US911971A - Method and apparatus for sinking concrete piles. - Google Patents

Method and apparatus for sinking concrete piles. Download PDF

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US911971A
US911971A US26824005A US1905268240A US911971A US 911971 A US911971 A US 911971A US 26824005 A US26824005 A US 26824005A US 1905268240 A US1905268240 A US 1905268240A US 911971 A US911971 A US 911971A
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pile
cushioning
casing
sinking
hammer
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US26824005A
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Frank B Gilbreth
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Frank B Gilbreth
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D7/00Methods or apparatus for placing sheet pile bulkheads, piles, mouldpipes, or other moulds
    • E02D7/24Placing by using fluid jets

Description

F. B. GILBRETH. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOB. SINKING CONCRETE PILES.
APPLICATION FILED JULY 3, 1905.
ZU if/nes s es UNITED STATES lnTnNT crimen.
FRANK B. GILBRETH, O1T BROOBLINE, MASSACHUSETTS.
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR SINKING CONCRETE PILES.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Feb. 9', 1909.
Application sied July a', 1905. serial No. 268,240.
Ain descri tion in connection with the accompanying drawings, is 'a specification, like letters on the drawings representing like parts.
- My invention relates to the sinking of piles and more particularly, though not ex clusively to piles formed wholly or partially of concrete with the object of performing the sinking thereof expeditiously and Without injury to the structure of the pile.
My invention will be best understood by reference to the` following description when taken in connection with the accompanying illustration of one f'ts'pecic embodiment thereof while its scope will be more particularly pointed out in the appended claims.A
In the draWings,-Figure 1 is a side elevation, partially broken away, showing a portion of one form of apparatus employed in carrying out my invention; Fig 2 shows a vertical central section of the apparatus shown in F ig. 1 Fig. 3 is a section in plan on the line 3--3 in Fig. 2; Fig. 4 is a erspectivel of the casing shown in Fig. 1, ani' Fig. 5 is a perspective of the spacing block,
. In the drawings a represents the upper end of a concrete pile, which may be of any suitable form, shape or construction, but which I have here shown as ,hexagonal in cross-section, reinforced by the six longitudinal reinforcing rods ci of twisted steel and provided with a central jetting passage a2 formed in the molded body of the concrete and extending throughout the length of the pile to the lower end thereof, which latter-is not shown. Concrete piles of this or other constructions may be sunk wholly by rammingv ordriving, or wholly by the use of a water jet'discharging at the lower end of the pile and acting to displace the earthy matter and carry it about the sides of the pile, thus causing the "sinking, of the latter. The apparatus which I have here disclosed, how'eyer, is particularly designed for carrying out a combination of these two methods, the sinking by means of the Water jet being supplemented byv driving or ramming, or other orcing4 means at the pile head, and it is this methpd which I pre-f) Aupon'the cushioning body l).
therewith as'the latter is sunk. lof the casing extend below the wooden space fer in practice to carry out. It is to be understood, however, that my invention is not limited to the'sinking of piles by the com bined effect of the forcing and-jetting devices, but that itis applicable in many features to the sinking of piles by ramming or forcing alone and, in others to the sinking of. piles by jetting alone.
In the driving of concrete piles much care must be exercised to avoidy the fracture of the pile body. In the illustrated embodiment of my invention I have surmounted the pile with a body= of cushioning material l), l i
which is adapted to compress under the blow of the pile hammer and through this cushion the hammer blow lis transmitted to the head of the pile, preventing injury thereto. This inform. The cushioning material rests upon a fixed diaphragm or wall cl withinthe casing and the latter is supported upon the head of the pile by the said diaphragm through the interposition of the spacingblock e.
The hammer f slides in suitalL-le guides g, `g, mechanism for raising and dropping the saine being of any suitaifle or usual type, and not herein shown. Then the hammer vdropsit striles the wooden cushion nloc'f h,
which is seated in the follower i. The latter is preferably of metal and rests upon the plunger' member 71"., which is preieraly of Wood and slidalgle in and out of the upper open end of the casing c and is supported Both the follower 'i and the casing c engage the verticai .guides g, g, thelatter forfthis purpose i eing provided with the channel irons l, riveted to the outside of the casing. This causes the casing with its contained parts as well as the follower which rests thereon, to descend with and upon the pile and in alinement The walls block and loosely embrace the head of the pile so that the one is located and 'a'ined relatively to the other. t
It will be seen that the constraetuis;`
ever, to 'construct the casing approximately to fit the ile head for, by so dolng, the pile is not o y maintained in alinement with the direction-of the hammer blow but is accurately guided through engagement Fof-the closely fitting casing w1th the guides g in the direction in which it is intended to be sunk.
This is an important advantage particularly where the water jet is resorted to either as a rincipal or as a cooperating sinking means.
here 1t. is desired to make use of a single casing for piles vof different Idiameter, the
object may still be achieved by the use of an adapter. Another advantage of the illustrated construction of protecting device lies in the fact thatthe cushioning material being effectively retained irrespective of the fit of the casing upon the pile head, it may be applied indiscriminately topiles of irregular section,.such for example as the hexagonal pile illustrated, or to corrugated p1les, or piles of other non-circular crosssections, without sacrifice of effectiveness.
'To assure the stability of the apparatus and the alinement of the parts intervening between the pile and the hammer, I 'have provided means to cause the rece tion of' the hammer' blow centrally'upon't 1e plunger k. For this pur )ose the upper part of the plunger is given prelerably an approximately spherical shape andfits into a corresponding recess preferably of slightly greater curvature on the under side of the follower. This vtends to centralize the blow along the axis of the plunger, even should the follower or the plunger be slightly out of alinement.
To further vinsure the central delivery ol the' hammer blow I have rounded the top of the cushioning block h, and the face `of the hammer where it strikes this block is correspondinglv cupped.
The spacer block which is preferably of wood, is cut away or slotted vertically at c to provide a space for the insertion of the water jet ipe m between the cushioning body and t e pile, the casing c being also cut away at c to clear the pipe. The jetting pipe mis connected with any suitable source of Water supply under lpressure and has the down-turned branch m entering the j'etting passage a and extending to the lower end of the pile.
In operation the pile after being laced in position is driven into the groun( by the ammer f, whichdelivcrs its 'repeated blows through the cushion block h to the follower i. From the latter they are transmitted to the ile through the plunger 7c, cushioning body diaphragm d and block e, the cushioning body, at each blow of the hammer, yielding sufficiently under the 'plunger 7c to cushion the blow-and prevent injury to the pile. The
cushioning-material being held between the stationary Wall formed by 'the diaphragm d and the movable wall formed by the plunger k, does not come in contact with the pile and is retained in place without the need of packing, the vcushion yielding without necessaryl movement ofthe casing c u on the pile. The
employment of the wooden lock e, as'well as the wooden plunger block k, and the cushion block h, interposes a considerable massl of solid semi-elastic cushioning material between the head vof the pile as well as the -loose cushioning material b, increasin thereby the protection to the pile against acture and the likelihoodof a direct central delivery of the blow. Durin the driving of the pile, A
water is freely a' mitted under pressure through the ipe m and, forming a high pressure jet at t e foot of the' entering pile,'ren
ders the sinking thereof an easy and rapid operation. The water discharged at the advancing foot of the'pile loosens the earth and carries the subdivided earthy particles upward Ato the surface at and about the sides of the pile, progressively excavating the material in advance of the pile and the upward stream acting as a lubricant, so to speak, to i assist the settling of the pile. In practice I have found that concrete piles of thirty or more feet in length may be sunk under favor- 'the casing and its contents, I have rovided the follower with means comprising ooks n,
land the casing with hooks o'by which thesame may be attached to the hammer, as by means of the rope p shown in dotted lines in Fig. I, andther'eby lifted away1 from the pile with the hammer. i u
My invention so far as it comprehends the sinking of a pile through the use of'a Water iet assisted by other means, is notof course imited lto the usual ramming ofthe pile b the ordinary pile driving ap a'ratus,I althou h with the described means flir rotectin ,t e pile such ramming may be emplloyed wit out danger of fracture or other injury to the concrete. It is within my invention to em loyl means for assisting the water jet other t an a hammer, such for example as the steady downward pressure aflorded'by h draulic or other ressureapplied to the hea of the pile or .a arge weight applied to` and resting thereon.
v While I have illustrated and describedl between the pile with particularity one form of my invention,
it should be understood that the same is submitted wholly for illustrative purposes and that extensive modifications may be made in the details and procedure described without departing from the spirit of my invention.
1. Pile sinking protecting means comprising a casing, cushioning material within said casing and a plunger member movable within the easing above receive the hammer blow.
2. Pile sinking protecting means comprising a casing,.feushioning means within said casing and relatively movable means `.within said casin for transmitting the hammer blow to the cus iioning means.
3. In a pile sinking protecting device, the combination with a casing, cushioning means within said casing, a stationary wall on one side thereof and a movable wall at the other side.
4; A ile protecting device having a cushion bot of solid and loose cushioning material to protect the pile from the blow of the hammer. y
l5. The combination with a concrete pile having a non-circular cross-section, head forcing means and jetting means and cushioning means therefor, said cushioning means being applicable to the non-circular heads of piles of varying size and d iierent crosssectional shapes.
6. The combination witha concrete pile, of a pile, driving hammer and a cushion of loose material and a cushion of solid material and the hammer.
7. In a ile sinking protecting device for concrete pi es, a cushion holding casing having a cushion support for supporting the same upon the head of the pil being yieldable relatively to the material of the pile.
8. In a pile sinking protecting device the combination with a terial within said casing and a wooden l ger block above saidv cushioning material.
9. In a pile sinking protecting device,
`means for delivering a cushioned blow tothe head of the pile comprising a cushion, a meinber resting upon said cushion to receive the blow and means for maintaining the alinement of said cushion and of saidmember.
10. In a p'ile sinking protecting device, cushioning means, a member upon said cushioning means to receive the hammer blow and means for centralizing the blow upon said member.
11. In a pile sinking protecting device, the combination with a cushion and a member upon said cushion to lreceive the `hammer blow, of means for centralizing the blow delivered to the pile. through said cushion.
12. In a pile sinking device the combina-- tion, with a hammer of a cushion of loose the cushioning material to` e, said support casing, cushioning ma-,
plun- -means to transmit the hammer plunger.
' and material between the hammer and the head of the pile and a wooden cushioning member 'also between said hammer and pile.
13. In a pile lsinking device, the combination with a cushioning member of va hammer and a follower between said hammer and said cushioning member.
14. In a pile sinking device, the combina.- tion with cushioning means, a member adapted to transmit the hammer blow to said cushioning means and a Jfollower to transmit the hammer blow to said member.
15. In a pile sinking device, cushioning means, a member for transmitting the hammer blow to said cushioning means and a self-centering follower engaging said hammer.
16. The combination with a pile ofcushioning means, a-block above the cushioning blow and means to maintain the block, cushioning means and pile in alinement.
17. The combination with a pile of a casing, cushioning means, a follower and hammer, and means for delivering the hammer blow centrally of the pile, the follower and the cushion.
18. In a i nation with) interposing means and folr entering water through the head of the p' 19. A pile sinking apparatus having a casi g adapted to rest upon the head of tzhe pilej a cushion within said casin and water jetle sinking apparatus the combipile driving means, means for a cushion between the driving v ting means between the cushion and the head of the pile.
20. A pile driving apparatus having a casing adapted to be'supported 4by the head of the pile, cushioning means within said casing and a wooden member between said cushion `and said hammer.
21. Pile sinking protecting means comprising a body of'loose cushioning material, a casing coniining the same, a relatively unyieldable member. adapted to be placed bebody and the head of the pile to hold the former out oi contact therewith, permit the connection of a lateral pipe with the pile interior.
' 22. Pile sinking protecting means comprising an open-ended casing adaptedto be placed upon the head 'of a pile, a movable plunger in said-open end, and cushioning material -within said casing beneath said 23i pile sinking protecting device havin al casing adaptedto be-placed upon the pi e head, iinin a body of loose cushioning materiai olding the same out of contact with the pile head.
2.4. In a pile protecting device the'l said member being recessed to jetting the head of the pile, and means said casing having means for con-l 'l Y. combinationiwith a`casingadapted to restI loose loosely upon the head of a body of '4 cushioning material within said casing, said -casing having a chamber for said cushioning .material closed against the exit of said mal terial at the bottom thereof.
' and meansalso for material.
'the'pile, a bo 25. A pile sinking rotecting devicehave ing a casing adapte to beloosely'held upon the head of the pile, va yieldingcushion-to receive the hammer blow and a relatively unyielding member to support the casing upon the pile.
26. The. combination with a molded concrete. ile provided with a jetting passage Y molde therein'for passing water central through the pile', of pile sinking a paratus comprising pile-forcing means an jetting means, the latter operative during the sinking of substantially the entire pile.
27. The'combination with a molded concrete pile having a longitudinal jettin pas-v sa e molded therein and extending su stantia lthe entire length of the pile, of piledriving ap aratus comprisinlg' means for forcingrthe ead end of said pl e.
having a composite body of concrete' and metalfor substantially its entire length and provided with an interior jettin'g passage -molded therein,: ofmeans for introducing' a jetting stream of-water to the ,pileinterion 29.. A pile protectingdevice -for concrete piles comprising a casing provided with. meansforsup orting'it loosely on the-head of ly oiy loose cushioning material withinthe casing, and a member resting above the cushioning material and' movable relatively to the casinl to transmit the hammer blow to the pile t rougltthe 4cushioning 30. A pile protecting device for concrete iles comprising a casingl' adapted to rest oosely upon the head of t pile, an interior transversepartition wall for supporting said casing thereon loose cushioning material above said partition wall, `and a plun er movable relatively to said casing above4 t e cushioning material for transmitting thereto thev hammer blow. .l
31. In a pile sinking apparatus the combination of a casing having an o en lower end adapted to fit. loosely over the'licad of a pile, said casingl-cing provided with an interior supporting wall adapted to sustain the same upon said pile, a spacingvblock between said 'wall and the head of the pile, a body of loose cushioning material above said V supporting wall, and a plunger vblock resting u onJsaid cushioning material movable wit iin said casing and adapted to transmit to the pile vthrough the cushioning material the. blow of the hammer.
32. In a pile protectingdevice the combi-i he. 'combination with a molded pile' forcing the head. of they bination with nation with the casing ofthe wall d, cushion b, and lunger block 7c. 33. n a pile sinking apparatus the comfbination with the casing c, the cushion b, the wal-ld, and the block e.
341.v In a pile sinking apparatus the combination with'a-cushion b, the casing -,and the jetting'lplipe n. v
35. consists in forcing the upper end thereof, cushioning theforced end and also introducing water through the forced end.
e method of sinking a pile which '36. The method of sinking aj ilewhich,
consists in conducting water to t e interior of the pile and the leading end thereof and there forming a jet to sink the same, simultaneously forcing the head end of the pile,
ysuitably cushioning the forced end'thereof and continuin thc jetting operation until the sinking of t e forced head end is substan tially complete.
3 7.- The combination with a molded pile `v vhaving "a composite body of concrete and metal for substantially its entire length and l provided with an interior jetting passage molded therein, ofv means for introducing a jetting stream of ywater to the ile interior, means for forcing the head of tllie pile, and means'for cushioning `.the forced head end thereof.
` 38. In a pile sinking apparatus, the com' bination-with jettin'g means and .pile-forcing means, ,ofmeans for interposing a cushioning of loose material between the pile and the said forcing means.
39. In a pile sinking apparatus, the comstantially the entire p'ile for passing water centrally through the sunken portion thereof,
and means for interposinga suitable cush-v ion between the forcing means and the head ofthe ile.-
40. n a pilesdrivin apparatus, the combination with a pile aving la longitudinal jetti'ng passage extending substantially the entire len -th of the interposing suitable cushioning ybetween the FRANK B: GILBRETH.
Witnesses:
EDITH E. CHAPMAN, THOMAS B. Boo'in.
pile-forcing means, of jetting l means operative during the sinking of sub'- pile and within the same, of means or forcing said pile, and means fol`
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Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3289421A (en) * 1964-03-18 1966-12-06 Exxon Production Research Co Method for driving piles
US3289420A (en) * 1964-03-18 1966-12-06 Exxon Production Research Co Method for driving piles
US3314240A (en) * 1964-12-21 1967-04-18 Exxon Production Research Co Method and apparatus for use in forming foundations
US3446293A (en) * 1966-12-28 1969-05-27 American Drilling & Boring Co Pile driver
US3449918A (en) * 1967-01-13 1969-06-17 Gabriel Fuentes Jr Concrete piles and methods and apparatus for forming and splicing them together
US4506744A (en) * 1980-09-10 1985-03-26 Dawson Construction Plant Limited Pile hammer

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3289421A (en) * 1964-03-18 1966-12-06 Exxon Production Research Co Method for driving piles
US3289420A (en) * 1964-03-18 1966-12-06 Exxon Production Research Co Method for driving piles
US3314240A (en) * 1964-12-21 1967-04-18 Exxon Production Research Co Method and apparatus for use in forming foundations
US3314241A (en) * 1964-12-21 1967-04-18 Esso Production And Res Compan Method and apparatus for use in driving piles
US3446293A (en) * 1966-12-28 1969-05-27 American Drilling & Boring Co Pile driver
US3449918A (en) * 1967-01-13 1969-06-17 Gabriel Fuentes Jr Concrete piles and methods and apparatus for forming and splicing them together
US4506744A (en) * 1980-09-10 1985-03-26 Dawson Construction Plant Limited Pile hammer

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