US9429344B2 - Electrocaloric system with active regeneration - Google Patents

Electrocaloric system with active regeneration Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US9429344B2
US9429344B2 US14/306,871 US201414306871A US9429344B2 US 9429344 B2 US9429344 B2 US 9429344B2 US 201414306871 A US201414306871 A US 201414306871A US 9429344 B2 US9429344 B2 US 9429344B2
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
electrocaloric
capacitor
capacitors
electric
temperature
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Active, expires
Application number
US14/306,871
Other versions
US20150362225A1 (en
Inventor
David E. Schwartz
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Palo Alto Research Center Inc
Original Assignee
Palo Alto Research Center Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Palo Alto Research Center Inc filed Critical Palo Alto Research Center Inc
Priority to US14/306,871 priority Critical patent/US9429344B2/en
Assigned to PALO ALTO RESEARCH CENTER INCORPORATED reassignment PALO ALTO RESEARCH CENTER INCORPORATED ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: SCHWARTZ, DAVID E.
Publication of US20150362225A1 publication Critical patent/US20150362225A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of US9429344B2 publication Critical patent/US9429344B2/en
Active legal-status Critical Current
Adjusted expiration legal-status Critical

Links

Images

Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B21/00Machines, plants or systems, using electric or magnetic effects
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B2321/00Details of machines, plants or systems, using electric or magnetic effects
    • F25B2321/001Details of machines, plants or systems, using electric or magnetic effects by using electro-caloric effects
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B30/00Energy efficient heating, ventilation or air conditioning [HVAC]

Abstract

An electrocaloric with active regeneration includes first and second electrocaloric capacitors proximate one another enabling heat transfer there between. In the system, complementary first and second electric fields are applied to their respective electrocaloric capacitors such that when the electric fields are applied the temperature of the first electrocaloric capacitor increases while the temperature of the second electrocaloric capacitor decreases or vice-versa. Shifting of one or both of the electrocaloric capacitors relative to one another assists in heat transfer between the two and may additionally transfer heat from an object to be cooled, which is connected to the first electrocaloric capacitor, to a heat sink, which is connected to a second electrocaloric capacitor.

Description

TECHNICAL FIELD
The present disclosure is directed to electrocaloric cooling and/or heating, and, more particularly, electrocaloric cooling and/or heating with active regeneration.
BACKGROUND
The electrocaloric effect (ECE) and the pyroelectric effect refer to the same phenomenon: a change in the temperature of a material associated with a changing electric field. When a material is used in a cooling or refrigeration application, the term “electrocaloric” is generally used. When a material is used for generating electricity or mechanical work from heat (i.e., as a heat engine), the term “pyroelectric” is used.
Certain materials, notably polymers and co-polymers based on P(VDF-TrFE) and ceramic materials such as lead zirconate titanate (PZT), have been shown to have a large ECE. These materials can be used to effect refrigeration by moving heat from a lower to a higher temperature. They can also be used as heat engines by extracting charge associated with the differential in electrical displacement at different temperatures.
To use a material that exhibits ECE (an “EC material”) in a cooling device, the temperature changes induced by applying electric fields can be synchronized with some means of creating directionality in the heat flux such that heat is extracted from one side of the device and delivered to another. One means of doing this is with thermal switches that alternately create high thermal conductance paths on either side of an EC capacitor. Another means is with regeneration.
SUMMARY
An electrocaloric system with active regeneration includes first and second electrocaloric capacitors proximate one another enabling heat transfer there between. In the system, complementary first and second electric fields are applied to their respective electrocaloric capacitors such that when the electric fields are applied the temperature of the first electrocaloric capacitor increases while the temperature of the second electrocaloric capacitor decreases or vice-versa. Physically displacing the electrocaloric capacitors relative to one another assists in heat transfer between the two and may additionally transfer heat from an object to be cooled, which is connected to the first electrocaloric capacitor, to a heat sink, which is connected to a second electrocaloric capacitor.
The electrocaloric system with active regeneration may further comprise stacks of alternately paired first and second electrocaloric capacitors where motion of like electrocaloric capacitors occurs substantially synchronously. Each electrocaloric capacitor may have a single layer parallel-plate capacitor structure, in which the dielectric layer is a material capable of an electrocaloric effect, a multilayer capacitor structure comprising a stack of such single layers, or a different capacitor structure. The motion of the electrocaloric capacitors may be induced through use of an actuator. The motion and the fields applied to the electrocaloric capacitors may occur intermittently or continuously. The motion may be linear or rotational. The heat source and the heat sink may be directly coupled to the electrocaloric capacitors or may be coupled via liquid heat exchange coupling or a solid heat exchange coupling.
A method for electrocaloric cooling via active regeneration includes moving a second electrocaloric capacitor in a first direction relative to a first electrocaloric capacitor. It also includes increasing an electric field on the first electrocaloric capacitor while keeping a low electric field on the second electrocaloric capacitor whereby heat is transferred from the first elector caloric capacitor to the second electrocaloric capacitor. It further includes moving the second electrocaloric capacitor in a direction opposite the first direction relative to the first electrocaloric capacitor. And, also includes increasing an electric field on the second electrocaloric capacitor while keeping a low electric field on the first electrocaloric capacitor whereby heat is transferred from the second electrocaloric capacitor to the first electrocaloric capacitor.
The method may additionally comprise coupling the first electrocaloric capacitor to a heat source and coupling the second electrocaloric capacitor to a heat sink. The motion of the second electrocaloric capacitor and the adjustment of the electric fields may be performed intermittently or continuously.
The above summary is not intended to describe each embodiment or every implementation. A more complete understanding will become apparent and appreciated by referring to the following detailed description and claims in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
FIGS. 1(a)-1(c) illustrate a system for electrocaloric cooling via active regeneration in accordance with various embodiments disclosed herein.
FIGS. 2(a)-2(b) illustrate a system for electrocaloric cooling via active regeneration in accordance with various embodiments disclosed herein.
FIGS. 3(a)-3(b) illustrate examples of waveforms that may be associated with the system for electrocaloric cooling via active regeneration in accordance with various embodiments disclosed herein.
FIGS. 4(a)-4(b) illustrate a system for electrocaloric cooling via active regeneration incorporating a plurality of stacked electrocaloric capacitors in accordance with various embodiments disclosed herein.
FIGS. 5(a)-5(b) illustrate a system for electrocaloric cooling via active regeneration incorporating solid coupling blocks in accordance with various embodiments disclosed herein.
FIGS. 6(a)-6(b) illustrate an alternate configuration of a system for electrocaloric cooling via active regeneration in accordance with various embodiments disclosed herein.
FIGS. 7(a)-7(c) illustrate a system for pyroelectric energy harvesting with active regeneration in accordance with various embodiments disclosed herein.
The figures are not necessarily to scale. Like numbers used in the figures refer to like components. However, it will be understood that the use of a number to refer to a component in a given figure is not intended to limit the component in another figure labeled with the same number.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION
Referring now to FIGS. 1(a)-1(c), a schematic illustrating a system 200 for electrocaloric cooling via active regeneration may be appreciated. The system 200 provides a first EC capacitor 202 and a second EC capacitor 204. The electric fields applied to this second EC capacitor 204 are complementary to the electric fields applied to the first EC capacitor 202 so that the temperature of the second EC capacitor 204 increases while the temperature of the first EC capacitor 202 decreases, and vice-versa. Note that FIG. 1(c) provides a temperature scale to aid in interpreting the temperatures across each of the EC capacitors 202 and 204 during various system phases. It should be noted that while FIGS. 1(a)-1(c) illustrate discrete sections within each of capaciators 202 and 204, the sections may indeed be of different EC materials tuned to work optimally at different temperatures or the sections may be of homogeneous EC material with the sections illustrating the temperature gradient across the homogeneous EC material.
FIG. 1(a) illustrates the regeneration phase of the system 200. During the regeneration phase, the first EC capacitor 202 is relatively hot (a high electric field is being applied) while the second EC capacitor 204 is relatively cold (a low electric field is being applied). Heat is transferred from the first EC capacitor 202 to the second EC capacitor 204. Note that each of the first and second EC capacitors 202 and 204 comprises a plurality electrocaloric materials 212. In the present configuration, the plurality of electrocaloric materials 212 are in a series, or side-by-side, orientation, however, the electrocaloric materials may also be layered or otherwise intermixed to produce a desired electrocaloric capacitor with desired electrocaloric function.
FIG. 1(b) illustrates the heat transfer phase of the system 200. During the heat transfer phase, the second EC capacitor 204 has been shifted, or displaced, relative to the fixed position of the first EC capacitor 202; either or both of the EC capacitors 202 and 204 may be displaced as appropriate to a specific application. Further, during the heat transfer phase, the second EC capacitor 204 is relatively hot (a high electric field is being applied) while the first EC capacitor 202 is relatively cold (a low electric field is being applied) so heat is transferred from the second EC capacitor 204 to the first EC capacitor 202. Additionally, in the heat transfer phase, the hot side of the second EC capacitor 204 is in contact with a heat sink 206 at a hot temperature, Th, and the cold side of the first EC capacitor 202 is in contact with the object 208 to be cooled at a cold temperature, Tc, wherein Tc<Th. The vertically-oriented arrows in FIGS. 1(a) and 1(b) indicate the direction of heat flow. It should be noted that the temperatures of the two capacitors 202 and 204 are not constant; there is a temperature gradient across each of capacitors 202 and 204 at all times, i.e., hotter on the right and cooler on the left.
FIGS. 2(a) and 2(b) similarly illustrate system 200 with first EC capacitor 202 and second EC capacitor 204. FIG. 2(a) illustrates the regeneration phase of the system 200 with a voltage source 210 applying a high electric field to the first EC capacitor 202 while the second EC capacitor 204 is submitted to a low electric field, indicated by the absence of a voltage source, keeping the second EC capacitor 204 relatively cool. Side arrows indicate displacement motion of the EC capacitor(s) 202 and 204; either or both may be displaced. Vertically-oriented arrows indicate the direction of heat transfer from the first EC capacitor 202 to the second EC capacitor 204.
FIG. 2(b) illustrates the heat transfer phase of the system 200 wherein a high electric field, generated by voltage source 210, is applied to the second EC capacitor 204 and a low electric field, indicated by absence of a voltage source, is applied to the first capacitor 202. Heat sink 206 is again provided to the hot side of the second EC capacitor 204 and an object 208 to be cooled is again provided to the cold side of the first EC capacitor 202. The vertically-oriented arrows once again indicate the direction of heat transfer. FIGS. 2(a) and 2(b) further emphasize that each of the EC capacitors is fabricated from one or more EC materials 212 which may comprise an electrocaloric polymer, an electrocaloric co-polymer and/or an electrocaloric ceramic. Polymers generally have a low elastic modulus while ceramics can be brittle. As such, it may be necessary to reinforce the EC capacitors with metal foil or other supportive material.
The electrocaloric cooling via active regeneration system 200 of FIGS. 1 and 2 is a four stage cycle: (1) move one direction, e.g., move the second EC capacitor 204 to the left relative to the first EC capacitor 202; (2) increase the first of the two electric fields while keeping the other low, e.g., increase the electric field on the first EC capacitor 202; (3) move the other direction, e.g., move the second EC capacitor 204 to the right relative to the first EC capacitor 202; and (4) increase the second of the two electric field while keeping the other low, e.g., increase the electric field on the second EC capacitor 204. Each of the steps provides discrete motion and field changes; however, the system 200 may also be continuous.
FIG. 3(a) depicts the waveforms associated with discrete motion and field changes and specifically illustrates the position, the electric field on the first EC capacitor 202, and the electric field on the second EC capacitor 204 relative to time. FIG. 3(b) depicts the waveforms associated with continuous motion and field changes and specifically illustrates the position, the electric field on the first EC capacitor 202, and the electric field on the second EC capacitor 204 relative to time. While FIG. 3(b) depicts a ramp waveform, it should be noted that other types of continuous waveforms, e.g., sinusoidal, are also possible as long as the system 200 is properly synchronized.
While FIGS. 1 and 2 have illustrated an example embodiment of the system 200 with only two EC capacitor layers (202 and 204), in practice, many layers of EC capacitors may be stacked. FIGS. 4(a) and 4(b) depict an example embodiment of system 200 where a plurality of first EC capacitors, e.g., 202 (a)-(d), are alternately layered with a plurality of second EC capacitors 204 (a)-(d). Once again, side arrows indicate the direction of motion and vertically-oriented arrows indicate the direction of heat transfer. The heat sink 206 and the object 208 to be cooled are also incorporated in the configuration of FIG. 4(b). Any number of EC capacitor layers may be used as suitable to a specific application.
The motion of one or both of the EC capacitors 202 and 204 may be achieved with a motor or other actuator. In the case of stacked EC capacitors, the alternate EC capacitor layers may be attached to one another to provide substantially uniform and simultaneous movement. To enable good thermal contact between EC capacitor layers, and to reduce friction during motion, a layer of lubrication may be provided intermediate each EC capacitor layer. The lubricant may comprise a thermally conductive oil or, alternatively, may comprise any other suitable oil or liquid lubricant and/or a solid lubricant such as graphite, or an oil containing particles of thermally-conductive or thermally-insulating materials. The length of motion (or displacement distance) for the EC capacitance layers, the EC capacitance layer thickness, the electric field generating voltage, etc. are dependent on material and system choices and can thus be selected appropriate to a specific application.
The heat sink 206 and the object 208 to be cooled may be connected to the system 200 in any manner suitable to a specific application. For example, the heat sink 206 and the object 208 may be connected to the system 200 through a liquid loop or other pumped liquid cooling. In another example embodiment, solid coupling such as in the form of metal blocks 222 may be used. See FIG. 5(a) where the EC capacitor layers 202 and 204 are positioned proximate metal blocks 222 and FIG. 5(b) where motion has caused EC capacitors to be in heat transfer contact with the metal blocks 222. The metal blocks 222 may, in turn, be coupled to the heat sink and the object to be cooled and/or an air heat exchanger or liquid loop, etc. While examples of system 200 connectors have been described herein, any other suitable heat exchange mechanism may be used to connect to the system 200.
While the above disclosure has focused on linearly configured EC capacitors having linear reciprocal motion, it should be noted that the EC capacitors and their motion need not be linear or reciprocal. For example, the EC capacitors may be parts of disks, e.g., a wedge, half-disk, etc., and the motion may be rotational. See FIG. 6(a) which illustrates system 200 in a wedge configuration within a heat transfer material 224 where rotational motion is enabled. FIG. 6(b) is a sectional view of FIG. 6(a) illustrating the first EC capacitor 202 and the second EC capacitor 204, which is capable of rotational motion relative to the first EC capacitor 202.
The various embodiments of the system 200 described herein may provide the advantage of higher power density and/or higher temperature lift through more active material volume as well as higher efficiency through more effective heat transfer.
The core system described above may alternatively be configured as a pyroelectric heat engine. In the pyroelectric heat engine configuration, a pyroelectric material is substituted for the electrocaloric material. The pyroelectric material is selected to optimize heat energy harvesting. In contrast to the cooling configuration described above, heat is absorbed by the device at the hot side and rejected at the cold side. The high voltage supplies of the cooling configuration are replaced by loads in the heat engine configuration. The loads may be passive or active with impedances or voltages synchronized with the motion of the capacitors.
FIGS. 7(a)-7(c), illustrate a system 700 for pyroelectric power generation with active regeneration. The system 700 provides a first pyroelectric (PE) capacitor 702 and a second PE capacitor 704. A heat source 706 and a heat sink 708 are also provided. Note that FIG. 7(c) provides a temperature scale to aid in interpreting the temperatures across each of the PE capacitors 702 and 704 during various system phases. It should be noted that while FIGS. 7(a)-7(c) illustrate discrete sections within each of capacitors 702 and 704, the sections may indeed be of different PE materials tuned to work optimally at different temperatures or the sections may be of homogeneous PE material with the sections illustrating the temperature gradient across the homogeneous PE material.
FIG. 7(a) illustrates one phase of a thermodynamic cycle within the pyroelectric heat engine. PE capacitor 702 is moved so that its hotter side is in communication with the heat source 706 while its voltage decreased such that it absorbs heat. At the same time, PE capacitor 704, which is in communication with PE capacitor 702, has its voltage increased so that it rejects heat to the PE capacitor 702. In the second phase, per FIG. 7(b), PE capacitor 702 is moved so that its colder side is in communication with the heat sink 708. Its voltage is increased so that it rejects heat to the heat sink 708 as well as to PE capacitor 704, which has its voltage decreased. Because of the pyroelectric effect, the net electrical energy in terms of charge times voltage put into the system per cycle is less than the energy extracted. In this way, the device operates as a heat engine. Other configurations of pyroelectric capacitors, heat sources, and heat sinks are possible, and other pyroelectric energy harvesting cycles are also possible.
Systems, devices or methods disclosed herein may include one or more of the features structures, methods, or combination thereof described herein. For example, a device or method may be implemented to include one or more of the features and/or processes above. It is intended that such device or method need not include all of the features and/or processes described herein, but may be implemented to include selected features and/or processes that provide useful structures and/or functionality.
Various modifications and additions can be made to the disclosed embodiments discussed above. Accordingly, the scope of the present disclosure should not be limited by the particular embodiments described above, but should be defined only by the claims set forth below and equivalents thereof.

Claims (22)

The invention claimed is:
1. A system comprising:
a first electrocaloric capacitor; and
a second electrocaloric capacitor proximate the first electrocaloric capacitor wherein the proximity enables heat transfer between the first and second electrocaloric capacitors,
wherein a first electric field is applied to the first electrocaloric capacitor and a second electric field is applied to the second electrocaloric capacitor, and
wherein the first and second electric fields are complementary such that when the first and second electric fields are applied to their respective electrocaloric capacitors the temperature of the first electrocaloric capacitor rises in accordance with a rising first electric field and the temperature of the second electrocaloric capacitor decreases in accordance with a decreasing second electric field or the temperature of the first electrocaloric capacitor decreases in accordance with a decreasing first electric field and the temperature of the second electrocaloric capacitor increases in accordance with a rising second electric field.
2. The system of claim 1, wherein one or both of the first and second electrocaloric capacitors are shifted intermittently or continuously relative to one another in correspondence with the raising and lowering of the first and second electric fields.
3. The system of claim 1, wherein one of the first or second electrocaloric capacitors is coupled to a heat source and the other of the first or second electrocaloric capacitors is coupled to a heat sink.
4. The system of claim 1, further comprising a lubricant intermediate the first electrocaloric capacitor and the second electrocaloric capacitor.
5. The system of claim 1, wherein the first and/or second electrocaloric capacitors comprise a plurality of electrocaloric materials.
6. The system of claim 5, wherein the plurality of electrocaloric materials are in a series configuration and/or a layer configuration.
7. The system of claim 1, further comprising a plurality of first and second electrocaloric capacitors stacked in an alternating pair configuration of first electrocaloric capacitor and a second electrocaloric capacitor.
8. The system of claim 7, wherein one or both of like electrocaloric capacitors in the alternating pair configuration are substantially synchronously shifted.
9. The system 8, wherein the substantially synchronous shifting occurs intermittently or continuously in correspondence with the raising and lowering of the first and second electric fields.
10. The system of claim 2, wherein the shifting is caused by an actuator.
11. The system of claim 2, wherein the shifting comprises linear or rotational motion.
12. A system comprising:
a first electrocaloric capacitor; and
a second electrocaloric capacitor proximate the first electrocaloric capacitor wherein the proximity enables heat transfer between the first and second electrocaloric capacitors,
wherein a first electric field is applied to the first electrocaloric capacitor and a second electric field is applied to the second electrocaloric capacitor, and
wherein the first and second electric fields are complementary such that when the first and second electric fields are applied to their respective electrocaloric capacitors the temperature of the first electrocaloric capacitor rises in accordance with a rising first electric field and the temperature of the second electrocaloric capacitor decreases in accordance with a decreasing second electric field or the temperature of the first electrocaloric capacitor decreases in accordance with a decreasing first electric field and the temperature of the second electrocaloric capacitor increases in accordance with a rising second electric field, and
wherein one or both of the first and second electrocaloric capacitors are shifted relative to one another in correspondence with the raising and lowering of the first and second electric fields.
13. The system of claim 12, wherein the shifting of the first and second electrocaloric capacitors occurs intermittently or continuously.
14. The system of claim 12, wherein one of the first or second electrocaloric capacitors is coupled to a heat source and the other of the first or second electrocaloric capacitors is coupled to a heat sink.
15. The system of claim 12, further comprising a lubricant intermediate the first electrocaloric capacitor and the second electrocaloric capacitor.
16. The system of claim 12, wherein the first and/or second electrocaloric capacitors comprise a plurality of electrocaloric materials.
17. The system of claim 16, wherein the plurality of electrocaloric materials are in a series configuration and/or a layer configuration.
18. The system of claim 12, further comprising a plurality of first and second electrocaloric capacitors stacked in an alternating pair configuration of first electrocaloric capacitor and a second electrocaloric capacitor.
19. The system of claim 18, wherein one or both of like electrocaloric capacitors in the alternating pair configuration are substantially synchronously shifted.
20. The system of claim 12, wherein the shifting comprises linear motion or rotational motion.
21. A method of cooling comprising:
moving a second electrocaloric capacitor a first direction relative to a first electrocaloric capacitor;
increasing an electric field on the first electrocaloric capacitor while lowering an electric field on the second electrocaloric capacitor whereby heat is transferred from the first electrocaloric capacitor to the second electrocaloric capacitor;
moving the second electrocaloric capacitor in a direction opposite the first direction relative to the first electrocaloric capacitor; and
increasing an electric field on the second electrocaloric capacitor while lowering an electric field on the first electrocaloric capacitor whereby heat is transferred from the second electrocaloric capacitor to the first electrocaloric capacitor.
22. A system comprising:
a first pyroelectric capacitor; and
a second pyroelectric capacitor proximate the first pyroelectric capacitor wherein the proximity enables heat transfer between the first and second pyroelectric capacitors,
wherein a first voltage is applied to the first pyroelectric capacitor and a second voltage is apply to the second pyroelectric capacitor, and
wherein the first and second voltages are complementary such that when the first and second voltages are applied to their respective pyroelectric capacitors the temperature of the first pyroelectric capacitor increases in accordance with a decreasing first voltage and the temperature of the second pyroelectric capacitor decreases in accordance with an increasing second voltage or the temperature of the first pyroelectric capacitor decreases in accordance with an increasing first voltage and the temperature of the second pyroelectric capacitor increases in accordance with a decreasing second voltage.
US14/306,871 2014-06-17 2014-06-17 Electrocaloric system with active regeneration Active 2034-11-08 US9429344B2 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US14/306,871 US9429344B2 (en) 2014-06-17 2014-06-17 Electrocaloric system with active regeneration

Applications Claiming Priority (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US14/306,871 US9429344B2 (en) 2014-06-17 2014-06-17 Electrocaloric system with active regeneration
JP2015107143A JP6937546B2 (en) 2014-06-17 2015-05-27 Electric calorie system using active regeneration
EP15170173.7A EP2957843B1 (en) 2014-06-17 2015-06-01 Electrocaloric system with active regeneration

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20150362225A1 US20150362225A1 (en) 2015-12-17
US9429344B2 true US9429344B2 (en) 2016-08-30

Family

ID=53442479

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US14/306,871 Active 2034-11-08 US9429344B2 (en) 2014-06-17 2014-06-17 Electrocaloric system with active regeneration

Country Status (3)

Country Link
US (1) US9429344B2 (en)
EP (1) EP2957843B1 (en)
JP (1) JP6937546B2 (en)

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US11187441B2 (en) * 2019-10-10 2021-11-30 Palo Alto Research Center Incorporated Control system for an electrocaloric device

Families Citing this family (48)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US10126025B2 (en) 2013-08-02 2018-11-13 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Magneto caloric assemblies
US9851128B2 (en) 2014-04-22 2017-12-26 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Magneto caloric heat pump
US10299655B2 (en) 2016-05-16 2019-05-28 General Electric Company Caloric heat pump dishwasher appliance
US10047979B2 (en) 2016-07-19 2018-08-14 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Linearly-actuated magnetocaloric heat pump
US10222101B2 (en) 2016-07-19 2019-03-05 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Linearly-actuated magnetocaloric heat pump
US10047980B2 (en) 2016-07-19 2018-08-14 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Linearly-actuated magnetocaloric heat pump
US10006675B2 (en) 2016-07-19 2018-06-26 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Linearly-actuated magnetocaloric heat pump
US10006674B2 (en) 2016-07-19 2018-06-26 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Linearly-actuated magnetocaloric heat pump
US10006672B2 (en) 2016-07-19 2018-06-26 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Linearly-actuated magnetocaloric heat pump
US9869493B1 (en) 2016-07-19 2018-01-16 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Linearly-actuated magnetocaloric heat pump
US10274231B2 (en) 2016-07-19 2019-04-30 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Caloric heat pump system
US10281177B2 (en) 2016-07-19 2019-05-07 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Caloric heat pump system
US9915448B2 (en) 2016-07-19 2018-03-13 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Linearly-actuated magnetocaloric heat pump
US10295227B2 (en) 2016-07-19 2019-05-21 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Caloric heat pump system
US10006673B2 (en) 2016-07-19 2018-06-26 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Linearly-actuated magnetocaloric heat pump
US10443585B2 (en) 2016-08-26 2019-10-15 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Pump for a heat pump system
US9857105B1 (en) 2016-10-10 2018-01-02 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Heat pump with a compliant seal
US9857106B1 (en) 2016-10-10 2018-01-02 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Heat pump valve assembly
US10386096B2 (en) 2016-12-06 2019-08-20 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Magnet assembly for a magneto-caloric heat pump
US10288326B2 (en) 2016-12-06 2019-05-14 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Conduction heat pump
US20180164001A1 (en) * 2016-12-12 2018-06-14 Palo Alto Research Center Incorporated Electrocaloric system
US10527325B2 (en) 2017-03-28 2020-01-07 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Refrigerator appliance
US11009282B2 (en) 2017-03-28 2021-05-18 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Refrigerator appliance with a caloric heat pump
US10451320B2 (en) 2017-05-25 2019-10-22 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Refrigerator appliance with water condensing features
US10451322B2 (en) 2017-07-19 2019-10-22 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Refrigerator appliance with a caloric heat pump
US10422555B2 (en) 2017-07-19 2019-09-24 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Refrigerator appliance with a caloric heat pump
US10520229B2 (en) 2017-11-14 2019-12-31 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Caloric heat pump for an appliance
US11022348B2 (en) 2017-12-12 2021-06-01 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Caloric heat pump for an appliance
US10557649B2 (en) 2018-04-18 2020-02-11 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Variable temperature magneto-caloric thermal diode assembly
US10876770B2 (en) 2018-04-18 2020-12-29 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Method for operating an elasto-caloric heat pump with variable pre-strain
US10648704B2 (en) 2018-04-18 2020-05-12 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Magneto-caloric thermal diode assembly
US10648706B2 (en) 2018-04-18 2020-05-12 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Magneto-caloric thermal diode assembly with an axially pinned magneto-caloric cylinder
US10551095B2 (en) 2018-04-18 2020-02-04 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Magneto-caloric thermal diode assembly
US10782051B2 (en) 2018-04-18 2020-09-22 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Magneto-caloric thermal diode assembly
US10641539B2 (en) 2018-04-18 2020-05-05 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Magneto-caloric thermal diode assembly
US10648705B2 (en) 2018-04-18 2020-05-12 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Magneto-caloric thermal diode assembly
US10830506B2 (en) 2018-04-18 2020-11-10 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Variable speed magneto-caloric thermal diode assembly
US10989449B2 (en) 2018-05-10 2021-04-27 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Magneto-caloric thermal diode assembly with radial supports
US11054176B2 (en) 2018-05-10 2021-07-06 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Magneto-caloric thermal diode assembly with a modular magnet system
US11015842B2 (en) 2018-05-10 2021-05-25 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Magneto-caloric thermal diode assembly with radial polarity alignment
US10684044B2 (en) 2018-07-17 2020-06-16 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Magneto-caloric thermal diode assembly with a rotating heat exchanger
US11092364B2 (en) 2018-07-17 2021-08-17 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Magneto-caloric thermal diode assembly with a heat transfer fluid circuit
US11168926B2 (en) 2019-01-08 2021-11-09 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Leveraged mechano-caloric heat pump
US11149994B2 (en) 2019-01-08 2021-10-19 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Uneven flow valve for a caloric regenerator
US11193697B2 (en) 2019-01-08 2021-12-07 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Fan speed control method for caloric heat pump systems
US11274860B2 (en) 2019-01-08 2022-03-15 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Mechano-caloric stage with inner and outer sleeves
US11112146B2 (en) 2019-02-12 2021-09-07 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Heat pump and cascaded caloric regenerator assembly
US11015843B2 (en) 2019-05-29 2021-05-25 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Caloric heat pump hydraulic system

Citations (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5463868A (en) * 1992-12-17 1995-11-07 Deutsche Forschungsanstalt Fuer Luft- Und Raumfahrt E.V Heat pumping method as well as heat pump for generating cryogenic temperatures
US5644184A (en) * 1996-02-15 1997-07-01 Thermodyne, Inc. Piezo-pyroelectric energy converter and method
US6588215B1 (en) * 2002-04-19 2003-07-08 International Business Machines Corporation Apparatus and methods for performing switching in magnetic refrigeration systems using inductively coupled thermoelectric switches
US20040015058A1 (en) * 1993-09-04 2004-01-22 Motorola, Inc. Wireless medical diagnosis and monitoring equipment
US6856037B2 (en) * 2001-11-26 2005-02-15 Sony Corporation Method and apparatus for converting dissipated heat to work energy
US6877325B1 (en) * 2002-06-27 2005-04-12 Ceramphysics, Inc. Electrocaloric device and thermal transfer systems employing the same
US20080303375A1 (en) 2007-06-08 2008-12-11 David Reginald Carver Device and Method for Converting Thermal Energy into Electrical Energy
US20100242498A1 (en) * 2007-10-24 2010-09-30 Jude Anthony Powell Cooling Device
US20110146308A1 (en) 2009-12-17 2011-06-23 Vincenzo Casasanta Electrocaloric cooling
US20110316385A1 (en) * 2009-05-14 2011-12-29 The Neothermal Energy Company Method and apparatus for conversion of heat to electrical energy using a new thermodynamic cycle
US20130067935A1 (en) 2011-09-21 2013-03-21 Ezekiel Kruglick Heterogeneous Electrocaloric Effect Heat Transfer

Family Cites Families (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP5126992B2 (en) * 2006-07-10 2013-01-23 ダエウ・エレクトロニクス・コーポレーション Reciprocating magnetic refrigerator
US20100175392A1 (en) * 2009-01-15 2010-07-15 Malloy Kevin J Electrocaloric refrigerator and multilayer pyroelectric energy generator
EP2583320A4 (en) * 2010-06-18 2014-01-22 Empire Technology Dev Llc Electrocaloric effect materials and thermal diodes
GB201111235D0 (en) * 2011-06-30 2011-08-17 Camfridge Ltd Multi-Material-Blade for active regenerative magneto-caloric or electro-caloricheat engines
KR101887917B1 (en) * 2012-01-16 2018-09-20 삼성전자주식회사 Magnetic cooling apparatus and method of controlling the same
US9500392B2 (en) * 2012-07-17 2016-11-22 Empire Technology Development Llc Multistage thermal flow device and thermal energy transfer
US9109818B2 (en) * 2013-09-20 2015-08-18 Palo Alto Research Center Incorporated Electrocaloric cooler and heat pump

Patent Citations (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5463868A (en) * 1992-12-17 1995-11-07 Deutsche Forschungsanstalt Fuer Luft- Und Raumfahrt E.V Heat pumping method as well as heat pump for generating cryogenic temperatures
US20040015058A1 (en) * 1993-09-04 2004-01-22 Motorola, Inc. Wireless medical diagnosis and monitoring equipment
US5644184A (en) * 1996-02-15 1997-07-01 Thermodyne, Inc. Piezo-pyroelectric energy converter and method
US6856037B2 (en) * 2001-11-26 2005-02-15 Sony Corporation Method and apparatus for converting dissipated heat to work energy
US6588215B1 (en) * 2002-04-19 2003-07-08 International Business Machines Corporation Apparatus and methods for performing switching in magnetic refrigeration systems using inductively coupled thermoelectric switches
US6877325B1 (en) * 2002-06-27 2005-04-12 Ceramphysics, Inc. Electrocaloric device and thermal transfer systems employing the same
US20080303375A1 (en) 2007-06-08 2008-12-11 David Reginald Carver Device and Method for Converting Thermal Energy into Electrical Energy
US8174245B2 (en) * 2007-06-08 2012-05-08 David Reginald Carver Device and method for converting thermal energy into electrical energy
US20110001389A1 (en) * 2007-06-08 2011-01-06 David Reginald Carver Device and Method for Converting Thermal Energy into Electrical Energy
US20100242498A1 (en) * 2007-10-24 2010-09-30 Jude Anthony Powell Cooling Device
US20110316385A1 (en) * 2009-05-14 2011-12-29 The Neothermal Energy Company Method and apparatus for conversion of heat to electrical energy using a new thermodynamic cycle
US20110146308A1 (en) 2009-12-17 2011-06-23 Vincenzo Casasanta Electrocaloric cooling
US20130067935A1 (en) 2011-09-21 2013-03-21 Ezekiel Kruglick Heterogeneous Electrocaloric Effect Heat Transfer

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
Gu et al., "A Chip Scale Electrocaloric Effect Based Cooling Device", Applied Physics Letters 102, 2013, 4 pages.

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US11187441B2 (en) * 2019-10-10 2021-11-30 Palo Alto Research Center Incorporated Control system for an electrocaloric device

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
EP2957843B1 (en) 2017-12-27
US20150362225A1 (en) 2015-12-17
JP2016005429A (en) 2016-01-12
JP6937546B2 (en) 2021-09-22
EP2957843A3 (en) 2016-05-25
EP2957843A2 (en) 2015-12-23

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US9429344B2 (en) Electrocaloric system with active regeneration
US10107527B2 (en) Field-active direct contact regenerator
Zi et al. Triboelectric–pyroelectric–piezoelectric hybrid cell for high‐efficiency energy‐harvesting and self‐powered sensing
Zhang et al. An electrocaloric refrigerator with direct solid to solid regeneration
Bai et al. The giant electrocaloric effect and high effective cooling power near room temperature for BaTiO3 thick film
Wang et al. A heat-switch-based electrocaloric cooler
EP3027980B1 (en) Method for electrocaloric energy conversion
JP2016005429A5 (en)
EP3511652B1 (en) Electrocaloric system
JP3955437B2 (en) Pyroelectric conversion system
Blumenthal et al. Active electrocaloric demonstrator for direct comparison of PMN-PT bulk and multilayer samples
CN103229409B (en) Polarizable material and the inner polarization field produced is used heat to be converted to method and the device of electric energy
Crossley et al. Finite-element optimisation of electrocaloric multilayer capacitors
Zabek et al. A novel pyroelectric generator utilising naturally driven temperature fluctuations from oscillating heat pipes for waste heat recovery and thermal energy harvesting
US9777953B2 (en) Apparatus for thermally cycling an object including a polarizable material
Meng et al. Electrocaloric cooling over high device temperature span
RU2670607C2 (en) Capacitor system
Torelló et al. Electrocaloric coolers: A review
Xavier et al. It’s not about the mass

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: PALO ALTO RESEARCH CENTER INCORPORATED, CALIFORNIA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:SCHWARTZ, DAVID E.;REEL/FRAME:033121/0569

Effective date: 20140616

STCF Information on status: patent grant

Free format text: PATENTED CASE

MAFP Maintenance fee payment

Free format text: PAYMENT OF MAINTENANCE FEE, 4TH YEAR, LARGE ENTITY (ORIGINAL EVENT CODE: M1551); ENTITY STATUS OF PATENT OWNER: LARGE ENTITY

Year of fee payment: 4