pulmonary administration can also be employed, e.g., by use of an inhaler or nebulizer, and formulation with an aerosolizing agent. See, e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,019,968, 5,985,320, 5,985,309, 5,934,272, 5,874,064, 5,855,913, 5,290,540, and 4,880,078; and PCT Publication Nos. WO92/19244, WO97/32572, WO97/44013, WO98/31346, and WO99/66903, each of which is incorporated herein by reference their entirety.

In a specific embodiment, it may be desirable to administer a prophylactic or therapeutic agent, or a pharmaceutical composition as described herein locally to the area in need of treatment. This may be achieved by, for example, local infusion, by topical administration (e.g., by intranasal spray), by injection, or by means of an implant, said implant being of a porous, non-porous, or gelatinous material, including membranes, such as sialastic membranes, or fibres. When administering an anti-PD-L1 antibody or fragment, care must be taken to use materials to which the antibody does not absorb.

Unless otherwise apparent from the context, the kits and articles of manufacture for antibodies or fragments applies mutatis mutandis to the immunocytokines of the invention.

In one embodiment, the invention provides a kit for detecting PD-L1 in a biological sample. The kit can be used to screen for PD-L1 related diseases. In one embodiment, the kit includes an antibody or antigen binding fragment and a means for determining whether the antibody or antigen binding fragment is bound to PD-L1 in a sample. In one embodiment, the antibody or antigen binding fragment is labelled. In another embodiment, the antibody or antigen binding fragment is an unlabelled primary antibody and the kit includes means for detecting the primary antibody. In one embodiment, the means for detecting includes a labelled secondary antibody that is an anti-immmunoglobulin antibody. The antibody may be labelled with any suitable marker, including, for example, a fluorochrome, an enzyme, a radionuclide and a radiopaque material. Suitable antibodies and antigen binding fragments are described in detail above.

In one embodiment, a kit for detecting PD-L1 is provided, wherein the kit includes an antibody or antigen binding fragment described herein. In one embodiment, the kit may also include instructions and one or more reagents for detecting PD-L1. In one embodiment, the kit includes an antigen or antigen binding fragment described herein, along with instructions for preparing a formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sample for IHC and/or one or more reagents for IHC. In one embodiment, the kit includes an antigen or antigen binding fragment described herein as a primary antibody and a secondary antibody that specifically binds thereto. In one embodiment, the kit includes a labeled antigen or antigen binding fragment described herein, wherein the label includes a fluorescent label such as fluoroscein or rhodamine or an enzymatic reporter such as horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or alkaline phosphatase (AP). In one embodiment, the kit includes a blocking reagent that includes at least about 1% and up to about 5%, or between about 2% and 3%, or about 2% cold water fish skin gelatin protein (CWF) in a buffer, such as phosphate buffered saline (PBS). In one embodiment, the kit includes buffer for antigen retrieval, such as a citrate buffer, for example sodium citrate, at a concentration of at least about 1, 2, 5, or 10 mM and up to about 10, 15 or 20 mM and at a pH between about 5.5 and 9, or a pH of about 6.

In another embodiment, a kit for treating diseases involving the expression of PD-L1 is provided, wherein the kit includes an antibody or antigen binding fragment described herein and instructions to administer the antibody or antigen binding fragment to a subject in need of treatment. There is also provided a pharmaceutical or diagnostic pack or kit comprising one or more containers filled with one or more of the ingredients of the pharmaceutical compositions as disclosed herein, such as one or more anti-PD-L1 antibodies or fragments provided herein. Optionally associated with such container(s) can be a notice in the form prescribed by a governmental agency regulating the manufacture, use or sale of pharmaceuticals or biological products, which notice reflects approval by the agency of manufacture, use or sale for human administration, e.g., an authorisation number.

In another embodiment, an article of manufacture that includes a container in which a composition containing an antibody or antigen binding fragment described herein and a package insert or label indicating that the composition can be used to treat diseases characterized by the expression or overexpression of PD-L1 is provided. In one embodiment, there is provided a kit for treating and/or preventing a PD-L1-mediated condition or disease, the kit comprising an antibody or fragment as disclosed herein in any embodiment or combination of embodiments (and optionally a further therapeutic agent as described elsewhere herein) optionally in combination with a label or instructions for use to treat and/or prevent said disease or condition in a human; optionally wherein the label or instructions comprise a marketing authorisation number (e.g., an FDA or EMA authorisation number); optionally wherein the kit comprises an IV or injection device that comprises the antibody or fragment. In another embodiment, the kit comprises an antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof contained within a container or an IV bag. In another embodiment, the container or IV bag is a sterile container or a sterile IV bag. In another embodiment, the antibody or antigen binding fragment therefore is formulated into a pharmaceutical composition contained within a (sterile) container or contained within a (sterile) IV bag. In a further embodiment, the kit further comprises instructions for use.

EXAMPLES Example 1 Antigen Preparation, Immunization Procedures, and Hybridoma Generation

The following example provides a detailed description of the generation and identification of a panel of anti-human PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies using the KyMouse™ system (see, e.g., WO2011/004192, WO2011/158009 and WO2013/061098). To this end, genetically engineered mice containing a large number of human immunoglobulin genes were immunized with soluble recombinant human PD-L1 or surface expressed human PD-L1 displayed on mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells. Various immunization regimens, including conventional intraperitoneal injections as well as a rapid immunisation at multiple sites (RIMMS) regimen were set up, boosting animals over several weeks (see detailed methods below). At the end of each regime, secondary lymphoid tissue such as the spleen, and in some cases, the lymph nodes were removed. Tissues were prepared into a single cell suspension and fused with SP2/0 cells to generate a stable hybridoma cell line.

Materials and Methods

a) Generation of Stably Transfected MEF and CHO-S Cells Expressing Human PD-L1:

Full length human PD-L1 sequence (SEQ ID No: 1 also known as B7-H1) was codon optimized for mammalian expression and cloned into an expression vector under the CMV promoter flanked by 3′ and 5′ piggyBac specific terminal repeat sequences, facilitating stable integration into the cell genome (see: “A hyperactive piggyBac transposase for mammalian applications”; Yusa K., et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA., 108(4): 1531-6, 2011 Jan. 25). Furthermore, the expression vector contained a puromycin selection cassette to facilitate stable cell line generation. The human PD-L1 expression plasmid was co-transfected with a plasmid encoding piggyBac transposase into an in-house derived mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cell line (embryos used to generate this line were obtained from a 129S5 crossed to C57/BL6 female mouse) and CHO-S cells using the FreeStyle Max transfection reagent (Invitrogen) according to manufacturer instructions. 24 hours after transfection, the media was supplemented with puromycin and grown for at least two weeks to select a stable cell line with media being exchanged every 3 to 4 days. The expression of hPD-L1 was assessed by flow cytometry using an anti-human PD-L1-PE conjugated antibody (eBioscience). Complete MEF media was made up of Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (Gibco) supplemented with 10% v/v fetal bovine serum (Gibco). Complete CHO-S media was made up of CD-CHO media (Gibco) supplemented with 8 mM Glutamax (Gibco). Transfected CHO cells were used for screening purposes (see Example 2).

b) Preparation of MEF Cells for Mouse Immunizations:

Cell culture medium was removed and cells washed once with 1×PBS. Cells were treated for 5 minutes with trypsin to loosen cells from tissue culture surface. Cells were collected and trypsin neutralized by the addition of complete MEF media. Cells were then centrifuged at 300 g for 10 minutes and washed with 25 mL of 1×PBS. Cells were counted and resuspended at the appropriate concentration in 1×PBS.

c) Immunisations with PD-L1

Genetically engineered Kymouse™ HK strain, containing human immunoglobulin genes producing human kappa (HK) light chain antibodies (Lee et al, Nature Biotechnology, 32, 6-363, 2014) were immunized by various immunisation regimens for the generation of human anti-PD-L1 antibodies.

Mice were immunised either with soluble recombinant hPD-L1 (R&D Systems, 156-B7, Fc chimera) using a modified sub-cutaneous immunisation procedure (RIMMS; modified after Kilpatrick et al., (“Rapid development of affinity matured monoclonal antibodies using RIMMS”; Hybridoma. 1997 August; 16(4):381-9.) 1997, hereafter referred to as KM031), or by using soluble recombinant hPD-L1 in a prime-rest-boost regime by sub-cutaneous administration (hereafter referred to as KM032) or by combination of soluble recombinant hPD-L1 and stably transfected MEF cells expressing hPD-L1 administered intra-peritoneally (hereafter referred to as KM033). Sigma Adjuvant System was used for all immunisations and rest intervals were usually between 2 and 3 weeks. Serum from serial or terminal blood samples were analysed for the presence of specific antibodies by ELISA and flow cytometry and the titre data was used (where possible) to select mice to be used for hybridoma fusions. A further regimen, KM042 immunising with MEF-PD-L1 cells alone, or protein alone in a prime-rest-boost setting, was also performed, but out of six antibodies confirmed to bind to hPD-L1, no neutralising antibodies were identified.

d) Cloning and Expression of Recombinant Proteins

DNA sequences encoding PD-L1 were purchased as synthetic DNA strings and cloned into appropriate mammalian expression vectors for transient expression in Expi293 and CHO cells. The sequence listing shows the sequences of the antigens, where available, and affinity tags for purification/labelling (shown in bold and underlined), see Seq ID Nos: 3 to 6.

e) Determining Serum Titre by Reverse PD-L1 ELISA Protocol

Titres in mouse serum samples were determined using a reverse PD-L1 ELISA protocol. Anti-mouse IgG capture antibody (Southern Biotech) (4 μg/mL diluted in PBS, 50 μL/well) was adsorbed to 96 well low auto-fluorescent, high protein binding plates (Costar) overnight at 4° C. Excess IgG was removed by washing three times with PBS-Tween (0.1% v/v) and the wells were blocked with 1% w/v bovine serum albumin (BSA, Sigma) in PBS for 1 hour at room temperature, after which plates were washed three times with PBS-Tween (0.1% v/v). A titration of mouse serum was prepared, diluting samples in reagent diluent (0.1% w/v BSA/PBS). 50 μL/well of this titration was then added to ELISA plates. To determine the change in activity level due to immunization, serum from each animal prior to immunization was diluted to 1/100 in reagent diluent and 50 μL/well added to the ELISA plate. Following incubation, plates were washed as before to remove unbound proteins. Biotinylated hPD-L1-his (in-house generated protein, Seq ID No: 3, labelled in-house using Sulfo-NHS-LC-Biotin (Thermo)), used at 100 ng/mL in reagent diluent; 50 μL/well) was then added to the plates and incubated at room temperature for 1 hour. Unbound biotinylated hPD-L1 was removed by washing with PBS-Tween (0.1% v/v), while the remaining biotinylated hPD-L1 was detected by addition of streptavidin-HRP (Sigma) diluted 1/10000 in reagent diluent. Following incubation for 1 hour at room temperature, plates were washed as described before and 50 μL TMB (Sigma) was added to the plate. The reaction was stopped by adding 50 μL 1M sulphuric acid (Fluka Analytical). The OD at 450 nm was measured on an Envision plate reader (PerkinElmer). Titres were not performed for KM032 as only one mouse was immunised. For KM031, titres were performed on terminal bleeds only.

f) Determination of Serum Titres by Flow Cytometry Using CHO-S Expressed hPD-L1:

CHO-S cells expressing hPD-L1, suspended in FACS buffer (PBS+1% w/v BSA+0.1% w/v sodium azide) were distributed to a 96-well, V-bottom plate (Greiner) at a density of 105 cells per well. A titration of mouse serum was prepared, diluting samples in FACS buffer. 50 μL/well of this titration was then added to the cell plate. To determine the change in activity level due to immunization, serum from each animal prior to immunization was diluted to 1/100 in FACS buffer and 25 μL/well added to the cells. Cells were incubated at 4° C. for 1 hour. Cells were washed twice with 150 μL PBS, centrifuging after each wash step and aspirating supernatant (centrifuged at 300×g for 3 minutes). To detect antibody binding, PE goat-anti-mouse IgG (Jackson ImmunoResearch) was diluted 1/500 in FACS buffer and 50 μL was added to the cells. Cells were incubated 1 hour at 4° C. in the dark, then washed twice with 150 μL PBS as above. To fix cells, 100 μL 2% v/v paraformaldehyde was added and cells incubated for 30 minutes at 4° C. Cells were then pelleted by centrifugation at 300×g and the plates resuspended in 50 μL of FACS buffer. PE signal intensity (geometric mean) was measured by flow cytometry using a BD FACS Array instrument. Titres were performed by this method for KM033 only.

g) Murine Tissue Isolation and Preparation:

Following final boost, mice were culled and spleens were excised from immunized mice, washed in 1×PBS and kept on ice until further processing. Tissues were prepared in buffer containing 1×PBS (Invitrogen) and 3% heat-inactivated FBS (Invitrogen). Splenocytes were dispersed by mashing the tissue through a 45 μm strainer (BD Falcon) and rinsing with 30 mL 3% FBS/PBS buffer before centrifugation at 700 g for 10 minutes at 4° C. To remove red blood cells, the pelleted splenocytes were resuspended in 4 mL Red Blood Cell Lysis Buffer (Sigma). After 4 minutes of incubation, the lysis reaction was stopped by addition of 3% FBS/1×PBS buffer. Cell clumps were filtered out with a 45 μm strainer. The remaining splenocytes were pelleted for further procedures. For KM031 and KM032, axillary, inguinal and mesenteric lymph nodes were also removed and placed in sterile 1×PBS on ice until further processing. The lymph nodes were processed separately from splenocytes. Lymph node cells were prepared as above, but did not undergo red blood cell lysis. The remaining lymph node cells were pelleted for further procedures.

h) Hybridoma Fusion:

Spleen and lymph node cells were pooled from KM031 and also from KM032 and subjected to a negative selection method using the MACS® Separation system. Briefly, where lymph nodes were used those cells were pooled with the splenocytes from the corresponding mice after red blood cell lysis and total cell number determined. Cells were resuspended in 100 μL 3% FBS/PBS buffer per 107 cells, before adding 10 μL of Pan B Cell Biotin-Antibody Cocktail (Cat#130-095-813) per 107 total cells and 10 μL of anti-IgD-Biotin antibody (Cat#130-096-979) and incubated for 10 minutes at 4° C. 2 mL FBS/PBS buffer was added and the cells were spun down at 700 g for 10 minutes. The supernatant was aspirated completely and 100 uL fresh buffer was added, then 30 uL Anti-Biotin MicroBeads (Cat#130-047-302) was added per 107 cells along with 7 μL Anti-Mouse IgM MicroBeads (Miltenyi Biotec). The cells were incubated for 15 minutes in the refrigerator. The cells/MicroBeads mixture was then applied to a pre-wetted LD column (Miltenyi Biotec) placed in a magnetic MACS Separator and washed with 3% FBS/PBS buffer. The unlabelled cells that flowed through the column were collected in 3% FBS/PBS buffer.

KM033 cells were subjected to a positive selection method using the MACS® Separation system. After red blood cell lysis, splenocytes were resuspended in 80 μL 3% FBS/PBS buffer per 107 cells, before adding anti-mouse IgG1 (Cat#130-047-101) plus anti-mouse IgG2a+b MicroBeads (Cat#130-047-201) and incubated for 15 minutes at 4° C. The cell/MicroBead mixture was then applied to a pre-wetted LS column (Miltenyi Biotec) placed in a magnetic MACS Separator and washed with 3% FBS/PBS buffer. IgG positive cells were collected in the labelled, column-bound fraction in 3% FBS/PBS buffer.

Enriched B-cells were treated with CpG (Hokkaido System Science) overnight (final concentration 25 μM) and the following day washed once in BSA fusion buffer (0.3 M D-Sorbitol, 0.11 mM calcium acetate hydrate, 0.5 mM magnesium acetate tetrahydrate and 0.1% BSA (v/w), adjusted to pH 7.2). Washed cells were resuspended in 200 μL BSA fusion buffer and cell count determined. SP2/0 cells were treated in the same way, but washed twice instead of once with BSA fusion buffer. B-cells fused at a ratio of 3:1 with SP2/0 myeloma cells by electrofusion using a BTX ECM 2001 Electro Cell Manipulator (Harvard Apparatus). Each fusion was left overnight in recovery medium (Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (high glucose, no phenol red) supplemented with OPI (Sigma), 1×L-Glutamax (Gibco), 20% FBS (Gibco, batch-tested for hybridoma) and 0.05 mM 2-mercaptoethanol), then resuspended in 1 part recovery medium and 9 parts semi-solid medium (ClonaCell-HY Hybridoma Selection Medium D, Stemcell Technologies) and seeded onto 10 cm petri dishes. Visible colonies were picked 12 days later into 96-well plates and cultured for another 2 to 3 days prior to screening.

Example 2 Hybridoma Supernatant Screening

After generation of hybridoma clones, the hybridoma supernatant was assessed in a sequential primary and secondary screen and appropriate hybridoma clones selected based on criteria of antibody binding to human PD-L1 and receptor neutralization activity. In the screening cascades described, 9317 hybridoma clones were tested and 120 identified as primary hits. Thereafter, 36 hybridoma clones were confirmed by using secondary screening criteria (see details in Materials and Methods and Table 1). Among the clones identified by secondary screen, four clones were selected by the inventors to be part of the antibody shortlist, dependent upon desired selection criteria (see details in Example 3).

Materials and Methods

a) Primary Screen—Binding to Cell-Expressed Human PD-L1:

Supernatants collected from hybridoma cells were screened for the ability of secreted antibodies to bind to hPD-L1 expressed on the surface of CHO-S cells. To determine CHO-S hPD-L1 binding, cells were plated in black-walled, clear-bottom tissue culture treated 384-well plates (Costar) at 1×104/well in F12 media (Gibco) supplemented with 10% FBS (Gibco) and cultured overnight. Culture media was removed from 384-well assay plates. At least 5 μL of hybridoma supernatant or 5 □L MIH1 at 2 μg/mL in hybridoma maintaining media (HMM) or isotype IgG1 control antibody (referred to in some instances as Cm7, Sigma M9269, at a final concentration of 1 μg/mL) diluted in HMM were added to each well. HMM was made up of Advanced DMEM (Gibco) supplemented with 1×Glutamax (Gibco), 20% v/v FBS (Gibco), 0.05 mM β-Mercaptoethanol, 1×HT supplement (Gibco), and 1× penicillin/streptomycin (Gibco). 45 μL FACS buffer containing 500 ng/mL IRDye 800CW anti-Mouse Ab (LICOR) and 0.2 μM DRAQ5 (Biostatus) was added to each well. Plates were incubated for 1 hour at 4° C. Supernatant was aspirated and 25 μL 4% v/v paraformaldehyde added and plates were incubated for 15 minutes at room temperature. Plates were washed twice with 100 μL PBS and then the wash buffer was completely removed. Fluorescence intensity was read by scanning plates using an Odyssey Infrared Imaging System (LI-COR®). Anti-mouse binding (800 nm channel) was normalised to cell number (700 nm channel) according to the LI-COR® recommended algorithm. Percent effect was calculated as detailed below (Equation 1). Total binding was defined using reference antibody at a final assay concentration of μg/mL. Non-specific binding was defined using mouse IgG1 isotype control (Sigma) at a final assay concentration of 0.2 μg/mL. Criteria for hit selection were based on assay signal and visual inspection of scanned plates.

Equation 1: Calculation of Percentage Effect from Primary Screen (LI-COR) and HTRF

Using 800% Resp values (LI-COR) or 665/620 nm ratio (see equation 2) (HTRF)

Percent effect = ( sample well - non - specific binding ) × 100 ( total binding - non - specific binding )

Non-specific binding=values from wells containing isotype control mouse IgG1

Total Binding=values from wells containing reference antibody

    • b) Primary screen: Binding to recombinant human PD-L1:

In parallel to screening for binding to CHO-S expressed PD-L1, supernatants collected from hybridoma wells were screened for the ability of secreted antibodies to bind to hPD-L1 expressed as a recombinant protein (produced in-house). Binding of secreted antibodies to recombinant PD-L1 were identified by HTRF® (Homogeneous Time-Resolved Fluorescence, Cisbio) assay format using biotinylated hPD-L1. 10 μL hybridoma supernatant was transferred to a white 384 well, low-volume, non-binding surface polystyrene plate (Greiner). 5 μL 230 nM biotinylated hPD-L1 his diluted in HTRF assay buffer (PBS (Sigma)+0.53 M KF (Sigma)+0.1% w/v BSA (Sigma)) was pre-incubated with 10 μL hybridoma supernatant or 10 μL reference antibody diluted to 3.3 nM working concentration for 1 hour at room temperature. For negative control wells, 10 μL HMM was added. Streptavidin D2 (Cisbio), and goat anti-mouse IgG (Southern Biotech) labelled with Europium cryptate (Cisbio) were both diluted 1/100 in HTRF assay buffer, and 5 □L of this mixture added to all wells. The plate was left to incubate in the dark for 2 hours prior to reading time resolved fluorescence at 620 nm and 665 nm emission wavelengths using an EnVision plate reader (Perkin Elmer). More details of the HTRF® assay technology can be found in Mathis (1995) Clinical Chemistry 41(9), 1391-1397.

Data were analysed by calculating 665/620 ratio and percent effect for each sample according to equation 2 and equation 1 respectively.

Equation 2: Calculation of 665/620 Ratio
665/620ratio=(sample 665/620 nm value)×10000

In general, criteria for hit selection were based on greater than or equal to 10 percent effect. In some instances, hit selection was based on greater than or equal to 20 percent effect.

Progression to secondary screen was based on a combination of data from recombinant PD-L1 binding hits and binding to human PD-L1 expressed on CHO cells.

c) Secondary Screen: Binding to Cell Expressed Recombinant Human PD-L1 or Natively Expressed hPD-L1 and Binding Affinity

To determine whether wells selected using the primary screen selection criteria had the required characteristics set by the inventors, a number of assays were performed. Hybridoma clones selected as hits from primary screening were cultured for 3 days and the supernatants collected from hybridoma cells were tested to assess whether the secreted antibodies that bind to in some cases CHO-S expressed hPD-L1, or in some cases ES2 cells. In addition, the ability to neutralise recombinant hPD-1 Fc, binding to CHO-S hPD-L1 or ES2 cells was also assessed. Binding of antibodies to human PD-L1 by SPR was also tested.

d) Binding to Cell Expressed hPD-L1 and Neutralisation and hPD-L1 Binding to PD-1

Binding of hybridoma supernatants was tested for ability to bind to either CHO-S cells expressing hPD-L1 or ES2 cells. CHO-S cells expressing hPD-L1 (generated in-house), or ES2 cells (ATCC CRL-1978) natively expressing hPD-L1 were diluted in FACS buffer and were distributed to a 96 well V-bottom plate (Greiner) at a density of 0.5 to 1×105 cells per well. Cells were washed with 150 μL PBS and centrifuged at 300 g for 3 minutes. Supernatant was aspirated and 150 μL PBS added. This wash step was repeated.

25 μL hybridoma supernatant was added to the washed cells and incubated for 10-15 minutes. Reference antibody was diluted 2 μg/mL and 25 μL added to cells. 25 μL human PD1-Fc (in-house, Seq ID No: 4, or Sino Biologicals) was diluted to 500 ng/mL in FACS buffer was then added to wells. Cells were incubated at 4° C. for 30 minutes. Cells were washed twice with 150 μL FACS buffer, centrifuging at 300 g for 3 minutes after each wash step and aspirating supernatant.

To detect antibody and receptor binding, 50 μL goat anti-human IgG-PE (Jackson ImmunoResearch) and APC anti-mouse IgG (Jackson ImmunoResearch) diluted 1/500 in FACS buffer was added to the cells. Cells were incubated for 30 minutes at 4° C. in the dark. Cells were washed twice as above and resuspended in FACS buffer for analysis. PE and APC signal intensity (geometric mean) was measured by flow cytometry using a BD FACS Array instrument. Data was plotted as geometric mean values without further calculation.

e) Determination of Affinity by Surface Plasmon Resonance

Label-free surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis was carried out on the ProteOn XPR36 (BioRad) array SPR machine. An anti-mouse IgG capture surface was created on a GLC biosensor chip using amine coupling of an anti-mouse IgG from GE Healthcare. Test antibodies were captured on this surface and human PD-L1 (in-house) was used as the analyte at 256 nM, 64 nM, 16 nM, 4 nM and 1 nM. The assay was carried out at 25° C. using HBS-EP (Teknova H8022). Buffer alone was used to reference the binding sensorgrams. The data was analysed using the 1:1 model inherent to the ProteOn XPR36 analysis software. In some instances, hybridoma supernatants were used as the source of antibody; in other instances, antibody was purified from hybridoma supernatant prior to analysis (see below).

f) Purification of Antibodies from Hybridoma Supernatant

Protein G resin in a gravity-flow column was first washed with water, then 50 mM sodium hydroxide or IgG Elute (Pierce) and was then equilibrated with tissue culture grade PBS. Clarified hybridoma supernatant containing 10% v/v 10× tissue culture grade PBS was applied several times to the equilibrated protein G column. Resin was washed with tissue culture grade PBS to remove unbound material. Antibody was then eluted with IgG Elute (Pierce) and the eluted fraction was then neutralized with 100 mM final TRIS, at pH 8.0. The eluted fraction was then concentrated down to <1.5 mL by centrifugation in a 10 kDa cut-off centrifugal filter unit. Tissue culture grade PBS was then added and the sample was concentrated down again to <1.5 mL. Protein concentration was quantified at OD280 using the molar extinction coefficient inherent to the Nanodrop for IgG. Finally, sample was analysed on a SDS-PAGE to assess purity.

TABLE 1
Summary of hybridoma clone screening
Number of
Number of Number of Number of Lead
Experiment hybridoma Primary hits secondary hits Candidate
ID screened cherry picked confirmed mAbs
KM031 1872 41  4 0
KM032  115 14  6 1
KM033 7330 66 26 1

Example 3 Antibody Shortlist Selection Criteria

Binding to hPD-L1 natively expressed on E52 cells, or neutralisation of recombinant human PD-1 binding to E52 cells were used as criteria for secondary screen hit selection. Hits to progress to purification and further characterisation were determined by a combination of high affinity for human PD-L1 and neutralisation capacity.

After the selection and characterization of shortlisted antibodies, their fully-human variable domains were recovered using RT-PCR using a mixture of forward and reverse primers. Antibodies were reformatted into a human IgG1 backbone and expressed using a transient expression system in CHO-S cells.

Materials and Methods

a) RNA Isolation from Hybridoma Cells:

Total RNA was extracted from hybridoma cells using TRIzol™ Reagent (Invitrogen). The quantity and quality of the isolated RNA was analysed spectrophotometrically.

b) Antibody Variable Domain Recovery by RT-PCR:

Selected clones were used to prepare total RNA, which was used in an RT-PCR reaction to recover the heavy and light chain V-regions. Murine IgG-specific reverse primers and human Ig-leader sequence-specific forward primer sets were used for the heavy chains. Murine kappa constant region specific reverse primers and human kappa-leader sequence specific forward primer sets were used for the kappa light chains. The RT-PCR products were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis with the DNA of the predicted size being gel purified and sequenced in the forward and reverse directions. Alternatively, the RT-PCR products were subcloned into a cloning vector and DNA of individual colonies submitted for sequencing.

Example 4 Selection of Final Lead Panel

Recombinantly expressed antibodies were analysed by SPR to confirm binding to cynomolgus monkey PD-L1, as well as human PD-L1. Antibodies were also tested in a dendritic cell-T-cell mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) for ability to enhance IFNγ production (FIG. 1). Antibodies with consistent immune-stimulatory effects in the MLR, and binding to both human and cynomolgus PD-L1 were selected as the final lead panel—these were designated as clone 84G09 and clone 1D05. Data in FIG. 1 is from a single experiment. A further five experiments were conducted and showed similar results (84G09 showed activity in 3 out of 5 experiments, 1D05 showed activity in 3 out of 4 experiments, 1A01 showed activity is 1 out of 3 experiments and 8B09 showed activity in 0 out of 3 experiments). One further experiment failed (including positive control).

Materials and Methods

a) Surface Plasmon Resonance for Analysis of Antibodies with Human Constant Region

Label-free surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis was carried out on the ProteOn XPR36 (BioRad) array SPR machine. An anti-human IgG capture surface was created on a GLC biosensor chip using a combination of anti-human Fc antibodies (Jackson Labs 09-005-008, 109-006-008 and 309-006-008) by amine coupling. Test antibodies were captured on this surface and human PD-L1-his and cynomolgus monkey PD-L1-FLAG (in-house, Seq ID No: 5) was used as the analyte at 128 nM, 32 nM, 8 nM, 2 nM, 0.5 nM and 0 nM. The data was analysed using the 1:1 model inherent to the ProteOn XPR36 analysis software.

b) Dendritic Cell—T Cell MLR (Mixed Lymphocyte Reaction)

Dendritic cells were generated from monocytic precursors. Monocytic precursors were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated using Ficoll-Paque plus (GE Healthcare) density gradient centrifugation from leukoreduction system chambers (NHSBT). Monocytes were isolated from PBMCs using negative selection magnetic separation beads (Miltenyi Biotec). Monocytes were plated in 96-well, flat-bottom TC plates at 5×104/well and 1×104/well and cultured with cytokines GM-CSF and IL-4 (both Peprotech) at 100 ng/mL for 7 days in culture media (Advanced RPMI (Gibco) supplemented with 10% v/v FBS and 2 nM glutamine (culture medium).

After 7 days, T-cells were isolated from allogeneic PBMC using negative selection magnetic separation beads (Miltenyi). After isolation the isolation buffer was removed by centrifugation and aspiration. The cells were resuspended at 1×106 cells/mL in culture medium, and 100 μL of T-cells were added to all wells with the exception of the DC-only wells. An additional 100 μL of culture medium was added to the DC-only and T-cell-only wells. Serial three-fold dilutions of antibodies were prepared in culture medium (top concentration 60 nM final). 10 μL of each dilution was added to cells.

The cells were incubated for five days at 37° C. After this period IFN-γ was measured by Duoset ELISA (R&D Systems) according to manufacturer's instructions.

Example 5 In Depth Characterisation of Lead Antibodies

Lead antibodies 84G09 and 1D05 were subjected to in-depth characterisation, including SPR at 37° C., full titrations of antibodies in neutralisation assays, and confirmation of binding to PD-L1 but not PD-L2. Antibodies were also expressed with a human IgG4(PE) constant region (Seq ID No: 199) for analysis by mixed lymphocyte reaction. Lead antibodies retain sub-nanomolar affinity at 37° C., and show potent neutralisation of PD-L1 binding to both PD-1 and CD80. Antibodies do not cross-react with PD-L2, bind natively expressed PD-L1 on dendritic cells, and are potent stimulators of IFNγ production in an MLR.

a) Human PD-L1/PD-1 Neutralisation Assay (ELISA)

PD-1 Fc (in house, Seq ID No:6) diluted to 1 μg/mL was adsorbed to 96-well, low auto-fluorescent, high protein binding plates (Costar) overnight at 4° C. Excess protein was removed by washing with PBS-Tween (0.1% v/v) and the wells were blocked with 1% w/v bovine serum albumin (BSA, Sigma) in PBS for 1 hour at room temperature, after which plates were washed as described previously. 30 μL titration (1/3 dilution) of antibody was added to a 96-well non-binding plate diluted in ELISA assay buffer (PBS+0.1% BSA). 30 μL biotinylated PD-L1 his (in-house, Seq ID No:3) at 50 nM working concentration (25 nM final assay concentration [FAC]) was added to the plate excluding control wells where 30 μL ELISA assay buffer was added. The plate was incubated for 30 minutes before transferring 50 μL to the coated plates. The coated plates were incubated for 1 hour at room temperature. Excess protein was removed by washing with PBS-Tween (0.1% v/v). PD-L1 binding was detected using streptavidin labelled Europium (Perkin Elmer) diluted 1/1000 in DELFIA assay buffer (Perkin Elmer). Plates were washed with TBS (Tris buffered saline)-Tween (0.1% v/v) and 50 μL/well of DELFIA Enhancement solution (Perkin Elmer) was added to the plate. Time-resolved fluorescence was measured at 615 nm on an Envision plate reader (PerkinElmer). IC50 values were determined using GraphPad Prism software by curve fitting using a four-parameter logistic equation (Equation 5). Results are shown in FIG. 2 and summarised in Table 2.

Equation 5: Percentage of Receptor Binding (ELISA)

Based on fluorescence at 615 nm

% of specific binding = sample value - non - specific binding total binding - non - specific binding × 100
Total binding=biotinylated PD-L1 (no antibody)
Non-specific binding=no biotinylated PD-L1

Equation 6: Four Parameter Logistic Calculation
Y=Bottom+(Top−Bottom)/(1+10^((Log IC50−X)*HillSlope))
X=logarithm of concentration.
Y=specific binding (equation 6)
Top and Bottom=Plateaus in same units as Y (specific binding)

Log IC50 in same units as X. Y starts at Bottom and goes to Top with a sigmoid shape. Specific binding decreases as X increases.

c) CHO Human PD-L1/PD-1 or CD80 Neutralisation Assay (Flow Cytometry)

CHO-S cells untransfected (referred to as WT) or transfected with hPD-L1 were diluted in FACS buffer and were distributed to a 96-well V-bottom plate (Greiner) at a density of 1×105 cells per well. Biotinylated human PD-1-Fc (in-house expressed, Seq ID No:6) or CD80-Fc (R&D Systems) were prepared as a titrations from 1 μM final assay concentration (FAC), 1/2 dilution series in FACS buffer. Antibody titrations were prepared from 300 nM working concentration, 150 nM FAC, as a 1/3 dilution series in FACS buffer. Biotinylated PD-1 or CD80 were diluted in FACS buffer to 60 nM working concentration, 30 nM FAC. Plates were centrifuged at 300×g for 3 minutes to supernatant aspirated. 25 μL ligand and 25 μL antibody solution (or 50 μL of ligand titration) were added to cells and incubated at 4° C. for 1 hour. Cells were washed with 150 μL of PBS and centrifuged at 300 g for 3 minutes. Supernatant was aspirated and 150 μL PBS added. This wash step was repeated. Presence of bound CD80 or PD-1 was detected by addition of 50 μL of streptavidin-AlexaFluor 647 (Jackson ImmunoResearch) diluted 1/500 in FACS buffer. Cells were incubated 30 minutes at 4° C. in the dark. Cells were washed as previously described. To fix cells, 100 μL 2% v/v paraformaldehyde was added and cells incubated for 30 minutes at 4° C., cells were pelleted by centrifugation at 300×g and the plates resuspended in 50 μL FACS buffer. AlexaFluor 647 signal intensity (geometric mean) was measured by flow cytometry using a BD FACS Array instrument. Results are shown in FIGS. 3 and 4 and summarised in Table 2.

Equation 4: Percentage of Receptor Binding (Flow Cytometry)

Based on geometric mean fluorescence

% of specific binding = sample value - non - specific binding total binding - non - specific binding × 100

Total binding=biotinylated PD-1 or CD80 only (no antibody)

Non-specific binding=no ligand streptavidin AlexaFluor 647 only

TABLE 2
Summary of lead antibody binding and
neutralisation of PD-L1 binding to PD-1 or CD80
Receptor Neutralisation (mean of n = 3)
Human Cyno PD-L1/PD-1 PD-L1/CD80 PD-L1/PD-1
PD-L1 PD-L1 neutralisation neutralisation neutralisation
(nM at (nM at (FACS) (FACS) (ELISA)
Clone ID 37° C.) 37° C.) IC50 (nM) IC50 (nM) IC50 (nM)
1D05 0.42 0.43 2.21 1.18  5.21
84G09 0.43 0.52 1.82 1.60  7.90
Benchmark 0.25 4.79 1.85 1.42 14.1

d) PD-L1/PD-L2 Binding

PD-L1-Fc (R&D Systems) and PD-L2-Fc (R&D Systems) were diluted to 2 μg/mL and separately adsorbed to 96-well, high protein binding plates (Greiner) overnight at 4° C. Excess protein was removed by washing with PBS-Tween (0.1% v/v) and the wells were blocked with 250 uL/well Pierce Protein Free Blocking Buffer (Thermo, 37572) for 1 hour, after which plates were washed as described previously. Biotinylated anti-PD-L1 antibodies (in-house) or anti-PD-L2 control antibody (R&D systems) were diluted in blocking buffer and three-fold serial dilutions performed from 10 μg/mL. 100 μL each antibody dilution was added to the plates in duplicate and incubated for 1 hour at room temperature. Antibody binding was detected using streptavidin labelled Europium (Perkin Elmer) diluted 1/1000 in DELFIA assay buffer (Perkin Elmer). Plates were washed with TBS (Tris buffered saline)-Tween (0.1% v/v) and 50 μL/well of DELFIA Enhancement solution (Perkin Elmer) was added to the plate. Time-resolved fluorescence was measured at 615 nm on an Envision plate reader (PerkinElmer). Results are shown in FIG. 5.

e) SPR Analysis

Label-free surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis was performed as per Example 4, except the assay was performed at 37° C. Additionally, due to artefacts of running the assay at 37° C., the best referencing of the binding sensorgrams was found to be using a sensorgrams from a negative control antibody using the same concentrations of human PD-L1. Results are shown in Table 2.

f) Mixed Lymphocyte Reaction

Expanded CD4+ T-cells were thawed and rested in AIM V© medium (Gibco) at 37° C., 5% CO2 overnight prior to the assay day. Serial dilutions of anti-human PD-L1 mAbs were prepared in the AIM medium at 4× final concentration. 50 μL of diluted mAbs was added to 96-well, U-bottom plates. 1×104 immature dendritic cells (iDC) in 50 μL AIM medium and 1×105 expanded CD4+ T-cells (expanded using Dynabeads Human T-Activator CD3/CD28 by Life Technologies (Invitrogen/Applied Biosystems; Cat No: 11131D), according to manufacturer's instructions) in 100 μL AIM medium were added to the antibody dilutions in each well. Control wells include: CD4+ T-cells alone, iDC alone, CD4+ T-cell and iDC with or without IgG isotype control antibodies in 200 μL AIM medium. Reaction plates were incubated for 5 days in a humidified incubator (37° C. in 5% CO2). At the end of the assay, the plate was spun down (528×g for 3 minutes) and 100 μL of supernatant was collected from the wells by gentle pipetting. Supernatants were analysed using human IFNγ Quantikine ELISA kit (R&D Systems) according to manufacturer's instructions. Results are shown in FIG. 6.

g) Sequencing and Characterisation of Gene Segment Usage of 1D05 and 84G09

Antibodies were sequenced by Source Bioscience, and V-genes were compared to germline sequences.

TABLE 3
V region usage of lead antibodies
CDR3 CDR3
mutations mutations
CDR3 from CDR3 from
Antibody length germline length germline
clone ID V gene D gene J gene (aa) (aa) V gene J gene (aa) (aa)
1D05 IGHV3- IGHD3- IGHJ5* 16 6 IGKV1D- IGKJ5*1 9 1
9*01 10*01 02 39*01
84G09 IGHV3- IGHD3- IGHJ5* 15 4 IGKV1D- IGKJ5*1 9 4
9*01 10*01 02 39*01

Example 6 Antigen Preparation, Immunization Procedures, and Antigen-Specific B Cell Sorting and V-Region Recovery

Additional anti-human PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies were generated using the KyMouse™ system previously described. Genetically engineered HK mice were immunized with soluble recombinant human and mouse PD-L1 or surface expressed human and mouse PD-L1 displayed on mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells. Serum titres were performed by reverse ELISA and mice with the highest titres were selected for processing. At the end of each regime, spleen and lymph nodes were removed. Tissues were prepared into a single cell suspension and stained for sorting antigen-specific B-cells by FACS.

Materials and Methods

a) Immunisation of Mice

Mice were immunised with soluble recombinant human PD-L1 or a combination of human and mouse PD-L1 protein (in-house) as per the schedule described in Example 1 for KM032 (hereafter described as KM121). Mice were also immunised with human PD-L1 protein, and MEF cells expressing human or mouse PD-L1, as per the schedule described in Example 1 for KM033 (hereafter described as KM122). MEF cells expressing mouse PD-L1 were generated as per Example 1, but substituting mouse PD-L1 sequences for the human PD-L1 sequences, and substituting anti-mouse PD-L1 detection antibody (eBioscience) for the anti-human PD-L1 detection antibody.

b) Determining Serum Titre by Reverse PD-L1 ELISA Protocol

Titres in mouse serum samples were determined using a reverse PD-L1 ELISA protocol as per Example 1, with the following changes. In-house generated hPD-L1-his was labelled in-house using Lightning Link kit (Innova Biosciences), and used at 1 μg/mL in reagent diluent; 50 μL/well). Bound hPD-L1 was detected by addition of streptavidin-Europium (Perkin Elmer) diluted 1/1000 in DELFIA assay buffer (Perkin Elmer). Following incubation for 1 hour at room temperature in the dark, plates were washed using TBS (Tris buffered saline)-Tween (0.1% v/v) and 50 μL/well of DELFIA Enhancement solution (Perkin Elmer) was added to the plate. Time-resolved fluorescence was measured at 615 nm on an Envision plate reader (PerkinElmer). Fluorescence data was plotted as Europium counts.

c) Sorting of Antigen-Specific B Cells and Retrieval of V-Regions

The methods used were substantially as described in Example 1 of PCT application WO2015/040401. In brief, splenocytes and lymph node cells isolated from KM121 and KM122 immunisation regimes were stained with an antibody cocktail containing markers for the selection of cells of interest (CD19), whereas unwanted cells were excluded from the final sorted population (IgM, IgD, 7AAD). CD19+ B-cells were further labelled with human PD-L1 (Seq ID No:1) and mouse PD-L1 (Seq ID No: 325, labelled with AlexaFluor647 and AlexaFluor488, respectively, in-house using Lightning Link kits) to detect B-cells producing specific antibodies—cells binding human PD-L1, or both human and mouse PD-L1 were selected. These cells were single cell sorted by FACS into lysis buffer. V-region sequences were recovered using RT-PCR and two further rounds of PCR, then bridged to mouse IgG1 constant region and expressed in HEK293 cells. Supernatants from HEK293 cells were screened for the presence of PD-L1 binding antibodies. This method is hereafter referred to as BCT.

Example 7 Supernatant Screening

BCT supernatants were screened by HTRF, and selected primary hits further screened for binding to cell-expressed recombinant hPD-L1 and neutralisation of PD-1 binding, and for affinity of binding to human, cynomolgus and mouse PD-L1 recombinant protein by SPR, as described in this Example. KM121 antibodies with an affinity of 1 nM or better for human and in some cases also cynomolgus PD-L1 were taken forward for further characterisation. For KM122, antibodies with the capacity to neutralise PD-1 binding to cell-expressed PD-L1 were taken forward, along with high affinity (<1 nM) binding to both human and cynomolgus PD-L1. Antibodies did not bind to mouse PD-L1.

a) Primary Screen—Binding to Recombinant Human PD-L1 (BCT Supernatants)

Supernatants collected from BCT expression were screened for the ability of secreted antibodies to bind to hPD-L1 expressed as a recombinant protein (produced in-house). Binding of secreted antibodies to recombinant human and mouse PD-L1 were identified by HTRF® (Homogeneous Time-Resolved Fluorescence, Cisbio) assay format using FluoProbes® 647H (Innova Biosciences) labelled PD-L1 (referred to herein as 647 hPD-L1 or 647 mPD-L1 for human PD-L1 and mouse PD-L1 labelled with FluoProbes® 647H respectively). 5 μL BCT supernatant was transferred to a white 384-well, low-volume, non-binding surface polystyrene plate (Greiner). 5 μL of 25 nM 647 hPD-L1 or 647 mPD-L1 diluted in HTRF assay buffer was added to all wells. Reference antibody was diluted in BCT media (Gibco #A14351-01) to 40 nM and 5 μL added to plate. For negative control wells, 5 μL of mouse IgG1 (Sigma M9269 in some instances referred to as CM7) diluted to 40 nM in BCT media was added. Binding of secreted antibodies to PD-L1 was detected by addition of 10 μL of goat anti-mouse IgG (Southern Biotech) directly labelled with Europium cryptate (Cisbio) diluted 1/2000 in HTRF assay buffer. The plate was left to incubate in the dark for 2 hours prior to reading time resolved fluorescence at 620 nm and 665 nm emission wavelengths using an EnVision plate reader (Perkin Elmer).

Data were analysed by calculating 665/620 ratio and percent effect for each sample according to equation 2 and equation 1 respectively.

For KM121, primary hits were selected based on greater than or equal to 30 percent effect whereas for KM122 primary hits were selected based on greater than or equal to 40 percent effect.

Progression to secondary screen was based on data from recombinant PD-L1 binding.

b) Secondary Screen—Binding to Cell Expressed hPD-L1 and Neutralisation of hPD-L1 Binding to PD-1 (BCT Supernatants)

Binding of BCT supernatants were tested for ability to bind to CHO-S cells expressing hPD-L1. CHO-S cells expressing hPD-L1 (generated in-house), were diluted in FACS buffer (PBS 1% BSA 0.1% sodium azide) and were distributed to a 96-well, V-bottom plate (Greiner) at a density of 0.5-1×105 cells per well. Cells were washed with 150 μL PBS and centrifuged at 300 g for 3 minutes. Supernatant was aspirated and 150 μL PBS added. This wash step was repeated.

25 μL BCT neat supernatant, reference antibody or control antibody diluted to 300 nM in BCT media was added to the washed cells. 25 μL of 30 nM biotinylated human PD-1 (in-house) was added and cells were incubated at 4° C. for 60 minutes. 150 μL FACS buffer was added and cells washed as described above. To detect biotinylated PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 antibody binding, Streptavidin-647 (Jackson ImmunoResearch) and anti-Mouse PE (Jackson ImmunoResearch) were each diluted 1/500 in FACS buffer and 50 μL of this mixture added to cells. Cells were incubated 4° C. for 60 minutes. Cells were washed twice with 150 μL FACS buffer, centrifuging at 300 g for 3 minutes after each wash step and aspirating supernatant. Cells were fixed by addition of 50 μL 4% paraformaldehyde overnight. Cells were washed once as above and resuspended in FACS buffer for analysis. PE and APC signal intensity (geometric mean) was measured by flow cytometry using a BD FACS Array instrument. Data was plotted as geometric mean values without further calculation.

For KM121, secondary hits were selected based on high affinity (<1 nM) binding to human PD-L1. For KM122, secondary hits were selected based on comparable high affinity (<1 nM) binding human and cynomolgus PD-L1 and ability to neutralise PD-1 binding to cell-expressed PD-L1. Results are summarised in Table 4.

TABLE 4
Summary of BCT clone screening
Number of
BCT Number of Number of
Experiment supernatants Primary hits secondary hits
ID screened cherry picked confirmed
KM121  984 162 7*
KM122 1312 263 4
*three of these secondary hits were not included in the primary screen and were screened by SPR and neutralisation only

c) Analysis of Binding by Surface Plasmon Resonance

SPR analysis was carried out on the ProteOn XPR36 Array system. Anti-mouse IgG (GE Healthcare BR-1008-38) was immobilised on a GLM chip by primary amine coupling. Antibodies were directly captured from BCT supernatants. Human, mouse and cynomolgus PD-L1 were used as analytes and passed over the captured antibodies at a single concentration. The binding sensorgrams are double referenced with a 0 nM (ie buffer alone) injection, and the data is analysed using the 1:1 model inherent to the ProteOn analysis software. The assay is carried out at 25° C. and used HBS-EP as running buffer.

Example 8 Characterisation of Selected Antibodies

Selected hits were re-expressed with a human IgG1 constant region and sent for sequencing at Source Bioscience. V region usage is listed in Table 5. Hits were then analysed in an ELISA to determine their ability to neutralise PD-L1/PD-1 interactions, and PD-L 1/CD80 interactions. All seven KM121 hits were able to neutralise PD-L 1/CD80 interactions; however, four antibodies did not neutralise PD-L1/PD-1. Antibodies shown to neutralise both PD-1 and CD80 interactions with PD-L1 will be further screened for their ability to increase IFNγ in an autologous APC-T co-culture assay. KM122 hits are yet to be tested in the neutralisation assay. Results are shown in FIGS. 8 and 9.

Materials and Methods

a) PD-L1/PD-1 and PD-L 1/CD80 Neutralisation ELISA

CD80 (R&D Systems) or PD-1 (in-house) diluted to 2.5 μg/mL were adsorbed to 96-well, low auto-fluorescent, high protein binding plates (Costar) overnight at 4° C. Excess protein was removed by washing with PBS-Tween (0.1% v/v) and the wells were blocked with 1% w/v bovine serum albumin (BSA, Sigma) in PBS for 1 hour at room temperature, after which plates were washed with PBS-Tween as above. 60 μL of a titration (three-fold serial dilution) of antibody was added to a 96-well, non-binding plate diluted in ELISA assay buffer (PBS+0.1% BSA). 60 μL of biotin labelled PD-L1 at 16 nM working concentration (8 nM FAC) was added to the plate excluding control wells where 60 μL ELISA assay buffer was added. The plate was incubated for 30 minutes before transferring 50 μL to the coated plates. The coated plates were incubated for 1 hour at room temperature. Excess protein was removed by washing with PBS-Tween (0.1% v/v). PD-L1 binding was detected using streptavidin labelled europium (Perkin Elmer) diluted 1/1000 in DELFIA assay buffer (Perkin Elmer). The plates were washed with TBS (Tris buffered saline)-Tween (0.1% v/v) and 50 μL/well of DELFIA Enhancement solution (Perkin Elmer) was added to the plate. Time-resolved fluorescence was measured at 615 nm on an Envision plate reader (PerkinElmer). Percentage specific binding was calculated as defined in equation 5. IC50 values were determined using GraphPad Prism software by curve fitting using a four-parameter logistic equation (Equation 6).

TABLE 5
V Gene usage for antibody leads
CDR3
mutations CDR3
CDR3 from CDR3 from
Antibody length germline length germline
Regime clone ID V gene D gene J gene (aa) (aa) V gene J gene (aa) (aa)
KM121 411B08 IGHV3-7*01 IGHD4-11*01 IGHJ4*02 12 7 IGKV1D- IGKJ3*01 9 3
12*02
KM121 411C04 IGHV3-7*01 IGHD4-11*01 IGHJ4*02 12 6 IGKV1D- IGKJ3*01 9 1
12*02
KM121 411D07 IGHV4-4*02 IGHD3-10*01 IGHJ4*02 8 1 IGKV4-1*01 IGKJ2*04 8 2
KM121 386H03 IGHV4-4*02 IGHD3-10*01 IGHJ4*02 8 2 IGKV4-1*01 IGKJ2*04 8 1
KM121 389A03 IGHV4- IGHD6-13*01 IGHJ1*01 13 6 IGKV4-1*01 IGKJ1*01 9 1
39*01
KM121 385F01 IGHV3-7*01 IGHD4-11*01 IGHJ4*02 12 7 IGKV1D- IGKJ3*01 9 1
12*02
KM122 413D08 IGHV3- IGHD5-18*01 IGHJ6*02 11 3 IGKV1-17*01 IGKJ1*01 9 1
33*01
KM122 413G05 IGHV3- IGHD1-20*01 IGHJ6*02 16 5 IGKV1D- IGKJ4*01 9 1
11*01 12*02
KM122 413F09 IGHV3- IGHD5-18*01 IGHJ4*02 16 8 IGKV1-9*d01 IGKJ5*01 9 3
23*04
KM122 414B06 IGHV3-7*01 IGHD5-24*01 IGHJ4*02 12 6 IGKV1D- IGKJ3*01 9 0
12*02

Example 9 Testing of Lead Anti-PD-L1 Antibodies in an Autologous Co-Culture Assay

The effects of anti-PD-L1 antibodies on IFNγ production are analysed in a co-culture of purified peripheral blood monocytes and CD45RO+ memory T-cells from the same donor. In brief, monocytes are isolated by negative selection using magnetic separation beads (Miltenyi Biotec). CD45RO+ T-cells are isolated by a first round of negative selection for CD3+ T cells, and one round of positive selection for CD45RO+ cells (Miltenyi Biotec). Cell subsets are co-cultured at a 1:1 ratio in RPMI 10% hiFBS in the presence of anti-CD3 (UCHT1, eBioscience) to provide TCR stimulation, and antibodies under investigation. Supernatants are taken after 4 days for analysis of IFNγ by MSD (Meso Scale Discovery).

Example 10 Bispecific FIT-Ig Molecules Targeting PD-L1 and TIGIT

Bispecific FIT-Ig constructs were constructed substantially as described in Example 1 of International Application WO2015/103072 (in the name of EpiMab Biotherapeutics).

The bispecific constructs, having a FIT-Ig structure, as described in FIG. 1 of WO2015/103072 were expressed in CHO cells with a vector ratio of: Construct 1 DNA: 50%, Construct 2: DNA 25%: Construct 3 DNA 25% of total DNA in the transient transfection. The bispecific molecules were purified by standard Protein A and size exclusion chromatography. In this regard, Construct 1 is the polypeptide chain made up of VLA-CL-VHB-CH1-CH2-CH3 in FIG. 1 of WO2015/103072. Construct 2 is the polypeptide chain made up of VHA-CH1 in FIG. 1 of WO2015/103072, and Construct 3 is the polypeptide chain made up of VLB-CL in FIG. 1 of WO2015/103072.

SPR analysis was used to determine affinities of the various arms of the bispecific and the parental monospecific antibodies were used to determine if the affinities had been altered in the bispecific molecule. Sequential binding of antigens were used to test whether the bispecific constructs were capable of binding on both arms of the bispecific.

TABLE 6
Bispecific antibody constructs and control monospecific antibodies
Native variable Additional
Full name Alias domain1 Domain2
1D05/in-house anti-TIGIT Bispecific 1 1D05 (anti-PD-L1)* Kymab TIGIT
In-house anti-TIGIT/1D05 Bispecific 2 Kymab TIGIT 1D05 (anti-PD-L1)*
Tool anti-TIGIT/Tool anti-PD-L1 Bispecific 3 Tool anti-TIGIT Tool anti-PD-L1
Tool anti-PD-L1/Tool anti-TIGIT Bispecific 4 Tool anti-PD-L1 Tool anti-TIGIT
1D05 Antibody 1 In-house anti-PD-L1* na
Kymab TIGIT Antibody 2 In-house anti- TIGIT na
Tool PD-L1 Antibody 3 Tool anti-PD-L1 na
Tool TIGIT Antibody 4 Tool anti-TIGIT na
* 1D05 has the VH sequence of Seq ID No: 33 and the VL sequence of Seq ID No: 43, and a heavy chain constant region of Seq ID No: 205
1“Native Variable domain” corresponds to the antigen-binding site formed by VHB and VLB in FIG. 1 of WO2015/103072
2“Additional domain” corresponds to the antigen binding site formed by VHA and VLA in FIG. 1 of WO2015/103072

a) Kinetic Analysis

An anti-human IgG capture surface was created by a mix of 3 anti-human Fc antibodies (Jackson Labs 109-005-008, 109-006-008 and 309-006-008) immobilised on a GLC chip by primary amine coupling. Control monospecific antibodies or Bispecific antibody constructs were captured on this surface and human PD-L1 or TIGIT was used as analyte at 512 nM, 128 nM, 32 nM, 8 nM and 2 nM with 0 nM (i.e. buffer alone) used to double reference the binding sensorgrams. The assay was run at 25° C., using HBS-EP as running buffer. The sensorgrams were fitted to the 1:1 model inherent to the ProteOn analysis software.

TABLE 7
TIGIT Binding
KD
Full name Alias Ka Kd (nM)
1D05/in-house anti-TIGIT Bispecific 1 2.38E+06 2.65E−03 1.11
In-house anti-TIGIT/1D05 Bispecific 2 1.12E+06 2.02E−03 1.8
Tool anti-TIGIT/Tool Bispecific 3 2.10E+06 3.69E−03 1.75
anti-PD-L1
Tool anti-PD-L1/Tool Bispecific 4 3.22E+06 2.98E−03 0.93
anti-TIGIT
1D05 Antibody 1 nbs nbs nbs
Kymab TIGIT Antibody 2 1.58E+06 2.27E−03 1.44
Tool PD-L1 Antibody 3 nbs nbs nbs
Tool TIGIT Antibody 4 3.16E+06 5.42E−03 1.72

TABLE 8
PD-L1 Binding
KD
Full name Alias Ka Kd (nM)
1D05/in-house anti-TIGIT Bispecific 1 6.03E+05 1.61E−04 0.27
In-house anti-TIGIT/1D05 Bispecific 2 1.04E+06 2.14E−04 0.21
Tool anti-TIGIT/Tool Bispecific 3 1.25E+06 1.22E−04 0.1
anti-PD-L1
Tool anti-PD-L1/Tool Bispecific 4 7.36E+05 1.57E−04 0.21
anti-TIGIT
1D05 Antibody 1 9.71E+05 3.36E−04 0.35
Kymab TIGIT Antibody 2 nbs nbs nbs
Tool PD-L1 Antibody 3 1.05E+06 2.08E−04 0.2
Tool TIGIT Antibody 4 nbs nbs nbs

b) Bispecific Binding

Using the same anti-human IgG capture surface created for kinetic analysis, the Bispecific antibody constructs were captured on this surface and recombinant PD-L1 or TIGIT was used as analyte at 512 nM, 128 nM, 32 nM, 8 nM and 2 nM with 0 nM (i.e. buffer alone) used to double reference the binding sensorgrams. The assay was carried out by injecting PD-L1 followed by TIGIT with no regeneration between analyte injections, and also with TIGIT followed by PD-L1. The sensorgrams for the double referenced 512 nM are shown in FIGS. 10 and 11.

Example 11 Generation and Expression of Anti-PD-L1-IL-2 Immunocytokine Constructs

Immunocytokines were generated by fusing wild type IL-2 (SEQ ID No:301), or IL-2 containing deletions in the first nine amino acids (see SEQ ID Nos: 303 to 323), to the light chain of anti-PD-L1 antibody 1D05 (see Seq ID No:45). These were paired with an IgG1 effector-disabled variant of 1D05 heavy chain (Seq ID No:205). Wild type IL-2 fused to the heavy chain of 1D05 was generated for use as a control (SEQ ID No:302) and paired with the unmodified light chain of 1D05 (Seq ID No:45). Twenty-two immunocytokines were successfully expressed and characterised further. One light chain construct, 1D05 D1 did not express successfully.

Materials and Methods

The DNA sequences encoding the anti-PD-L1 (antibody 1D05) immunocytokine (C-terminal IL-2 fusion to light chain) were purchased as synthetic DNA strings and cloned into the pTT5 expression vector using the Golden Gate cloning strategy. The heavy chain sequence of 1D05, includes a constant region which is a disabled IgG1 variant with changes from wild-type shown in bold (Seq ID No:299). The light chain of antibody 1D05 has full length wild type IL-2 sequence (underlined) fused to the C-terminus of the Kappa constant region (Seq ID No:300). Overlap PCR using appropriate oligonucleotide primers were used to generate variants of N-terminal of IL-2 (see Seq ID No:300 where IL-2 the sequence is underlined and the region to be varied is shown in bold). Variant sequences were cloned into the pTT5 expression vector using the Golden Gate method. The wild type and variant constructs were transfected to Expi293™ cells for expression.

Example 12 Generation of IL-2R Transfectant Cells for Screening

In order to differentiate between immunocytokine activity on the high affinity (αβγ) and intermediate affinity (βγ) IL-2 receptors, IL-2R transfectants were generated. TF-1 cells, expressing endogenous common γ chain, were transfected with β, or α and β receptor subunits, to impart responsiveness to IL-2. The proliferative response to immunocytokines was then analysed using these cells (see Example 13).

Materials and Methods

Two recombinant cell lines were generated to distinguish between signalling through high affinity (αβγ) and intermediate affinity (βγ) IL-2R. The erythroleukemia cell line TF-1 (European Collection of Authenticated Cell Cultures) shows complete growth dependency on granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or interleukin-3 (IL-3). The first cell line generated was transfected with full length human IL-2Rβ (CD122) only. The second cell line was generated by transfecting the full length human IL-2Rα (CD25) into the first cell line.

The transfected sequences were codon optimized for mammalian expression and cloned into an expression vector under the CMV promoter flanked by 3′ and 5′ piggyBac specific terminal repeat sequences facilitating stable integration into the cell genome (see: “A hyperactive piggyBac transposase for mammalian applications”; Yusa K., et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA., 108(4): 1531-6, 2011 Jan. 25). Furthermore, the expression vector for each subunit contained a different selection cassette to facilitate stable cell line generation. The β subunit was selected using puromycin (Sigma) and the a subunit using geneticin (Gibco). The a subunit was transfected into cells already expressing the β subunit.

The expression plasmids were co-transfected with a plasmid encoding piggyBac transposase into the TF1 cell line by electroporation using the Lonza 4-D nucleofector transfection X kit system according to manufacturer instructions. 24 hours after transfection, complete media was supplemented with the appropriate selection and cells grown for at least 3 weeks to select a stable line, with media being exchanged every 3 to 4 days. The expression of the recombinant human subunits was assessed by flow cytometry using anti-human CD122 (IL-2Rα) APC conjugated antibody (eBioscience) and anti-human CD25 (IL-2Rα) PE conjugated antibody (eBioscience). Endogenous common γ chain expression was confirmed with anti-human CD132 (common γ chain) PE conjugated antibody (eBioscience). As expression was low, CD122+ cells were sorted by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) and further cultured under selection. There was uniform expression of a chain after transfection, and therefore these cells were not sorted.

Complete TF1 media was made up of RPMI medium 1640 (Gibco) plus GM-CSF (2 ng/mL) and supplemented with 10% v/v heat inactivated fetal bovine serum (hiFBS, Gibco). Once responsiveness to IL-2 was confirmed, transfected cell lines were maintained in RPMI 1640, 10% hiFBS and 5 ng/mL recombinant human IL-2 with (αβ) or without (β) geneticin.

Example 13 Assessing Ability of Immunocytokine Constructs to Signal Through IL-2R

Immunocytokines were assessed for their ability to induce proliferation of TF1 cell lines transfected with the βsubunit, or with both the α and βsubunits of IL-2R. Cells were starved of cytokines overnight, then stimulated with titrations of each immunocytokine. CellTiter-Glo® was used to determine the number of viable cells in culture after 3 days, based on quantitation of the ATP present. There was a broad range of activities of the immunocytokines on IL-2Rα, with the largest IL-2 deletions having the greatest reduction on proliferation, compared with equimolar amounts of free IL-2. The effect on αβγ activity is not as pronounced, but again the greatest reduction in proliferation is seen with the largest IL-2 deletions. Deletions in the first few N-terminal amino acids of IL-2 allow for fine tuning of cytokine activity. A representative experiment is shown in FIGS. 12(a) and (b).

Materials and Methods

IL-2R transfected TF1 cells were routinely cultured in RPMI+10% fetal bovine serum (culture medium) with the addition of IL-2 (Peprotech) at 5 ng/mL for the β transfected cell line and IL-2 at 5 ng/mL and Geneticin (Gibco) at 350 μg/mL for the αβ transfected cell line. Prior to testing of immunocytokine constructs, the cells were harvested by centrifugation and aspirated to remove the supernatant. The cells were washed in PBS to remove cytokines and antibiotics. Cells were resuspended in fresh culture medium at 105 cells/mL, without supplements and returned to the incubator overnight.

The cells were harvested by centrifugation and aspirated to remove the supernatant. Cells were resuspended in complete medium and 30 μL of cell solution was added to the plate (white walled tissue culture treated 384 well plate) wells to achieve an initial cell concentration of 1250 cells/well.

The IL-2 ligand was prepared as serial four-fold dilutions from 300 ng/mL final assay concentration (FAC) (600 ng/mL working) in culture media. The immunocytokine constructs were titrated from 0.1 μg/mL (three-fold dilutions) for testing on the αβγ cell line and 10 μg/mL (three-fold dilutions) for the βγ cell line. 30 μL of titrations were added to the cell plate. To control wells, 30 μL of culture media without IL-2 was added. To reduce evaporation effect the outermost rows/columns of the plate were filled with 80 μL of culture media. The plates were then incubated for 3 days at 37° C., 5% CO2. Following the culture period proliferation of TF-1 cells was assessed by addition of 30 μL of Cell Titre Glo (Promega) to all wells. The plate was incubated at room temperature for 10 minutes then read using ultrasensitive luminescence filter.

Equation 1: Calculation of Fold Over Background from TF-1 Proliferation Assay

fold over background = sample RLU mean over background RLU

RLU=relative luminescence units

Data expressed as fold over background. Background was defined as wells containing cells but no cytokine

Example 14 Binding of Immunocytokines to PD-L1

Surface plasmon resonance was used to confirm the ability of the immunocytokine constructs to bind PD-L1. The presence of the IL-2 on the light chain does not have any detrimental effect on binding (Table 9). Four constructs with a range of IL-2 activities were shortlisted for further characterisation—these were 1D05 ID1-9 ICK, 1D05 D1-8 ICK, 1D05 D9-2 ICK and 1D05 D9-7 ICK.

Table 9: Affinity of 1D05 binding to PD-L1 is unaffected by the fusion of IL-2 to the antibody, as measured by surface plasmon resonance. Data shown is from a single experiment

TABLE 9
Affinity of 1D05 binding to PD-L1 is unaffected by the fusion
of IL-2 to the antibody, as measured by surface plasmon
resonance. Data shown is from a single experiment
KD
Sample Name (nM)
1D05 0.171
1D05 HC-IL2 0.240
1D05 LC-IL2 0.207
1D05IC45 (D5-9) 0.203
1D05 IC46 (D1-9) 0.195
1D05 IC64 (D5-7) 0.214
1D05 D1-2 0.187
1D05 D1-3 0.199
1D05 D1-4 0.186
1D05 D1-5 0.203
1D05 D1-6 0.211
1D05 D1-7 0.178
1D05 D1-8 0.190
1D05 D9 0.205
1D05 D9-8 0.225
1D05 D9-7 0.200
1D05 D9-6 0.211
1D05 D9-4 0.175
1D05 D9-3 0.171
1D05 D9-2 0.189
1D05 D2-6 0.201
1D05 D3-7 0.203
1D05 D4-8 0.208
benchmark 0.099

Materials and Methods

Analysis of Immunocytokines by Surface Plasmon Resonance

Label-free surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis was carried out on the ProteOn XPR36 (BioRad) array SPR machine. An anti-human IgG capture surface was created on a GLC biosensor chip using amine coupling of an anti-human IgG from GE Healthcare. Test antibodies were captured on this surface and human PD-L1 (in-house) was used as the analyte at 64 nM, 16 nM, 4 nM, 1 nM and 0.25 nM. The assay was carried out at 25° C. using HBS-EP (Teknova H8022). Buffer alone was used to reference the binding sensorgrams. The data was analysed using the 1:1 model inherent to the ProteOn XPR36 analysis software.

Example 15 Assessing Capacity of Immunocytokines to Neutralise the Interaction of PD-L1 and PD-1/CD80

To ensure that fusion of the IL-2 molecule to the antibody did not disrupt its neutralisation capacity, shortlisted immunocytokines were tested in a neutralisation ELISA. The shortlisted immunocytokines tested did not differ from wild type antibody in their ability to neutralise interactions between PD-L1 and PD-1, and PD-L1 and CD80. Results are shown in FIG. 13 and Table 10. Values in the table are the means of three independent experiments.

Table 10: Summary of neutralisation ELISA data, expressed as mean of three independent experiments

TABLE 10
Summary of neutralisation ELISA data, expressed
as mean of three independent experiments
PD1-PD-L1 CD80-PD-L1
Neutralisation Neutralisation
Clone IC50 (nM) IC50 (nM)
1D05 1.41 0.882
1D05 LC-IL-2 0.833 0.505
1D05 IC46 (D1-9) 1.75 1.07
1D05 D1-8 1.16 0.745
1D05 D9-2 1.55 0.947
1D05 D9-7 1.15 0.70
Hybrid Control N/A N/A

Materials and Methods

a) PD-L1/PD-1 or PD-L1/CD80 Neutralisation ELISA

CD80 (R&D Systems) or PD-1 (in house) diluted to 2.5 μg/mL were adsorbed to 96-well, low auto-fluorescent, high protein binding plates (Costar) overnight at 4° C. Excess protein was removed by washing with PBS-Tween (0.1% v/v) and the wells were blocked with 1% w/v bovine serum albumin (BSA, Sigma) in PBS for 1 hour at room temperature, after which plates were washed as described previously. 60 μL of a titration (three-fold dilutions from 100 nM) of antibody was added to a 96-well, non-binding plate diluted in ELISA assay buffer (PBS+0.1% BSA). 60 μL of biotinylated PD-L1 (in house, labelled with Lightning Link Biotinylation kit) at 16 nM working concentration (8 nM FAC) was added to the plate excluding control wells where 60 μL ELISA assay buffer was added. The plate was incubated for 30 min before transferring 50 μL to the coated plates.

The coated plates were incubated for 1 hour at room temperature. Excess protein was removed by washing with PBS-Tween (0.1% v/v). PD-L1 binding was detected using streptavidin labelled Europium (Perkin Elmer) diluted 1/1000 in DELFIA assay buffer (Perkin Elmer). The plates were washed with TBS (Tris buffered saline)-Tween (0.1% v/v) and 50 μL/well of DELFIA Enhancement solution (Perkin Elmer) was added to the plate. The time-resolved fluorescence was measured at 615 nm on an Envision plate reader (PerkinElmer). Percentage specific binding was calculated as defined in equation 2.

Equation 2: Percentage of Receptor Binding (ELISA)

Based on fluorescence at 615 nm

% of specific binding = sample value - non - specific binding total binding - non - specific binding × 100
Total binding=biotinylated PD-L1 (no antibody)
Non-specific binding=no biotinylated PD-L1
IC50 values were determined using GraphPad Prism software by curve fitting using a four-parameter logistic equation (Equation 1) from the percentage specific binding (Equation 1).

Example 16 De-Immunisation of Anti-PD-L1 Antibody

To reduce the possibility of adverse immunological reactions based around the anti-PD-L1-immunocytokine, a series of 1D05 antibody mutants (Seq ID Nos:47 to 51) was created with anticipated lower potential of immunogenicity, as determined by T-cell epitope analysis software (tbc). The mutations can be single or in combination. Mutants were assessed for their ability to bind PD-L1 with the same affinity as the wild-type molecule by SPR as described in Example 14, with the addition of human PD-L1 analyte at 256 nM. Mutations under investigation are included as Seq ID Nos:47 to 51, indicated by underlined and bold text. The VH framework mutations (Seq ID Nos:47 and 48) do not have any detrimental effects on binding. The V to A mutation in CDR2 (Seq ID No:50) was detrimental to binding, and so an alternative mutation will be analysed (V to Y, Seq ID No:298). Results are shown in Table 11

TABLE 11
Heavy Chain Light Chain KD (nM)
1D05 - IgG1 disabled (LAGA) 1D05 kappa 0.29
Seq ID No: 299 (Seq ID No: 45)
1D05 V to A change in VH (Seq 1D05 kappa 0.33
ID No: 47), IgG1 disabled (Seq ID No: 45)
(LAGA, Seq ID No: 205)
1D05 F to S change in VH (Seq ID 1D05 kappa 0.23
No: 48), IgG1 disabled (LAGA, (Seq ID No: 45)
Seq ID No: 205)
1D05 V to A & F to S change in 1D05 kappa 0.23
VH (Seq ID No: 342), IgG1 (Seq ID No: 45)
disabled (LAGA, Seq ID No: 205)
1D05 - IgG1 disabled (LAGA) 1D05 kappa, 2.66
Seq ID No: 299 V to A change
(Seq ID No: 50)
1D05 V to A change in VH (Seq 1D05 kappa, 2.8
ID No: 47), IgG1 disabled V to A change
(LAGA, Seq ID No: 205) (Seq ID No: 50)
1D05 F to S change in VH (Seq ID 1D05 kappa, 1.94
No: 48), IgG1 disabled (LAGA, V to A change
Seq ID No: 205) (Seq ID No: 50)
1D05 V to A & F to S change in 1D05 kappa, 1.94
VH (Seq ID No: 342), IgG1 V to A change
disabled (LAGA, Seq ID No: 205) (Seq ID No: 50)

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

All references cited herein, including patents, patent applications, papers, text books and the like, and the references cited therein, to the extent that they are not already, are hereby incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

EQUIVALENTS

The foregoing written specification is considered to be sufficient to enable one skilled in the art to practice the invention. The foregoing description and Examples detail certain preferred embodiments of the invention. It will be appreciated, however, that the invention may be practiced in many ways and the invention should be construed in accordance with the appended claims and any equivalents thereof.

It will be understood that particular configurations, aspects, examples, clauses and embodiments described herein are shown by way of illustration and not as limitations of the invention. Any part of this disclosure may be read in combination with any other part of the disclosure, unless otherwise apparent from the context.

SEQUENCE LISTING
SEQ ID NO: Name Description Sequence
  1 Human PD-L1 NCBI number: NP_054862.1 MRIFAVFIFMTYWHLLNAFTVTVPKDLYVVEYGSNMTIECKFPVEKQ
(ECD highlighted in BOLD, LDLAALIVYWEMEDKNIIQFVHGEEDLKVQHSSYRQRARLLKDQL
cytoplasmic domain underlined) SLGNAALQITDVKLQDAGVYRCMISYGGADYKRITVKVNAPYNKIN
QRILVVDPVTSEHELTCQAEGYPKAEVIWTSSDHQVLSGKTTTTNS
KREEKLFNVTSTLRINTTTNEIFYCTFRRLDPEENHTAELVIPELPLA
HPPNERT HLVILGAILLCLGVALTFIFRLRKGRMMDVKKCGIQDTNSK
KQSDTHLEET
  2 Cyno PD-L1 NCBI number: XP_014973154.1 MGWSCIILFLVATATGVHSMFTVTVPKDLYVVEYGSNMTIECKFPVE
(ECD highlighted in BOLD) KQLDLTSLIVYWEMEDKNIIQFVHGEEDLKVQHSNYRQRAQLLKD
QLSLGNAALRITDVKLQDAGVYRCMISYGGADYKRITVKVNAPYN
KINQRILVVDPVTSEHELTCQAEGYPKAEVIWTSSDHQVLSGKTTT
TNSKREEKLLNVTSTLRINTTANEIFYCIFRRLDPEENHTAELVIPEL
PLALPPNERT
  3 Human PD-L1 His Human PD-L1 ECD with C- MRIFAVFIFMTYWHLLNAFTVTVPKDLYVVEYGSNMTIECKFPVEKQL
terminal His tag DLAALIVYWEMEDKNIIQFVHGEEDLKVQHSSYRQRARLLKDQLSLGN
AALQITDVKLQDAGVYRCMISYGGADYKRITVKVNAPYNKINQRILVV
DPVTSEHELTCQAEGYPKAEVIWTSSDHQVLSGKTTTTNSKREEKLFNV
TSTLRINTTTNEIFYCTFRRLDPEENHTAELVIPELPLAHPPNERT HHHH
HH
  4 Human PD-L1 Fc Human PD-L1 ECD with C-term MRIFAVFIFMTYWHLLNAFTVTVPKDLYVVEYGSNMTIECKFPVEKQL
Fc fusion (in bold) DLAALIVYWEMEDKNIIQFVHGEEDLKVQHSSYRQRARLLKDQLSLGN
AALQITDVKLQDAGVYRCMISYGGADYKRITVKVNAPYNKINQRILVV
DPVTSEHELTCQAEGYPKAEVIWTSSDHQVLSGKTTTTNSKREEKLFNV
TSTLRINTTTNEIFYCTFRRLDPEENHTAELVIPELPLAHPPNERT IEGRE
PKSCDKTHTCPPCPAPELLGGPSVFLFPPKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCVV
VDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGVEVHNAKTKPREEQYNSTYRVVSVLTV
LHQDWLNGKEYKCKVSNKALPAPIEKTISKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPS
RDELTKNQVSLTCLVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTPPVLDS
DGSFFLYSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALHNHYTQKSLSLSPGK
  5 Cyna PD-L1 FLAG Cynomolgus PD-L1 ECD with N- MGWSCIILFLVATATGVHSMFTVTVPKDLYVVEYGSNMTIECKFPVEK
term FLAG tag QLDLTSLIVYWEMEDKNIIQFVHGEEDLKVQHSNYRQRAQLLKDQLSL
GNAALRITDVKLQDAGVYRCMISYGGADYKRITVKVNAPYNKINQRIL
VVDPVTSEHELTCQAEGYPKAEVIWTSSDHQVLSGKTTTTNSKREEKL
LNVTSTLRINTTANEIFYCIFRRLDPEENHTAELVIPELPLALPPNERT DY
KDDDDK
  6 Human PD-1 Fc Human PD-1 full length sequence MGWSCIILFLVATATGVHSLDSPDRPWNPPTFSPALLVVTEGDNATFTC
derived from cDNA as human Fc SFSNTSESFVLNWYRMSPSNQTDKLAAFPEDRSQPGQDCRFRVTQLPN
fusion GRDFHMSVVRARRNDSGTYLCGAISLAPKAQIKESLRAELRVTERRAE
VPTAHPSPSPRPAGQ KLENLYRIGIEGRMDEPKSCDKTHTCPPCPAP
ELLGGPSVFLFPPKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSHEDPEVKFNWY
VDGVEVHNAKTKPREEQYNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYKCK
VSNKALPAPIEKTISKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPSRDELTKNQVSLTCLV
KGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTPPVLDSDGSFFLYSKLTVDKS
RWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALHNHYTQKSLSLSP
  7 84G09 - CDRH1 Amino acid sequence of CDRH1 GFTFDDYA
(IMGT) of 84G09 using IMGT
  8 84G09 - CDRH2 Amino acid sequence of CDRH2 ISWKSNII
(IMGT) of 84G09 using IMGT
  9 84G09 - CDRH3 Amino acid sequence of CDRH3 ARDITGSGSYGWFDP
(IMGT) of 84G09 using IMGT
 10 84G09 - CDRH1 Amino acid sequence of CDRH1 DYAMH
(Kabat) of 84G09 using Kabat
 11 84G09 - CDRH2 Amino acid sequence of CDRH2 GISWKSNIIGYADSVKG
(Kabat) of 84G09 using Kabat
 12 84G09 - CDRH3 Amino acid sequence of CDRH3 DITGSGSYGWFDP
(Kabat) of 84G09 using Kabat
 13 84G09 - Heavy chain Amino acid sequence of VH of EVQLVESGGGLVQPGRSLRLSCAASGFTFDDYAMHWVRQtPGKGLEW
variable region 84G09 VSGISWkSniIGYADSVKGRFTISRDNAKNSLYLQMNSLRAEDTALYYC
ARDITGSGSYGWFDPWGQGTLVTVSS
 14 84G09 - Heavy chain Nucleic acid sequence of VH of CAaGAAAAAGCTTGCCGCCACCATGGAGTTTGGGCTGAGCTGGATTT
variable region 84G09 TCCTTTTGGCTATTTTAAAAGGTGTCCAGTGTGAAGTACAATTGGTG
GAGTCCGGGGGAGGCTTGGTACAGCCTGGCAGGTCCCTGAGACTCT
CCTGTGCAGCCTCTGGATTCACCTTTGATGATTATGCCATGCACTGG
GTCCGACAAACTCCAGGGAAGGGCCTGGAGTGGGTCTCAGGTATAA
GTTGGAAGAGTAATATCATAGGCTATGCGGACTCTGTGAAGGGCCG
ATTCACCATCTCCAGAGACAACGCCAAGAACTCCCTGTATCTGCAA
ATGAACAGTCTGAGAGCTGAGGACACGGCCTTGTATTATTGTGCAA
GAGATATAACGGGTTCGGGGAGTTATGGCTGGTTCGACCCCTGGGG
CCAGGGAACCCTGGTCACCGTCTCCTCAGCCAAAACGACACCCCCA
TCTGTCTATCCACTGGCCCCTGAATCTGCTAAAACTCAGCCTCCG
 15 84G09 - full heavy Amino acid sequence of 84G09 EVQLVESGGGLVQPGRSLRLSCAASGFTFDDYAMHWVRQTPGKGLEW
chain sequence heavy chain (mutations from VSGISWKSNIIGYADSVKGRFTISRDNAKNSLYLQMNSLRAEDTALYYC
germline are shown in small ARDITGSGSYGWFDPWGQGTLVTVSSASTKGPSVFPLAPCSRSTSESTA
letters) ALGCLVKDYFPEPVTVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSVVTVP
SSSLGTKTYTCNVDHKPSNTKVDKRVESKYGPPCPPCPAPEFEGGPSVF
LFPPKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSQEDPEVQFNWYVDGVEVHNAKT
KPREEQFNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYKCKVSNKGLPSSIEKTISK
AKGQPREPQVYTLPPSQEEMTKNQVSLTCLVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQ
PENNYKTTPPVLDSDGSFFLYSRLTVDKSRWQEGNVFSCSVMHEALHN
HYTQKSLSLSLGK
 16 84G09 - full heavy Nucleic acid sequence of 84G09 GAAGTGCAGCTGGTGGAATCTGGCGGCGGACTGGTGCAGCCTGGCA
chain sequence heavy chain GATCCCTGAGACTGTCTTGTGCCGCCTCCGGCTTCACCTTCGACGAC
TACGCTATGCACTGGGTGCGACAGACCCCTGGCAAGGGCCTGGAAT
GGGTGTCCGGCATCTCCTGGAAGTCCAACATCATCGGCTACGCCGA
CTCCGTGAAGGGCCGGTTCACCATCTCCCGGGACAACGCCAAGAAC
TCCCTGTACCTGCAGATGAACAGCCTGCGGGCCGAGGACACCGCCC
TGTACTACTGCGCCAGAGACATCACCGGCTCCGGCTCCTACGGATG
GTTCGATCCTTGGGGCCAGGGCACCCTCGTGACCGTGTCCTCTGCCA
GCACCAAGGGCCCCTCTGTGTTCCCTCTGGCCCCTTCCAGCAAGTCC
ACCTCTGGCGGAACAGCCGCTCTGGGCTGCCTCGTGAAGGACTACTT
CCCCGAGCCTGTGACCGTGTCCTGGAACTCTGGCGCTCTGACCAGCG
GAGTGCACACCTTCCCTGCTGTGCTGCAGTCCTCCGGCCTGTACTCC
CTGTCCTCCGTCGTGACCGTGCCTTCCAGCTCTCTGGGCACCCAGAC
CTACATCTGCAACGTGAACCACAAGCCCTCCAACACCAAGGTGGAC
AAGAAGGTGGAACCCAAGTCCTGCGACAAGACCCACACCTGTCCCC
CTTGTCCTGCCCCTGAACTGCTGGGCGGACCTTCCGTGTTCCTGTTCC
CCCCAAAGCCCAAGGACACCCTGATGATCTCCCGGACCCCCGAAGT
GACCTGCGTGGTGGTGGATGTGTCCCACGAGGACCCTGAAGTGAAG
TTCAATTGGTACGTGGACGGCGTGGAAGTGCACAACGCCAAGACCA
AGCCTAGAGAGGAACAGTACAACTCCACCTACCGGGTGGTGTCCGT
GCTGACCGTGCTGCACCAGGATTGGCTGAACGGCAAAGAGTACAAG
TGCAAGGTGTCCAACAAGGCCCTGCCTGCCCCCATCGAAAAGACCA
TCTCCAAGGCCAAGGGCCAGCCCCGGGAACCCCAGGTGTACACACT
GCCCCCTAGCAGGGACGAGCTGACCAAGAACCAGGTGTCCCTGACC
TGTCTCGTGAAAGGCTTCTACCCCTCCGATATCGCCGTGGAATGGGA
GTCCAACGGCCAGCCTGAGAACAACTACAAGACCACCCCCCCTGTG
CTGGACTCCGACGGCTCATTCTTCCTGTACAGCAAGCTGACAGTGGA
CAAGTCCCGGTGGCAGCAGGGCAACGTGTTCTCCTGCTCCGTGATGC
ACGAGGCCCTGCACAACCACTACACCCAGAAGTCCCTGTCCCTGAG
CCCCGGCAAG
 17 84G09 - CDRL1 Amino acid sequence of CDRL1 QSISSY
(IMGT) of 84G09 using IMGT
 18 84G09 - CDRL2 Amino acid sequence of CDRL2 VAS
(IMGT) of 84G09 using IMGT
 19 84G09 - CDRL3 Amino acid sequence of CDRL3 QQSYSNPIT
(IMGT) of 84G09 using IMGT
 20 84G09 - CDRL1 Amino acid sequence of CDRL1 RASQSISSYLN
(Kabat) of 84G09 using Kabat
 21 84G09 - CDRL2 Amino acid sequence of CDRL2 VASSLQS
(Kabat) of 84G09 using Kabat
 22 84G09 - CDRL3 Amino acid sequence of CDRL3 QQSYSNPIT
(Kabat) of 84G09 using Kabat
 23 84G09 - Light chain Amino acid sequence of VL of DIQMTQSPSSLSASVGDRVTITCRASQSISSYLNWYQQKPGKAPKPLIYV
variable region 84G09 ASSLQSGVPSSFSGSGSGTDFTLTISSLQPEDFATYYCQQSYSNPITFGQG
TRLEIK
 24 84G09 - Light chain Nucleic acid sequence of VL of GACATCCAGATGACCCAGTCTCCATCCTCCCTGTCTGCATCTGTAGG
variable region 84G09 AGACAGAGTCACCATCACTTGCCGGGCAAGTCAGAGCATTAGCAGC
TATTTAAATTGGTATCAGCAGAAACCAGGGAAAGCCCCTAAGCCCC
TGATCTATGTTGCATCCAGTTTGCAAAGTGGGGTCCCATCAAGTTTC
AGTGGCAGTGGATCTGGGACAGATTTCACTCTCACCATCAGCAGTCT
GCAACCTGAAGATTTTGCAACTTACTACTGTCAACAGAGTTACAGTA
ATCCGATCACCTTCGGCCAAGGGACACGACTGGAGATCAAA
 25 84G09 - full light chain Amino acid sequence of 84G09 DIQMTQSPSSLSASVGDRVTITCRASQSISSYLNWYQQKPGKAPKPLIYV
sequence light chain (mutations from ASSLQSGVPSSFSGSGSGTDFTLTISSLQPEDFATYYCQQSYSNPITFGQG
germline are shown in small TRLEIKRTVAAPSVFIFPPSDEQLKSGTASVVCLLNNFYPREAKVQWKV
letters) DNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLTLSKADYEKHKVYACEVTH
QGLSSPVTKSFNRGEC
 26 84G09 - full light chain Nucleic acid sequence of 84G09 GACATCCAGATGACCCAGTCTCCATCCTCCCTGTCTGCATCTGTAGG
sequence light chain AGACAGAGTCACCATCACTTGCCGGGCAAGTCAGAGCATTAGCAGC
TATTTAAATTGGTATCAGCAGAAACCAGGGAAAGCCCCTAAGCCCC
TGATCTATGTTGCATCCAGTTTGCAAAGTGGGGTCCCATCAAGTTTC
AGTGGCAGTGGATCTGGGACAGATTTCACTCTCACCATCAGCAGTCT
GCAACCTGAAGATTTTGCAACTTACTACTGTCAACAGAGTTACAGTA
ATCCGATCACCTTCGGCCAAGGGACACGACTGGAGATCAAACGTAC
GGTGGCCGCTCCCTCCGTGTTCATCTTCCCACCTTCCGACGAGCAGC
TGAAGTCCGGCACCGCTTCTGTCGTGTGCCTGCTGAACAACTTCTAC
CCCCGCGAGGCCAAGGTGCAGTGGAAGGTGGACAACGCCCTGCAGT
CCGGCAACTCCCAGGAATCCGTGACCGAGCAGGACTCCAAGGACAG
CACCTACTCCCTGTCCTCCACCCTGACCCTGTCCAAGGCCGACTACG
AGAAGCACAAGGTGTACGCCTGCGAAGTGACCCACCAGGGCCTGTC
TAGCCCCGTGACCAAGTCTTTCAACCGGGGCGAGTGT
 27 1D05 - CDRH1 Amino acid sequence of CDRH1 GFTFDDYA
(IMGT) of 1D05 using IMGT
 28 1D05 - CDRH2 Amino acid sequence of CDRH2 ISWIRTGI
(IMGT) of 1D05 using IMGT
 29 1D05 - CDRH3 Amino acid sequence of CDRH3 AKDMKGSGTYGGWFDT
(IMGT) of 1D05 using IMGT
 30 1D05 - CDRH1 Amino acid sequence of CDRH1 DYAMH
(Kabat) of 1D05 using Kabat
 31 1D05 - CDRH2 Amino acid sequence of CDRH2 GISWIRTGIGYADSVKG
(Kabat) of 1D05 using Kabat
 32 1D05 - CDRH3 Amino acid sequence of CDRH3 DMKGSGTYGGWFDT
(Kabat) of 1D05 using Kabat
 33 1D05 - Heavy chain Amino acid sequence of VH of EVQLVESGGGLVQPGRSLRLSCAASGFTFDDYAMHWVRQvPGKGLEW
variable region 1D05 (mutations from germline VSGISWirtgIGYADSVKGRFTIfRDNAKNSLYLQMNSLRAEDTALYYCA
are shown in small letters) KDMKGSGTYGGWFDTWGQGTLVTVSS
 34 1D05 - Heavy chain Nucleic acid sequence of VH of AAGCTTGCCGCCACCATGGAGTTTGGGCTGAGCTGGATTTTCCTTTT
variable region 1D05 GGCTATTTTAAAAGGTGTCCAGTGTGAAGTGCAGCTGGTGGAGTCT
GGGGGAGGCTTGGTGCAGCCTGGCAGGTCCCTGAGACTCTCCTGTG
CAGCCTCTGGATTCACCTTTGATGATTATGCCATGCACTGGGTCCGG
CAAGTTCCAGGGAAGGGCCTGGAATGGGTCTCAGGCATTAGTTGGA
TTCGTACTGGCATAGGCTATGCGGACTCTGTGAAGGGCCGATTCACC
ATTTTCAGAGACAACGCCAAGAATTCCCTGTATCTGCAAATGAACA
GTCTGAGAGCTGAGGACACGGCCTTGTATTACTGTGCAAAAGATAT
GAAGGGTTCGGGGACTTATGGGGGGTGGTTCGACACCTGGGGCCAG
GGAACCCTGGTCACCGTCTCCTCAGCCAAAACAACAGCCCCATCGG
TCTATCCACTGGCCCCTGC
 35 1D05 - full heavy Amino acid sequence of 1D05 EVQLVESGGGLVQPGRSLRLSCAASGFTFDDYAMHWVRQVPGKGLEW
chain sequence heavy chain VSGISWIRTGIGYADSVKGRFTIFRDNAKNSLYLQMNSLRAEDTALYYC
AKDMKGSGTYGGWFDTWGQGTLVTVSSASTKGPSVFPLAPCSRSTSES
TAALGCLVKDYFPEPVTVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSVV
TVPSSSLGTKTYTCNVDHKPSNTKVDKRVESKYGPPCPPCPAPEFEGGP
SVFLFPPKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSQEDPEVQFNWYVDGVEVHN
AKTKPREEQFNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYKCKVSNKGLPSSIEK
TISKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPSQEEMTKNQVSLTCLVKGFYPSDIAVEWES
NGQPENNYKTTPPVLDSDGSFFLYSRLTVDKSRWQEGNVFSCSVMHEA
LHNHYTQKSLSLSLGK
 36 1D05 - full heavy Nucleic acid sequence of 1D05 GAAGTGCAGCTGGTGGAATCTGGCGGCGGACTGGTGCAGCCTGGCA
chain sequence heavy chain GATCCCTGAGACTGTCTTGTGCCGCCTCCGGCTTCACCTTCGACGAC
TACGCTATGCACTGGGTGCGACAGGTGCCAGGCAAGGGCCTGGAAT
GGGTGTCCGGCATCTCTTGGATCCGGACCGGCATCGGCTACGCCGA
CTCTGTGAAGGGCCGGTTCACCATCTTCCGGGACAACGCCAAGAAC
TCCCTGTACCTGCAGATGAACAGCCTGCGGGCCGAGGACACCGCCC
TGTACTACTGCGCCAAGGACATGAAGGGCTCCGGCACCTACGGCGG
ATGGTTCGATACTTGGGGCCAGGGCACCCTCGTGACCGTGTCCTCTG
CCAGCACCAAGGGCCCCTCTGTGTTCCCTCTGGCCCCTTCCAGCAAG
TCCACCTCTGGCGGAACAGCCGCTCTGGGCTGCCTCGTGAAGGACT
ACTTCCCCGAGCCTGTGACCGTGTCCTGGAACTCTGGCGCTCTGACC
AGCGGAGTGCACACCTTCCCTGCTGTGCTGCAGTCCTCCGGCCTGTA
CTCCCTGTCCTCCGTCGTGACCGTGCCTTCCAGCTCTCTGGGCACCC
AGACCTACATCTGCAACGTGAACCACAAGCCCTCCAACACCAAGGT
GGACAAGAAGGTGGAACCCAAGTCCTGCGACAAGACCCACACCTGT
CCCCCTTGTCCTGCCCCTGAACTGCTGGGCGGACCTTCCGTGTTCCT
GTTCCCCCCAAAGCCCAAGGACACCCTGATGATCTCCCGGACCCCC
GAAGTGACCTGCGTGGTGGTGGATGTGTCCCACGAGGACCCTGAAG
TGAAGTTCAATTGGTACGTGGACGGCGTGGAAGTGCACAACGCCAA
GACCAAGCCTAGAGAGGAACAGTACAACTCCACCTACCGGGTGGTG
TCCGTGCTGACCGTGCTGCACCAGGATTGGCTGAACGGCAAAGAGT
ACAAGTGCAAGGTGTCCAACAAGGCCCTGCCTGCCCCCATCGAAAA
GACCATCTCCAAGGCCAAGGGCCAGCCCCGGGAACCCCAGGTGTAC
ACACTGCCCCCTAGCAGGGACGAGCTGACCAAGAACCAGGTGTCCC
TGACCTGTCTCGTGAAAGGCTTCTACCCCTCCGATATCGCCGTGGAA
TGGGAGTCCAACGGCCAGCCTGAGAACAACTACAAGACCACCCCCC
CTGTGCTGGACTCCGACGGCTCATTCTTCCTGTACAGCAAGCTGACA
GTGGACAAGTCCCGGTGGCAGCAGGGCAACGTGTTCTCCTGCTCCG
TGATGCACGAGGCCCTGCACAACCACTACACCCAGAAGTCCCTGTC
CCTGAGCCCCGGCAAG
 37 1D05 - CDRL1 Amino acid sequence of CDRL1 QSISSY
(IMGT) of 1D05 using IMGT
 38 1D05 - CDRL2 Amino acid sequence of CDRL2 VAS
(IMGT) of 1D05 using IMGT
 39 1D05 - CDRL3 Amino acid sequence of CDRL3 QQSYSTPIT
(IMGT) of 1D05 using IMGT
 40 1D05 - CDRL1 Amino acid sequence of CDRL1 RASQSISSYLN
(Kabat) of 1D05 using Kabat
 41 1D05 - CDRL2 Amino acid sequence of CDRL2 VASSLQS
(Kabat) of 1D05 using Kabat
 42 1D05 - CDRL3 Amino acid sequence of CDRL3 QQSYSTPIT
(Kabat) of 1D05 using Kabat
 43 1D05 - Light chain Amino acid sequence of VL of DIQMTQSPSSLSASVGDRVTITCRASQSISSYLNWYQQKPGKAPKLLIYv
variable region 1D05 (mutations from germline ASSLQSGVPSRFSGSGSGTDFTLTISSLQPEDFATYYCQQSYSTPITFGQG
are shown in small letters) TRLEIK
 44 1D05 - Light chain Nucleic acid sequence of VL of AAAGCTTGCCGCCACCATGAGGCTCCCTGCTCAGCTTCTGGGGCTCC
variable region 1D05 TGCTACTCTGGCTCCGAGGTGCCAGATGTGACATCCAGATGACCCA
GTCTCCATCCTCCCTGTCTGCATCTGTAGGAGACAGAGTCACCATCA
CTTGCCGGGCAAGTCAGAGCATTAGCAGCTATTTAAATTGGTATCAG
CAGAAACCAGGGAAAGCCCCTAAACTCCTGATCTATGTTGCATCCA
GTTTGCAAAGTGGGGTCCCATCAAGGTTCAGTGGCAGTGGATCTGG
GACAGATTTCACTCTCACTATCAGCAGTCTGCAACCTGAAGATTTTG
CAACTTACTACTGTCAACAGAGTTACAGTACCCCGATCACCTTCGGC
CAAGGGACACGTCTGGAGATCAAACGTACGGATGCTGCACCAACT
 45 1D05 - full light chain Amino acid sequence of 1D05 DIQMTQSPSSLSASVGDRVTITCRASQSISSYLNWYQQKPGKAPKLLIYV
sequence light chain ASSLQSGVPSRFSGSGSGTDFTLTISSLQPEDFATYYCQQSYSTPITFGQG
TRLEIKRTVAAPSVFIFPPSDEQLKSGTASVVCLLNNFYPREAKVQWKV
DNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLTLSKADYEKHKVYACEVTH
QGLSSPVTKSFNRGEC
 46 1D05 - full light chain Nucleic acid sequence of 1D05 GACATCCAGATGACCCAGTCCCCCTCCAGCCTGTCTGCTTCCGTGGG
sequence light chain CGACAGAGTGACCATCACCTGTCGGGCCTCCCAGTCCATCTCCTCCT
ACCTGAACTGGTATCAGCAGAAGCCCGGCAAGGCCCCCAAGCTGCT
GATCTACGTGGCCAGCTCTCTGCAGTCCGGCGTGCCCTCTAGATTCT
CCGGCTCTGGCTCTGGCACCGACTTTACCCTGACCATCAGCTCCCTG
CAGCCCGAGGACTTCGCCACCTACTACTGCCAGCAGTCCTACTCCAC
CCCTATCACCTTCGGCCAGGGCACCCGGCTGGAAATCAAACGTACG
GTGGCCGCTCCCTCCGTGTTCATCTTCCCACCTTCCGACGAGCAGCT
GAAGTCCGGCACCGCTTCTGTCGTGTGCCTGCTGAACAACTTCTACC
CCCGCGAGGCCAAGGTGCAGTGGAAGGTGGACAACGCCCTGCAGTC
CGGCAACTCCCAGGAATCCGTGACCGAGCAGGACTCCAAGGACAGC
ACCTACTCCCTGTCCTCCACCCTGACCCTGTCCAAGGCCGACTACGA
GAAGCACAAGGTGTACGCCTGCGAAGTGACCCACCAGGGCCTGTCT
AGCCCCGTGACCAAGTCTTTCAACCGGGGCGAGTGT
 47 Mutated 1D05 - HC Amino acid sequence of 1D05 EVQLVESGGGLVQPGRSLRLSCAASGFTFDDYAMHWVRQ A PGKGLEW
mutant 1 heavy chain with V to A back- VSGISWIRTGIGYADSVKGRFTIFRDNAKNSLYLQMNSLRAEDTALYYC
mutation in framework region to AKDMKGSGTYGGWFDTWGQGTLVTVSSASTKGPSVFPLAPCSRSTSES
germline highlighted with IgG1 TAALGCLVKDYFPEPVTVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSVV
disabled (LAGA) constant region TVPSSSLGTKTYTCNVDHKPSNTKVDKRVESKYGPPCPPCPAPE LAGA P
SVFLFPPKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSQEDPEVQFNWYVDGVEVHN
AKTKPREEQFNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYKCKVSNKGLPSSIEK
TISKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPSQEEMTKNQVSLTCLVKGFYPSDIAVEWES
NGQPENNYKTTPPVLDSDGSFFLYSRLTVDKSRWQEGNVFSCSVMHEA
LHNHYTQKSLSLSLGK
 48 Mutated 1D05 - HC Amino acid sequence of 1D05 EVQLVESGGGLVQPGRSLRLSCAASGFTFDDYAMHWVRQVPGKGLEW
mutant 2 heavy chain with V to A back- VSGISWIRTGIGYADSVKGRFTI S RDNAKNSLYLQMNSLRAEDTALYYC
mutation in framework region to AKDMKGSGTYGGWFDTWGQGTLVTVSSASTKGPSVFPLAPCSRSTSES
germline highlighted with IgG1 TAALGCLVKDYFPEPVTVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSVV
disabled (LAGA) constant region TVPSSSLGTKTYTCNVDHKPSNTKVDKRVESKYGPPCPPCPAPE LAGA P
SVFLFPPKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSQEDPEVQFNWYVDGVEVHN
AKTKPREEQFNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYKCKVSNKGLPSSIEK
TISKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPSQEEMTKNQVSLTCLVKGFYPSDIAVEWES
NGQPENNYKTTPPVLDSDGSFFLYSRLTVDKSRWQEGNVFSCSVMHEA
LHNHYTQKSLSLSLGK
 49 Mutated 1D05 - HC Amino acid sequence of 1D05 EVQLVESGGGLVQPGRSLRLSCAASGFTFDDYAMHWVRQVPGKGLEW
mutant 3 heavy chain with ELLG to -PVA VSGISWIRTGIGYADSVKGRFTIFRDNAKNSLYLQMNSLRAEDTALYYC
back-mutation in constant region AKDMKGSGTYGGWFDTWGQGTLVTVSSASTKGPSVFPLAPCSRSTSES
to germline highlighted TAALGCLVKDYFPEPVTVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSVV
TVPSSSLGTKTYTCNVDHKPSNTKVDKRVESKYGPPCPPCPAP-
PVA GPSVFLFPPKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSQEDPEVQFNWYVDG
VEVHNAKTKPREEQFNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYKCKVSNKGL
PSSIEKTISKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPSQEEMTKNQVSLTCLVKGFYPSDIA
VEWESNGQPENNYKTTPPVLDSDGSFFLYSRLTVDKSRWQEGNVFSCS
VMHEALHNHYTQKSLSLSLGK
 50 Mutated 1D05 - LC Amino acid sequence of 1D05 DIQMTQSPSSLSASVGDRVTITCRASQSISSYLNWYQQKPGKAPKLLIY A
mutant 1 kappa light chain with V to A ASSLQSGVPSRFSGSGSGTDFTLTISSLQPEDFATYYCQQSYSTPITFGQG
back-mutation in CDRL2 to  TRLEIKRTVAAPSVFIFPPSDEQLKSGTASVVCLLNNFYPREAKVQWKV
germline highlighted DNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLTLSKADYEKHKVYACEVTH
QGLSSPVTKSFNRGEC
 51 Mutated 1D05 - LC Amino acid sequence of 1D05 DIQMTQSPSSLSASVGDRVTITCRASQSISSYLNWYQQKPGKAPKL F IYV
mutant 2 kappa light chain with L to F ASSLQSGVPSRFSGSGSGTDFTLTISSLQPEDFATYYCQQSYSTPITFGQG
back-mutation in framework to  TRLEIKRTVAAPSVFIFPPSDEQLKSGTASVVCLLNNFYPREAKVQWKV
germline highlighted DNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLTLSKADYEKHKVYACEVTH
QGLSSPVTKSFNRGEC
 52 411B08 - CDRH1 Amino acid sequence of CDRH1 GFTFSSYW
(IMGT) of 411B08 using IMGT
 53 411B08 - CDRH2 Amino acid sequence of CDRH2 IKEDGSEK
(IMGT) of 411B08 using IMGT
 54 411B08 - CDRH3 Amino acid sequence of CDRH3 ARNRLYSDFLDN
(IMGT) of 411B08 using IMGT
 55 411B08 - CDRH1 Amino acid sequence of CDRH1 SYWMS
(Kabat) of 411B08 using Kabat
 56 411B08 - CDRH2 Amino acid sequence of CDRH2 NIKEDGSEKYYVDSVKG
(Kabat) of 411B08 using Kabat
 57 411B08 - CDRH3 Amino acid sequence of CDRH3 NRLYSDFLDN
(Kabat) of 411B08 using Kabat
 58 411B08 - Heavy chain Amino acid sequence of VH of EVQLVESGGGLVQPGGSLRLSCAASGFTFSSYWMSWVRQAPGKGLEW
variable region 411B08 VANIKEDGSEKYYVDSVKGRFTISRDNAKNSLYLQMNSLRAEDTSVYY
CARNRLYSDFLDNWGQGTLVTVSS
 59 411B08 - Heavy chain Nucleic acid sequence of VH of GAGGTGCAGCTGGTGGAGTCTGGGGGAGGCTTGGTCCAGCCTGGGG
variable region 411B08 GGTCCCTGAGACTCTCCTGTGCAGCCTCTGGATTCACGTTTAGTAGC
TATTGGATGAGTTGGGTCCGCCAGGCTCCAGGGAAGGGGCTGGAGT
GGGTGGCCAACATCAAAGAAGATGGAAGTGAGAAATACTATGTCGA
CTCTGTGAAGGGCCGATTCACCATCTCCAGAGACAACGCCAAGAAC
TCACTGTATCTGCAAATGAACAGCCTGAGAGCCGAGGACACGTCTG
TGTATTACTGTGCGAGAAATCGACTCTACAGTGACTTCCTTGACAAC
TGGGGCCAGGGAACCCTGGTCACCGTCTCCTCAG
 60 411B08 - full heavy Amino acid sequence of 411B08 EVQLVESGGGLVQPGGSLRLSCAASGFTFSSYWMSWVRQAPGKGLEW
chain sequence heavy chain VANIKEDGSEKYYVDSVKGRFTISRDNAKNSLYLQMNSLRAEDTSVYY
CARNRLYSDFLDNWGQGTLVTVSSASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAA
LGCLVKDYFPEPVTVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSVVTVPS
SSLGTQTYICNVNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSCDKTHTCPPCPAPELLGGPS
VFLFPPKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGVEVHNA
KTKPREEQYNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYKCKVSNKALPAPIEKT
ISKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPSRDELTKNQVSLTCLVKGFYPSDIAVEWESN
GQPENNYKTTPPVLDSDGSFFLYSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEAL
HNHYTQKSLSLSPGK
 61 411B08 - full heavy Nucleic acid sequence of 411B08 GAGGTGCAGCTGGTGGAGTCTGGGGGAGGCTTGGTCCAGCCTGGGG
chain sequence heavy chain GGTCCCTGAGACTCTCCTGTGCAGCCTCTGGATTCACGTTTAGTAGC
TATTGGATGAGTTGGGTCCGCCAGGCTCCAGGGAAGGGGCTGGAGT
GGGTGGCCAACATCAAAGAAGATGGAAGTGAGAAATACTATGTCGA
CTCTGTGAAGGGCCGATTCACCATCTCCAGAGACAACGCCAAGAAC
TCACTGTATCTGCAAATGAACAGCCTGAGAGCCGAGGACACGTCTG
TGTATTACTGTGCGAGAAATCGACTCTACAGTGACTTCCTTGACAAC
TGGGGCCAGGGAACCCTGGTCACCGTCTCCTCAGCCAGCACCAAGG
GCCCCTCTGTGTTCCCTCTGGCCCCTTCCAGCAAGTCCACCTCTGGC
GGAACAGCCGCTCTGGGCTGCCTCGTGAAGGACTACTTCCCCGAGC
CTGTGACCGTGTCCTGGAACTCTGGCGCTCTGACCAGCGGAGTGCAC
ACCTTCCCTGCTGTGCTGCAGTCCTCCGGCCTGTACTCCCTGTCCTCC
GTCGTGACCGTGCCTTCCAGCTCTCTGGGCACCCAGACCTACATCTG
CAACGTGAACCACAAGCCCTCCAACACCAAGGTGGACAAGAAGGTG
GAACCCAAGTCCTGCGACAAGACCCACACCTGTCCCCCTTGTCCTGC
CCCTGAACTGCTGGGCGGACCTTCCGTGTTCCTGTTCCCCCCAAAGC
CCAAGGACACCCTGATGATCTCCCGGACCCCCGAAGTGACCTGCGT
GGTGGTGGATGTGTCCCACGAGGACCCTGAAGTGAAGTTCAATTGG
TACGTGGACGGCGTGGAAGTGCACAACGCCAAGACCAAGCCTAGAG
AGGAACAGTACAACTCCACCTACCGGGTGGTGTCCGTGCTGACCGT
GCTGCACCAGGATTGGCTGAACGGCAAAGAGTACAAGTGCAAGGTG
TCCAACAAGGCCCTGCCTGCCCCCATCGAAAAGACCATCTCCAAGG
CCAAGGGCCAGCCCCGGGAACCCCAGGTGTACACACTGCCCCCTAG
CAGGGACGAGCTGACCAAGAACCAGGTGTCCCTGACCTGTCTCGTG
AAAGGCTTCTACCCCTCCGATATCGCCGTGGAATGGGAGTCCAACG
GCCAGCCTGAGAACAACTACAAGACCACCCCCCCTGTGCTGGACTC
CGACGGCTCATTCTTCCTGTACAGCAAGCTGACAGTGGACAAGTCCC
GGTGGCAGCAGGGCAACGTGTTCTCCTGCTCCGTGATGCACGAGGC
CCTGCACAACCACTACACCCAGAAGTCCCTGTCCCTGAGCCCCGGCAAG
 62 411B08 - CDRL1 Amino acid sequence of CDRL1 QGVSSW
(IMGT) of 411B08 using IMGT
 63 411B08 - CDRL2 Amino acid sequence of CDRL2 GAS
(IMGT) of 411B08 using IMGT
 64 411B08 - CDRL3 Amino acid sequence of CDRL3 QQANSIPFT
(IMGT) of 411B08 using IMGT
 65 411B08 - CDRL1 Amino acid sequence of CDRL1 RASQGVSSWLA
(Kabat) of 411B08 using Kabat
 66 411B08 - CDRL2 Amino acid sequence of CDRL2 GASSLQS
(Kabat) of 411B08 using Kabat
 67 411B08 - CDRL3 Amino acid sequence of CDRL3 QQANSIPFT
(Kabat) of 411B08 using Kabat
 68 411B08 - Light chain Amino acid sequence of VL of DIQMTQSPSSVSASVGDRVTITCRASQGVSSWLAWYQQKSGKAPKLLI
variable region 411B08 YGASSLQSGVPSRFSGSGSGTEFILTISSLQPEDFATYYCQQANSIPFTFG
PGTKVDIK
 69 411B08 - Light chain Nucleic acid sequence of VL of GACATCCAGATGACCCAGTCTCCATCTTCCGTGTCTGCATCTGTCGG
variable region 411B08 AGACAGAGTCACCATCACTTGTCGGGCGAGTCAGGGTGTTAGCAGC
TGGTTAGCCTGGTATCAGCAGAAATCAGGGAAAGCCCCTAAGCTCC
TGATCTATGGTGCATCCAGTTTGCAAAGTGGGGTCCCATCAAGATTC
AGCGGCAGTGGATCTGGGACAGAGTTCATTCTCACCATCAGCAGCC
TGCAGCCTGAAGATTTTGCAACTTACTATTGTCAACAGGCTAACAGT
ATCCCATTCACTTTCGGCCCTGGGACCAAAGTGGATATCAAAC
 70 411B08 - full light Amino acid sequence of 411B08 DIQMTQSPSSVSASVGDRVTITCRASQGVSSWLAWYQQKSGKAPKLLI
chain sequence light chain YGASSLQSGVPSRFSGSGSGTEFILTISSLQPEDFATYYCQQANSIPFTFG
PGTKVDIKRTVAAPSVFIFPPSDEQLKSGTASVVCLLNNFYPREAKVQW
KVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLTLSKADYEKHKVYACEV
THQGLSSPVTKSFNRGEC
 71 411B08 - full light Nucleic acid sequence of 411B08 GACATCCAGATGACCCAGTCTCCATCTTCCGTGTCTGCATCTGTCGG
chain sequence light chain AGACAGAGTCACCATCACTTGTCGGGCGAGTCAGGGTGTTAGCAGC
TGGTTAGCCTGGTATCAGCAGAAATCAGGGAAAGCCCCTAAGCTCC
TGATCTATGGTGCATCCAGTTTGCAAAGTGGGGTCCCATCAAGATTC
AGCGGCAGTGGATCTGGGACAGAGTTCATTCTCACCATCAGCAGCC
TGCAGCCTGAAGATTTTGCAACTTACTATTGTCAACAGGCTAACAGT
ATCCCATTCACTTTCGGCCCTGGGACCAAAGTGGATATCAAACGTAC
GGTGGCCGCTCCCTCCGTGTTCATCTTCCCACCTTCCGACGAGCAGC
TGAAGTCCGGCACCGCTTCTGTCGTGTGCCTGCTGAACAACTTCTAC
CCCCGCGAGGCCAAGGTGCAGTGGAAGGTGGACAACGCCCTGCAGT
CCGGCAACTCCCAGGAATCCGTGACCGAGCAGGACTCCAAGGACAG
CACCTACTCCCTGTCCTCCACCCTGACCCTGTCCAAGGCCGACTACG
AGAAGCACAAGGTGTACGCCTGCGAAGTGACCCACCAGGGCCTGTC
TAGCCCCGTGACCAAGTCTTTCAACCGGGGCGAGTGT
 72 411C04 - CDRH1 Amino acid sequence of CDRH1 GFTFSSYW
(IMGT) of 411C04 using IMGT
 73 411C04 - CDRH2 Amino acid sequence of CDRH2 IKEDGSEK
(IMGT) of 411C04 using IMGT
 74 411C04 - CDRH3 Amino acid sequence of CDRH3 ARVRLYSDFLDY
(IMGT) of 411C04 using IMGT
 75 411C04 - CDRH1 Amino acid sequence of CDRH1 SYWMS
(Kabat) of 411C04 using Kabat
 76 411C04 - CDRH2 Amino acid sequence of CDRH2 NIKEDGSEKYYVDSLKG
(Kabat) of 411C04 using Kabat
 77 411C04 - CDRH3 Amino acid sequence of CDRH3 VRLYSDFLDY
(Kabat) of 411C04 using Kabat
 78 411C04 - Heavy chain Amino acid sequence of VH of EVQLVDSGGGLVQPGGSLRLSCAASGFTFSSYWMSWVRQAPGKGLEW
variable region 411C04 VANIKEDGSEKYYVDSLKGRFTISRDNAKNSLYLQMNSLRAEDTSVYY
CARVRLYSDFLDYWGQGTLVTVSS
 79 411C04 - Heavy chain Nucleic acid sequence of VH of GAGGTGCAGCTGGTGGACTCTGGGGGAGGCTTGGTCCAGCCTGGGG
variable region 411C04 GGTCCCTGAGACTCTCCTGTGCAGCCTCTGGATTCACGTTTAGTAGC
TATTGGATGAGTTGGGTCCGCCAGGCTCCAGGAAAGGGGCTGGAGT
GGGTGGCCAACATAAAAGAAGATGGAAGTGAGAAATACTATGTAG
ACTCTTTGAAGGGCCGATTCACCATCTCCAGAGACAACGCCAAGAA
CTCACTGTATCTGCAAATGAACAGCCTGAGAGCCGAGGACACGTCT
GTGTATTACTGTGCGAGAGTTCGACTCTACAGTGACTTCCTTGACTA
CTGGGGCCAGGGAACCCTGGTCACCGTCTCCTCAG
 80 411C04 - full heavy Amino acid sequence of 411C04 EVQLVDSGGGLVQPGGSLRLSCAASGFTFSSYWMSWVRQAPGKGLEW
chain sequence heavy chain VANIKEDGSEKYYVDSLKGRFTISRDNAKNSLYLQMNSLRAEDTSVYY
CARVRLYSDFLDYWGQGTLVTVSSASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAA
LGCLVKDYFPEPVTVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSVVTVPS
SSLGTQTYICNVNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSCDKTHTCPPCPAPELLGGPS
VFLFPPKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGVEVHNA
KTKPREEQYNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYKCKVSNKALPAPIEKT
ISKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPSRDELTKNQVSLTCLVKGFYPSDIAVEWESN
GQPENNYKTTPPVLDSDGSFFLYSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEAL
HNHYTQKSLSLSPGK
 81 411C04 - full heavy Nucleic acid sequence of 411C04 GAGGTGCAGCTGGTGGACTCTGGGGGAGGCTTGGTCCAGCCTGGGG
chain sequence heavy chain GGTCCCTGAGACTCTCCTGTGCAGCCTCTGGATTCACGTTTAGTAGC
TATTGGATGAGTTGGGTCCGCCAGGCTCCAGGAAAGGGGCTGGAGT
GGGTGGCCAACATAAAAGAAGATGGAAGTGAGAAATACTATGTAG
ACTCTTTGAAGGGCCGATTCACCATCTCCAGAGACAACGCCAAGAA
CTCACTGTATCTGCAAATGAACAGCCTGAGAGCCGAGGACACGTCT
GTGTATTACTGTGCGAGAGTTCGACTCTACAGTGACTTCCTTGACTA
CTGGGGCCAGGGAACCCTGGTCACCGTCTCCTCAGCCAGCACCAAG
GGCCCCTCTGTGTTCCCTCTGGCCCCTTCCAGCAAGTCCACCTCTGG
CGGAACAGCCGCTCTGGGCTGCCTCGTGAAGGACTACTTCCCCGAG
CCTGTGACCGTGTCCTGGAACTCTGGCGCTCTGACCAGCGGAGTGCA
CACCTTCCCTGCTGTGCTGCAGTCCTCCGGCCTGTACTCCCTGTCCTC
CGTCGTGACCGTGCCTTCCAGCTCTCTGGGCACCCAGACCTACATCT
GCAACGTGAACCACAAGCCCTCCAACACCAAGGTGGACAAGAAGGT
GGAACCCAAGTCCTGCGACAAGACCCACACCTGTCCCCCTTGTCCTG
CCCCTGAACTGCTGGGCGGACCTTCCGTGTTCCTGTTCCCCCCAAAG
CCCAAGGACACCCTGATGATCTCCCGGACCCCCGAAGTGACCTGCG
TGGTGGTGGATGTGTCCCACGAGGACCCTGAAGTGAAGTTCAATTG
GTACGTGGACGGCGTGGAAGTGCACAACGCCAAGACCAAGCCTAGA
GAGGAACAGTACAACTCCACCTACCGGGTGGTGTCCGTGCTGACCG
TGCTGCACCAGGATTGGCTGAACGGCAAAGAGTACAAGTGCAAGGT
GTCCAACAAGGCCCTGCCTGCCCCCATCGAAAAGACCATCTCCAAG
GCCAAGGGCCAGCCCCGGGAACCCCAGGTGTACACACTGCCCCCTA
GCAGGGACGAGCTGACCAAGAACCAGGTGTCCCTGACCTGTCTCGT
GAAAGGCTTCTACCCCTCCGATATCGCCGTGGAATGGGAGTCCAAC
GGCCAGCCTGAGAACAACTACAAGACCACCCCCCCTGTGCTGGACT
CCGACGGCTCATTCTTCCTGTACAGCAAGCTGACAGTGGACAAGTCC
CGGTGGCAGCAGGGCAACGTGTTCTCCTGCTCCGTGATGCACGAGG
CCCTGCACAACCACTACACCCAGAAGTCCCTGTCCCTGAGCCCCGGCAAG
 82 411C04 - CDRL1 Amino acid sequence of CDRL1 QGVSSW
(IMGT) of 411C04 using IMGT
 83 411C04 - CDRL2 Amino acid sequence of CDRL2 GAS
(IMGT) of 411C04 using IMGT
 84 411C04 - CDRL3 Amino acid sequence of CDRL3 QQANSIPFT
(IMGT) of 411C04 using IMGT
 85 411C04 - CDRL1 Amino acid sequence of CDRL1 RASQGVSSWLA
(Kabat) of 411C04 using Kabat
 86 411C04 - CDRL2 Amino acid sequence of CDRL2 GASSLQS
(Kabat) of 411C04 using Kabat
 87 411C04 - CDRL3 Amino acid sequence of CDRL3 QQANSIPFT
(Kabat) of 411C04 using Kabat
 88 411C04 - Light chain Amino acid sequence of VL of DIQMTQSPSSVSASVGDRVTITCRASQGVSSWLAWYQQKSGKAPKLLI
variable region 411C04 YGASSLQSGVPSRFSGSGSGTEFILSISSLQPEDFATYYCQQANSIPFTFG
PGTKVDIK
 89 411C04 - Light chain Nucleic acid sequence of VL of GACATCCAGATGACCCAGTCTCCATCTTCCGTGTCTGCATCTGTCGG
variable region 411C04 AGACAGAGTCACCATCACTTGTCGGGCGAGTCAGGGTGTTAGCAGT
TGGTTAGCCTGGTATCAGCAGAAATCAGGGAAAGCCCCTAAGCTCC
TGATCTATGGTGCCTCCAGTTTGCAAAGTGGGGTCCCATCAAGATTC
AGCGGCAGTGGATCTGGGACAGAGTTCATTCTCAGCATCAGCAGCC
TGCAGCCTGAAGATTTTGCAACTTACTATTGTCAACAGGCTAACAGT
ATCCCATTCACTTTCGGCCCTGGGACCAAAGTGGATATCAAAC
 90 411C04 - full light Amino acid sequence of 411C04 DIQMTQSPSSVSASVGDRVTITCRASQGVSSWLAWYQQKSGKAPKLLI
chain se1uence light chain YGASSLQSGVPSRFSGSGSGTEFILSISSLQPEDFATYYCQQANSIPFTFG
PGTKVDIKRTVAAPSVFIFPPSDEQLKSGTASVVCLLNNFYPREAKVQW
KVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLTLSKADYEKHKVYACEV
THQGLSSPVTKSFNRGEC
 91 411C04 - full light Nucleic acid sequence of 411C04 GACATCCAGATGACCCAGTCTCCATCTTCCGTGTCTGCATCTGTCGG
chain se1uence light chain AGACAGAGTCACCATCACTTGTCGGGCGAGTCAGGGTGTTAGCAGT
TGGTTAGCCTGGTATCAGCAGAAATCAGGGAAAGCCCCTAAGCTCC
TGATCTATGGTGCCTCCAGTTTGCAAAGTGGGGTCCCATCAAGATTC
AGCGGCAGTGGATCTGGGACAGAGTTCATTCTCAGCATCAGCAGCC
TGCAGCCTGAAGATTTTGCAACTTACTATTGTCAACAGGCTAACAGT
ATCCCATTCACTTTCGGCCCTGGGACCAAAGTGGATATCAAACGTAC
GGTGGCCGCTCCCTCCGTGTTCATCTTCCCACCTTCCGACGAGCAGC
TGAAGTCCGGCACCGCTTCTGTCGTGTGCCTGCTGAACAACTTCTAC
CCCCGCGAGGCCAAGGTGCAGTGGAAGGTGGACAACGCCCTGCAGT
CCGGCAACTCCCAGGAATCCGTGACCGAGCAGGACTCCAAGGACAG
CACCTACTCCCTGTCCTCCACCCTGACCCTGTCCAAGGCCGACTACG
AGAAGCACAAGGTGTACGCCTGCGAAGTGACCCACCAGGGCCTGTC
TAGCCCCGTGACCAAGTCTTTCAACCGGGGCGAGTGT
 92 411D07 - CDRH1 Amino acid sequence of CDRH1 GGSIISSDW
(IMGT) of 411D07 using IMGT
 93 411D07 - CDRH2 Amino acid sequence of CDRH2 IFHSGRT
(IMGT) of 411D07 using IMGT
 94 411D07 - CDRH3 Amino acid sequence of CDRH3 ARDGSGSY
(IMGT) of 411D07 using IMGT
 95 411D07 - CDRH1 Amino acid sequence of CDRH1 SSDWWN
(Kabat) of 411D07 using Kabat
 96 411D07 - CDRH2 Amino acid sequence of CDRH2 EIFHSGRTNYNPSLKS
(Kabat) of 411D07 using Kabat
 97 411D07 - CDRH3 Amino acid sequence of CDRH3 DGSGSY
(Kabat) of 411D07 using Kabat
 98 411D07 - Heavy chain Amino acid sequence of VH of QVQLQESGPGLVKPSGTLSLTCIVSGGSIISSDWWNWVRQPPGKGLEWI
variable region 411D07 GEIFHSGRTNYNPSLKSRVTISIDKSKNQFSLRLSSVTAADTAVYYCARD
GSGSYWGQGTLVTVSS
 99 411D07 - Heavy chain Nucleic acid sequence of VH of CAGGTGCAGCTGCAGGAGTCGGGCCCAGGACTGGTGAAGCCTTCGG
variable region 411D07 GGACCCTGTCCCTCACCTGCATTGTCTCTGGTGGCTCCATCATCAGT
AGTGACTGGTGGAATTGGGTCCGCCAGCCCCCAGGGAAGGGGCTGG
AGTGGATTGGAGAAATCTTTCATAGTGGGAGGACCAACTACAACCC
GTCCCTCAAGAGTCGAGTCACCATATCAATAGACAAGTCCAAGAAT
CAGTTCTCCCTGAGGCTGAGCTCTGTGACCGCCGCGGACACGGCCGT
GTATTACTGTGCGAGAGATGGTTCGGGGAGTTACTGGGGCCAGGGA
ACCCTGGTCACCGTCTCCTCAG
100 411D07 - full heavy Amino acid sequence of 411D07 QVQLQESGPGLVKPSGTLSLTCIVSGGSIISSDWWNWVRQPPGKGLEWI
chain sequence heavy chain GEIFHSGRTNYNPSLKSRVTISIDKSKNQFSLRLSSVTAADTAVYYCARD
GSGSYWGQGTLVTVSSASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLVKDY
FPEPVTVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSVVTVPSSSLGTQTYI
CNVNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSCDKTHTCPPCPAPELLGGPSVFLFPPKPK
DTLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGVEVHNAKTKPREEQ
YNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYKCKVSNKALPAPIEKTISKAKGQP
REPQVYTLPPSRDELTKNQVSLTCLVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNY
KTTPPVLDSDGSFFLYSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALHNHYTQ
KSLSLSPGK
101 411D07 - full heavy Nucleic acid sequence of 411D07 CAGGTGCAGCTGCAGGAGTCGGGCCCAGGACTGGTGAAGCCTTCGG
chain sequence heavy chain GGACCCTGTCCCTCACCTGCATTGTCTCTGGTGGCTCCATCATCAGT
AGTGACTGGTGGAATTGGGTCCGCCAGCCCCCAGGGAAGGGGCTGG
AGTGGATTGGAGAAATCTTTCATAGTGGGAGGACCAACTACAACCC
GTCCCTCAAGAGTCGAGTCACCATATCAATAGACAAGTCCAAGAAT
CAGTTCTCCCTGAGGCTGAGCTCTGTGACCGCCGCGGACACGGCCGT
GTATTACTGTGCGAGAGATGGTTCGGGGAGTTACTGGGGCCAGGGA
ACCCTGGTCACCGTCTCCTCAGCCAGCACCAAGGGCCCCTCTGTGTT
CCCTCTGGCCCCTTCCAGCAAGTCCACCTCTGGCGGAACAGCCGCTC
TGGGCTGCCTCGTGAAGGACTACTTCCCCGAGCCTGTGACCGTGTCC
TGGAACTCTGGCGCTCTGACCAGCGGAGTGCACACCTTCCCTGCTGT
GCTGCAGTCCTCCGGCCTGTACTCCCTGTCCTCCGTCGTGACCGTGC
CTTCCAGCTCTCTGGGCACCCAGACCTACATCTGCAACGTGAACCAC
AAGCCCTCCAACACCAAGGTGGACAAGAAGGTGGAACCCAAGTCCT
GCGACAAGACCCACACCTGTCCCCCTTGTCCTGCCCCTGAACTGCTG
GGCGGACCTTCCGTGTTCCTGTTCCCCCCAAAGCCCAAGGACACCCT
GATGATCTCCCGGACCCCCGAAGTGACCTGCGTGGTGGTGGATGTG
TCCCACGAGGACCCTGAAGTGAAGTTCAATTGGTACGTGGACGGCG
TGGAAGTGCACAACGCCAAGACCAAGCCTAGAGAGGAACAGTACA
ACTCCACCTACCGGGTGGTGTCCGTGCTGACCGTGCTGCACCAGGAT
TGGCTGAACGGCAAAGAGTACAAGTGCAAGGTGTCCAACAAGGCCC
TGCCTGCCCCCATCGAAAAGACCATCTCCAAGGCCAAGGGCCAGCC
CCGGGAACCCCAGGTGTACACACTGCCCCCTAGCAGGGACGAGCTG
ACCAAGAACCAGGTGTCCCTGACCTGTCTCGTGAAAGGCTTCTACCC
CTCCGATATCGCCGTGGAATGGGAGTCCAACGGCCAGCCTGAGAAC
AACTACAAGACCACCCCCCCTGTGCTGGACTCCGACGGCTCATTCTT
CCTGTACAGCAAGCTGACAGTGGACAAGTCCCGGTGGCAGCAGGGC
AACGTGTTCTCCTGCTCCGTGATGCACGAGGCCCTGCACAACCACTA
CACCCAGAAGTCCCTGTCCCTGAGCCCCGGCAAG
102 411D07 - CDRL1 Amino acid sequence of CDRL1 QSVLYSSNNKNY
(IMGT) of 411D07 using IMGT
103 411D07 - CDRL2 Amino acid sequence of CDRL2 WAS
(IMGT) of 411D07 using IMGT
104 411D07 - CDRL3 Amino acid sequence of CDRL3 QQYYSNRS
(IMGT) of 411D07 using IMGT
105 411D07 - CDRL1 Amino acid sequence of CDRL1 KSSQSVLYSSNNKNYLA
(Kabat) of 411D07 using Kabat
106 411D07 - CDRL2 Amino acid sequence of CDRL2 WASTRES
(Kabat) of 411D07 using Kabat
107 411D07 - CDRL3 Amino acid sequence of CDRL3 QQYYSNRS
(Kabat) of 411D07 using Kabat
108 411D07 - Light chain Amino acid sequence of VL of DIVMTQSPDSLAVSLGERATINCKSSQSVLYSSNNKNYLAWYQQKSGQ
variable region 411D07 PPKLLIYWASTRESGVPDRFSGSGSGTDFTLTISSLQTEDVAVYYCQQY
YSNRSFGQGTKLEIK
109 411D07 - Light chain Nucleic acid sequence of VL of GACATCGTGATGACCCAGTCTCCAGACTCCCTGGCTGTGTCTCTGGG
variable region 411D07 CGAGAGGGCCACCATCAACTGCAAGTCCAGCCAGAGTGTTTTATAC
AGCTCCAACAATAAGAATTACTTAGCTTGGTACCAGCAGAAATCAG
GACAGCCTCCTAAGTTGCTCATTTACTGGGCATCTACCCGGGAATCC
GGGGTCCCTGACCGATTCAGTGGCAGCGGGTCTGGGACAGATTTCA
CTCTCACCATCAGCAGCCTGCAGACTGAAGATGTGGCAGTTTATTAC
TGTCAGCAATATTATAGTAATCGCAGTTTTGGCCAGGGGACCAAGCT
GGAGATCAAAC
110 411D07 - full light Amino acid sequence of 411D07 DIVMTQSPDSLAVSLGERATINCKSSQSVLYSSNNKNYLAWYQQKSGQ
chain sequence light chain PPKLLIYWASTRESGVPDRFSGSGSGTDFTLTISSLQTEDVAVYYCQQY
YSNRSFGQGTKLEIKRTVAAPSVFIFPPSDEQLKSGTASVVCLLNNFYPR
EAKVQWKVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLTLSKADYEKH
KVYACEVTHQGLSSPVTKSFNRGEC
111 411D07 - full light Nucleic acid sequence of 411D07 GACATCGTGATGACCCAGTCTCCAGACTCCCTGGCTGTGTCTCTGGG
chain sequence light chain CGAGAGGGCCACCATCAACTGCAAGTCCAGCCAGAGTGTTTTATAC
AGCTCCAACAATAAGAATTACTTAGCTTGGTACCAGCAGAAATCAG
GACAGCCTCCTAAGTTGCTCATTTACTGGGCATCTACCCGGGAATCC
GGGGTCCCTGACCGATTCAGTGGCAGCGGGTCTGGGACAGATTTCA
CTCTCACCATCAGCAGCCTGCAGACTGAAGATGTGGCAGTTTATTAC
TGTCAGCAATATTATAGTAATCGCAGTTTTGGCCAGGGGACCAAGCT
GGAGATCAAACGTACGGTGGCCGCTCCCTCCGTGTTCATCTTCCCAC
CTTCCGACGAGCAGCTGAAGTCCGGCACCGCTTCTGTCGTGTGCCTG
CTGAACAACTTCTACCCCCGCGAGGCCAAGGTGCAGTGGAAGGTGG
ACAACGCCCTGCAGTCCGGCAACTCCCAGGAATCCGTGACCGAGCA
GGACTCCAAGGACAGCACCTACTCCCTGTCCTCCACCCTGACCCTGT
CCAAGGCCGACTACGAGAAGCACAAGGTGTACGCCTGCGAAGTGAC
CCACCAGGGCCTGTCTAGCCCCGTGACCAAGTCTTTCAACCGGGGC
GAGTGT
112 385F01 - CDRH1 Amino acid sequence of CDRH1 GFTFSSYW
(IMGT) of 385F01 using IMGT
113 385F01 - CDRH2 Amino acid sequence of CDRH2 IKEDGSEK
(IMGT) of 385F01 using IMGT
114 385F01 - CDRH3 Amino acid sequence of CDRH3 ARNRLYSDFLDN
(IMGT) of 385F01 using IMGT
115 385F01 - CDRH1 Amino acid sequence of CDRH1 SYWMS
(Kabat) of 385F01 using Kabat
116 385F01 - CDRH2 Amino acid sequence of CDRH2 NIKEDGSEKYYVDSVKG
(Kabat) of 385F01 using Kabat
117 385F01 - CDRH3 Amino acid sequence of CDRH3 NRLYSDFLDN
(Kabat) of 385F01 using Kabat
118 385F01 - Heavy chain Amino acid sequence of VH of EVQLVESGGGLVQPGGSLRLSCAASGFTFSSYWMSWVRQAPGKGLEW
variable region 385F01 VANIKEDGSEKYYVDSVKGRFTISRDNAKNSLYLQMNSLRAEDTSVYY
CARNRLYSDFLDNWGQGTLVTVSS
119 385F01 - Heavy chain Nucleic acid sequence of VH of GAGGTGCAGCTGGTGGAGTCTGGGGGAGGCTTGGTCCAGCCTGGGG
variable region 385F01 GGTCCCTGAGACTCTCCTGTGCAGCCTCTGGATTCACGTTTAGTAGC
TATTGGATGAGTTGGGTCCGCCAGGCTCCAGGGAAGGGGCTGGAGT
GGGTGGCCAACATCAAAGAAGATGGAAGTGAGAAATACTATGTCGA
CTCTGTGAAGGGCCGATTCACCATCTCCAGAGACAACGCCAAGAAC
TCACTGTATCTGCAAATGAACAGCCTGAGAGCCGAGGACACGTCTG
TGTATTACTGTGCGAGAAATCGACTCTACAGTGACTTCCTTGACAAC
TGGGGCCAGGGAACCCTGGTCACCGTCTCCTCAG
120 385F01 - full heavy Amino acid sequence of 385F01 EVQLVESGGGLVQPGGSLRLSCAASGFTFSSYWMSWVRQAPGKGLEW
chain sequence heavy chain VANIKEDGSEKYYVDSVKGRFTISRDNAKNSLYLQMNSLRAEDTSVYY
CARNRLYSDFLDNWGQGTLVTVSSASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAA
LGCLVKDYFPEPVTVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSVVTVPS
SSLGTQTYICNVNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSCDKTHTCPPCPAPELLGGPS
VFLFPPKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGVEVHNA
KTKPREEQYNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYKCKVSNKALPAPIEKT
ISKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPSRDELTKNQVSLTCLVKGFYPSDIAVEWESN
GQPENNYKTTPPVLDSDGSFFLYSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEAL
HNHYTQKSLSLSPGK
121 385F01 - full heavy Nucleic acid sequence of 385F01 GAGGTGCAGCTGGTGGAGTCTGGGGGAGGCTTGGTCCAGCCTGGGG
chain sequence heavy chain GGTCCCTGAGACTCTCCTGTGCAGCCTCTGGATTCACGTTTAGTAGC
TATTGGATHAGTTGGGTCCGCCAGGCTCCAGGGAAGGGGCTGGAGT
GGGTGGCCAACATCAAAGAAGATGGAAGTGAGAAATACTATGTCGA
CTCTGTGAAGGGCCGATTCACCATCTCCAGAGACAACGCCAAGAAC
TCACTGTATCTGCAAATGAACAGCCTGAGAGCCGAGGACACGTCTG
TGTATTACTGTGCGAGAAATCGACTCTACAGTGACTTCCTTGACAAC
TGGGGCCAGGGAACCCTGGTCACCGTCTCCTCAGCCAGCACCAAGG
GCCCCTCTGTGTTCCCTCTGGCCCCTTCCAGCAAGTCCACCTCTGGC
GGAACAGCCGCTCTGGGCTGCCTCGTGAAGGACTACTTCCCCGAGC
CTGTGACCGTGTCCTGGAACTCTGGCGCTCTGACCAGCGGAGTGCAC
ACCTTCCCTGCTGTGCTGCAGTCCTCCGGCCTGTACTCCCTGTCCTCC
GTCGTGACCGTGCCTTCCAGCTCTCTGGGCACCCAGACCTACATCTG
CAACGTGAACCACAAGCCCTCCAACACCAAGGTGGACAAGAAGGTG
GAACCCAAGTCCTGCGACAAGACCCACACCTGTCCCCCTTGTCCTGC
CCCTGAACTGCTGGGCGGACCTTCCGTGTTCCTGTTCCCCCCAAAGC
CCAAGGACACCCTGATGATCTCCCGGACCCCCGAAGTGACCTGCGT
GGTGGTGGATGTGTCCCACGAGGACCCTGAAGTGAAGTTCAATTGG
TACGTGGACGGCGTGGAAGTGCACAACGCCAAGACCAAGCCTAGAG
AGGAACAGTACAACTCCACCTACCGGGTGGTGTCCGTGCTGACCGT
GCTGCACCAGGATTGGCTGAACGGCAAAGAGTACAAGTGCAAGGTG
TCCAACAAGGCCCTGCCTGCCCCCATCGAAAAGACCATCTCCAAGG
CCAAGGGCCAGCCCCGGGAACCCCAGGTGTACACACTGCCCCCTAG
CAGGGACGAGCTGACCAAGAACCAGGTGTCCCTGACCTGTCTCGTG
AAAGGCTTCTACCCCTCCGATATCGCCGTGGAATGGGAGTCCAACG
GCCAGCCTGAGAACAACTACAAGACCACCCCCCCTGTGCTGGACTC
CGACGGCTCATTCTTCCTGTACAGCAAGCTGACAGTGGACAAGTCCC
GGTGGCAGCAGGGCAACGTGTTCTCCTGCTCCGTGATGCACGAGGC
CCTGCACAACCACTACACCCAGAAGTCCCTGTCCCTGAGCCCCGGCAAG
122 385F01 - CDRL1 Amino acid sequence of CDRL1 QGVSSW
(IMGT) of 385F01 using IMGT
123 385F01 - CDRL2 Amino acid sequence of CDRL2 GAS
(IMGT) of 385F01 using IMGT
124 385F01 - CDRL3 Amino acid sequence of CDRL3 QQANSIPFT
(IMGT) of 385F01 using IMGT
125 385F01 - CDRL1 Amino acid sequence of CDRL1 RASQGVSSWLA
(Kabat) of 385F01 using Kabat
126 385F01 - CDRL2 Amino acid sequence of CDRL2 GASSLQS
(Kabat) of 385F01 using Kabat
127 385F01 - CDRL3 Amino acid sequence of CDRL3 QQANSIPFT
(Kabat) of 385F01 using Kabat
128 385F01 - Light chain Amino acid sequence of VL of DIQMTQSPSSVSASVGDRVTITCRASQGVSSWLAWYQQKSGKAPKLLI
variable region 385F01 YGASSLQSGVPSRFSGSGSGTEFILTISSLQPEDFATYYCQQANSIPFTFG
PGTKVDIK
129 385F01 - Light chain Nucleic acid sequence of VL of GACATCCAGATGACCCAGTCTCCATCTTCCGTGTCTGCATCTGTCGG
variable region 385F01 AGACAGAGTCACCATCACTTGTCGGGCGAGTCAGGGTGTTAGCAGC
TGGTTAGCCTGGTATCAGCAGAAATCAGGGAAAGCCCCTAAGCTCC
TGATCTATGGTGCATCCAGTTTGCAAAGTGGGGTCCCATCAAGATTC
AGCGGCAGTGGATCTGGGACAGAGTTCATTCTCACCATCAGCAGCC
TGCAGCCTGAAGATTTTGCAACTTACTATTGTCAACAGGCTAACAGT
ATCCCATTCACTTTCGGCCCTGGGACCAAAGTGGATATCAAAC
130 385F01 - full light Amino acid sequence of 385F01 DIQMTQSPSSVSASVGDRVTITCRASQGVSSWLAWYQQKSGKAPKLLI
chain sequence light chain YGASSLQSGVPSRFSGSGSGTEFILTISSLQPEDFATYYCQQANSIPFTFG
PGTKVDIKRTVAAPSVFIFPPSDEQLKSGTASVVCLLNNFYPREAKVQW
KVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLTLSKADYEKHKVYACEV
THQGLSSPVTKSFNRGEC
131 385F01 - full light Nucleic acid sequence of 385F01 GACATCCAGATGACCCAGTCTCCATCTTCCGTGTCTGCATCTGTCGG
chain sequence light chain AGACAGAGTCACCATCACTTGTCGGGCGAGTCAGGGTGTTAGCAGC
TGGTTAGCCTGGTATCAGCAGAAATCAGGGAAAGCCCCTAAGCTCC
TGATCTATGGTGCATCCAGTTTGCAAAGTGGGGTCCCATCAAGATTC
AGCGGCAGTGGATCTGGGACAGAGTTCATTCTCACCATCAGCAGCC
TGCAGCCTGAAGATTTTGCAACTTACTATTGTCAACAGGCTAACAGT
ATCCCATTCACTTTCGGCCCTGGGACCAAAGTGGATATCAAACGTAC
GGTGGCCGCTCCCTCCGTGTTCATCTTCCCACCTTCCGACGAGCAGC
TGAAGTCCGGCACCGCTTCTGTCGTGTGCCTGCTGAACAACTTCTAC
CCCCGCGAGGCCAAGGTGCAGTGGAAGGTGGACAACGCCCTGCAGT
CCGGCAACTCCCAGGAATCCGTGACCGAGCAGGACTCCAAGGACAG
CACCTACTCCCTGTCCTCCACCCTGACCCTGTCCAAGGCCGACTACG
AGAAGCACAAGGTGTACGCCTGCGAAGTGACCCACCAGGGCCTGTC
TAGCCCCGTGACCAAGTCTTTCAACCGGGGCGAGTGT
132 413D08 - CDRH1 Amino acid sequence of CDRH1 GFTFRIYG
(IMGT) of 413D08 using IMGT
133 413D08 - CDRH2 Amino acid sequence of CDRH2 IWYDGSNK
(IMGT) of 413D08 using IMGT
134 413D08 - CDRH3 Amino acid sequence of CDRH3 ARDMDYFGMDV
(IMGT) of 413D08 using IMGT
135 413D08 - CDRH1 Amino acid sequence of CDRH1 IYGMH
(Kabat) of 413D08 using Kabat
136 413D08 - CDRH2 Amino acid sequence of CDRH2 VIWYDGSNKYYADSVKG
(Kabat) of 413D08 using Kabat
137 413D08 - CDRH3 Amino acid sequence of CDRH3 DMDYFGMDV
(Kabat) of 413D08 using Kabat
138 413D08 - Heavy chain Amino acid sequence of VH of QVQLVESGGGVVQPGRSLRLSCAASGFTFRIYGMHWVRQAPGKGLEW
variable region 413D08 VAVIWYDGSNKYYADSVKGRFTISRDNSDNTLYLQMNSLRAEDTAVY
YCARDMDYFGMDVWGQGTTVTVSS
139 413D08 - Heavy chain Nucleic acid sequence of VH of CAGGTGCAGCTGGTGGAGTCTGGGGGAGGCGTGGTCCAGCCTGGGA
variable region 413D08 GGTCCCTGAGACTCTCCTGTGCAGCGTCTGGATTCACCTTCCGTATT
TATGGCATGCACTGGGTCCGCCAGGCTCCAGGCAAGGGGCTGGAGT
GGGTGGCAGTTATATGGTATGATGGAAGTAATAAATACTATGCTGA
CTCCGTGAAGGGCCGATTCACCATCTCCAGAGACAATTCCGACAAC
ACGCTGTATCTGCAAATGAACAGCCTGAGAGCCGAGGACACGGCTG
TGTATTACTGTGCGAGAGATATGGACTACTTCGGTATGGACGTCTGG
GGCCAAGGGACCACGGTCACCGTCTCCTCAG
140 413D08 - full heavy Amino acid sequence of 413D08 QVQLVESGGGVVQPGRSLRLSCAASGFTFRIYGMHWVRQAPGKGLEW
chain sequence heavy chain VAVIWYDGSNKYYADSVKGRFTISRDNSDNTLYLQMNSLRAEDTAVY
YCARDMDYFGMDVWGQGTTVTVSSASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTA
ALGCLVKDYFPEPVTVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSVVTVP
SSSLGTQTYICNVNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSCDKTHTCPPCPAPELLGGP
SVFLFPPKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGVEVHN
AKTKPREEQYNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYKCKVSNKALPAPIE
KTISKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPSRDELTKNQVSLTCLVKGFYPSDIAVEWE
SNGQPENNYKTTPPVLDSDGSFFLYSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHE
ALHNHYTQKSLSLSPGK
141 413D08 - full heavy Nucleic acid sequence of 413D08 CAGGTGCAGCTGGTGGAGTCTGGGGGAGGCGTGGTCCAGCCTGGGA
chain sequence heavy chain GGTCCCTGAGACTCTCCTGTGCAGCGTCTGGATTCACCTTCCGTATT
TATGGCATGCACTGGGTCCGCCAGGCTCCAGGCAAGGGGCTGGAGT
GGGTGGCAGTTATATGGTATGATGGAAGTAATAAATACTATGCTGA
CTCCGTGAAGGGCCGATTCACCATCTCCAGAGACAATTCCGACAAC
ACGCTGTATCTGCAAATGAACAGCCTGAGAGCCGAGGACACGGCTG
TGTATTACTGTGCGAGAGATATGGACTACTTCGGTATGGACGTCTGG
GGCCAAGGGACCACGGTCACCGTCTCCTCAGCCAGCACCAAGGGCC
CCTCTGTGTTCCCTCTGGCCCCTTCCAGCAAGTCCACCTCTGGCGGA
ACAGCCGCTCTGGGCTGCCTCGTGAAGGACTACTTCCCCGAGCCTGT
GACCGTGTCCTGGAACTCTGGCGCTCTGACCAGCGGAGTGCACACC
TTCCCTGCTGTGCTGCAGTCCTCCGGCCTGTACTCCCTGTCCTCCGTC
GTGACCGTGCCTTCCAGCTCTCTGGGCACCCAGACCTACATCTGCAA
CGTGAACCACAAGCCCTCCAACACCAAGGTGGACAAGAAGGTGGA
ACCCAAGTCCTGCGACAAGACCCACACCTGTCCCCCTTGTCCTGCCC
CTGAACTGCTGGGCGGACCTTCCGTGTTCCTGTTCCCCCCAAAGCCC
AAGGACACCCTGATGATCTCCCGGACCCCCGAAGTGACCTGCGTGG
TGGTGGATGTGTCCCACGAGGACCCTGAAGTGAAGTTCAATTGGTA
CGTGGACGGCGTGGAAGTGCACAACGCCAAGACCAAGCCTAGAGA
GGAACAGTACAACTCCACCTACCGGGTGGTGTCCGTGCTGACCGTG
CTGCACCAGGATTGGCTGAACGGCAAAGAGTACAAGTGCAAGGTGT
CCAACAAGGCCCTGCCTGCCCCCATCGAAAAGACCATCTCCAAGGC
CAAGGGCCAGCCCCGGGAACCCCAGGTGTACACACTGCCCCCTAGC
AGGGACGAGCTGACCAAGAACCAGGTGTCCCTGACCTGTCTCGTGA
AAGGCTTCTACCCCTCCGATATCGCCGTGGAATGGGAGTCCAACGG
CCAGCCTGAGAACAACTACAAGACCACCCCCCCTGTGCTGGACTCC
GACGGCTCATTCTTCCTGTACAGCAAGCTGACAGTGGACAAGTCCC
GGTGGCAGCAGGGCAACGTGTTCTCCTGCTCCGTGATGCACGAGGC
CCTGCACAACCACTACACCCAGAAGTCCCTGTCCCTGAGCCCCGGCAAG
142 413D08 - CDRL1 Amino acid sequence of CDRL1 QGIRND
(IMGT) of 413D08 using IMGT
143 413D08 - CDRL2 Amino acid sequence of CDRL2 AAS
(IMGT) of 413D08 using IMGT
144 413D08 - CDRL3 Amino acid sequence of CDRL3 LQHNSYPRT
(IMGT) of 413D08 using IMGT
145 413D08 - CDRL1 Amino acid sequence of CDRL1 RASQGIRNDLG
(Kabat) of 413D08 using Kabat
146 413D08 - CDRL2 Amino acid sequence of CDRL2 AASSLQS
(Kabat) of 413D08 using Kabat
147 413D08 - CDRL3 Amino acid sequence of CDRL3 LQHNSYPRT
(Kabat) of 413D08 using Kabat
148 413D08 - Light chain Amino acid sequence of VL of DLQMTQSPSSLSASVGDRVTITCRASQGIRNDLGWYQQKPGKAPKRLI
variable region 413D08 YAASSLQSGVPSRFSGSGSGTEFTLTISSLQPEDFATYYCLQHNSYPRTF
GQGTKVEIK
149 413D08 - Light chain Nucleic acid sequence of VL of GACCTCCAGATGACCCAGTCTCCATCCTCCCTGTCTGCATCTGTAGG
variable region 413D08 AGACAGAGTCACCATCACTTGCCGGGCAAGTCAGGGCATTAGAAAT
GATTTAGGCTGGTATCAGCAGAAACCAGGGAAAGCCCCTAAGCGCC
TGATCTATGCTGCATCCAGTTTGCAAAGTGGGGTCCCATCAAGGTTC
AGCGGCAGTGGATCTGGGACAGAATTCACTCTCACAATCAGCAGCC
TGCAGCCTGAAGATTTTGCAACTTATTACTGTCTACAGCATAATAGT
TACCCTCGGACGTTCGGCCAAGGGACCAAGGTGGAAATCAAAC
150 413D08 - full light Amino acid sequence of 413D08 DLQMTQSPSSLSASVGDRVTITCRASQGIRNDLGWYQQKPGKAPKRLI
chain sequence light chain YAASSLQSGVPSRFSGSGSGTEFTLTISSLQPEDFATYYCLQHNSYPRTF
GQGTKVEIKRTVAAPSVFIFPPSDEQLKSGTASVVCLLNNFYPREAKVQ
WKVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLTLSKADYEKHKVYACE
VTHQGLSSPVTKSFNRGEC
151 413D08 - full light Nucleic acid sequence of 413D08 GACCTCCAGATGACCCAGTCTCCATCCTCCCTGTCTGCATCTGTAGG
chain sequence light chain AGACAGAGTCACCATCACTTGCCGGGCAAGTCAGGGCATTAGAAAT
GATTTAGGCTGGTATCAGCAGAAACCAGGGAAAGCCCCTAAGCGCC
TGATCTATGCTGCATCCAGTTTGCAAAGTGGGGTCCCATCAAGGTTC
AGCGGCAGTGGATCTGGGACAGAATTCACTCTCACAATCAGCAGCC
TGCAGCCTGAAGATTTTGCAACTTATTACTGTCTACAGCATAATAGT
TACCCTCGGACGTTCGGCCAAGGGACCAAGGTGGAAATCAAACGTA
CGGTGGCCGCTCCCTCCGTGTTCATCTTCCCACCTTCCGACGAGCAG
CTGAAGTCCGGCACCGCTTCTGTCGTGTGCCTGCTGAACAACTTCTA
CCCCCGCGAGGCCAAGGTGCAGTGGAAGGTGGACAACGCCCTGCAG
TCCGGCAACTCCCAGGAATCCGTGACCGAGCAGGACTCCAAGGACA
GCACCTACTCCCTGTCCTCCACCCTGACCCTGTCCAAGGCCGACTAC
GAGAAGCACAAGGTGTACGCCTGCGAAGTGACCCACCAGGGCCTGT
CTAGCCCCGTGACCAAGTCTTTCAACCGGGGCGAGTGT
152 386H03 - CDRH1 Amino acid sequence of CDRH1 GGSISSSDW
(IMGT) of 386H03 using IMGT
153 386H03 - CDRH2 Amino acid sequence of CDRH2 IFHSGNT
(IMGT) of 386H03 using IMGT
154 386H03 - CDRH3 Amino acid sequence of CDRH3 VRDGSGSY
(IMGT) of 386H03 using IMGT
155 386H03 - CDRH1 Amino acid sequence of CDRH1 SSDWWS
(Kabat) of 386H03 using Kabat
156 386H03 - CDRH2 Amino acid sequence of CDRH2 EIFHSGNTNYNPSLKS
(Kabat) of 386H03 using Kabat
157 386H03 - CDRH3 Amino acid sequence of CDRH3 DGSGSY
(Kabat) of 386H03 using Kabat
158 386H03 - Heavy chain Amino acid sequence of VH of QVQLQESGPGLVKPSGTLSLTCAVSGGSISSSDWWSWVRQPPGKGLEW
variable region 386H03 IGEIFHSGNTNYNPSLKSRVTISVDKSKNQISLRLNSVTAADTAVYYCVR
DGSGSYWGQGTLVTVSS
159 386H03 - Heavy chain Nucleic acid sequence of VH of CAGGTGCAGCTGCAGGAGTCGGGCCCAGGACTGGTGAAGCCTTCGG
variable region 386H03 GGACCCTGTCCCTCACCTGCGCTGTCTCTGGTGGCTCCATCAGCAGT
AGTGACTGGTGGAGTTGGGTCCGCCAGCCCCCAGGGAAGGGGCTGG
AGTGGATTGGGGAAATCTTTCATAGTGGGAACACCAACTACAACCC
GTCCCTCAAGAGTCGAGTCACCATATCAGTAGACAAGTCCAAGAAC
CAGATCTCCCTGAGGCTGAACTCTGTGACCGCCGCGGACACGGCCG
TGTATTACTGTGTGAGAGATGGTTCGGGGAGTTACTGGGGCCAGGG
AACCCTGGTCACCGTCTCCTCAG
160 386H03 - full heavy Amino acid sequence of 386H03 QVQLQESGPGLVKPSGTLSLTCAVSGGSISSSDWWSWVRQPPGKGLEW
chain sequence heavy chain IGEIFHSGNTNYNPSLKSRVTISVDKSKNQISLRLNSVTAADTAVYYCVR
DGSGSYWGQGTLVTVSSASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLVKD
YFPEPVTVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSVVTVPSSSLGTQT
YICNVNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSCDKTHTCPPCPAPELLGGPSVFLFPPK
PKDTLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGVEVHNAKTKPRE
EQYNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYKCKVSNKALPAPIEKTISKAKG
QPREPQVYTLPPSRDELTKNQVSLTCLVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENN
YKTTPPVLDSDGSFFLYSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALHNHYT
QKSLSLSPGK
161 386H03 - full heavy Nucleic acid sequence of 386H03 CAGGTGCAGCTGCAGGAGTCGGGCCCAGGACTGGTGAAGCCTTCGG
chain sequence heavy chain GGACCCTGTCCCTCACCTGCGCTGTCTCTGGTGGCTCCATCAGCAGT
AGTGACTGGTGGAGTTGGGTCCGCCAGCCCCCAGGGAAGGGGCTGG
AGTGGATTGGGGAAATCTTTCATAGTGGGAACACCAACTACAACCC
GTCCCTCAAGAGTCGAGTCACCATATCAGTAGACAAGTCCAAGAAC
CAGATCTCCCTGAGGCTGAACTCTGTGACCGCCGCGGACACGGCCG
TGTATTACTGTGTGAGAGATGGTTCGGGGAGTTACTGGGGCCAGGG
AACCCTGGTCACCGTCTCCTCAGCCAGCACCAAGGGCCCCTCTGTGT
TCCCTCTGGCCCCTTCCAGCAAGTCCACCTCTGGCGGAACAGCCGCT
CTGGGCTGCCTCGTGAAGGACTACTTCCCCGAGCCTGTGACCGTGTC
CTGGAACTCTGGCGCTCTGACCAGCGGAGTGCACACCTTCCCTGCTG
TGCTGCAGTCCTCCGGCCTGTACTCCCTGTCCTCCGTCGTGACCGTG
CCTTCCAGCTCTCTGGGCACCCAGACCTACATCTGCAACGTGAACCA
CAAGCCCTCCAACACCAAGGTGGACAAGAAGGTGGAACCCAAGTCC
TGCGACAAGACCCACACCTGTCCCCCTTGTCCTGCCCCTGAACTGCT
GGGCGGACCTTCCGTGTTCCTGTTCCCCCCAAAGCCCAAGGACACCC
TGATGATCTCCCGGACCCCCGAAGTGACCTGCGTGGTGGTGGATGT
GTCCCACGAGGACCCTGAAGTGAAGTTCAATTGGTACGTGGACGGC
GTGGAAGTGCACAACGCCAAGACCAAGCCTAGAGAGGAACAGTAC
AACTCCACCTACCGGGTGGTGTCCGTGCTGACCGTGCTGCACCAGG
ATTGGCTGAACGGCAAAGAGTACAAGTGCAAGGTGTCCAACAAGGC
CCTGCCTGCCCCCATCGAAAAGACCATCTCCAAGGCCAAGGGCCAG
CCCCGGGAACCCCAGGTGTACACACTGCCCCCTAGCAGGGACGAGC
TGACCAAGAACCAGGTGTCCCTGACCTGTCTCGTGAAAGGCTTCTAC
CCCTCCGATATCGCCGTGGAATGGGAGTCCAACGGCCAGCCTGAGA
ACAACTACAAGACCACCCCCCCTGTGCTGGACTCCGACGGCTCATTC
TTCCTGTACAGCAAGCTGACAGTGGACAAGTCCCGGTGGCAGCAGG
GCAACGTGTTCTCCTGCTCCGTGATGCACGAGGCCCTGCACAACCAC
TACACCCAGAAGTCCCTGTCCCTGAGCCCCGGCAAG
162 386H03 - CDRL1 Amino acid sequence of CDRL1 QSVLYSSNNKNY
(IMGT) of 386H03 using IMGT
163 386H03 - CDRL2 Amino acid sequence of CDRL2 WAS
(IMGT) of 386H03 using IMGT
164 386H03 - CDRL3 Amino acid sequence of CDRL3 QQYYSTRS
(IMGT) of 386H03 using IMGT
165 386H03 - CDRL1 Amino acid sequence of CDRL1 KSSQSVLYSSNNKNYLA
(Kabat) of 386H03 using Kabat
166 386H03 - CDRL2 Amino acid sequence of CDRL2 WASTRES
(Kabat) of 386H03 using Kabat
167 386H03 - CDRL3 Amino acid sequence of CDRL3 QQYYSTRS
(Kabat) of 386H03 using Kabat
168 386H03 - Light chain Amino acid sequence of VL of DIVMTQSPDSLAVSLGERATINCKSSQSVLYSSNNKNYLAWYQQKPGQ
variable region 386H03 PPKLLIYWASTRESGVPDRFSGSGSGTDFTLTISSLQAEDVAVYYCQQY
YSTRSFGQGTKLEIK
169 386H03 - Light chain Nucleic acid sequence of VL of GACATCGTGATGACCCAGTCTCCAGACTCCCTGGCTGTGTCTCTGGG
variable region 386H03 CGAGAGGGCCACCATCAACTGCAAGTCCAGCCAGAGTGTTTTATAC
AGCTCCAACAATAAGAACTACTTAGCTTGGTACCAGCAGAAACCAG
GACAGCCTCCTAAACTGCTCATTTACTGGGCATCTACCCGGGAATCC
GGGGTCCCTGACCGATTCAGTGGCAGCGGGTCTGGGACAGATTTCA
CTCTCACCATCAGCAGCCTGCAGGCTGAAGATGTGGCAGTTTATTAC
TGTCAGCAATATTATAGTACTCGCAGTTTTGGCCAGGGGACCAAGCT
GGAGATCAAAC
170 386H03 - full light Amino acid sequence of 386H03 DIVMTQSPDSLAVSLGERATINCKSSQSVLYSSNNKNYLAWYQQKPGQ
chain sequence light chain PPKLLIYWASTRESGVPDRFSGSGSGTDFTLTISSLQAEDVAVYYCQQY
YSTRSFGQGTKLEIKRTVAAPSVFIFPPSDEQLKSGTASVVCLLNNFYPR
EAKVQWKVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLTLSKADYEKH
KVYACEVTHQGLSSPVTKSFNRGEC
171 386H03 - full light Nucleic acid sequence of 386H03 GACATCGTGATGACCCAGTCTCCAGACTCCCTGGCTGTGTCTCTGGG
chain sequence light chain CGAGAGGGCCACCATCAACTGCAAGTCCAGCCAGAGTGTTTTATAC
AGCTCCAACAATAAGAACTACTTAGCTTGGTACCAGCAGAAACCAG
GACAGCCTCCTAAACTGCTCATTTACTGGGCATCTACCCGGGAATCC
GGGGTCCCTGACCGATTCAGTGGCAGCGGGTCTGGGACAGATTTCA
CTCTCACCATCAGCAGCCTGCAGGCTGAAGATGTGGCAGTTTATTAC
TGTCAGCAATATTATAGTACTCGCAGTTTTGGCCAGGGGACCAAGCT
GGAGATCAAACGTACGGTGGCCGCTCCCTCCGTGTTCATCTTCCCAC
CTTCCGACGAGCAGCTGAAGTCCGGCACCGCTTCTGTCGTGTGCCTG
CTGAACAACTTCTACCCCCGCGAGGCCAAGGTGCAGTGGAAGGTGG
ACAACGCCCTGCAGTCCGGCAACTCCCAGGAATCCGTGACCGAGCA
GGACTCCAAGGACAGCACCTACTCCCTGTCCTCCACCCTGACCCTGT
CCAAGGCCGACTACGAGAAGCACAAGGTGTACGCCTGCGAAGTGAC
CCACCAGGGCCTGTCTAGCCCCGTGACCAAGTCTTTCAACCGGGGC
GAGTGT
172 389A03 - CDRH1 Amino acid sequence of CDRH1 GGSISSSSYY
(IMGT) of 389A03 using IMGT
173 389A03 - CDRH2 Amino acid sequence of CDRH2 IYSTGYT
(IMGT) of 389A03 using IMGT
174 389A03 - CDRH3 Amino acid sequence of CDRH3 AISTAAGPEYFHR
(IMGT) of 389A03 using IMGT
175 389A03 - CDRH1 Amino acid sequence of CDRH1 SSSYYCG
(Kabat) of 389A03 using Kabat
176 389A03 - CDRH2 Amino acid sequence of CDRH2 SIYSTGYTYYNPSLKS
(Kabat) of 389A03 using Kabat
177 389A03 - CDRH3 Amino acid sequence of CDRH3 STAAGPEYFHR
(Kabat) of 389A03 using Kabat
178 389A03 - Heavy chain Amino acid sequence of VH of QLQESGPGLVKPSETLSLTCTVSGGSISSSSYYCGWIRQPPGKGLDWIGS
variable region 389A03 IYSTGYTYYNPSLKSRVTISIDTSKNQFSCLILTSVTAADTAVYYCAISTA
AGPEYFHRWGQGTLVTVSS
179 389A03 - Heavy chain Nucleic acid sequence of VH of CAGCTGCAGGAGTCGGGCCCAGGCCTGGTGAAGCCTTCGGAGACCC
variable region 389A03 TGTCCCTCACCTGCACTGTCTCTGGTGGCTCCATCAGCAGTAGTAGT
TATTACTGCGGCTGGATCCGCCAGCCCCCTGGGAAGGGGCTGGACT
GGATTGGGAGTATCTATTCTACTGGGTACACCTACTACAACCCGTCC
CTCAAGAGTCGAGTCACCATTTCCATAGACACGTCCAAGAACCAGT
TCTCATGCCTGATACTGACCTCTGTGACCGCCGCAGACACGGCTGTG
TATTACTGTGCGATAAGTACAGCAGCTGGCCCTGAATACTTCCATCG
CTGGGGCCAGGGCACCCTGGTCACCGTCTCCTCAG
180 389A03 - full heavy Amino acid sequence of 389A03 QLQESGPGLVKPSETLSLTCTVSGGSISSSSYYCGWIRQPPGKGLDWIGS
chain sequence heavy chain IYSTGYTYYNPSLKSRVTISIDTSKNQFSCLILTSVTAADTAVYYCAISTA
AGPEYFHRWGQGTLVTVSSASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLV
KDYFPEPVTVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSVVTVPSSSLGT
QTYICNVNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSCDKTHTCPPCPAPELLGGPSVFLFP
PKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGVEVHNAKTKP
REEQYNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYKCKVSNKALPAPIEKTISKA
KGQPREPQVYTLPPSRDELTKNQVSLTCLVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPE
NNYKTTPPVLDSDGSFFLYSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALHNH
YTQKSLSLSPGK
181 389A03 - full heavy Nucleic acid sequence of 389A03 CAGCTGCAGGAGTCGGGCCCAGGCCTGGTGAAGCCTTCGGAGACCC
chain sequence heavy chain TGTCCCTCACCTGCACTGTCTCTGGTGGCTCCATCAGCAGTAGTAGT
TATTACTGCGGCTGGATCCGCCAGCCCCCTGGGAAGGGGCTGGACT
GGATTGGGAGTATCTATTCTACTGGGTACACCTACTACAACCCGTCC
CTCAAGAGTCGAGTCACCATTTCCATAGACACGTCCAAGAACCAGT
TCTCATGCCTGATACTGACCTCTGTGACCGCCGCAGACACGGCTGTG
TATTACTGTGCGATAAGTACAGCAGCTGGCCCTGAATACTTCCATCG
CTGGGGCCAGGGCACCCTGGTCACCGTCTCCTCAGCCAGCACCAAG
GGCCCCTCTGTGTTCCCTCTGGCCCCTTCCAGCAAGTCCACCTCTGG
CGGAACAGCCGCTCTGGGCTGCCTCGTGAAGGACTACTTCCCCGAG
CCTGTGACCGTGTCCTGGAACTCTGGCGCTCTGACCAGCGGAGTGCA
CACCTTCCCTGCTGTGCTGCAGTCCTCCGGCCTGTACTCCCTGTCCTC
CGTCGTGACCGTGCCTTCCAGCTCTCTGGGCACCCAGACCTACATCT
GCAACGTGAACCACAAGCCCTCCAACACCAAGGTGGACAAGAAGGT
GGAACCCAAGTCCTGCGACAAGACCCACACCTGTCCCCCTTGTCCTG
CCCCTGAACTGCTGGGCGGACCTTCCGTGTTCCTGTTCCCCCCAAAG
CCCAAGGACACCCTGATGATCTCCCGGACCCCCGAAGTGACCTGCG
TGGTGGTGGATGTGTCCCACGAGGACCCTGAAGTGAAGTTCAATTG
GTACGTGGACGGCGTGGAAGTGCACAACGCCAAGACCAAGCCTAGA
GAGGAACAGTACAACTCCACCTACCGGGTGGTGTCCGTGCTGACCG
TGCTGCACCAGGATTGGCTGAACGGCAAAGAGTACAAGTGCAAGGT
GTCCAACAAGGCCCTGCCTGCCCCCATCGAAAAGACCATCTCCAAG
GCCAAGGGCCAGCCCCGGGAACCCCAGGTGTACACACTGCCCCCTA
GCAGGGACGAGCTGACCAAGAACCAGGTGTCCCTGACCTGTCTCGT
GAAAGGCTTCTACCCCTCCGATATCGCCGTGGAATGGGAGTCCAAC
GGCCAGCCTGAGAACAACTACAAGACCACCCCCCCTGTGCTGGACT
CCGACGGCTCATTCTTCCTGTACAGCAAGCTGACAGTGGACAAGTCC
CGGTGGCAGCAGGGCAACGTGTTCTCCTGCTCCGTGATGCACGAGG
CCCTGCACAACCACTACACCCAGAAGTCCCTGTCCCTGAGCCCCGGCAAG
182 389A03 - CDRL1 Amino acid sequence of CDRL1 QSVLYSSNSKNF
(IMGT) of 389A03 using IMGT
183 389A03 - CDRL2 Amino acid sequence of CDRL2 WAS
(IMGT) of 389A03 using IMGT
184 389A03 - CDRL3 Amino acid sequence of CDRL3 QQYYSTPRT
(IMGT) of 389A03 using IMGT
185 389A03 - CDRL1 Amino acid sequence of CDRL1 KSSQSVLYSSNSKNFLA
(Kabat) of 389A03 using Kabat
186 389A03 - CDRL2 Amino acid sequence of CDRL2 WASTRGS
(Kabat) of 389A03 using Kabat
187 389A03 - CDRL3 Amino acid sequence of CDRL3 QQYYSTPRT
(Kabat) of 389A03 using Kabat
188 389A03 - Light chain Amino acid sequence of VL of DIVMTQSPDSLAVSLGERATINCKSSQSVLYSSNSKNFLAWYQQKPGQP
variable region 389A03 PKLFIYWASTRGSGVPDRISGSGSGTDFNLTISSLQAEDVAVYYCQQYY
STPRTFGQGTKVEIK
189 389A03 - Light chain Nucleic acid sequence of VL of GACATCGTGATGACCCAGTCTCCAGACTCCCTGGCTGTGTCTCTGGG
variable region 389A03 CGAGAGGGCCACCATCAACTGCAAGTCCAGCCAGAGTGTTTTATAC
AGCTCCAACAGTAAGAACTTCTTAGCTTGGTACCAGCAGAAACCGG
GACAGCCTCCTAAGCTGTTCATTTACTGGGCATCTACCCGGGGATCC
GGGGTCCCTGACCGAATCAGTGGCAGCGGGTCTGGGACAGATTTCA
ATCTCACCATCAGCAGCCTGCAGGCTGAAGATGTGGCAGTTTATTAC
TGTCAACAATATTATAGTACTCCTCGGACGTTCGGCCAAGGGACCA
AGGTGGAGATCAAAC
190 389A03 - full light Amino acid sequence of 389A03 DIVMTQSPDSLAVSLGERATINCKSSQSVLYSSNSKNFLAWYQQKPGQP
chain sequence light chain PKLFIYWASTRGSGVPDRISGSGSGTDFNLTISSLQAEDVAVYYCQQYY
STPRTFGQGTKVEIKRTVAAPSVFIFPPSDEQLKSGTASVVCLLNNFYPR
EAKVQWKVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLTLSKADYEKH
KVYACEVTHQGLSSPVTKSFNRGEC
191 389A03 - full light Nucleic acid sequence of 389A03 GACATCGTGATGACCCAGTCTCCAGACTCCCTGGCTGTGTCTCTGGG
chain sequence light chain CGAGAGGGCCACCATCAACTGCAAGTCCAGCCAGAGTGTTTTATAC
AGCTCCAACAGTAAGAACTTCTTAGCTTGGTACCAGCAGAAACCGG
GACAGCCTCCTAAGCTGTTCATTTACTGGGCATCTACCCGGGGATCC
GGGGTCCCTGACCGAATCAGTGGCAGCGGGTCTGGGACAGATTTCA
ATCTCACCATCAGCAGCCTGCAGGCTGAAGATGTGGCAGTTTATTAC
TGTCAACAATATTATAGTACTCCTCGGACGTTCGGCCAAGGGACCA
AGGTGGAGATCAAACGTACGGTGGCCGCTCCCTCCGTGTTCATCTTC
CCACCTTCCGACGAGCAGCTGAAGTCCGGCACCGCTTCTGTCGTGTG
CCTGCTGAACAACTTCTACCCCCGCGAGGCCAAGGTGCAGTGGAAG
GTGGACAACGCCCTGCAGTCCGGCAACTCCCAGGAATCCGTGACCG
AGCAGGACTCCAAGGACAGCACCTACTCCCTGTCCTCCACCCTGACC
CTGTCCAAGGCCGACTACGAGAAGCACAAGGTGTACGCCTGCGAAG
TGACCCACCAGGGCCTGTCTAGCCCCGTGACCAAGTCTTTCAACCGG
GGCGAGTGT
192 Human IGHG*01 Heavy Chain Constant Region gcttccaccaagggcccatccgtcttccccctggcgccctgctccaggagcacctccgagagcacagccgccct
IgG4 heavy Nucleotide Sequence gggctgcctggtcaaggactacttccccgaaccggtgacggtgtcgtggaactcaggcgccctgaccagcggc
chain gtgcacaccttcccggctgtcctacagtcctcaggactctactccctcagcagcgtggtgaccgtgccctccagc
constant agcttgggcacgaagacctacacctgcaacgtagatcacaagcccagcaacaccaaggtggacaagagagttg
region #1 agtccaaatatggtcccccatgcccatcatgcccagcacctgagttcctggggggaccatcagtcttcctgttccc
cccaaaacccaaggacactctcatgatctcccggacccctgaggtcacgtgcgtggtggtggacgtgagccag
gaagaccccgaggtccagttcaactggtacgtggatggcgtggaggtgcataatgccaagacaaagccgcgg
gaggagcagttcaacagcacgtaccgtgtggtcagcgtcctcaccgtcctgcaccaggactggctgaacggca
aggagtacaagtgcaaggtctccaacaaaggcctcccgtcctccatcgagaaaaccatctccaagccaaagg
gcagccccgagagccacaggtgtacaccctgcccccatcccaggaggagatgaccaagaaccaggtcagcct
gacctgcctggtcaaaggcttctaccccagcgacatcgccgtggagtgggagagcaatgggcagccggagaa
caactacaagaccacgcctcccgtgctggactccgacggctccttcttcctctacagcaggctaaccgtggacaa
gagcaggtggcaggaggggaatgtcttctcatgctccgtgatgcatgaggctctgcacaaccactacacacaga
agagcctctccctgtctctgggtaaa
193 Heavy Chain Constant Region ASTKGPSVFPLAPCSRSTSESTAALGCLVKDYFPEPVTVSWNSGALTSG
Amino Acid Sequence VHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSVVTVPSSSLGTKTYTCNVDHKPSNTKVDKRV
ESKYGPPCPSCPAPEFLGGPSVFLFPPKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSQ
EDPEVQFNWYVDGVEVHNAKTKPREEQFNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWL
NGKEYKCKVSNKGLPSSIEKTISKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPSQEEMTKNQV
SLTCLVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTPPVLDSDGSFFLYSRLTV
DKSRWQEGNVFSCSVMHEALHNHYTQKSLSLSLGK
194 Human IGHG*02 Heavy Chain Constant Region gcttccaccaagggcccatccgtcttccccctggcgccctgctccaggagcacctccgagagcacagccgccct
IgG4 heavy Nucleotide Sequence gggctgcctggtcaaggactacttccccgaaccggtgacggtgtcgtggaactcaggcgccctgaccagcggc
chain gtgcacaccttcccggctgtcctacagtcctcaggactctactccctcagcagcgtggtgaccgtgccctccagc
constant agcttgggcacgaagacctacacctgcaacgtagatcacaagcccagcaacaccaaggtggacaagagagttg
region #2 agtccaaatatggtcccccgtgcccatcatgcccagcacctgagttcctggggggaccatcagtcttcctgttccc
cccaaaacccaaggacactctcatgatctcccggacccctgaggtcacgtgcgtggtggtggacgtgagccag
gaagaccccgaggtccagttcaactggtacgtggatggcgtggaggtgcataatgccaagacaaagccgcgg
gaggagcagttcaacagcacgtaccgtgtggtcagcgtcctcaccgtcgtgcaccaggactggctgaacggca
aggagtacaagtgcaaggtctccaacaaaggcctcccgtcctccatcgagaaaaccatctccaagccaaagg
gcagccccgagagccacaggtgtacaccctgcccccatcccaggaggagatgaccaagaaccaggtcagcct
gacctgcctggtcaaaggcttctaccccagcgacatcgccgtggagtgggagagcaatgggcagccggagaa
caactacaagaccacgcctcccgtgctggactccgacggctccttcttcctctacagcaggctaaccgtggacaa
gagcaggtggcaggaggggaatgtcttctcatgctccgtgatgcatgaggctctgcacaaccactacacgcaga
agagcctctccctgtctctgggtaaa
195 Heavy Chain Constant Region ASTKGPSVFPLAPCSRSTSESTAALGCLVKDYFPEPVTVSWNSGALTSG
Amino Acid Sequence VHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSVVTVPSSSLGTKTYTCNVDHKPSNTKVDKRV
ESKYGPPCPSCPAPEFLGGPSVFLFPPKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSQ
EDPEVQFNWYVDGVEVHNAKTKPREEQFNSTYRVVSVLTVVHQDWL
NGKEYKCKVSNKGLPSSIEKTISKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPSQEEMTKNQV
SLTCLVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTPPVLDSDGSFFLYSRLTV
DKSRWQEGNVFSCSVMHEALHNHYTQKSLSLSLGK
196 Human IGHG*03 Heavy Chain Constant Region gcttccaccaagggcccatccgtcttccccctggcgccctgctccaggagcacctccgagagcacagccgccct
IgG4 heavy Nucleotide Sequence gggctgcctggtcaaggactacttccccgaaccggtgacggtgtcgtggaactcaggcgccctgaccagcggc
chain gtgcacaccttcccggctgtcctacagtcctcaggactctactccctcagcagcgtggtgaccgtgccctccagc
constant agcttgggcacgaagacctacacctgcaacgtagatcacaagcccagcaacaccaaggtggacaagagagttg
region #3 agtccaaatatggtcccccatgcccatcatgcccagcacctgagttcctggggggaccatcagtcttcctgttccc
cccaaaacccaaggacactctcatgatctcccggacccctgaggtcacgtgcgtggtggtggacgtgagccag
gaagaccccgaggtccagttcaactggtacgtggatggcgtggaggtgcataatgccaagacaaagccgcgg
gaggagcagttcaacagcacgtaccgtgtggtcagcgtcctcaccgtcctgcaccaggactggctgaacggca
aggagtacaagtgcaaggtctccaacaaaggcctcccgtcctccatcgagaaaaccatctccaaagccaaagg
gcagccccgagagccacaggtgtacacctgcccccatcccaggaggagatgaccaagaaccaggtcagcct
gacctgcctggtcaaaggcttctaccccagcgacatcgccgtggagtgggagagcaatgggcagccggagaa
caactacaagaccacgcctcccgtgctggactccgacggctccttcttcctctacagcaagctcaccgtggacaa
gagcaggtggcaggaggggaacgtcttctcatgctccgtgatgcatgaggctctgcacaaccactacacgcaga