US9114016B2 - Method and apparatus for altering biomechanics of the articular joints - Google Patents

Method and apparatus for altering biomechanics of the articular joints Download PDF

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US9114016B2
US9114016B2 US14175813 US201414175813A US9114016B2 US 9114016 B2 US9114016 B2 US 9114016B2 US 14175813 US14175813 US 14175813 US 201414175813 A US201414175813 A US 201414175813A US 9114016 B2 US9114016 B2 US 9114016B2
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portion
displacement
implant
fixation
surface
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US20140156004A1 (en )
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Vivek Shenoy
S. Gifford II Hanson
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Foundry LLC
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Cotera Inc
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/56Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/56Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor
    • A61B17/562Implants for placement in joint gaps without restricting joint motion, e.g. to reduce arthritic pain
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/56Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor
    • A61B17/58Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor for osteosynthesis, e.g. bone plates, screws, setting implements or the like
    • A61B17/88Osteosynthesis instruments; Methods or means for implanting or extracting internal or external fixation devices
    • A61B17/8872Instruments for putting said fixation devices against or away from the bone
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2/38Joints for elbows or knees
    • A61F2/3886Joints for elbows or knees for stabilising knees against anterior or lateral dislocations
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/56Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor
    • A61B2017/564Methods for bone or joint treatment
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/56Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor
    • A61B2017/564Methods for bone or joint treatment
    • A61B2017/565Methods for bone or joint treatment for surgical correction of axial deviation, e.g. hallux valgus or genu valgus

Abstract

Pathology of the human knee can arise from excessive and/or uneven loading of regions within the joint. Methods and apparatus are disclosed that enable displacement of soft tissue around the knee, without displacing or severing bone thereby altering the mechanical load distribution within the joint in a less invasive manner than previous techniques.

Description

RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application is a continuation application of U.S. Nonprovisional patent application Ser. No. 13/843,128, filed on Mar. 15, 2013; which application was a nonprovisional of and claims priority to U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 61/620,756 filed on Apr. 5, 2012 and U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 61/695,406 filed on Aug. 31, 2012; U.S. Nonprovisional patent application Ser. No. 13/843,128 was also a Continuation-in-Part of U.S. Nonprovisional patent application Ser. No. 12/870,462, filed on Aug. 27, 2010 (now U.S. Pat. No. 8,597,362), which claims priority to U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 61/237,518, filed Aug. 27, 2009, and U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 61/288,692, filed Dec. 21, 2009. Each of these applications is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. This application is also related to U.S. Nonprovisional patent application Ser. No. 13/002,829 filed on Aug. 27, 2010.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention generally relates to the field of orthopedics. In particular, the present invention is directed to an interventional technique and an implant for altering biomechanics within articular joints to provide a therapeutic effect. More particularly, embodiments of the present invention are directed to alleviating joint pain and effects of osteoarthritis in the knee.

BACKGROUND

The human body contains many joints that permit articulation of varying degrees between bones. Those that permit free articulation are referred to as diathroses. Examples include the hip, knee, elbow and shoulder. A variety of connective tissues are associated with the diathroses joints, including intra-articular cartilages that provide cushioning and smooth sliding surfaces, ligaments that provide flexible connections between bones and tendons that slide over joints and connect the muscles to provide motion. When connective tissues are compromised, joint pain and loss of function can result.

One example of compromised connective tissue is osteoarthritis of the knee or knee OA. The knee joint is formed by the articulation of the femur, patella, and tibia (FIGS. 1A and 1B). Like other freely articulating joints, the knee joint is enclosed by a fibrous joint capsule, lined by a synovial membrane. The inferior surface of the patella articulates with the femoral surface forming the patellofemoral joint. The distal end of the femur has two curved articular surfaces called the medial and lateral condyles. These surfaces articulate with the medial and lateral tibial condyles, forming the tibiofemoral joint, which flexes and extends the knee. Two fibrocartilagenous discs (i.e., menisci) lie between the tibial and femoral condyles to compensate for the incongruence of the articulating bones. Because the distal end of the femur is curved and asymmetric in shape, the knee joint not only flexes and extends like a hinge, but it also slides and rotates during flexion, resulting in a complex motion for the joint.

Knee OA is one of the most common causes of disability in the United States. OA is sometimes referred to as degenerative, or wear and tear, arthritis. OA is characterized by the breakdown of the articular cartilage within the joint. Over time, the cartilage may wear away entirely, resulting in bone-on-bone contact. Since bones, unlike cartilage, have many nerve cells, direct bone contact can be very painful to the OA sufferer. In addition to the pain and swelling, the OA sufferer can experience a progressive loss of mobility at the knee joint. This is due to loss of the joint space, where the articular cartilage has completely worn away.

Biomechanics of Knee

The normal gait cycle of a human is shown in FIG. 2. The gait cycle begins when one foot contacts the ground and ends when that foot contacts the ground again. Thus, each cycle begins at initial contact with a stance phase and proceeds through a swing phase until the cycle ends with the limb's next initial contact.

The stance phase accounts for approximately 60 percent, and the swing phase for approximately 40 percent, of a single gait cycle. Each gait cycle includes two periods when both feet are on the ground. The first period of double limb support begins at initial contact, and lasts for about the first 10 to 12 percent of the cycle. The second period of double limb support occurs in about the final 10 to 12 percent of stance phase. As the stance limb prepares to leave the ground, the opposite limb contacts the ground and accepts the body's weight. The two periods of double limb support account for 20 to 24 percent of the gait cycle's total duration.

OA can affect all three compartments of the joint—medial, lateral and patella-femoral. Varus and valgus orientation of the lower extremity (defined as looking at the tibia from the knee towards the ankle) is commonly referred to as bow-legged (Yarns) and knock-kneed (valgus) (FIG. 3). Normal alignment of the tibia is in mild varus relative to the vertical.

Excessive loading of the articular cartilage may occur due to obesity, joint misalignment or a combination of such factors. Overly varus alignment can lead to osteoarthritis in the medial compartment while valgus alignment can lead to osteoarthritis in the lateral compartment.

In patients suffering from patellofemoral OA, excessive compressive forces on the patello-femoral cartilage can cause pain and cartilage degeneration. Such excessive compressive forces are often generated during stair climbing. Two main moments acting around the knee joint during stair climbing are the ground reaction force due to the body weight and the quadriceps muscle force that acts on the patella through the quadriceps-femoris tendon and the patellar tendon.

Currently, various medications are often recommended to reduce the swelling and pain of OA. Other treatments such as weight loss, braces, orthotics, steroid injections and physical therapy may also help alleviate pain and restore function by strengthening muscles supporting the joint. However, since articular cartilage is avascular, or lacks a blood supply, repair and growth of adult cartilage is minimal. If the pain or immobility becomes too severe and other therapies do not alleviate the symptoms, surgical interventions become necessary. Surgical treatments include arthroscopy to clean the joint by removing loose fragments, tibial and femoral osteotomy, unicondylar knee replacement or total knee replacement.

SUMMARY OF DISCLOSURE

Exemplary methods disclosed herein comprise selecting at least one of the muscles and connective tissues associated with a joint as target tissue for treatment, and displacing the target tissue without severing the bones or target tissue, thereby redistributing loading in the joint to achieve a therapeutic effect.

In exemplary embodiments, the target tissue is displaced by placing an implant in contact with the target tissue. The implant may be secured to a bone and/or to soft tissues, which may include the target tissue. In a preferred embodiment, the implant reduces a load in a joint that includes the same bone to which the implant is secured. For example, the implant may be secured to the femur in order to reduce a load on an articular surface of the femur in the medial or lateral compartments of the knee. In another embodiment, the implant may be secured to the femur to reduce a force exerted between the patella and the femur. In one exemplary embodiment, the implant is completely outside the capsule surrounding the joint.

In some embodiments, the implant is secured on a first side of a joint to displace tissue on the first side of the joint in order to reduce a load on an opposing side of the joint. For example, the implant may be secured on a lateral side of the femur in order to reduce loads in the medial compartment of the knee. Or, the implant may be secured on a medial side of the femur to reduce loads in a lateral compartment of the knee.

In certain embodiments, tissue may be displaced such that a force in a first direction on one side of the joint is increased, while a second force in the first direction on an opposing side of the joint is decreased. For example, tissue may be displaced on a lateral side of the knee joint to increase the load on the articular surfaces in the lateral compartment while decreasing the load on the articular surfaces in the medial compartment.

In still further embodiments, connective tissue near a joint is displaced such that a moment arm through which the connective tissue acts upon the joint is increased, thereby reducing a load in the joint. An implant may be secured to a bone near the joint such that the implant displaces the connective tissue sufficiently to increase the moment arm.

In preferred embodiments, connective tissue near a joint is displaced sufficiently to achieve a therapeutically effective reduction in a load in the joint. Usually loads will be reduced at least about 5%, preferably at least about 10%, more preferably at least about 15%. The magnitude of displacement required to achieve these load reductions will vary depending upon the joint, size and condition of the patient, and other factors. In the case of osteoarthritis in the medial and lateral compartments of the knee, displacement of connective tissue by at least about 8 mm, often by at least about 10 mm, will usually be required.

In another exemplary embodiment of the invention, a method for treating lateral condylar osteoarthritis of the knee comprises placing an implant on the medial side of the femur or tibia.

In another exemplary embodiment of the invention, a method for treating patellofemoral osteoarthritis of the knee comprises anchoring an implant on the medial side of the tibia.

In another exemplary embodiment of the invention, a method for treating patellofemoral and medial osteoarthritis of the knee comprises anchoring an implant on the medial side of the tibia.

In another exemplary embodiment of the invention, a method for treating patellofemoral and lateral osteoarthritis of the knee comprises anchoring an implant on the medial side of the tibia.

In another exemplary embodiment of the invention, a method for treating patellofemoral and medial osteoarthritis of the knee comprises anchoring an implant on the lateral side of the femur.

In another exemplary embodiment of the invention, a method for treating patellofemoral and lateral osteoarthritis of the knee comprises anchoring an implant on the medial side of the femur.

In another exemplary embodiment of the invention, an apparatus for treating patellofemoral osteoarthritis of the knee comprises anteriorly displacing the quadriceps-femoris tendon.

In another exemplary embodiment, a method for treating medial osteoarthritis of the knee comprises laterally displacing the iliotibial band.

Another exemplary method disclosed herein comprises selecting at least one of the muscles and connective tissues associated with a joint as target tissue for treatment, displacing the target tissue without severing the bones or target tissue, the target tissue being displaced in a region where it is not crossing the joint, wherein the displacement redistributes loading in the joint to achieve a therapeutic effect.

Another exemplary method disclosed herein comprises selecting at least one of the associated muscle and connective tissues surrounding a joint as target tissue for treatment, displacing the target tissue without severing the bones or target tissue, thereby altering the kinematics of the joint to achieve a therapeutic effect. In some embodiments the kinematics are altered to redistribute loading in the joint to achieve the therapeutic effect. In other embodiments the kinematics are altered to reduce loading on the ligaments within the joint to achieve the therapeutic effect.

One of the exemplary methods disclosed herein comprises selecting at least one of the associated muscle and connective tissues as target tissue for treatment, displacing the target tissue without severing the bones or target tissue, and redistributing loading in the joint to achieve a therapeutic effect. The apparatus may be completely outside the capsule surrounding the joint or may be in contact with the exterior of the capsule.

Embodiments of the present invention may be applied to virtually any articular joint, including but not limited to the knee. In addition to the implants and related prosthesis and apparatus described, embodiments of the present invention include methods of treating joint disorders and methods of installing implants and prostheses for less invasive joint treatments.

In a further embodiment, an apparatus according to the invention comprises an implant configured to be anchored on the medial side of the femur or tibia and configured to displace soft tissue so as to redistribute forces in the knee.

In a further embodiment, an apparatus according to the invention comprises an implant configured to be anchored on the medial and lateral side of the femur and configured to displace soft tissue so as to redistribute forces in the knee.

In a further embodiment, an apparatus according to the invention comprises an implant configured to be anchored on the medial and anterior side of the femur and configured to displace soft tissue so as to redistribute forces in the knee.

In a further embodiment, an apparatus according to the invention comprises an implant configured to be anchored on the lateral side of the femur and configured to displace the iliotibial band so as to redistribute forces in the knee.

In a further embodiment, an apparatus according to the invention comprises an implant configured to be anchored on the lateral and anterior side of the femur and configured to displace soft tissue so as to redistribute forces in the knee.

In some embodiments, an apparatus according to the invention comprises an implant configured to be anchored on the femur or tibia and configured to displace soft tissue so as to alter the kinematics of the knee joint. In some embodiments the kinematics are altered to redistribute loading in the joint to achieve the therapeutic effect. In other embodiments the kinematics are altered to reduce loading on the ligaments within the joint to achieve the therapeutic effect.

By using the implants of the invention, appropriately sized and positioned as described herein, displacement of targeted connective and muscle tissues surrounding the joint is accomplished in order to realign force vectors and/or alter moment arms loading the joint to achieve therapeutic effects without cutting bone and with minimal cutting of the connective tissues. Alternative and more specific devices and methodologies are described in more detail herein below.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS

For the purpose of illustrating the invention, the drawings show aspects of one or more exemplary embodiments of the invention. However, it should be understood that the present invention is not limited to the precise arrangements and instrumentalities shown in the drawings, wherein:

FIG. 1A is a front or anterior view of the bones of the right knee joint in a human, illustrating the lateral and medial directions and the medial and lateral compartments of the knee.

FIG. 1B is a sagittal or vertical section of the right knee joint, illustrating the anterior and posterior directions and the patellofemoral compartment of the knee.

FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram illustrating the human gait cycle.

FIG. 3 is a figure depicting normal knees, bowlegged knees (varus misalignment) and knock knees (valgus misalignment).

FIG. 4 depicts an exemplary embodiment of a prosthesis according to the present invention.

FIGS. 5A-D depict the cross-sectional views of the displacement portion of the prostheses according to one embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 6 is an anterior view of a right knee illustrating positioning of another exemplary embodiment of the present invention for treating lateral compartment osteoarthritis.

FIG. 7 is an anterior view of a right knee illustrating positioning of another exemplary embodiment of the present invention for treating lateral compartment osteoarthritis.

FIG. 8 is an anterior view of a right knee illustrating positioning of an exemplary embodiment of the present invention for treating patellofemoral osteoarthritis or chondromalacia.

FIGS. 9A-E are views of a an exemplary prosthesis for anterior displacement of the patellar tendon in the right knee, wherein 9A is a perspective view, 9B is an anterior (front) view, 9C is a lateral (side) view, 9D is a posterior (back) view and 9E is a cranial (top) view.

FIGS. 10, 11 and 12 are views of prostheses according to alternative exemplary embodiments of the present invention for anterior displacement of the quadriceps-femoris tendon.

FIG. 13 is an anterior view of a right knee illustrating positioning of another exemplary embodiment of the present invention for treating patellofemoral osteoarthritis and lateral compartment osteoarthritis.

FIG. 14 is an anterior view of a right knee illustrating positioning of another exemplary embodiment of the present invention for treating patellofemoral osteoarthritis and medial compartment osteoarthritis.

FIG. 15 is an anterior view of a right knee illustrating positioning of another exemplary embodiment of the present invention for treating patellofemoral osteoarthritis and medial compartment osteoarthritis.

FIG. 16 is an anterior view of a right knee illustrating positioning of another exemplary embodiment of the present invention for treating patellofemoral osteoarthritis and lateral compartment osteoarthritis.

FIG. 17 is an anterior view of a right knee illustrating positioning of another exemplary embodiment of the present invention for treating medial compartment osteoarthritis.

FIGS. 18A-D are views of a prosthesis for lateral displacement of the IT Band in the right knee in accordance with yet another exemplary embodiment of the present invention, wherein 18A is a perspective view, 18B is a lateral view, 18C is an anterior view and 18D is the caudal (bottom) view.

FIG. 19 is a schematic perspective view of an embodiment of the present invention incorporating an adjustable capsule between two solid members.

FIG. 20 is a schematic cross sectional view of an embodiment of the present invention incorporating an adjustable capsule between two solid members.

FIG. 21 is a schematic cross sectional view of an further alternative embodiment including a multi-chamber capsule between two solid members.

FIG. 22 is a schematic cross sectional view of another alternative embodiment of the present invention incorporating an adjustable mechanical construct between two solid members.

FIG. 23 is an anterior view of a right knee illustrating positioning of another exemplary embodiment of the present invention for treating medial compartment osteoarthritis.

FIGS. 24, 25 and 26 are side schematic side views of prostheses according to alternative exemplary embodiments of the present invention.

FIG. 27 is an anterior view of a right knee illustrating positioning of an alternative exemplary embodiment of the present invention for treating medial osteoarthritis with an adjustable tensioning device.

FIGS. 28 and 29 are schematic side views of a human knee with prostheses according to embodiments of the present invention, including at least a roller in the displacement portion of the prostheses.

FIG. 30 is an anterior view of the femur of a right knee illustrating positioning of an alternative exemplary embodiment of the present invention for treating medial osteoarthritis with a two piece device.

FIG. 31 is an anterior view of the femur of a human knee illustrating positioning of another exemplary embodiment of the present invention for treating medial osteoarthritis with a multi-layered device.

FIG. 32 is an anterior view of the femur of a human knee illustrating positioning of an alternative exemplary embodiment of the present invention for treating medial osteoarthritis with a multi-layered device.

FIGS. 33-43, 45, 47-49 are partial cross-sectional views of the distal femur of a human knee (oriented horizontally) illustrating alternative exemplary embodiments of the present invention.

FIGS. 44A-B are exemplary embodiments of the bearing unit of a two-part device.

FIG. 46 is an exemplary embodiment of a composite bearing unit of a two-part device.

FIGS. 50A-E and 51 are views of prostheses for lateral displacement of the IT Band in the right and left knee in accordance with other exemplary embodiments of the present invention, wherein FIG. 50A is a perspective view of a right knee device and FIGS. 50B-E and 51 are a left knee device. FIG. 50B is a top view, FIG. 50C is a side view as seen from the anterior side of the implant, and FIG. 50D is a side view as seen from the posterior side of the implant. FIGS. 50E and 51 are views of a prosthesis for lateral displacement of the IT Band in the left knee in accordance with yet another exemplary embodiment of the present invention, wherein FIG. 50E is a cross-sectional view of the implant sectioned through A-A, and FIG. 51 is a cross-sectional view of the implant sectioned through B-B of FIG. 50B.

FIG. 52 shows the cross-sectional views of two implants of the present invention.

FIGS. 53A-C are views of a prosthesis for lateral displacement of the IT Band in the right knee in accordance with yet another exemplary embodiment of the present invention, wherein 53A is a top view, 53B is a cross-sectional view of the implant placed on the lateral condyle, and 53C is a cross-sectional view of the implant sectioned through A-A.

FIG. 54 is a prosthesis for lateral displacement of the IT Band in the right knee in accordance with yet another exemplary embodiment of the present invention,

FIG. 55A-C are views of a prosthesis to improve cosmesis in accordance with yet another exemplary embodiment of the present invention.

FIGS. 56A-D are views of an exemplary embodiment of an inserter device for implanting the prosthesis of the present invention.

FIGS. 57A-B are views of an exemplary embodiment of an inserter device for implanting the prosthesis of the present invention.

FIGS. 58A-B are views of an exemplary embodiment of a dissection device for implanting the prosthesis of the present invention.

FIGS. 59A-H are views of an exemplary surgical procedure to implant the prosthesis of the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

Utilizing embodiments of the present invention, joint conditions that result from or exacerbate unbalanced force distribution through the joint may be addressed by interventional techniques involving a redistribution of forces exerted on the joint without the need for highly invasive surgeries requiring significant trauma to the joint and associated muscle and connective tissues. Redistribution of forces within the target joint in accordance with embodiments described herein may thus provide pain relief or slow down articular cartilage degeneration or enhance cartilage regeneration.

In some embodiments of the invention, increased forces can be selectively applied to one side of a joint by routing select muscle, tendons, ligaments, and/or other connective tissues (target tissues) around a longer or more angled path, thus increasing the magnitude, altering the effective direction, and/or changing the moment arm of forces exerted by such muscles or tissues on the joint. This may be accomplished, for example, by appropriately shaped implants that may be positioned to displace selected target tissues relatively non-invasively compared to current surgical techniques for addressing such conditions. The amount of displacement of the target tissue may not need to be large in order to provide a substantial therapeutic effect on the target joint. For example, in the knee, depending upon the nature of the disease and the size and geometry of a particular patient's joint, displacements of greater than about 5 mm up to about 30 mm may be sufficient, with displacements in the range of about 10 mm to about 30 mm also suitable, or more specifically about 10-20 mm.

Exemplary embodiments of the invention described herein are particularly directed to treatment of the human knee, although the principles of the invention may be applied to other joints as described in the copending parent application of the present application, which as stated above is incorporated by reference herein. In general, it will be appreciated by persons of ordinary skill in the art that specific features described in connection with one exemplary embodiment may be incorporated in other exemplary embodiments unless otherwise noted. The exemplary embodiments described are thus included to illustrate features of the invention, not limit it.

As used herein, “therapeutic effect” means an effect on a treated joint that reduces forces acting on the articular surfaces, reduces wear, lessens pain or provides another positive outcome for the patient whether across the joint as a whole or in particular compartments of the knee. “Therapeutic effect,” however, does not imply, and should not be understood as requiring, any specific, quantified outcome other than as stated above.

As used herein, in humans, dorsal refers to the back of an organism and ventral to the belly. Cranial refers to the head end and caudal to the tail end. In humans, anterior is used to indicate the ventral surface and posterior to indicate the dorsal surface. Superior means toward the head and inferior toward the feet. Proximal refers to the end of a structure nearest a major point of reference and distal to the end furthest from a point of reference. The point of reference is usually the origin of a structure (such as a limb). Proximal and distal are relative terms. Medial means nearer the midline of the body and lateral means further from the midline. Superficial refers to structures nearer the skin, and deep to structures further away from the skin. A sagittal plane divides the body into right and left (or medial and lateral) parts. A frontal (or coronal) plane passes from right to left and divides the body into dorsal and ventral (or posterior and anterior) parts. A transverse plane (or cross section) passes perpendicular to the long axis of the body and divides the body into cranial and caudal (head and tail) portions.

While illustrated in FIGS. 1A and 1B for the sake of clarity, persons of ordinary skill in the art will understand the location and anatomy of the compartments of the knee, commonly referred to as the Medial Compartment (MC), Lateral Compartment (LC) and Patellofemoral Compartment (PFC). Also illustrated in FIGS. 1A and 1B are anatomical directions relative to the knee joint as referenced herein.

Implants according to embodiments of the present invention may be configured and secured in a variety of ways as described below in more detail with respect to exemplary embodiments. However, in general, and with reference to FIG. 4, prostheses or implants according to embodiments of the invention will, in preferred embodiments, comprise a fixation portion 12 that provides means for securing or anchoring the prosthesis, such as holes 13 for bone screws 15, and a displacement portion 14 configured and dimensioned to displace the target tissue(s) from a pretreatment path as described herein. Other means for securing the fixation portion may include bone ingrowth surfaces, barbs, bone cement and other devices known in the art for securing implants to bone. The fixation and displacement portions may be separated by a spanning section 16 that permits those portions to be separated from each other as appropriate to accommodate the anatomical structures at the location of treatment and fixation. The displacement portion 14 may be provided with a bearing member 17 of the same or a different material than the underlying substrate. In some embodiments, again depending on anatomical structures and treatment requirements, two or more of the displacement and fixation portions and spanning section may be merged in whole or in part or may overly one another.

Depending on the mechanical load on the implant, and the choice of material or materials used to fabricate the implant, thickness of the fixation portion (for example; T1 in FIG. 9E, T2 in FIG. 18C) of the implant typically ranges from about 2.0 mm to 8.0 mm, more typically from about 2.5 mm to 6.0 mm, and may be from about 3.0 mm to 4.5 mm. The thickness of the fixation portion of the implant (for example; T3 in FIG. 9E) may be uniform throughout the implant or may vary across the implant. Regions of the fixation portion under higher mechanical load may be thicker than regions under lower mechanical loads. The thickness of the fixation region may also be selected to ensure that the screw-heads used to fix the implant do not protrude over the surface of the implant. Examples of thickness T1, T2 etc. are shown in FIGS. 9C, 9E and 18C.

The spanning section may have thickness similar to that of the fixation portion. Persons of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that a principal consideration for spanning section is sufficient structural integrity to maintain the displacement portion at the desired treatment position. In the displacement portion, displacement distance and thickness may be considered separately. Displacement distance is the distance by which the bearing surface of the displacement portion displaces the target tissue beyond the natural anatomical track of the target tissue, in other words, the displacement of tissue created by the implant. Depending on the particular geometry of the implant, the thickness of the displacement portion may or may not be related to the displacement distance. For example, in an implant with a convex or spoon shaped displacement portion (see, e.g. FIG. 18), or one with a displacement portion that is cantilevered at an angle or stepped into a different plane from the fixation portion or spanning section, the thickness of the material may be substantially less than the overall displacement distance. For example, a material thickness of 4 or 5 mm in the displacement portion may provide sufficient structural integrity for a displacement distance of 25 to 30 mm depending on the material selected. In one embodiment, displacement of the target tissue results in the decrease in the mechanical load on the articular cartilage in the target joint by at least 5%, more preferably by at least 8%, most preferably by at least 10%. Unloading as defined here refers to decrease in contact forces, either peak forces or average forces, either measured or calculated, during a normal gait cycle, stair climbing, running, jogging or any other physical activity which results in mechanical loading of articular cartilage in a joint.

The displacement distance provided by the displacement portion of the implant may typically range from greater than about 5 mm to about 30 mm. Of course, the actual displacement distance will depend upon the joint being treated, the location and physical characteristics of the target tissue, the severity of disease, and other factors. In some embodiments, displacement distance across the displacement portion may vary. As further examples of how displacement distance and thickness may relate, the displacement portion may be in contact with the underlying tissue and the target soft tissue is displaced by a distance equivalent to the thickness of the displacement portion; thus displacement distance would equal thickness in such an embodiment. In other embodiments, the displacement portion may be elevated above the underlying tissue and the target soft tissue is displaced by a distance greater than the thickness of the displacement region; thus displacement distance is greater than thickness.

Persons of ordinary skill in the art will thus appreciate that a further dimension to be considered is the depth (D) of the implant that governs the magnitude of tissue displacement, i.e., the perpendicular distance from an outer most point on the bearing surface to a point on the fixation surface, that is, the surface of the fixation portion configured to face the fixation site. Typically, depth (D) will be measured as perpendicular to a plane tangent to an outer most point on the bearing surface, between that plane and a point on the fixation surface that defines the location of fixation to the bone, for example a centerline of the fixation element(s) such as screw holes, provided in the fixation portion. Examples of depth (D) are shown in FIGS. 9B, 9E and 18C.

In alternative embodiments, components of the prosthesis may be a compliant material such as an elastomer, capsules filled with water, saline, silicone, hydrogels, etc. Embodiments with compliant portions could be placed in a deflated state and then inflated to the appropriate thickness. Alternatively, bearing members may be filled with other flowable materials including beads or other particles made of metal, polymer, or foam material, optionally in a liquid medium, which conform to the adjacent bone or tissue surfaces. Thixotropic materials, such as hydrogels derived from hyaluronic acid, change their mechanical properties as shear stress is applied to them. An implant filled with such materials could be made to change the amount of displacement that it provides based on the shear stress that it sees from overlying target tissues at various points in the gait cycle. Implants may be coated with materials to reduce friction such as hydrophilic coatings or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) coatings. Additionally or alternatively, the prosthesis may be adjustable to allow the dimensions such as thickness of the prosthesis to be adjusted during surgery or any time after surgery.

Rigid or substantially rigid prostheses according to embodiments of the invention described herein could be made of known bone-compatible implant materials such as titanium or stainless steel. Biocompatible polymers, ceramics, and other materials may also be used. The bearing surface of the prostheses should be designed to minimize negative effects of movement of the connective tissues across the implant surface, e.g. comprising a smooth, atraumatic, low-friction material, coating or surface treatment. Such prostheses could be implanted arthroscopically or using a mini-open or open surgical approach.

In various alternative embodiments, the displacement portion and the fixation portion of prostheses according to the invention may be of unibody construction, or may be formed of two or more parts depending on desired function. For example, the fixation portion may be stainless steel or titanium textured to enhance bony ingrowth and solid screw fixation, while the displacement portion could be made of a different material, for example, pyrolytic carbon to enhance the ability of overlying tissues to slide across the implant, or PTFE, silicone or other low-friction polymer with suitable wear characteristics to provide a softer bearing surface. In this regard, the displacement portion may comprise a separate bearing member with a bearing surface on which the target tissue bears. Alternatively the bearing surface may be formed as an integral part of the displacement portion. In further alternatives, the displacement portion could be comprised of a substrate of one material with an overlying layer forming the bearing member. The substrate could be either attached to or contiguous with the fixation portion. In other embodiments, the fixation portion of the implant may have a relief feature to minimize contact with the underlying bone, thereby minimizing disruption of the periosteal layer.

Generally, the bearing member and/or bearing surface in embodiments of the invention will be hard and smooth, made from materials such as polished pyrolytic carbon, steel, or titanium, or coated or covered with a lubricious material, such as PTFE. However, in embodiments where relative motion is provided for within the prosthesis itself, such as in exemplary embodiments described herein below, the bearing surface may be designed to encourage adhesion and ingrowth of the connective tissue onto this surface. For example, such a surface may be porous, roughened, or configured with openings into which bone or scar tissue may grow to enhance adhesion.

In some embodiments, the implant could be anchored to the underlying bone with suitable fasteners such as screws. Depending on the location and surgical need, unicortical screws, bicortical screws, cancellous screws, cannulated screws, polyaxial screws, screws that lock into the implant etc. may be used. In some embodiments, the screw holes may be locking threads or other locking features. In other embodiments, the screws holes may be oriented in different directions to improve the stability of the anchored implant. In alternate embodiments, different types of screws may be used in different regions of the implant. For example, cortical screws may be used in the region of the implant in contact with the femoral shaft while cancellous screws may be used in another part of the implant in contact with femoral condyle. Depending on patient anatomy and geometry of a specific implant, it may be desirable to provide supplemental fixation (such as cancellous bone screws) in the spanning section.

As discussed above, lateral condylar osteoarthritis may be caused by excessive loading of the lateral condyle. Excessive loading may result from obesity or joint misalignment (valgus or knock knees). By medially displacing the medial muscles or tendons like the sartorius and gracilis muscle or tendon, the moment arm of the muscle or tendon as it crosses the joint may be increased, thereby redistributing the forces within the joint, and reducing the load on the lateral condyle. Other muscles and tendons around the knee that contribute to the medial stability of the knee may also be displaced to achieve a similar therapeutic effect.

FIGS. 6 and 7 show exemplary embodiments of the present invention for medial displacement of the medial muscles or tendons around the knee. FIG. 6 depicts a first embodiment of an implant 100 anchored on the medial side of the tibia. The definitions of the dimensions (for example, L, W, T, D etc.) of the implant in FIG. 6 are the same as those for the implant in FIG. 9. Fixation portion 112 of the implant is used to anchor the implant, e.g. with screws 113, and displacement portion 114 displaces the sartorius and/or gracilis tendon medially. The fixation portion could be attached to the tibia adjacent to the attachment point of the patellar tendon and the tibia or it could be located more cranial or caudal to the attachment point. In one exemplary embodiment of implant 100, the width of the fixation portion 112 ranges from about 10 mm to 25 mm, more specifically from about 12 mm to 20 mm, and in certain embodiments from about 14 mm to 18 mm. The length of the fixation portion 112 for implant 100 may be in the range of about 20 mm to 50 mm, more specifically from about 25 mm to 45 mm, and in certain embodiments about 30 mm to 40 mm. Spanning section 116 would be configured to transition from fixation portion 112 mostly parallel to the medial side of the tibia to displacement portion 114, which, as stated above, is configured and dimensioned to displace the sartorius or gracilis tendon medially.

The displacement of the target tissue can be altered by changing the length, curvature and angle of the spanning section 116, with an embodiment such as implant 100, each affecting the overall depth of the implant. For example, the angle between the displacement portion 114 and the fixation portion 112 (angle as measured at the intersection of the center line axes of the two portions in the top view of the implant similar to angle α shown in FIG. 9A) may range from about 80 degrees to 135 degrees, more specifically about 85 degrees to 120 degrees, and in some from about 90 degrees to 110 degrees. The inferior edge of the spanning section 116 can also be curved to minimize or eliminate any contact with the anterior edge of the sartorius or gracilis tendon and could be configured to avoid the attachment region of the tendons to the tibia. The displacement of the target tissue may also be altered by changing the cross-section of the displacement portion. The width of the displacement portion 114 may range from about 10 mm to 25 mm, more specifically about 12 mm to 20 mm, and in some embodiments about 14 mm to 18 mm. The length of the displacement portion 111 may range from about 20 mm to 50 mm, more specifically about 25 mm to 45 mm, and in some embodiments about 30 mm to 40 mm. The length and width should be sufficient to provide adequate support of the target tissue over its range of motion without excessive or extra material. By appropriate adjustment of these dimensions a person of ordinary skill in the art may configure the implant with a depth to provide displacement of the target tissue in the range of about 5 mm to 30 mm.

Another embodiment is shown in FIG. 7, which depicts implant 200 anchored on the medial side of the femur. The definitions of the dimensions of the implant (for example, L, W, T, D etc.) in FIG. 7 are the same as those for the implant in FIG. 18. Fixation portion 212 of the implant is used to anchor the implant and displacement portion 214 displaces the sartorius and/or gracilis tendon medially. Displacement portions 114 and 214 may be adjusted to provide appropriate displacement to achieve a therapeutic effect as described. In an exemplary embodiment, displacement portion 214 is offset medially relative to fixation portion 212 so as to extend around the medial facet of the femoral condyle. The displacement portion 214 may be generally parallel with the fixation portion 212, and be interconnected by a spanning section 216 which extends at an angle medially and caudally from fixation portion 212. The spanning section extends the displacement portion out medially to achieve a desired displacement. Additionally, spanning section 216 is configured and dimensioned to reduce contact or impingement with bone or soft tissue underneath the displacement portion (e.g.; joint capsule, tibial collateral ligament etc.). The fixation portion 212 may lie in a place which is generally parallel to the displacement portion 214, with both configured to lie on the medial aspect of the bone when implanted. Alternatively, displacement portion 214 may be in a plane which is nonparallel to that containing the fixation portion; for example the fixation portion may be configured and dimensional for attachment to a more anterior aspect of the tibia while the displacement portion is configured to face more medially with the spanning section, bridging the region between the displacement portion and fixation portion.

The width of implant 200 as measured in the anterior-posterior direction may vary depending on anatomical conditions and other factors as determined by the surgeon. For example, the width of implant 200 in fixation portion 212 could be constant while the width of the displacement portion 214 could vary along its length to cover the medial facet of the condyle. The width of the spanning section 216 would bridge the difference in widths between the fixation portion and the displacement portion. In exemplary embodiments, the width of fixation portion 212 may range from about 10 mm to 40 mm, more specifically about 15 mm to 35 mm, and in some embodiments about 20 mm to 30 mm. The length of the fixation portion 212 may range from about 20 mm to 60 mm, specifically about 30 mm to 50 mm, and in some embodiments about 35 mm to 45 mm. The width of the displacement portion 214 may range from about 40 mm to 70 mm, more specifically about 45 mm to 65 mm, and in some embodiments about 50 mm to 60 mm. The length of the displacement portion 212 may range from about 40 mm to 70 mm, more specifically about 45 mm to 65 mm, and in some embodiments about 50 mm to 60 mm.

Patellofemoral osteoarthritis may be caused by excessive compressive load on the patella. By anteriorly displacing the patellar tendon or the quadriceps-femoris tendon the compressive load on the patella may be reduced. While it has been recognized that such displacement of the patellar tendon may have benefits, existing approaches have suffered from certain difficulties. For example, it has been suggested that a prosthetic implant could be inserted and anchored beneath the patellar tendon cranially from the tendon insertion point on the tibia. However, because the tendon overlies this area, obtaining access and clear visualization of the anchoring site can be difficult. Moreover, the area of the bone available to insert screws is limited, requiring the screws to be placed closer together than would be ideal for secure anchoring. Further, anchoring a device to the tibia at this location risks damaging the patellar tendon and other ligaments and tendons which insert into the tibia nearby. In addition, such an implant can cause a cosmetically unattractive bump. In the present invention, by contrast, implants may be configured such that the displacement portion of the implant is separated from the fixation portion of the implant. With the displacement portion positioned under the target tissue (e.g. patellar tendon), the fixation portion of the implant may be configured to be affixed to the bone at a location which can securely fix the implant in place, is accessible to the surgeon, is not covered by the target tissue, and is separated from tendon insertion points and other anatomical features. The implant may have a spanning section shaped and dimensioned to bridge the distance between the fixation portion and the displacement portion. The implants may be configured to move the tendon anteriorly or medially or anterior-medially or laterally or antero-laterally. This may be accomplished by making one side (lateral or medial) of the displacement surface higher than the other, and/or by forming a track with ridges on one or both sides of the bearing surface to urge the tendon in a lateral or medial direction.

FIG. 8 shows such an exemplary embodiment of the present invention for displacement of the patellar tendon. Implant 300 is anchored on the medial side of the tibia. Fixation portion 312 of the implant is used to anchor the implant and displacement portion 314 displaces the patellar tendon. Advantageously, the fixation portion is separated from the displacement portion by spanning section 316 so that the fixation portion may be shaped and dimensioned to optimize anchoring, holes 315 for screws 313 may be more numerous and separated further apart, and the location on the bone for anchoring may be more easily accessed and visualized by the surgeon. Additionally, the fixation portion may be configured to minimize skin irritation. For example, by configuring the displacement portion 314 to rest on the bone underneath the patellar tendon, the load on the device could be distributed such that the stress on the fixation portion 312 is reduced. Reduction in the stress on the fixation portion 312 would enable that portion to have a lower profile or lower thickness, thereby reducing any skin irritation and achieving other attendant benefits of a smaller profile. In an alternative embodiment, the displacement portion may be elevated from the underlying bone such that only the most lateral region 303 of the implant is in contact with the tibia, thereby minimizing any damage to the periosteal layer.

FIGS. 9A-E depict an exemplary prototype of implant 300 for treating patellofemoral osteoarthritis and/or patellar maltracking for the right knee as depicted in FIG. 8. Implant 300 has a fixation portion 312 having one or more holes 315 for receiving screws for anchoring the implant to bone. Fixation portion 312 is generally straight and elongated, being configured for positioning in general alignment with the tibial shaft on the medial or anterior-medial side of the tibia. Holes 315 are preferably positioned in approximate alignment with a longitudinal centerline of fixation portion 312. Displacement portion 314, is configured and dimensioned to be positioned under the patellar tendon cranially separated from the insertion point of the tendon in the tibia. The displacement portion 314 is configured to atraumatically engage the tendon and displace it anteriorly relative to the tibia. The displacement portion 314 has a length in the lateral-medial direction selected to accommodate the full width of the tendon so that the tendon remains engaged along its entire width as it slides on the displacement portion. Displacement portion 314 preferably has a convex curvature on its outer tissue-engaging surface (bearing surface), preferably being curved at least around an axis generally parallel to the tibial shaft, usually being curved also around an axis perpendicular to the tibial shaft, and more preferably being spherical or partially spherical. Displacement portion 314 has a width in the caudal-cranial direction is selected so that it does not interfere with the patella or engage the insertion point of the tendon, typically being less than its length. A spanning section 316 interconnects fixation portion 312 and displacement portion 314. Spanning section 316, in the embodiment illustrated, extends cranially and laterally from fixation portion 312 to displacement portion 314, forming a curve of about 90° about a dorsal-ventral axis. Where fixation portion 312 is configured for attachment to a more medial aspect of the tibia, spanning section 316 will extend ventrally as well as cranially and laterally from fixation portion 312, preferably being curved about an axis generally parallel to the tibial shaft. Displacement portion 314 appropriately displaces the patellar tendon in cooperation with the fixation portion 312 and spanning section 316.

Displacement of the target tissue can be altered by changing the length, curvature and angle of the spanning section among other features. For example, the angle α between the displacement portion 314 and the fixation portion 312 (as measured at the intersection of the center line axes of the two portions in the top view of the implant in FIG. 9A) may range from about 80 degrees to 135 degrees, more specifically from about 85 degrees to 120 degrees, and in some embodiments about 90 degrees to 110 degrees. The width W1 of the fixation portion 312 will be large enough to span a substantial portion of the width of the tibia and to accommodate one or more screw holes of sufficient size, ranging from about 10 mm to 25 mm, more specifically about 12 mm to 20 mm, and in some embodiments about 14 mm to 18 mm. The length L1 of the fixation portion 312 will be selected to accommodate a sufficient number of screw holes in the cranial-caudal direction along the tibia, usually at least two and in some embodiments up to five or more, and may range from about 20 mm to 50 mm, more specifically about 25 mm to 45 mm, and in some embodiments about 30 mm to 40 mm. The width W2 of the displacement portion 314 is selected to provide a broad area of contact with the tendon to spread the force and reduce wear, while not interfering with the patella or the tendon insertion point throughout the full range of joint motion. Width W2 may thus range from about 10 mm to 25 mm, more specifically about 12 mm to 20 mm, and in some embodiments about 14 mm to 18 mm. The length L2 of the displacement portion 314 is selected so that the displacement portion extends under the full width of the tendon so that the entire width of the tendon remains in engagement and displaced the desired amount throughout the range of joint motion. Length L2 may thus range from about 20 mm to 50 mm, more specifically about 25 mm to 45 mm, and in certain embodiments about 30 mm to 40 mm. Implant depth D, along with the radius of curvature R1 of the outer surface of displacement portion 314, shown in FIG. 9E, are selected to optimize tendon displacement throughout the range of joint motion. Radius of curvature R1 is usually 20-35 mm, more preferably 22-33 mm, and most preferably 25-30 mm. For average patient anatomy, an overall implant depth (D), shown in FIGS. 9B and 9E, as measured from the outermost surface of displacement portion 314 to the centerline of the screw holes in fixation portion 312, would be in the range of 10-45 mm in order to provide target tissue displacements in the ranges cited hereinabove to achieve a therapeutic effect.

The inferior edge 304 of the spanning section 316 can also be curved to minimize or eliminate any contact with the medial edge of the patellar tendon. The superior surface edge 305 of the displacement portion 314 can be curved to allow for easy motion of the patellar tendon during flexion as well as to vary the displacement of the patellar tendon during flexion by varying the region of the implant surface in contact with the tendon at higher flexion angles. In one exemplary embodiment, implant 300 is placed on the medial side of the distal tibia such that fixation portion 312 is substantially aligned with the tibial shaft, the spanning section 316 is positioned to minimize contact with the medial edge of the patellar tendon, and the displacement portion 314, extending laterally from the spanning section, is substantially parallel to the tibial plateau.

FIGS. 10, 11 and 12 show exemplary embodiments of implants according to the present invention for displacement of the quadriceps-femoris tendon. FIG. 10 depicts implant 400 anchored on the lateral side of the femur using one or more fixation screws 413. Holes (not visible in the figures) extending through fixation portion 412 for receiving screw(s) 413 are oriented in a lateral-medial direction so screw(s) 413 may be inserted into a lateral aspect of the femur. Displacement portion 414 extends generally orthogonally in a medial direction from fixation portion 412 so as to extend across an anterior aspect of the femur under the quadriceps-femoris tendon. A spanning section (described below) may interconnect displacement portion 414 and fixation portion 412, extending anteriorly and medially from the fixation portion and preferably being curved about an axis generally parallel to the femoral shaft. Fixation portion 412 of implant 400 is used to anchor the implant and displacement portion 414 displaces the tendon. Supplementary fixation 418 may be provided at the opposite end of displacement portion 414 and may also include additional anchoring features like screw holes, spikes etc. In other embodiments, the implant may be anchored on the medial side without a substantial change other than mirroring.

FIGS. 11 and 12 depict implants 420 and 430 with the fixation portions 422 and 432 that are displaced, caudally and cranially respectively, from the tendon-displacing displacement portions 424 and 434. Displacement portions 414, 424 and 434 may be designed to be in contact with the underlying bone or could be partially or wholly elevated so as to avoid contact with the underlying bone, thereby not disrupting the periosteal layer. Implants 420 and 430 also may have supplemental fixation 418, which may also include additional anchoring features like screw holes, spikes etc. In some embodiments, the implant is anchored only on one side (medial or lateral), thereby allowing the implantation procedure to be performed by a single incision. In other embodiments, when supplemental fixation 418 is employed, the opposite side may also be anchored using a percutaneous technique, for example, by using a percutaneous screw.

As with other embodiments described herein, the displacement of the target tissue can be altered by changing the length, curvature and angle of the spanning section and/or dimensions of the displacement and fixation portions as appropriate for specific patient anatomy. Displacement portions 414, 424 and 434 may be configured to move the tendon anteriorly or medially or anterior-medially or laterally or antero-laterally. This may be accomplished by making one side (lateral or medial) of the displacement surface higher than the other, and/or by forming a track with ridges on one or both sides of the bearing surface to urge the tendon in a lateral or medial direction. The inferior region of the displacement portions may be contoured or concave to substantially conform to the curved anterior surface of the femur. The superior surface or the bearing surface on the displacement portion also may be contoured to have a curved convex surface in contact with the target soft tissue. For example, the cross-sectional view of the displacement portion may look like a semi-circle or a semi ellipse (FIGS. 5A-D).

The displacement portion 424 and 434 may be generally orthogonal with respect to fixation portion 422 and 432. The connecting spanning sections 426 and 436 could extend at an angle medially and anteriorly from fixation portions 422 and 432. The spanning section extends the displacement portion out anteriorly to achieve the necessary displacement. The spanning section may also extend more caudally or posteriorly to the displacement section to avoid any connective tissue attachment points. The spanning sections may also comprise adjustable mechanisms (e.g. a pin or hinge) to movably or pivotably alter the orientation or angle between the two parts to achieve the appropriate level of tissue displacement; exemplary embodiments of which are described herein below. The width of the displacement portions 414, 424 and 434 may range from about 10 mm to 40 mm, more specifically about 15 mm to 35 mm, and in some embodiments about 20 mm to 30 mm. The length of the displacement region would typically substantially cover the width of the femoral shaft. Overall depth (D) in exemplary embodiments of implants 400, 420 and 430, in this case as measured from an outer most surface of the displacement portion to the mid-line of the fixation portion passing through at least one screw hole or fixation element would be in the range of about 10-45 mm, to achieve displacements as described herein for average patient anatomy.

In other embodiments of the present invention, an apparatus for treating dual compartment osteoarthritis of the knee are disclosed. For example, embodiments of the present invention may be configured to treat medial and patellofemoral osteoarthritis, or lateral and patellofermoral osteoarthritis. FIGS. 13 and 14 depict exemplary embodiments of tibial implants 500 and 530 to treat dual compartment osteoarthritis. FIGS. 15 and 16 depict exemplary embodiments of femoral implants 600 and 630 to treat dual compartment osteoarthritis. These embodiments are alternatives to placing separate implants, also disclosed herein, to treat dual compartment osteoarthritis. The dimensions of the implants for treating dual compartment osteoarthritis would preferably be similar to the dimensions of the implants to treat single compartment osteoarthritis described in connection with exemplary embodiments of the present invention discussed herein. The fixation portion of a dual compartment treatment implant may be subject to higher mechanical forces compared to single compartment treatment implants. To withstand the higher mechanical loads, the fixation portion may preferably be thicker, wider or longer as may be selected by a person skilled in the art based on the teachings contained herein.

In FIG. 13, fixation portion 512 is used to anchor implant 500 on the tibia, anterior displacement portion 514 displaces the patellar tendon and medial displacement portion 524 displaces the medial sartorius and/or gracilis tendon. Implant 500 in this exemplary embodiment has a spanning section 516 having a y-shaped or broadened upper end connecting fixation portion 512 and displacement portions 514 and 524 to the fixation portion 512. The displacement of the target tissue can be altered by changing the thickness, length, curvature and angle of the spanning section and/or displacement portion, or other aspects as previously described. The inferior edge of spanning section 516 can also be curved to minimize or eliminate any contact with the medial edge of the patellar tendon. The superior surface edge of the displacement portion 514 can be contoured to allow for easy motion of the patellar tendon during flexion as well as to vary the displacement of the patellar tendon during flexion. In one exemplary embodiment, the anterior displacement portion 514, extending laterally from the spanning section 516, is substantially parallel to the tibial plateau. Spanning section 516 would also be configured to transition from fixation portion 512 by curving around the tibia cranially, medially and dorsally to medial displacement portion 524. Medial displacement portion 524 is configured to for positioning between the sartorius or gracilis tendons and the medial side of the tibia so as to displace these tendons medially or antero-medially. The fixation portion could be attached to the tibia adjacent to the attachment point of the patellar tendon and the tibia or it could be located more cranial or caudal to the attachment point.

In FIG. 14, fixation portion 532 is used to anchor implant 530 on the tibia and displacement portion 534 displaces the patellar tendon while displacement portion 544 displaces the lateral IT Band. The implant in this exemplary embodiment has a fixation portion 532 configured for attachment to the tibia medially of the patellar tendon, with a first spanning section 536 connecting the fixation portion 532 and the patellar displacement portion 534, and a second spanning section 546 connecting the patellar displacement portion 534 and lateral displacement portion 544. The displacement of the tissue can be altered by changing the thickness, length, curvature and angle of the spanning sections and/or displacement portions, or other aspects of the device as described herein. The inferior edge of spanning section 536 can also be curved to minimize or eliminate any contact with the medial edge of the patellar tendon. The superior surface edge of displacement portion 544 can be contoured to allow for easy motion of the patellar tendon during flexion as well as to vary the displacement of the patellar tendon during flexion. In one exemplary embodiment, lateral displacement portion 544, extending laterally and dorsally from the spanning section, is substantially parallel to the tibial plateau. Lateral displacement portion 544 is configured for positioning between the IT band and the tibia just cranial to the insertion point of the IT band in the tibia. Spanning section 546 may be configured to transition from the patellar displacement portion 534 which could be substantially parallel to the tibial plateau to lateral displacement portion 544 configured to displace the iliotibial band laterally or antero-laterally. In exemplary embodiments, spanning sections 536, 546 along with displacement portions 534, 544 form a generally continuous curve about an axis parallel to the tibial shaft such that the implant conforms to the curvature of the outer surface of the tibia. The fixation portion 532 could be attached to the tibia adjacent to the attachment point of the patellar tendon and the tibia or it could be located more cranial or caudal to the attachment point.

In FIG. 15, fixation portion 612 is used to anchor implant 600 onto a lateral aspect of the femur, first displacement portion 614 displaces the quadriceps-femoris tendon and second displacement portion 624 displaces the lateral IT Band. Supplementary fixation 618 also may be provided at the far end of displacement portion 614 and may also include additional anchoring features like screw holes, spikes etc. In some embodiments, the implant is anchored only on the lateral side of the femur, thereby allowing the implantation procedure to be performed by a single incision. In other embodiments, the opposite side may also be anchored with supplementary fixation 618 using a percutaneous technique, for example, by using a percutaneous screw. Fixation portion 612 is generally elongated and configured to be oriented in a direction generally parallel to the femoral shaft, with screw holes extending through it in a medial-lateral direction. The displacement of the target tissue can be altered by changing the thickness, length, curvature and angle of the spanning section and/or displacement sections and other aspects of the device as described herein. First displacement portion 614 may be configured to move the tendon anteriorly or medially or anterior-medially or laterally or antero-laterally. This may be accomplished by making one side (lateral or medial) of the displacement surface higher than the other, and/or by forming a track with ridges on one or both sides of the bearing surface to urge the tendon in a lateral or medial direction. The inferior region of the displacement portions may be contoured to substantially conform to the curved anterior surface of the femur. First displacement portion 614 also may be designed to be in contact with the underlying bone or could be elevated so as to avoid contact with the underlying bone, thereby not disrupting the periosteal layer. The spanning section 616 may have a general y-shape and be configured such that first displacement portion 614 is generally orthogonal the fixation portion 612. One arm of y-shaped spanning section 616 could extend at an angle medially and anteriorly from fixation portion 612 to first displacement portion 614. The spanning section may cantilever or suspend the displacement portion 614 in a position anteriorly spaced apart from the surface of the femur, to achieve the necessary displacement. This arm of the spanning section may also extend more caudally or posteriorly from the fixation portion 612 to first displacement portion 614 to avoid any connective tissue attachment points. In some embodiments, the implant may have a second arm of the y-shaped spanning section 616 that connects the fixation portion 612 to the second displacement portion 624. The second arm may extend out laterally and caudally such that the displacement portion 624 displaces the target tissue laterally over the lateral facet of the femoral condyle. The second arm also may be configured to position displacement portion 624 under the IT band but laterally spaced apart from the surface of the femur to avoid any connective tissue underneath the displacement section (e.g.; fibular collateral ligament, joint capsule etc.). The spanning sections may also comprise adjustable mechanisms (e.g. a pin or hinge, hydraulic cylinder, or gear mechanism) to movably or pivotably alter the orientation or angle between the two parts to achieve the appropriate level of tissue displacement as described herein below. As shown in FIG. 15, the outer surface of second displacement portion 624 has a convex curvature to provide an atraumatic bearing surface for engagement of the IT band. The shape of the displacement portion may, in some embodiments, mirror the shape of the lateral aspect of the enlarged lower end of the femur.

In FIG. 16, fixation portion 632 is used to anchor implant 630 onto the femur, first displacement portion 634 displaces the quadriceps femoris tendon and second displacement portion 644 displaces the medial sartorius and/or gracilis tendon. This embodiment of implant 630 is generally a mirror-image of implant 600 described above and will share many of the same geometrical and other characteristics previously described, while being adapted for attachment to the medial, rather than lateral, side of the femur. In some embodiments, the implant is anchored only on the medial side of the femur, thereby allowing the implantation procedure to be performed by a single incision. In other embodiments, the opposite side may also be anchored with supplemental fixation 618 using a percutaneous technique, for example, by using a percutaneous screw. The displacement of the target tissue can be altered by changing the thickness, length, curvature and angle of the spanning section and/or displacement portion and other aspects of the implant as described herein. First displacement portion 634 may be configured to move the tendon anteriorly or medially or anterior-medially or laterally or antero-laterally. This may be accomplished by making one side (lateral or medial) of the displacement surface higher than the other, and/or by forming a track with ridges on one or both sides of the bearing surface to urge the tendon in a lateral or medial direction. The inferior region of the displacement sections may be contoured to substantially conform to the curved anterior surface of the femur. First displacement portion 634 also may be designed to be in contact with the underlying bone or could be elevated so as to avoid contact with the underlying bone, thereby not disrupting the periosteal layer. Spanning section 636 may be configured in a general y-shape such that first displacement portion 634 is generally orthogonal the fixation portion 632. The first arm of spanning section 636 may extend at an angle laterally and anteriorly from fixation portion 632. First arm of spanning section 636 extends first displacement portion 634 out anteriorly to achieve the necessary displacement. The spanning section 636 may also extend more caudally or posteriorly from the fixation portion 632 to the first displacement portion 634 to avoid any connective tissue attachment points. In some embodiments, the implant may have a second arm of spanning section 636 that connects the fixation portion 632 to the second displacement portion 644. The second arm may extend out medially and caudally such that the displacement portion 644 displaces the target tissue medially over the medial facet of the femoral condyle. The spanning section second arm also may be configured to hold the displacement portion 644 in a position spaced-apart medially from the femur to avoid any connective tissue underneath the displacement portion (e.g.; tibial collateral ligament, joint capsule etc.). The spanning sections may also comprise adjustable mechanisms (e.g. a pin or hinge) to movably or pivotably alter the orientation or angle between the two parts to achieve the appropriate level of tissue displacement.

FIGS. 17 and 18 show exemplary embodiments of the present invention for displacement of the iliotibial band. FIG. 17 schematically depicts implant 700 anchored on the lateral side of the femur. Fixation portion 712 of the implant is used to anchor the implant and displacement portion 714 displaces the iliotibial band. The fixation portion and the displacement portion are connected by a spanning section 716 screw or screws 713 in fixation portion 712 secure the implant.

The embodiments of FIGS. 17 and 18 are particularly effective for reducing the load in the medial compartment of the knee joint. The load in the medial compartment is the result of the weight of the person directed caudally through the femur toward the tibia, opposed by an equal and opposite force directed cranially from the ground through the tibia toward the femur. It may be appreciated that the iliotibial (IT) band is attached to the lateral side of the tibial tuberosity at the cranial end of the tibia. The effectiveness of the force exerted by the IT band may be enhanced by increasing the moment arm through which it acts on the joint. Implant 700 displaces the IT band laterally relative to the joint, thus increasing this moment arm and reducing the load in the medial compartment.

FIGS. 18A-D depict an exemplary prototype of implant 700 for treating medial osteoarthritis for the right knee. Fixation portion 712 is configured and dimensioned for attachment of the implant to the lateral side of the distal femur. The implant may be attached with screws positioned in the screw holes 715. Displacement portion 714, the region for displacing the IT band, is connected to fixation portion 712 through spanning section 716. The displacement of the tissue can be altered by changing the length, shape, and angle of the spanning section 716, the shape, thickness and orientation of displacement portion 714, and other aspects of the implant as described herein.

In this exemplary embodiment, fixation portion 712 comprises a generally elongated section of the implant configured to be oriented along the longitudinal axis of the femoral shaft. An inner surface of fixation portion 712 has a concave curvature about its longitudinal axis generally matching that of the outer surface of the femur to maximize surface contact between fixation portion 712 and the underlying bone. Screw holes 715 extend through fixation portion 712 such that screws may be inserted through them in a medial direction into the femur. Displacement portion 714 is preferably separated or offset horizontally (i.e. cranially, caudally, laterally or medially) from fixation portion 712. In the embodiment illustrated, spanning section 716 extends laterally and caudally from fixation portion 712 to displacement portion 714. Displacement portion 714 is attached along its proximal edge to spanning section 716, with its opposing distal edge being a free end. In this way implant 700 may be fixed to the bone only at its proximal end where fixation portion 712 is located, while remaining unattached to the bone at its free distal end where displacement portion 714 is located. Of course, in some embodiments implant 700 may have one or more additional fixation portions, e.g. attached to the distal, ventral, or dorsal edges of displacement portion 714, such that implant 700 may be secured to the bone at both ends or along its edges.

Displacement portion 714 preferably has an enlarged spoon-like rounded shape similar to the lateral profile of the lower end of the femur. In preferred embodiments, fixation portion 712 has a length LA (FIG. 18B) selected to extend longitudinally along the femur sufficiently to stabilize the implant and to accommodate the desired number of hole(s) to receive screws for anchoring to the femur. In preferred embodiments length LA may be 25-65 mm, more preferably 30-60 mm, and most preferably 35-55. The combined length LA of the spanning section 716 and displacement portion 714 will be selected to position the displacement portion under the IT band laterally of the distal end of the femur, with the distal (caudal) end 721 of displacement portion 714 being at the level of the gap between in the femur and the tibia. Displacement portion 714 preferably has a convex curvature on its outer or lateral side, and a concave curvature on its inner side. Displacement portion 714 has an outer bearing surface 730 which engages the IT band. The bearing surface 730 is smooth, rounded and low-friction to minimize wear and trauma to the IT band. In preferred embodiments, bearing surface 730 is free of significant ridges, bumps, voids, holes or other discontinuities of the kind that would cause abrasion or wear of the target tissue, particularly larger holes or channels for fixation devices such as screws or K-wires. Bearing surface 730 may comprise simply a smoothed and/or polished region of displacement portion 714, or it may comprise a coating or layer of a different material, e.g. a lubricous biocompatible polymer. In other embodiments, bearing surface 730 may have holes, protuberances, a polymeric or drug coating, or other features to promote adhesion with the displaced target tissue such that movement between the target tissue and implant 700 is minimized.

Preferably the inner and outer surfaces have curvature about multiple axes, and may be generally or partially spherical. The radius of curvature RA of the outer surface, shown in FIG. 18C, is selected to provide the optimal displacement of the IT band throughout the range of motion of the knee. In some embodiments the shape and curvature of the outer surface will be selected such that the IT band is under a substantially constant magnitude of displacement throughout the range of knee motion, while in other embodiments, the shape and curvature of the outer surface will be selected to displace the tissue more in certain portions of the range of motion, while reducing the displacement in other regions of the range of motion. Curvature RA of the outer surface of displacement portion 714 is usually about 15-35 mm, more preferably 20-30 mm, and most preferably 23-27 mm.

Displacement portion 714 may be cantilevered or suspended by spanning section 716 in a plane laterally displaced from or angled relative to fixation portion 712 such that it is spaced apart from the lateral surface of the femur when the implant is fixed in its implanted position. This provides space between the femur and the displacement portion through which non-target soft tissues may reside and/or move without interference. In a preferred embodiment, spanning section 716 extends laterally and caudally at an oblique angle relative to fixation portion 712 such that a plane P tangent to the surface of the spanning segment 716 is disposed at an angle θ relative to a centerline C through fixation portion 712 of between 30-60° more preferably 35-55°, and most preferably 42-48°.

Spanning section 716 may be substantially rigid such that displacement portion 714 remains stationary relative to the femur under the loads exerted by the IT band. Alternatively, spanning section 716 and/or displacement portion 714 may have some degree of flexibility so as to allow some movement of displacement portion 714 relative to the femur under certain loads. For example, spanning section 716 may have a flexibility selected such that if loads on displacement portion 714 exceed a preselected threshold, spanning section 716 will flex to allow displacement portion 714 to be deflected relative to the femur.

The anterior edge 705 of the implant is preferably curved (Radius of curvature RB in FIG. 18B) to avoid contact with the lateral edge of the patella. The posterior edge 706 of the implant is also preferably curved (Radius of curvature Rc in FIG. 18B) to avoid contact with the fibular head during knee flexion. In some embodiments, the distal, anterior and posterior edges of the displacement section 714 are shaped to form an arc (Radii of curvature RB, Rc and RD in FIG. 18B) similar to the lateral profile of the distal end of the femur viewed in the sagittal plane. In some embodiments, the distal, anterior and posterior edges of the displacement section 714 are shaped to form an arc (Radii of curvature Rx, Ry and Rz in FIG. 18D) viewed in the transverse plane. The anterior edge 705 may also be shaped to minimize displacement (anteriorly or laterally) of the lateral edge of the quadriceps-femoris tendon/muscle. Alternatively, anterior edge 705 may be shaped to extend under the quadriceps-femoris tendon to anterioralize or lateralize the lateral edge of the quadriceps-femoris tendon/muscle. The posterior edge 706 may be shaped to minimize displacing the IT Band during high flexion. The posterior edge may also be extended posteriorly such that the anterior edge of the IT Band remains on the implant surface during high flexion. The inside surface 721 of the displacement portion 714 is preferably concave with a spoon-like shape to minimize contact with underlying soft tissue including lateral ligaments, the joint capsule, etc. In one exemplary embodiment as shown, the fixation portion 712 is tapered from the distal (or caudal) end to the proximal (or cranial) end. In other embodiments, the fixation portion 712 may have constant width. In the exemplary embodiment as shown, the width of the displacement portion 714 is substantially larger than the width of fixation portion 712, contributing to the overall spoon-like or paddle-like shape of implant 700. Displacement portion 714 is once again joined to fixation portion 712 by a spanning section 716.

The curvature of the displacement portion 714 may be configured to displace the target tissue, e.g. the iliotibial band, laterally or antero-laterally. In some embodiments, the anterior region of the displacement portion 714 may extend out more laterally than the posterior region of the displacement section. In one exemplary embodiment, the implant is placed on the lateral side of the distal femur such that fixation portion 712 is substantially aligned with the femoral shaft, the spanning section 716 is in close apposition to the region of the femur where the femoral shaft joins the femoral condyle, and the displacing portion 714 substantially covers or lies generally parallel to the lateral facet of the femoral condyle. In some embodiments, the top view of the implant would mirror the lateral view of the distal femur, wherein the implant has shaft region similar to the femoral shaft, an expanding neck region similar to the condylar flare and a circular or oval or elliptical region similar to the condyle. Typical dimensions of embodiments of implant 700 (FIGS. 18A-D) would be as follows: LA about 40 to 55 mm, LB about 45 to 60 mm, T2 about 2.5 to 5.0 mm, RA about 23 to 27 mm, RB about 12 to 18 mm, RC about 12 to 18 mm, RC about 25 to 33 mm, θ about 40 to 50°, W1 about 12 to 18 mm, W2 about 45 to 60 mm, D about 10 to 45 mm, RX about 35 to 40 mm, RY about 20 to 25 mm, RZ about 27 to 33 mm, X about 40 to 50°, Y about 20 to 30° and Z about 25 to 35°. In exemplary embodiments, the size of the implant (as seen in the top view) would be proportionally smaller than the lateral profile of the femoral condyle, preferably 1-40% smaller, more preferably 5-25% smaller, and most preferably 10-20% smaller.

Example

An exemplary embodiment of the present invention as shown in FIGS. 18A-D was subjected to simulated load testing. Dimensions of the implant tested were: W1=23 mm, W2=50 mm, LA=35 mm, LB=40 mm, D=30 mm. The test was conducted as follows: Using a robotic testing system for evaluating knee joint biomechanics, as described by Gadikota et al., American Journal of Sports Medicine, 38, 713-720, 2010, simulations were run using cadaveric human knee specimens. Eight fresh-frozen cadaveric human knee specimens (4 male, 4 female, Age: 36-50 y) stored at −20° C. were thawed at room temperature prior to testing. The quadriceps muscles were loaded at 300N, the hamstrings at 100N, and the iliotibial band at 0, 50, and 100N to simulate a variety of loading conditions. The displacement of the IT Band ranged from 15 to 20 mm. The robotic testing system was used to determine knee joint kinematics and contact forces in the medial and lateral compartments from 0° to 30° flexion, with and without the exemplary implant (FIG. 18).

Results:

Average medial compartment load measured from 0° to 30° flexion for the eight specimens was reduced by about 56% at IT Band loading=0N, about 43% at IT Band loading=50N, and about 49% at IT Band loading=100N.

Average valgus/varus orientation of the knee measured from 0° to 30° flexion for the eight specimens was more valgus by about 0.4° at IT Band loading=0N, about 0.3° at IT Band loading=50N, and about 0.3° at IT Band loading=100N.

Average internal/external rotation of the knee measured from 0° to 30° flexion for the eight specimens was more externally rotated by about 0.4° at IT Band loading=0N, substantially unchanged at IT Band loading=50N and more internally rotated by about 0.2° with the IT Band=100N.

These results show that lateral displacement of the IT Band in the range disclosed in the present invention results in decrease in articular cartilage loading in the target knee compartment (medial). The experimental results further show that displacing the IT Band with a prosthesis described in the present invention alters the kinematics of the target joint.

FIGS. 19 and 20 depict portions of further exemplary implants according to the present invention and optional features thereof. In one alternative, the fixation portion comprises a base plate 812 that can be attached to the underlying bone with screws through holes such as holes 815. Upper plate 814 comprises the displacement portion and may be attached to target tissue with sutures, adhesives, tissue in-growth etc. For example, in FIG. 19, holes 822 are provided for suturing. Alternatively, the upper plate may have surface features like increased roughness, beads etc. as previously describe that minimize slippage between the connective tissue that lies over the plate and the plate itself. The plates may be fabricated from metal or polymeric substrate. A capsule 816, acting as a spanning section, joins upper plate to base plate and allows relative motion between plates. There is little or no relative motion between the displaced soft tissue and implant surface and no relative motion between the bone and the implant surface. With little or no motion between the soft tissue and top plate, wear concerns are minimized. In some embodiments, motion may be along all three axes as well as rotational. The sealed capsule may be fabricated from an inelastic material or a stretchable or deformable material (such as silicone, polyurethane etc.) which is attached to the plates. The capsule may be filled with gel, saline, balls, beads etc. Alternatively, a capsule may enclose the entire construct, thereby eliminating any contact between the plates and the surrounding tissue. A sealed capsule would isolate the moving surfaces from biological interference (scar tissue, fibrotic coverings, encapsulation, clotting etc.).

In a further alternative, material may be added to or removed from capsule 816 to adjust the distance between the plates. As shown in an exemplary embodiment in FIG. 21, capsule 816 may have separate chambers to selectively alter the displacement of the plates. Each chamber 816 a-c preferably has its own injection port or valve (not shown) through which a liquid or gaseous filler material may be introduced. Chambers 816 a-c may have different volumes, and may be filled with different or identical fillers. The volume of material in each chamber may be changed post-implant as needed to optimize treatment. For example, if the soft tissue being displaced stretches or moves over time, material may be added or removed from each chamber to maintain the desired degree and direction of displacement.

In other embodiments, the capsule 816 may be replaced by an elastomeric or sponge like material which can be assembled in multiple layers to vary the displacement between the plates. Alternatively one or more springs may interconnect the two plates.

Exemplary device shown in FIGS. 19 and 20 may also be used for diagnostic purposes. The device may be implanted in humans, cadaveric tissues or in animal models, and the plates could be visualized via fluoroscopy or other imaging techniques. Visualization of the plates during flexion/extension or other joint motion would help understand the complex relationship between the soft tissue and underlying bone during joint motion, thereby enabling design of implants with better therapeutic or safety features.

FIG. 22 depicts a portion of a further alternative exemplary implant of the present invention with features in common with the implants shown in FIGS. 19 and 20. In this embodiment base plate 812 is attached to the underlying bone with screws etc. and the upper plate 814 is attached to soft tissue as previously described. Again, the plates may be fabricated from metal or polymeric substrate. The upper plate and lower plates are supported by a mechanical coupling 825 that allows motion there between. Coupling 825 allows motion in multiple directions and could also be adjusted to alter the distance between the two plates. The mechanical coupling may be encased in a capsule to isolate the mechanism from scar tissue formation etc. There would be motion between the top plate and the base implant, but little or no motion between the soft tissue and top plate, thereby minimizing wear concerns. The mechanical coupling may be fabricated from metal or polymeric substrates. In some embodiments, motion may be provided for along all three axes as well as rotational. In other embodiments, the bottom plate may comprise a further spanning section and a fixation section such that the displacement section is not in contact with bone. For example, the exemplary embodiments shown in FIGS. 19, 20, 21 and 22 could be configured to be attached to or mounted on the displacement region 214 (FIG. 7), 314 (FIG. 9), 414 (FIG. 10), 424 (FIG. 11), 434 (FIG. 12), 614 (FIG. 15), 624 (FIG. 15), 634 (FIG. 16), 644 (FIG. 16), 714 (FIG. 17) etc. The device may also be used for diagnostic purposes as described above.

One exemplary implant employing features as shown in FIGS. 19-21 is shown in FIG. 23. In this embodiment implant 830 includes a displacement portion 814 which is in contact with the IT Band. Base plate 812 comprises the fixation portion and is secured to the bone via screws 813. Capsule 816 forms a moveable spanning section between the two plates, allowing the plates to move relative to one another. This permits relative motions between the IT band and the femur while avoiding friction or wear due to movement of the IT band over the implant.

Another exemplary embodiment with a capsule is shown in FIG. 24. Fixation portion 852 of implant 850 is configured to be attached to bone. This embodiment may have a configuration adapted for attachment to the lateral femur and displacement of the IT band like that described above in connection with FIGS. 18A-C, and may have a similar geometry. Displacement portion 854 may be in contact with the underlying bone or soft tissue like ligaments etc. or it may be spaced apart from the underlying tissue (to provide space for e.g.; collateral ligaments, joint capsule etc.). In this embodiment, a separate bearing member 857 forms the top plate as previously described with a capsule 855 interposed between the bearing member and bottom plate of the displacement portion. The spanning section 856 may be configured to alter the position of the displacement portion 854 relative to the fixation portion 852. The displacement portion 854 may lie generally in a plane parallel to that in which the fixation portion 852 lies, and the spanning section 856 may extend at an angle or be curved laterally and caudally from fixation portion. In other embodiments, the implant may be anchored on the medial side of the femur and the spanning section may extend at an angle medially and caudally from the fixation portion.

FIG. 25 depicts a further alternative exemplary implant 860 according to the present invention. Fixation portion 862 is configured to be attached to bone. Displacement portion 864 includes a sealed capsule 865, attached to a side opposite the bone. The sealed capsule could be fabricated with an inelastic or stretchable or deformable material (such as silicone, polyurethane etc.). The capsule will preferably have an inlet port or valve (not shown) through which it may be filled with air, gas, water, gel, saline, metal or polymer balls, beads etc. Solidifying materials such as two-part epoxies may also be used as fillers. The capsule 865 could be inflated to an expanded shape (indicated by dashed lines 865 a) by addition of the filler as required to achieve the necessary tissue displacement. Displacement portion 864 may be in contact with the underlying bone or soft tissue like ligaments etc. or it may be displaced from the underlying tissue (for e.g.; collateral ligaments, joint capsule etc.). The spanning section 866 may be configured to alter the position of the displacement portion 864 relative to the fixation portion 862. The displacement portion 864 may lie in a plane generally parallel with a plane containing the fixation portion 862, and the spanning section 866 may extend at an angle or be curved laterally and caudally from fixation portion. In other embodiments, the implant may be anchored on the medial side of the femur and the spanning section may extend at an angle medially and caudally from the fixation portion.

FIG. 26 depicts another alternative exemplary implant 800 according to the present invention. Fixation portion 882 of implant 880 is configured to be attached to bone. Displacement portion 884 has a capsule 885, attached to an inner surface of the implant, facing the bone. The fixation portion and displacement portion are movably or pivotably interconnected with an adjustable attachment 889, e.g. a pin or hinge. The orientation or angle between the two parts can be altered to achieve the appropriate level of tissue displacement. The capsule 885 will have an inlet port or valve (not shown) through which it may be filled with air, gas, water, gel, saline, balls, beads etc. The capsule 885 could be inflated to an expanded state (indicated by dashed line 885 a) by addition of material as required to achieve the necessary tissue displacement. The adjustable attachment 889 could be locked in the final position once the soft tissue has been displaced appropriately. Alternatively, the adjustable attachment may include a one-way mechanism like a ratchet mechanism.

In some embodiments, the capsule, for example capsules 865 or 885, may have multiple chambers that could be inflated independently. The surface of the capsule could be modified as needed for interaction with the soft/hard tissue. For example, the surface could be smooth to allow for easy movement of the soft tissue across the surface. Alternatively, the surface may have an adhesive surface to allow attachment to underlying bone or soft tissue. The surface could be coated with a hydrophilic or hydrophobic layer. The surface may have a polymeric coating for drug release. Drugs like anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics could be incorporated into the polymeric coating. The capsule may be filled with a liquid or gas under suitable pressure to allow adjustment of the bearing member position and associated displacement of the target tissue. The bladder will have an inflation port for introduction of inflation fluid by means of an inflation device, which may be similar to the inflation devices used for inflation of angioplasty balloons as will be understood by persons of ordinary skill in the art.

In some embodiments of the present invention, the displacement of the connective tissue could be adjusted by adjusting the device pre-operatively, intra-operatively or post-operatively. Devices may include mechanisms that are remotely controlled and/or enable wireless communication to alter the displacement after implantation. Alternatively, the displacement may be adjusted by applying an energy fields (e.g.; magnetic field, electric field, thermal field etc.) transdermally from an external location.

In various adjustable embodiments described above, the adjustment mechanisms themselves may be radiopaque and/or otherwise discernable from the rest of the implant under x-ray in order to enable post-surgical percutaneous adjustment of the device. Alternatively, target features can be built into the device to locate the adjustment points without having the screws or adjustment means themselves radiopaque, such as radiopaque rings or markers built into the nearing surface of the device itself.

The implants described above may be implanted in areas adjacent to the joint such that the soft tissue is displaced in a region it crosses the joint. Alternatively, the device could be implanted away from the joint and displace the target soft tissue in a region that it is not crossing the joint. For example, the device could be implanted distally on the lateral femur close to the lateral femoral condyle to displace the IT Band as it crosses the joint or the device could be implanted more proximally along the femoral shaft where it displaces the IT Band in a region away from the joint (FIG. 23). Similarly, the device could be implant further up along the femoral shaft where it displaces the sartorius and gracilis muscle in a region away from the joint.

Embodiments of the present invention may also be configured to displace tissue by pulling the tissue away from the joint to increase the moment arm, rather than pushing it away as in some other embodiments. One exemplary embodiment of such a device is shown in FIG. 27. In this embodiment, apparatus 900 comprises fixation portion 912, here comprising separate anchors 912A, 912B configured for mounting to the lateral aspect of the tibia T. Each anchor member 912A, 912B has a plurality of holes 915 to accommodate anchoring screws 913. A generally rigid pivoting arm 904 is pivotably coupled to first anchor 912A so as to be movable rotationally about pivot point 906. The cranial end of pivoting arm 904 is pivotably mounted to a tissue hook 908 which is configured to at least partially encircle iliotibial band ITB. An adjustment arm 910 is pivotably mounted to second anchor 912B on its caudal end and to tissue hook 908 on its cranial end. Adjustment arm 910 has an axial length adjuster 922 coupled thereto, which in an exemplary embodiment may comprise a threaded tube into which two opposing segments of adjustment arm 910 are threaded with opposite handed threads. In this way the length of adjustment arm 910 may be shortened or lengthened. It may be seen that as adjustment arm 910 is shortened it pulls on tissue hook 908, which pivots laterally on pivoting arm 904. This displaces iliotibial band ITB laterally, away from the center of the knee, thus lengthening the moment arm of the force exerted on the joint by iliotibial ITB and moving the resultant force vector in the lateral direction, reducing the force in the medial compartment of the joint. In this embodiment tissue hook 908 forms a displacement portion and adjustment arms 910 a spanning section.

It will be appreciated that anchors 912A-B may have a shape selected to allow secure anchoring to the bone and to avoid soft tissues and bony features on the tibia. In addition the various components of apparatus 900 will be configured to minimize engagement with and abrasion of the soft tissues surrounding the joint, without sharp edges or catch points. Apparatus 900 may optionally be covered or coated with a soft or friction-reducing material.

The apparatus of FIG. 27 may alternatively be configured for attachment to the medial side of the tibia to displace the Sartorius muscle or tendon, the Gracilis muscle or tendon, or other suitable tissues for the treatment of lateral osteoarthritis. Moreover, apparatus 900 may be configured for mounting to the fibula FIB instead of or in addition to the tibia. Further, apparatus 900 may be configured for mounting to the femur F in an upside down orientation relative to that depicted in FIG. 17.

In another alternative embodiment shown in FIG. 28, implant 1000 may include a displacement portion 1014 with a roller or rollers embedded in it or mounted on it to ease the motion of the patellar tendon across the implant surface during flexion/extension and reduce any wear due to the motion of tissue across the implant surface. In one embodiment, roller 1022 is embedded in displacement portion 1014 of the implant. The axis of rotation of the roller could be essentially parallel to the tibial plateau axis such that the axis of motion of the patellar tendon is essentially orthogonal to the axis of rotation of the roller. The roller can rotate freely in both directions (clockwise and counter clock-wise). The position or thickness of the displacement portion 1014 and the diameter of the roller 1022 can be adjusted to obtain the necessary amount of anterior displacement of the patellar tendon. Displacement portion 1014 may otherwise cooperate with a fixation portion and a spanning section as previously described.

In other alternative embodiments, displacement portions of previously described static implants may be provided with a roller or other dynamic feature to further reduce wear or trauma to the displaced tissue. For example, displacement portions 414, 424 or 434 of implants 400, 420 and 430, respectively, may have a roller or rollers 1022 mounted thereon to ease the motion of the quadriceps tendon across the implant surface during flexion/extension and reduce any wear due to the motion of tissue across the implant surface as shown in FIG. 29. The roller 1022 is embedded in the displacement portion of the implant. The axis of rotation of the roller could be essentially parallel to the femoral condyle axis (medial-lateral) such that the axis of motion of the tendon is essentially orthogonal to the axis of rotation of the roller. The roller can rotate freely in both directions (clockwise and counter clock-wise). The thickness of displacement portion and the diameter of the roller can be adjusted along with other aspects of the device as previously described to obtain the necessary amount of anterior displacement of the quadriceps femoris tendon.

FIG. 30 depicts an alternative exemplary two piece implant 1100 according to an embodiment of the present invention for treating medial osteoarthritis wherein the two pieces arc independent of each other and articulate over each other during joint motion. Fixation portion 1112 of implant 1100 is the fixed section of the implant and is attached to the bone with screw or screws 1113. Displacement portion 1114 includes a mobile bearing member 1117 that bears upon fixed surface 1120 of displacement portion 1114. With this configuration, mobile bearing member 1117 may be attached to the target soft tissue T. Either fixation portion 1112 or displacement portion 1114, or both may have a shape and size selected to displace mobile bearing 1117, and thus tissue T, the desired degree. The two piece design enables articulation between the surfaces of displacement portion 1114 and mobile bearing 1117; and reduces the risk of tissue wear due to motion of soft tissue over the implant surface. Mobile bearing member 1117 may be attached to the soft tissue using sutures, adhesives, pins etc. or otherwise as described above, including having the surface in contact with the soft tissue modified to enable tissue integration. The articulating surfaces between parts 1114 and 1117 also may have features like grooves to enable one surface to track a fixed path during flexion. The surfaces could be coated to minimize friction and wear. In some embodiments, the mobile section is attached to or embedded in the IT Band. In other embodiments, the mobile section may be attached or embedded into the patellar tendon, the quadriceps femoris tendon, or any other soft tissue surrounding the target joint. In some embodiments, bearing member 1117 may comprise of a soft, flexible, polymer membrane which can conform to the soft tissue and prevent contact between the soft tissue and the implant surface 1120. In other embodiments, bearing member 1117 may be inflatable, or include a capsule as previously described.

In further alternative embodiments, implants may also be fabricated in-situ by layering a polymerizing material on the underlying tissue such as in the embodiments of FIGS. 31 and 32. In such an embodiment, an implant could be contoured as needed by varying the material being layered in different regions of the implant. Removable molds or forms may be placed through an incision to the desired location against the bone to facilitate containment and shaping of the material prior to solidifying. In one exemplary shown in FIG. 31, implant 1200 includes layers 1201, 1202 and 1203, layered on top of each other to achieve the necessary displacement. The materials and the properties of each of the layers could be identical or different. For example, layer 1201 may have adhesive properties to attach to the underlying bone, layer 1202 may have high compressive strength to withstand the compressive load of the overlying soft tissue and layer 1203 may have a smooth hydrophilic surface to minimize friction between the implant and the soft tissue during flexion/extension. In this example, layer 1201 provides the fixation portion and layer 1203 the displacement portion with layer 1202 forming a spanning section there between. Adhesives may be used between the various layers. The materials could be polymerized in-situ using chemical crosslinkers, photo-initiated crosslinkers, thermally initiated crosslinkers, etc. The thicknesses of the various layers could be altered to achieve the necessary level of tissue displacement.

In an alternative exemplary embodiment of an in situ fabricated implant, as shown in FIG. 32, a spacer 1210 may be used to assist in fabricating the implant. The spacer 1210 could potentially be removed after the implant has been fabricated, leaving behind a gap (G) between section 1201 and the underlying soft tissue and bone. However, the implant may be designed to rest permanently on the underlying soft tissue and bone.

In yet another exemplary embodiment of the present invention, the displacement of the connective tissue may occur at a region away from the joint. For example, as depicted in the exemplary embodiment of FIG. 23, the iliotibial Band is displaced laterally substantially proximally along the femoral shaft with an exemplary device. Similarly, the in-situ fabricated implant could be located such that it displaces the target soft tissue around the target joint or at a site away from the target joint.

A further aspect of the present invention includes methods for treating knee joints and implanting prostheses as described herein. One exemplary method thus comprises selecting at least one of the associated muscle and connective tissues surrounding a joint as target tissue for treatment, displacing the target tissue without severing the bones or target tissue, and altering the kinematics of the joint. In a further embodiment, altering the kinematics of the joint achieves a therapeutic effect. In other embodiments, altering the kinematics of the joint redistributes loading in the joint, and or reduces loading on the ligaments within the joint. In some embodiments prostheses according to the present invention may be placed with therapeutic effect without rupturing the joint capsule.

In some embodiments, the inferior surface of the displacement region is elevated off the underlying tissue. The underlying tissue could be bone or soft tissue like tendon, muscle, ligament, bursa, capsule etc. FIG. 33 depicts an implant 1500 with the inferior surface 1504 of the displacement section 1502 elevated off the underlying tissue. Elevating the inferior surface off the underlying tissue could be beneficial by minimizing interference with or damage to soft tissue, reducing any potential restriction to joint motion due to compression of soft tissue etc.

Elevation of the IT band above the underlying tissue (bone, bursa etc.) by the prostheses disclosed in the present invention may also be effective in alleviating IT band pain.

In some embodiments, the displacement region will have a continuous bearing surface which is in contact with the target connective tissue (muscle, tendon, ligament etc.) and is devoid of any discontinuities. Such discontinuities are usually undesirable as they create voids and interruptions in the smooth bearing surface, may have sharp edges or transitions, and may cause wear or abrasion of the displaced target tissue. Discontinuities would include fixation channels for long-term fixation like screw holes, holes for sutures etc. as well as fixation channels for temporary fixation like holes for Kirschner-wires (K-wires).

FIG. 33 depicts an implant 1500 with a displacement section 1502 with a superior bearing surface 1503 and an inferior surface 1504. Displacement section 1502 is free of discontinuities in the bearing surface, such as holes that extend from the superior bearing surface 1503 to the inferior surface 1504 or those that extend from the superior bearing surface 1503 part way to the inferior surface 1504. The lack of discontinuities in the bearing surface minimizes the potential for wear or irritation of the target connective tissue. The bearing surface of the displacement section may be polished, coated, covered, or modified in other ways to minimize wear of the bearing surface and/or wear of the target connective tissue.

In some embodiments, the bearing surface of the displacement region which is in contact with the target connective tissue (muscle, tendon, ligament etc.) may have features that enable adhesion or attachment of the target connective tissue to the bearing surface. Attachment of the target connective tissue on the implant surface may minimize motion of the tissue across the implant surface during joint motion. These features would include channels for formation of fibrous tissue from the target connective tissue anchoring the connective tissue to the displacement surface of the implant.

FIG. 34 depicts an implant 1510 with channels 1515 that extend from the superior bearing surface 1513 to the inferior surface 1514. FIG. 35 depicts an implant 1520 with channels 1525 extend from the superior bearing surface 1523 part way to the inferior surface 1524. The channels 1515 and 1525 may have varying cross-sectional shapes, for example; square, circle, rectangle, oval etc., with the largest cross-sectional dimension (for example, diameter of the circle, diagonal of a square or rectangle, major diameter of an oval etc.) and will be dimensioned to promote adhesion and ingrowth of the target tissue, usually ranging from less than 1 mm to about 5 mm. The channels may be located across the entire bearing surface or across part of the bearing surface. In some embodiments, the displacement region may have one channel. In some embodiments, the displacement region may have two channels. In some embodiments, the displacement region may have three channels. In some embodiments, the displacement region may have more than three channels. In some embodiments, the channels may vary in depth across the bearing surface. The dimensions and cross-sectional shape of the channels across the displacement region may be identical or different. In some embodiments, the spanning section (e.g., 1516 and 1526) and/or the fixation section (e.g., 1511 and 1521) may also have similar features for attachment of the target connective tissue. In some embodiments, a region of the displacement section may have features for attachment of target connective tissue.

In some embodiments, the bearing surface of the displacement region may have surface features that enable adhesion or attachment of the target connective tissue to all or part of the bearing surface. These features would include projections, microprojections, bumps, ridges, pin-like projections, a granular surface, a sintered layer, etc.

FIG. 36 depicts an implant 1530 with projections 1535 on the superior surface 1533 of the displacement section 1532. FIG. 37 depicts an implant 1540 with ridges on the superior surface 1543 of the displacement section 1542. FIG. 38 depicts an implant 1550 with a porous or granular surface 1555 on the superior surface 1554 of the displacement section 1552. In some embodiments, the spanning section (e.g., 1556) and/or the fixation section (e.g., 1551) may also have similar features for attachment of the target connective tissue. In some embodiments, a region of the displacement section may have features for attachment of target connective tissue.

In some embodiments, the inferior surface of the displacement region may be in contact with the underlying tissue. FIG. 39 depicts an implant 1560 with the inferior surface 1564 of the displacement section 1562 in contact with the underlying tissue. In other embodiments, part of the inferior surface of the displacement section may be in contact with the underlying tissue.

In some embodiments, the inferior region of the displacement portion, spanning portion, or fixation portion may have features like channels for fibrous or bony tissue ingrowth to enable adhesion or attachment of the underlying tissue to the bearing surface. In other embodiments, the inferior region may have features like projections, microprojections, bumps, ridges, pin-like projections, granular surface etc. Attachment of any soft connective tissue underneath the inferior surface of the displacement region may minimize motion of the tissue under the implant during joint motion. In other embodiments, the inferior surface may have pins for anchoring the implanting into underlying bone.

FIG. 40 depicts an implant 1570 with channels 1575 in the inferior portion 1574 of the displacement section 1572. The channels 1575 may have varying cross-sectional shapes, for example; square, circle, rectangle, oval etc., with the largest cross-sectional dimension (for example, diameter of the circle, diagonal of a square or rectangle, major diameter of an oval etc.) ranging from less than 1 mm to about 5 mm. The channels may be located across the entire inferior surface or across part of the inferior surface of the displacement section.

FIG. 41 depicts an implant 1580 with projections 1585 from the inferior surface 1533 of the displacement section 1582. FIG. 42 depicts an implant 1590 with pins 1595 and 1596 from the inferior surface of the displacement section 1592.

In some embodiments, the device may be a two-part device with the first part (base unit) comprising the fixation section, the displacement section (and optionally, the spanning section), and the second part (bearing unit) configured to attach to the displacement section of the base unit. In other embodiments the bearing unit may be configured to attach to the spanning section and to cover the displacement section of the base unit. The bearing unit may be configured to minimize tissue wear or to enable tissue adhesion or attachment. In one embodiment, the displacement section and the bearing unit would have features to attach the two units.

FIG. 43 depicts an exemplary two-part implant with a base unit 1600 and a bearing unit 2600. FIG. 47 depicts another exemplary embodiment of a two part implant with a bearing unit 2800 slipped over the displacement section of the base unit 1800. Attachment of the bearing unit would increase the depth of the composite implant D (FIGS. 43, 45, & 47). To alter the depth of the composite implant, bearing units of different dimensions D1 and D2 (FIG. 44) may be attached intra-operatively to a base unit before it is anchored to the target site or to a base unit that has been anchored to the target site (e.g., femur, tibia etc.) to obtain the necessary target connective tissue displacement. In some embodiments, the bearing unit may cover the entire displacement section of the base unit. In other embodiments, the bearing unit may cover part of the displacement region. In some embodiments, the bearing unit 2700 may extend beyond the displacement section of the base unit 2700 (FIG. 45). The bearing unit may be rigid, or may comprise of a rigid base 3000 with a compliant surface 3100 (FIG. 46).

In some embodiments, the displacement region may have channels to assist in positioning, placement or temporarily anchoring of the implant intra-operatively. FIG. 48 depicts an implant with channels 1901 in the displacement section 1902 to assist in positioning of the implant during a percutaneous or minimally invasive surgery. FIG. 49 depicts an implant with channels 1911 and 1912 in the displacement section 1902 to assist in positioning of the implant during a percutaneous or minimally invasive surgery. The channels may be covered with caps (e.g., 2001, 2012, 2011) configured to fit into the channels to render the bearing surface of the displacement region completely smooth and substantially devoid of any discontinuities.

While FIGS. 33-49 illustrate exemplary embodiments of the present invention in relationship to the distal femur, it will be evident to one skilled in the art that the invention may further be adapted to various other joint locations.

FIGS. 50A-E and 51 depict another exemplary prototype of implant 5000 for treating medial osteoarthritis for the right knee. Implant 5000 may have any of the attributes, shapes, dimensions, materials, or other features of the embodiment of FIGS. 18A-D, with the possible additions or variations described hereinbelow. Fixation portion 5012 is configured and dimensioned for attachment of the implant to the lateral side of the distal femur. The implant may be attached with screws positioned in the screw holes 5015. Displacement portion 5014, the region for displacing the IT band, is connected to fixation portion 5012 through spanning section 5016. The displacement of the tissue can be altered by changing the length, shape, and angle of the spanning section 5016, the shape, thickness and orientation of displacement portion 5014, and other aspects of the implant as described herein.

While the overall size of implant 5000 is preferably minimized, displacement region 5014 should be large enough such that the IT band does not slip off its surface at any point along its trajectory of motion from full knee flexion to full extension. In addition, the shape, size, and curvature of the displacement region 5014 are selected such that the IT band, at any point along its range of motion, is engaged in a direction perpendicular to a tangent to the surface of the displacement region and is not engaged by one of the edges of the implant. It may be seen in the lateral elevational view of FIG. 50B that implant 5000 preferably has a shape which is asymmetrical about a longitudinal axis L drawn in the cranial-caudal direction through the midline of the implant. The posterior edge 5006 extends further away from axis L than the anterior edge 5005 such that the posterior portion 5020 of displacement region 5014 has a larger area than the anterior portion 5022. This larger extension in the posterior direction ensures that the IT band is engaged by the implant throughout its full range of motion and does not slip off the surface of the displacement region 5014 on the posterior side when the knee is fully flexed. At the same time, the posterior edge 5006 is tailored to avoid contact with tissue on the femoral condyle or the tibia throughout the full range of knee motion, particularly full flexion. The anterior portion of the displacement region is large enough to ensure engagement with the IT band during full extension, yet to avoid contact between the anterior edge and the patella or associated tendons.

As described earlier, the displacement portion 5014 can be configured and dimensioned to vary the displacement of the tissue during flexion/extension, minimize contact with underlying tissue etc. For example, the posterior edge 5006 of the implant (also 5020 in FIG. 50B and 5045 in FIG. 51) may be elevated higher relative to the underlying tissue compared to the posterior edge 706 of the embodiment of FIGS. 18A-D. This additional elevation could accommodate more tissue under the implant and minimize any soft tissue impingement during flexion/extension. In one embodiment, the gap between the posterior edge of the implant and the underlying tissue is preferably at least 1 mm, more preferably at least 3 mm, most preferably at least 5 mm, when implant 5000 is implanted at the target location on the femur. To achieve this higher elevation, the posterior portion 5020 may be curved at a higher radius than the anterior portion 5022, as shown in FIG. 51. Alternatively or additionally, the posterior edge 5045 may be bent or curved upwardly away from the underlying bone.

Similarly, in one embodiment, the anterior region (5030) of the displacement portion can be contoured to minimize any lateral maltracking of the patella during high flexion, as shown in FIG. 50D. The anterior distal surface (5030) of the displacement portion can be shaped so as to minimize any risk of IT Band irritation by ensuring a larger contact surface between the implant and the IT Band during high flexion. In another embodiment, the posterior distal edge 5021 in FIG. 50B (also 5035 in FIG. 50D and 5040 in FIG. 51) can be rounded off and extended toward the underlying tissue/bone far enough so that the IT Band is not exposed to an implant “edge” during flexion, while avoiding any contact with the underlying tissue.

The implants of the present invention are subject to varying loads during gait due to the flexion/extension of the knee as well as the alternating weight-bearing role of each limb during gait. Additionally, the load applied on the implant due to the tissue crossing the lateral surface of the implant depends on whether the individual is walking, jogging, running, climbing stairs etc. In one embodiment, the implant is configured to be rigid through the entire range of lateral loads such that the displacement portion of the implant remains substantially stationary relative to the femur to which the implant is anchored. The rigidity of the implant could be altered by choice of material, increasing the thickness of the entire implant or increasing the thickness of certain regions of the implant. In another embodiment, the implant may be designed to provide some flexibility at the higher loads experienced during running or climbing stairs. The flexibility of the implant could result in the displacement portion of the implant bending closer to the lateral condyle at higher loads. For example, FIG. 52 is a cross-sectional view of an exemplary implant of the present invention showing two different possible thicknesses for spanning section 5201. The implant is anchored to bone through the fixation portion 5210. The displacement region of the implants 5220 is connected to the fixation portion through the spanning section 5201. Spanning section 5201 may be thicker or thinner (as shown at 5202), allowing the rigidity of the implant to be selected to provide the desired degree of deflection as it is subjected to a load due to the IT Band crossing the displacement section 5220. The thickness of the spanning section could be varied to have a rigid implant or a flexible compliant implant in the range of mechanical loads on the displacement portion. Similarly, the thickness of the entire implant could be varied to have a rigid implant or a flexible compliant implant.

FIG. 54 describes an alternative embodiment of the device for lateral displacement of tissue from the lateral condyle of the femur. Implant 5403 has a fixation portion located somewhat more distally than in other embodiments, with at least one fixation surface 5401 configured to rest on the lateral condyle. These distal fixation surfaces may be directly under or just proximal (superior) to the surface of the displacement portion that engages the IT Band, but are still proximal to the attachment of the lateral collateral ligaments (LCL) and other important tissues which attach to the more distal area of the lateral condyle. It is anticipated that these distal fixation surfaces of the device would be shaped to match the typical shape of the lateral surface of the condyle. The fixation surfaces might also be located towards the anterior and posterior edges of the device, to maximize stability of the implant under varying loads. This design may have several advantages. First, by locating the fixation surface(s) 5401 more distally, closer to the displacement surface of the device, the bending stresses on the spanning section of the device are much lower. This could give the device an additional margin of safety in stress and fatigue loading, or allow the device to be made thinner, or allow the device to be made from a lower-strength material. For example, this device or portions of it might be molded from PEEK (polyetherketone) rather than metals such as titanium. Second, this device may be more stable. Since the condyle is much wider in the anterior-posterior direction than the femoral shaft, the device will have a much wider, more triangular footprint with lower potential twisting stresses. Third, the device may have a shorter shaft (5403) compared to the shaft in other embodiments of the present invention (5402). Since the fixation surface is much nearer to the tissue displacement surface, the cantilever forces tending to raise the proximal end of the device will be lower, and the proximal end of the device can be shortened accordingly. This might enable the device to be implanted through a smaller incision. Fourth, since the distal fixation surfaces are located directly on the lateral condyle, the displacement of the displacement surface relative to the surface of the lateral condyle will be a much more predictable.

FIGS. 53 A-C show a further elaboration of the design described in FIG. 54.

Although the distal fixation surfaces of the implant 5301 in FIG. 53A might be located near the anterior and posterior edges of the implant for maximum stability, it may not be necessary to locate fixation screws in those same areas. For example, if the surgical incision is made along the posterior edge of the ilio-tibial band (ITB), it may simplify the surgery to place the fixation screws generally nearer to the posterior edge of the device as shown in FIG. 53A.

In order to accommodate the variation in femur shape from one patient to another, it may be preferable to design in some flexibility to the orientation of the fixation surfaces of this device. FIG. 53B shows one method of providing this flexibility. In FIG. 53B, the fixation surfaces are made of separate elements or feet 5302 that rotate or are otherwise movable relative to the implant 5301. Screws extend through holes in the fixation portion of the implant and through holes in the feet 5302, but the holes through the feet are somewhat slotted, to accommodate rotation of the feet relative to the implant. This figure also shows the relationship of the device to the ilio-tibial band (ITB) and the lateral collateral ligaments (LCL).

The interface between the device and the feet is shown in this two-dimensional drawing as arcuate. In three dimensions, this interface might be cylindrical, or it might be curved in the anterior-posterior dimension as well, following the general curve of the femoral surface and the device in the anterior-posterior direction. Alternatively, these feet might be independent of one another, with a generally spherical interface relative to the device.

While the feet shown in FIG. 53B might be separate and independent parts from the device, this might make it difficult to hold all of the parts in place during the implantation procedure. Therefore, it might be preferable to have the feet 5302 coupled to the device 5301 while still enabling relative sliding or rotation. One embodiment is shown in FIG. 53C. In this embodiment, the slots in the feet have a countersink from the bottom side, and a collet or hollow rivet 5303 is inserted through the bottom of the feet with a press-fit into the hole in the device. This collet keeps the feet from falling away from the device, while still permitting the desired rotation of the foot and the screw.

FIG. 55A-C shows an additional prosthesis to improve cosmesis in accordance with yet another exemplary embodiment of the present invention. Displacement of soft tissue around a joint could result in an unsightly bump. For example, displacement of the patellar tendon by implantation of a device under the patellar tendon just superior to the tibial tuberosity could create an unsightly bump. FIG. 55A illustrates a patellar tendon displacement device (5501) like that described in connection with FIG. 9, with fixation portion 5502, spanning portion 5503 and displacement portion 5504. The tibial tuberosity 5505 and patellar tendon 5506 are also shown. In one embodiment, a pyramidal-shaped prosthesis (5507) positioned on the anterior surface of the tibia distal to and above the tibial tuberosity may be implanted to reduce the “bump” and improve cosmesis. As shown in FIG. 55B, prosthesis 5507 may be concave on its lower side to match the surface of the tibia, and wedge-shaped as to have a low profile on its caudal end and higher profile on its cranial end. When implanted prosthesis 5507 may slope upwardly (ventrally or anteriorly) from the bone surface at the caudal end of the prosthesis up to the level of displacement of the patellar tendon at the cranial end of the prosthesis. The prosthesis could thus provide a smooth anterior tibial ridge leading directly to the re-positioned patellar tendon. The prosthesis could be made of a rigid plastic or metal, but it could also be manufactured from a slightly deformable material such as a silicone, urethane, or other implantable plastic. It might also have a composite construction, with a stronger element on the posterior surface against the tibia for secure fixation, and a softer anterior surface. The anterior surface might preferably be made of a plastic which could be sculpted by the surgeon at the time of implant to give the most aesthetically pleasing final appearance. The prosthesis would be made of highly biocompatible materials, optimized for supporting the long term health of the skin and other surrounding tissues. This might be optimized by using materials with a porous surface into which the surrounding tissues grow. The prosthesis could be affixed directly to the tibia with screws, adhesive or other attachment means, and may have appropriate coupling means for fasteners, e.g. screw holes 5509. It might also be designed for attachment to the fixation portion 5502 of the displacement device 5501. Further, prosthesis 5507 may be an integral part of displacement device 5501, or may be fixed to the displacement device with adhesive, screws or other fasteners, as shown in FIG. 55C. This might make it easier to implant and fix the prosthesis through the same incision which is used to place the displacement device.

In another embodiment the device shape could be optimized by the surgeon at the time of implantation. It may be shaped to cover the fixation portion of the displacing implant, or it could be placed beside it.

FIGS. 56 A-D illustrate an exemplary embodiment of an inserter device of the present invention which can be used to manipulate and hold prosthesis of the present invention in place during the surgical implantation process. This device (5601) utilizes two pins 5602 which can be placed through any two of the screw holes in the prosthesis. They may be angled slightly together, to prevent the pins from sliding out of the holes during manipulation. The device is designed with one pin attached to an inner rod 5603 and one pin attached to outer shaft 5604. The proximal end of shaft 5604 is attached to handle 5605, and the proximal end of rod 5603 is threaded and has threaded knob 5606 screwed onto it. A flat or keyway on rod 5603 prevents it from rotating relative to shaft 5604. Therefore, clockwise rotation of knob 5606 pulls the two pins closer together, and counter-clockwise rotation of knob 5606 increases the space between the two pins. Completely unscrewing knob 5606 allows the rod 5603 to slide completely out of shaft 5604, for ease of cleaning and complete sterilization.

During implantation, the surgeon can use the device 5601 to grasp the device from a wide variety of angles, depending upon which pair of holes is selected. In FIG. 56A, the device is angled superiorly and laterally. In FIG. 56B the device is positioned superiorly. FIG. 56C shows a close-up of the device in FIG. 56B as the pins approach the screw holes on the prosthesis. FIG. 56D shows a close-up of the device in FIG. 56A with the pins locked into the screw holes of the prosthesis.

The device might preferably be at least long enough for the surgeon to hold it during fluoroscopy of the knee and implant, without exposing the surgeon's hand to X-Rays. Once the surgeon has confirmed using fluoroscopy or other techniques that the device is properly positioned, the surgeon can place Kirschner wires or bone screws to permanently attach the device to the femur. Once a few K-wires or screws have been placed, the device can be loosened and removed, and additional screws can be placed in the holes previously occupied by the pins 5602 of the device.

FIGS. 57A-B show an alternative embodiment of an inserter device 5700 that grasps the edges of the shaft (fixation portion) of the prosthesis 5701. Inserter 5700 has opposing arms 5702 forming a channel 5704 configured to slide over the shaft of the prosthesis 5701. The device could be placed over the prosthesis at the proximal end of the shaft, and then advanced distally until the device firmly grasps the shaft. This device might alternatively have a mechanism that allows the jaws to move apart from one another, so that the device could be removed without the need to slide it proximally along the tapered shaft.

FIGS. 58A-B show an exemplary embodiment of a dissection device 5800 that is shaped to enable proper dissection of the tissue pocket in which the prosthesis of the present invention is placed. The ilio-tibial band tissue commonly has small adhesions to the underlying tissue, and this device could be manipulated to free those adhesions. Device 5800 has a shaft 5802, handle 5804 and a flat blade 5806 disposed at an angle relative to shaft 5802 such that blade 5806 can be positioned parallel to a lateral surface of the femur with handle 5804 in a suitable ergonomic orientation for manipulation by the surgeon.

FIGS. 59A-B show an exemplary surgical procedure to implant the prosthesis of the present invention on the lateral condyle of the distal femur. The patient is placed in a lateral position and the limb is maintained at full extension. A prosthesis is then placed on the surface of the lateral condyle. Using fluoroscopic imaging and bony anatomical landmarks, the position of the prosthesis is adjusted. Using a skin marker, a line (5901) is then drawn along the fixation shaft of the implant. Using manual palpation to identify the posterior edge of the IT Band, a skin incision (length ˜5 cm) is then made along the marked line (FIG. 59B). The incision is then extended down to the bone, cutting through the interval between the posterior edge of the IT Band and the anterior edge of the biceps femoris. Using blunt dissection or the dissection device (FIG. 58A), fibrous attachments between the IT Band and the underlying bone are removed to create a pocket for the prosthesis of the present invention. Fluoroscopic imaging of the dissection device inserted into the tissue pocket can be used to assess the location of the pocket, and if any additional fibrous tissue clearance is required. As shown in FIG. 59D, the prosthesis (5920) is then attached to the insertion device (5910) and inserted into the tissue pocket. In one embodiment, the prosthesis attached to the inserter device is inserted into the tissue pocket in the anterior direction (FIG. 59D) and then rotated in the caudal direction (FIG. 59E). Insertion of the implant into the tissue pocket can be done with the knee in full extension or in slight flexion. The location of the prosthesis is then adjusted under fluoroscopic guidance using bony anatomical landmarks. K-wires (5930) are driven into the k-wire holes to provide temporary fixation of the implant (FIGS. 59G-H). The inserter is then detached from the implant and the position of the implant is confirmed under fluoroscopic guidance. Screws are then driven into the femoral shaft through the implant fixation portion. The knee is flexed to ensure there is no tissue impingement. The IT Band—biceps femoris interval is sutured together and the skin incision is then closed.

As will be evident to one skilled in the art, the dimensions of the exemplary embodiments above can be altered to address differences in joint size, condyle size, level of the tissue displacement etc. as well as to enable positioning and securing the implant at the surgical site while minimizing trauma to the surrounding bone, tendons, muscles, ligaments and other anatomical structures.

While the invention has been illustrated by examples in various contexts, the devices of the present invention may be used to displace any of the muscles and connective tissues around the knee to achieve a therapeutic effect. For example, the muscle displaced could be the popliteus muscle, gastrocnemius muscle, the plantaris muscle, vastus lateralis muscle, vastus intermedius muscle, vastus medialis muscle and the semimembranous muscle. Alternatively, the tendon associated with any of the muscles could be displaced.

While the invention has been illustrated by examples in various contexts of treating human and animal osteoarthritis associated with force imbalances in a joint, it will be understood that the invention may also have application to treatment of focal defects caused by trauma or other reasons. In particular, pain associated with focal defects in the medial condyle in the knee may be reduced by applying the devices and methods of the invention to reduce loading on the medial condyle.

Alternatively, the devices and methods of the invention could be used in conjunction with other therapies used to treat focal and diffuse lesions on the condyle. For example, the device for unloading the medial condyle could be used in conjunction with microfracture or autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) therapy of a focal lesion on the medial condyle.

Other applications of devices and methods of the invention include use in conjunction with meniscal repair treatment to reduce loading on the medial condyle. The contoured bearing surface for the iliotibial band could also alleviate pain associated with the iliotibial band friction syndrome. Another application includes use in conjunction with total joint replacement devices to alter the mechanical forces on the new joint, thereby increasing the stability of the replaced joint and reducing the risk of implant wear. The invention may further be adapted to displace tissues acting on various other joints so as to reduce or otherwise alter loads therein, including the elbow, shoulder, wrist, fingers, spine, ankle, interphalangeal joints, jaw or other joints. For example, the implants of the invention may be configured for attachment to the acetabulum, vertebrae of the spine, scapula, humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, tarsals, metatarsals, talus or other bones of the foot, among other bones.

Exemplary embodiments have been disclosed above and illustrated in the accompanying drawings. It will be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes, omissions and additions may be made to that which is specifically disclosed herein without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention.

Claims (27)

The invention claimed is:
1. An apparatus for treating disorders of the knee, comprising a substantially rigid prosthesis formed along a first axis, said first axis lying in a first plane, the prosthesis comprising: a fixation portion configured and dimensioned to be mounted to the femur at a fixation site adjacent the knee, the fixation portion having a generally elongate shape oriented along said first axis, cranial and caudal ends, at least a first width transverse to the first axis, at least one bone screw hole, an inner surface configured to contact the femur with at least an edge portion of said inner surface lying in said first plane, and an outer surface opposite the inner surface;
a displacement portion configured to engage and displace a connective tissue of the knee targeted for treatment, the displacement portion having a cranial end, a caudal edge, an anterior edge, a posterior edge, and a smooth, outer, convex bearing surface, the bearing surface extending from said cranial end to said caudal edge, wherein the whole bearing surface is free of bone screw holes, wherein said convex bearing surface is spaced caudally from the fixation portion in a direction along said axis and spaced from said inner surface of the fixation portion in a direction perpendicular to said first plane, the displacement portion having a second width greater than the first width of said fixation portion; and
a spanning section extending from the caudal end of said fixation portion to the cranial end of said displacement portion at an angle with respect to said first plane, the displacement portion anterior and posterior edges each having a convex curvature extending from the cranial end to the caudal edge of the displacement portion.
2. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein said displacement portion further comprises an inner concave surface facing said first plane, and the displacement portion and spanning section are further configured and dimensioned to cantilever the displacement portion from the spanning section in a plane laterally displaced from the fixation portion with said inner concave surface spaced apart from a lateral surface of the femur when the fixation portion is mounted at the fixation site on the femur.
3. The apparatus of claim 2, wherein the displacement portion is configured and dimensioned to substantially mirror the lateral size and shape of the femoral condyle.
4. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the caudal edge of the displacement portion forms an arc with said anterior and posterior edges.
5. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the displacement portion has an outermost point which is farther in a lateral direction from said inner surface of said fixation portion than other points on the apparatus, said outermost point being spaced cranially from the caudal edge of the displacement portion.
6. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein:
the prosthesis has an overall length along said first axis of between about 85-115 mm;
the fixation portion has a length of between about 40-50 mm and a first width of between about 12 mm and about 15 mm;
the displacement portion has a length of about 45-60 mm and a second width of about 45-60 mm; and
an outermost point on the convex bearing surface is displaced from the inner surface by a distance of about 10-45 mm.
7. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the angle of the spanning section is between about 40 and 50 degrees with respect to the first plane.
8. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the fixation portion and displacement portion are configured and dimensioned in cooperation with the spanning section to provide a distance between the fixation portion inner surface and displacement portion bearing surface sufficient to displace said at least one connective tissue is from a pretreatment anatomical path by a displacement distance of more than about 5 mm and less than about 30 mm when the prosthesis is mounted to the femur at the fixation site.
9. The apparatus of claim 8, wherein the fixation portion and displacement portion are further configured and dimensioned in cooperation with the spanning section such that said displacement distance extends in a lateral direction with respect to the knee.
10. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein said prosthesis is free of bone screw holes caudally of said caudal end of said fixation portion.
11. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein said prosthesis extends between a caudal end and a cranial end, and the displacement portion caudal end corresponds to the prosthesis caudal end.
12. An apparatus for treating disorders of the knee, the apparatus comprising a prosthesis comprising:
a fixation portion having a bone facing surface and including at least one bone screw hole, the fixation portion configured to be secured to the femur at a fixation site on the lateral side and proximate the lower extremity of the femur;
a displacement portion including a rounded and smooth, outer, convex bearing surface having a cranial end, continuously arcing anterior, caudal and posterior edges, wherein the whole bearing surface extending from said cranial end to said caudal edge and being free of holes or other fixation means; and
a spanning section between the fixation portion and the displacement portion, the spanning section configured and dimensioned to extend laterally and caudally from the fixation portion;
wherein the spanning section and displacement portion are configured and dimensioned to position the displacement portion further caudally from the fixation portion and laterally displaced from said bone-facing surface of the fixation portion so as to insert under the iliotibial band from a medial and cranial position with the fixation portion fixed to the femur to atraumatically engage and displace the iliotibial band in at least a lateral direction from a pretreatment anatomical path by a distance of more than about 5 mm and less than about 30 mm while avoiding select tissues medial to at least part of the displacement portion.
13. The apparatus of claim 12, wherein the prosthesis has a depth between the bearing surface and said bone facing surface of the fixation portion of greater than about 10 mm as measured perpendicular to a plane tangent to an outermost point on said bearing surface.
14. The apparatus of claim 12, wherein the spanning section includes anterior and posterior edges joining with said displacement portion anterior and posterior edges, respectively, and wherein the anterior and posterior edges of the spanning section and the displacement portion diverge through the spanning section from the fixation portion to the displacement portion and converge in the caudal end of the displacement portion to the caudal edge.
15. The apparatus of claim 14, wherein the prosthesis has a profile that substantially mirrors the distal femur in a lateral view.
16. The apparatus of claim 15, wherein the prosthesis is proportionally smaller than a profile of the lateral femoral condyle by 5-25%.
17. The apparatus of claim 12, wherein the prosthesis has a depth between the bearing surface and said bone facing surface of the fixation portion, said depth being greatest at outermost point of the displacement portion, the outermost point being positioned cranially with respect to said caudal edge.
18. An apparatus for treating disorders of the knee, the apparatus comprising a prosthesis configured to be secured to a lateral side of the femur proximate the lower extremity of the femur in engagement with a target tissue comprising a laterally placed muscle, tendon or ligament, said prosthesis comprising a rounded and smooth convex bearing surface formed with an outermost point spaced cranially from a caudal edge of the bearing surface, and being configured and dimensioned to displace said target tissue in at least a lateral direction from a pretreatment anatomical path by a displacement distance of more than about 5 mm and less than about 30 mm to alter the location, angle or magnitude of forces exerted thereby on the knee so as to achieve a therapeutic effect comprising at least reducing a load at an articular surface of the knee; said prosthesis comprising
A fixation portion configured to be mounted to the femur at a fixation site on the lateral side and proximate the lower extremity of the femur, the fixation portion lying substantially in a first plane;
a displacement portion including said bearing surface, the displacement portion configure to engage and displace the target tissue, the displacement portion extending from a cranial end to the caudal edge and is free of holes, gaps or fixation means, with the bearing surface as a convex outer surface and a concave inner surface opposite said convex outer bearing surface: and
a spanning section extending from the fixation portion to the displacement portion, the spanning section configured and dimensioned to position the inner concave surface of the displacement portion at an elevated position with respect to said first plane, said elevated position having a height above said first plane sufficient to position said inner concave surface in a spaced apart relationship to the lateral femoral condyle and to position the convex outer bearing surface with respect to said at least one target tissue for displacement thereof while avoiding select tissues extending between the fixation site and said target tissue when the fixation portion is secured laterally to the femur.
19. The apparatus of claim 18, wherein:
the prosthesis has a caudal end and a cranial end;
the displacement portion includes continuously arcing anterior, caudal and posterior edges around said bearing surface; and
said caudal edge lies at the prosthesis caudal end.
20. The apparatus of claim 18, wherein:
the fixation portion includes a bone-facing surface and at least one fixation element extending through the bone-facing surface; and
the prosthesis has a depth between the bearing surface and said bone-facing surface of greater than about 10 mm as measured perpendicular to a plane tangent to the outermost point on said bearing surface.
21. The apparatus of claim 20, wherein said fixation element comprises plural bone screw receiving holes formed in said fixation portion.
22. The apparatus of claim 18, wherein:
the fixation portion has a width ranging from about 10 mm to about 40 mm;
the fixation portion has a length ranging from about 20 mm to about 60 mm;
the displacement portion has a width ranging from about 40 mm to about 70 mm;
the displacement portion has a length ranging from about 40 mm to about 70 mm; and
the depth of the prosthesis is greater than about 10 mm.
23. The apparatus of claim 18, wherein:
the spanning section is configured and dimensioned to extend laterally and caudally from the fixation portion; and
the displacement portion extends caudally from the spanning section so as to insert under the iliotibial band from a medial and cranial position when the fixation portion is secured to the lateral side of the femur.
24. The apparatus of claim 18, wherein:
the fixation portion is substantially straight along a long axis of the prosthesis with an inner bone engaging surface having a concavity configured and dimensioned to compliment a contour of the lateral femur at the fixation site;
the spanning section is angled laterally from a cranial end of the spanning section at an angle between about 40 and 50 degrees; and
the displacement portion presents a laterally convex surface for engagement with the iliotibial band and a medially concave surface opposed to the lateral femoral condyle when implanted, the displacement portion further having a curved caudal anterior edge configured and dimensioned to avoid contact with the patella when implanted and a curved caudal posterior edge configured and dimensioned to avoid contact with the fibular head during knee flexion.
25. The apparatus of claim 18, wherein:
the fixation portion is generally elongate in shape with a width of about 12-18 mm and a length of about 40-55 mm;
the spanning section extends in an inclined direction from an end of the fixation portion at an angle between about 40 and 50 degrees with respect to said first plane, said spanning section broadening to a second width at a location joining the displacement portion;
the displacement portion is rounded in and broader than the second width of the spanning section and having a width at a widest part of about 45-60 mm.
26. An apparatus for treating disorders of the knee, comprising a prosthesis having a spoon-like shape generally mirroring a lateral profile of a distal portion of the femur including a femoral shaft and a femoral condyle, the prosthesis comprising: an elongate fixation portion having proximal and distal ends, a width, a longitudinal axis therebetween lying in a first plane, and at least one screw hole passing through the first plane for receiving a bone screw; and a displacement portion rigidly coupled distally with respect to the fixation portion, the displacement portion having (i) a size and shape selected to substantially cover a lateral aspect of the femoral condyle, (ii) opposing, convexly rounded anterior and posterior edges, (iii) a width between the anterior and posterior edges larger than the width of the fixation portion, (iv) a concave inner surface shaped to extend over the lateral femoral condyle, and (v) a convex outer surface extending from a proximal end to a distal edge, wherein the displacement portion convex outer surface is free of screw holes for receiving bone screws and elevated relative to the first plane such that when the fixation portion is attached to the femoral shaft the displacement portion is positionable between the iliotibial band and the lateral femoral condyle, spaced laterally from the lateral femoral condyle and the outer surface displaces the iliotibial band laterally at least 10 mm.
27. The apparatus of claim 26, further comprising a spanning section extending between the fixation portion and the displacement portion.
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US201261620756 true 2012-04-05 2012-04-05
US201261695406 true 2012-08-31 2012-08-31
US13843128 US9278004B2 (en) 2009-08-27 2013-03-15 Method and apparatus for altering biomechanics of the articular joints
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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20160213402A1 (en) * 2009-08-27 2016-07-28 Cotera, Inc. Method and Apparatus for Altering Biomechanics of Articular Joints
US9931136B2 (en) * 2009-08-27 2018-04-03 The Foundry, Llc Method and apparatus for altering biomechanics of articular joints

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