US912159A - Signal. - Google Patents

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US912159A US43060108A US1908430601A US912159A US 912159 A US912159 A US 912159A US 43060108 A US43060108 A US 43060108A US 1908430601 A US1908430601 A US 1908430601A US 912159 A US912159 A US 912159A
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William H Parrish Jr
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William H Parrish Jr
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    • B61L29/00Safety means for rail/road crossing traffic
    • B61L29/08Operation of gates; Combined operation of gates and signals
    • B61L29/18Operation by approaching rail vehicle or rail vehicle train
    • B61L29/22Operation by approaching rail vehicle or rail vehicle train electrically
    • B61L29/226Operation by approaching rail vehicle or rail vehicle train electrically using track-circuits, closed or short-circuited by train or using isolated rail-sections


Patented Feb. 9 1909.
w W v v tn come W. H. PARRISH, JR.
Patented Feb. 9, 1909.
I sivwau liop an H Par/"w, J5:
Z vi b1 game PATENT OFFICE,-
no. 912,159. I
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Feb. 9, 1909.
Application filed May 2, 1908. Serial No. 430,601. e
To all whom "it may concern:
- Be it known that 1, WILLIAM H. PARRISH, Jr., a citizen of the'United States, residing at Nashville, in the county of Davidson and State of Tennessee, have invented new and 1 useful Improvements in Signals, of which the following is a specification.
This invention relates to an improvement in the type of signalingapparatus shown in my prior U. S. Patent No. 847,105, dated Iii-arch 12, 1907, designed primarily for service at a grade crossing of electric and steam railroads to automatically control the travel ofthe electrically operated train. Such patented apparatus provides automatic signaling means for indicating to the motorman of an approaching electric train the presence of a train upon the steam railroad within a specified distance of the crossing, the apparatus operating to cut out the power to the electric train in the normal operation of the device when a steam train and the electric train are simultaneously approaching the crossing. An automatic testing device is also provided in combination Withthe train controlling mechanism and is constructed and arranged to automatically advise the motorman of the approaching electric train of any defect in the main signaling and controlling apparatus, whereby failure of the main signaling and controlling apparatus is automatically guarded against. The signaling mechanism constructed to operate-"asabove described includes controlling circuits,and signal lamps governed by the action ofthe apparatus to indicatewhether the way is clear for the passage of I the electrically operated train, whether a c that the motorman may be-warned in steam train is approaching the crossing and caution should be observed by the motorman of the electrically operated train, at which time the current supply to the electric train is cut oil, and to indicate wherfthe main controlling mechanism is inoperative, in order to bring his train to a stop.
The object of the present invention is to provide for use 111 conjunction with the lamp signaling circuits and controlled-by the main signaling apparatus and test device a semaphore mechanismfmoved to its prescribed signaling positions simultaneously; withwthe energization of the respective coacting signaling lamps, thus rendering the a paratus more effective for use for both n ght and daylight signaling.
The invention will be described in the following specification, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, in which Figure 1 is a vertical sectional view, partly in elevation, illustrating the signal-box in use with my signaling apparatus. Fig. 2 is a transverse section of the same on, line 2-2 of Fig. 1. Fig.3 isa diagrammatic view of the wiring for the signaling a paratus.
Figs. 1 and 5 are views showing di erent po sitions of the semaphore arm. Fig. 6 isa perspective view of the semaphore arm and associated parts.
Referring particularly" to the drawings, wherein similar reference-numerals indicate like parts throughout the several views, my improved signaling and controlling apparatuscomprises in its essential details asignalbox or casing 1, preferably of rectangular shape in cross-sectioh and constructed of sheet-metal or the like, so as to be wholly inclosed, a hinged cover, as 2, being provided;
,to afiord access to the interior of the casing. The signal-bogrjis supported through the medium of suitable brackets 3 on a post or standard 4, thelat-ter being arranged at one side of the traclcrails immediately adjacent the grade-crossing. The signal-box is so arranged relative to the respective'tracksthat the signals operative within the box are visible only to the motorman of the electrically-controlled train and invisible to the tact-lever 9, oneterminal of the lever, as 10 i being arranged in the normal position of the lever to engage" a. contact-post 11, secured in the base 7, the opposlte end of the lever, as 12, carrylng an armature 13, disposed within the influence of an electro-magnet 14:,
also supported on the base 7. The contactlever ,9 -andcontact-posf' lIfo rni apart of I the feed-circuit for the trolley wires or conductors' 15 'of -thc electrically-operated railroad. The feed-wires 16 are directly con- .nected to the'contact-post 11 and the lever 9, as shown in Fig 1, the connection to the lever being preferably through the medium of a binding-post '17 and a coiled strip of conductor, as- 18, to permit the necessary movement of the lever without destroying the contact.
The track-rails 19 and 20 of the steamrailroad are for a specified length on each A side of the electric road-crossing to be so arranged as to provide .uninterrupted ine-.
' referred to will become a closed circuit by the presence of a steam-operated train upon the particular section of track adjacent the grade-crossing, the wheels and axles of the.
car of the train serving to electrically'connect the normally spaced terminals. Upon the closing of the main circuit the green signal is flashed, and theenergizing of the electro-magnet 14 serves to rock the lever upon its pivotal support and break contact with the trolley-feed-post terminal 11, thereby breaking the feed to the trolley-wires and depriving the approaching electrically-operated train of power.
As is well understood in the art, the feedwires for an electrically-operated circuit are arranged to feed and control only a certain block or length of the trolley-conductors. In the present instance the feed-wires controlledby the signaling apparatusdescribed are to be arranged to feed and control a certain length or block on each side of the grade-crossing, while that portion of the trolley-conductors directly .-overlying the crossing, as at 24, is to be' so arranged in the.
trolley-feeding system as to be at all times energized or live conductors. ticular arrangement will prevent the use of the signaling ap aratus from depriving the electric train '0 power in the event the steam-operated train enters the prescribed section of track while the electrically-operated train is on or immediately adjacent the crossing. In this event, notwithstanding the trically-operated train will be given power complete operation of the device, the electo'cross the track and avoid being stopped immediately upon the steam-tracks. use of the above described signaling and controlling apparatus thereby insures that the presence of a steam-operated train within the prescribed section of track adjacent the This par- 4 grade-crossing will be immediately signaled to the motorman of the advancing electrically-operated train and the "latter train autoinatically deprived of power to advance, thereby compelling the stopping of the electrically-operated train until after the passage of the steam-operated train, as such electrically-operated train can receive no motive power until the main circuit is broken by the steam-operated train traveling .be-
yond the prescribed track-section and the.
return of the contact-lever 9 to normal position by gravity.
As the signaling and controlling apparatus is entirely automatic" in its operation, it is possible that such apparatus may-fail of actuation notwithstanding the presence of a steampperated train upon the prescribed section of track. As ,such failure would be mainly liable through a defect in' the main circuit, I have arranged for combination with said circuit an auxiliary or test circuit, in the use of which the motorman of the advancing electrically-operated train is at once notified of'any defect in the main circuit. Tothis end I secure within the signal-box two visual signals 25, 26 preferably incandescent lights and showing through white bulls-eyes fixed in openings in the opposite 1 side walls of the box, these signals being hereinafter termed clear-signals. Above thelamps 25 and 26 I arrange two additional visual signals 27, 28, also preferably incandescent lamps, arranged to show through red bulls-eyes fixed in the side walls of the casing, these signals being hereinafter termed danger-signals. The respective clear and danger signals are arranged in alinement,-so that one clear-signal is directly I beneath a danger-signal, as shown in Fig. 1. A pivot-rod 29 is mounted in the side walls of the casing, centrally between and equally spaced from the four signals just referred to.
Independent shutters 30 and 31, are pivotally mounted upon the rod 29, each of the 1'10- shutters comprising quadrant-shaped plates- 32, maintained in spaced relation, so .as to lie ad'acent the respective side walls of the sig nal-box and beyond the lane ofthe respective si als. The plates 2 are of such size as to c ose the openin s in the side walls of .the box through whic thesignals' are visible, the respective signal-showing-openings of the clear and danger signals being so spaced relative to each other that '..when the. s utters are in the upper or normal position, as shown in Fig. 1, the danger signals are concealed and the clear signals exposed, while in the. lower or operative position of the shutters-the clear-signals are concealed and the danger-signals exposed. Each shutnected by a transverse armature bar with the plates of'thejshutter which latter are ter is preferably provided with a counter weight 33 carried by a curved arm 34 concoupled together l iy lsaid. armature-bar; Electre inagnets 36,37 aresecuredioihe lih cu-it system beyond the signal-box, are in cir- 10 one of the clear-signals, as shown in Fig. 3.
main circuit immediately beyond the signalof the conductors 38 and'39 being connected an open 9r broken circuiti circuits, the electro-inagnet and clear-signals included in such circuits are normally enernor1nal position through the holding power of the respectiveelectromagnets, and the clear-signals will be'visible through the sides the bonding between the rail ends become in normal position to conceal the'danger .ing electrically operated train will thus be signal and cut-out he knows that there is no I however, either of the prescribed track-rails terior jof, the box for cooperation with said armaturef35 to hold the respective shutters signals. i iF-Eacl'i track-rail 19 and 20 as well as that portion of the honductors of the main cir- .cuit with one of the electro-magnets, and
For instance, the track-rail19 is in circuit with a conductor 38, including in series the electro-magnet 86 and the clear-signal 26, locatedre'mote from said magnet, the terminal-of the conductor 38 being in electrical engagement with. the conductor '21 of the box. The track-rail and main ccgnductor 22 is similarlytin circuit with a conductor 39, electro-magnet 37, and clear-signal 25. 'The respective test-circuits thus include one of the prescribed sections of rail and all that portion of the conductor of the main circuit connected with that rail-section.
Asthe test-signals noted are primarily designed to provide a means for automatically indicating any defect in the main circuits of the system, the entire length .of such circnit beyond the signal-box is inch ded in the particular test-circuit, the ends roihe respective track;rai ls,;and;te-the main. circuit-conductors. As thus eennected each gircuit is broken-for any reason whatever the particular test-circuit immediately becomes igs-the test-circuits are normally closed gized. lVith the test-signals energized the respective shutters will be maintained in of the box. The motorman of the approachadvised that the prescribed track-section of the steam-o erated train is in proper circuit, and i he does not receive the main steam-o erated train approaching the crossmg an within the prescribed section. If,
or the main conductors connected thereto should for any reason be disturbed, so as to prevent completlon of the main circuit or broken-as, for instance, the track-section 19the particular test-circuit will be, broken, with the effect to denergize the and the clear-signal 26. ie-den' ationiof the electro-magnet releasesthe shutter 30, enabling thelatter to gravitate to the lower or operative position, in which position it will shutout the clear-signal 25 and expose the danger-signal 27. As the openin of the test-circuit re ferred to extinguis hes the clear-signal 26.
and by the operation of the shutter 30 shuts off the clear-signal 25, the effect of the openin of either testesignal will eliminate both cl ear-signals and expose oneor the other of the danger-Si als.
In the operation 0 either test-circuit as described the. motorman of the approaching electrically-operated train will by the elimination of the clear-si nalsand' the showing of the danger-signal e at once advised of the defect in the main signal system. Hence said motorman will exercise every possible caution in approaching and before crossing the steam-railroad. The test-circuits therefore serveas' an automatic check on the main signal system, providiirg a means wherebyia defect in the main system is at once signaled to the motorman of approaching trains.
The danger-signals 27, 28, are independent of any of the signal-circuits, being, in the event such danger-signals are incandescent lamps, connected in an independent lamp-circuit 40, as shown in Fig. It is to be understood, of course, that as the danger-signals are wholly independent of any of the signal-circuits the lights of said signals ay be incandescent lamps, oillamps, or. any preferred means of transmitting light.
In the improvement constituting thesub- .ject-matter of the present invention, a semaphore is rovided which is moved to danger position y gravity, normally held insafety position by the test or danger-circuit, and
adjusted and held in caution position by the 43 supported by the post or standard 4; above the signal-box 1. The "pivoted end of the arm carries a counterbalancing weight 44:, operatingfivhen the arm is not otherwise influenced, to swing said arm to the normal or danger position. Also fixed to the shaft *2 and extending at a proper angle therefrom are metallic stems and 45 carrying contact-heads or shoes 46 and 46, serving, respectively, as armatures for use in conjunction with and adapted to be influenced by electro-magnets 47 and 48, one of relatively greater power than the other, said magnets being supported upon the bracket and 0011- trolled respectively by the caution a'nd danger-signal circuits of the apparatus. The magnet 47 is connected with the cautionsignal circuit by extensions 21 and-22 from the wires 21 and 22, while the magnet 48 is arranged in an independent circuit including wires 49 and 50 leading into the signaling-box 1 and connected therein by binding posts to contacts 51 and 52 supported in any suitable manner in fixed relation relative to the box to normally engage contact strips and carried by the shutters and 31, so that when said shutters are in normal position concealing the danger-signal 27 and 28 the magnet -18 will be energized' For the purpose of'bridging and forming an electrical connection between the strips and 5 1 when the shutters are in normal position, contacts 51 and 52 are provided and suitably supported in the box and are connected by a conductor 55, such bridge being arranged to connect the strips for the passage of a current through the magnet 48 as long as the shutters expose the clear signal lights and conceal. the red or danger signal light. As a result of this construction and arrangement of parts, it will be understood that normally the armature 46 is attracted by the energized magnet 48, whereby the semaphore is drawn down and normally held in its vertical or safety position. When, however, the normally open-circuit of the main signaling and "controlling system, including the conductors 21 and 22, is
closedby an approaching steam-operated train and the, electroanagnet 47' isithereby energized, such magnet 4:7 will overpower magnet- 48 and the armature 4L6 will be attracted by said magnet 47 against the resistance of magnet 18 and. the semaphore will accordingly be swung to and held in i-tsoblique caution position shown in Fig. 4.
Upon such circuit being again broken by theor the magnet 37, resulting in the dropping of one or the other of the shutters, whereby the connectionbetween the wires 19 and 50 is broken, thus deenergizing the magnet 48 and allowing the semaphore armjo beswung upward to the danger or horizontal pos i tion by the action of its counter-weight. Hence it will be seen that the movement of the armature to danger position will occur simultaneously with the elimination of the clear-signal lamps and exposure of the dan ger-signal lamps.
safety in the control of trains.
The above description and drawing de scribes the invention as particularly designed for use with a railroad-crossing with the respective tracks used for a steamoperated railroad and an electrically-operated railroad. In the invention the steamoperated railroad is given the right of Way and the signals always set against the electric railway. It is to be understood that the invention is equally applicable to railroadcrossings wherein the crossing roads are both electric, as an urban and interurban road, and that either may be given the right of way in accordance with the arrangement of the signals.
\Vhile preferring specific details of construction and arrangement of parts described in the above specification and illustrated in the drawings, it is to be understood that I do not limit myself thereto, considering as within the spirit of the present invention all such changes of structure and variationsor modifications of parts as may legally fall within the scopeof the appended claims.
Having thus described the invention, what I claim as new is 1. A crossing signaling system, including a semaphore and controlling'means therefor operated by one train to move the semaphore to a certain position for signaling the crossing train, and means for moving the semaphore to a different position in the event of defect ofthe first-mentioned means.
2. A crossing signaling system, including a semaphore and controlling means therefor operated by one train to move the semaphore to a certain position for signaling the crossing train, and test means influenced by and actuated in the; event of defect of the first-mentioned means for movement ofthe semaphore to a different position.
3. A crossing signaling system including a main controlling circuit, a semaphore controlled thereby for operation to a prescribed position by one train for. signaling the crossing train. and an auxiliary circuit also controlling said semaphore and adapted to be operated in the event of defect of said main circuit for movement of the semaphore to a different position.
4. A crossing signaling system, including a main circuit having a signal lamp therein, an auxiliary circuit having an independent signaling lamp therein. a semaphore controlled by both circuits. means operated by onetrain for energizing the main circuit for moving the semaphore to a certain position to slgnal the crossing train, and means for operating the auxiliary circuit in the event of defect of the main circuit for movement of the semaphore to a-difierent position.
5. A crossingsignaling system, including a signal operated by one train for signaling the crossing train, a second signal adapted to,
be operated in the event of inoperation of the first named signal, and a third signal operable with either of the other signals.
6. A crossing signaling system, including a lamp circuit operated by one train for signaling the crossing train, a second lamp circuit adapted to be operated in the event of defect of the first-named circuit, and a signal controlled by both of said circuits for movement to different positions.
7 A railway crossing system, including a main normally open signaling circuit adapted to be closed by one train for signaling the crossing tram, an auxiliary signaling circuit adapted to be operated in the event of defect of the main circuit to actuate a different signal and a third signal controlled by both circuits for movement to different positions.
8. A railroad crossing system, including main and auxiliary signaling circuits, and a semaphore controlled by both circuits, one of said circuits being adapted to be operated by one train to move the semaphore to a certain position to signal the crossing train, and the other circuitadapted to be operated in the event of failure of the first circuit for movement of the semaphore to a different position. 9. A railroad crossing system, including a circuit normally arranged for operation by one train, an auxiliary circuit operable in the event of defect of the first named circuit,- and a semaphore controlled by both circuits for movement to difierent positions.
10. A railroad crossing system, including a cut-out, a main circuit including. a signal lamp and controlling the cut-out, said circuit'adapted to be operated by one train to control the crossing train, an auxiliary circuit including a signal lamp and adapted to be operated in the eventgaf defect in the main circuit, and a semaphorecontrolled by both circuits for movement to different positions.
In testimony whereof in presence of two Witnesses WILLIAM .H. PARRISH,'JR.
K. T. MoCoNNIco. W. S. BRYANT I atfii; my signature
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