US900706A - Process of making sound-reproducing records. - Google Patents

Process of making sound-reproducing records. Download PDF


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US900706A US1777300A US1900017773A US900706A US 900706 A US900706 A US 900706A US 1777300 A US1777300 A US 1777300A US 1900017773 A US1900017773 A US 1900017773A US 900706 A US900706 A US 900706A
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Francis W H Clay
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Francis W H Clay
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    • G11B27/00Editing; Indexing; Addressing; Timing or synchronising; Monitoring; Measuring tape travel
    • G11B27/02Editing, e.g. varying the order of information signals recorded on, or reproduced from, record carriers
    • G11B27/031Electronic editing of digitised analogue information signals, e.g. audio or video signals
    • G11B27/034Electronic editing of digitised analogue information signals, e.g. audio or video signals on discs
    • Y10T29/00Metal working
    • Y10T29/49Method of mechanical manufacture
    • Y10T29/4957Sound device making
    • Y10T29/49577Phonograph component making


F. W. H. CLAY.



900,706. V Patented Oct. 13, 1908.


'77mm f.


AlrLIoATIoN Hman un 2s, 1900. Patented 00L 13, 1908.





Patented Oct. 13,1908.


W'L'Zvzesses sary and inherent in the processes of produca1 across'the'eld of'pay .r UNITED s'mrih;'s1PAirinrrformen.` l t l `Finnois w. n. GLM-or KEN'rUcl-rr. i

-^ recense or manine sounnnnrnonneme nsconns.

4 To all wltom it may camera: y

Be it known that I, FRANCIS W. i1. chir,

a citizen of the United States of America,

residing at Whitehall, inthe State of Ken# 5 tucky, have invented a certain new and useful lrocess for Making VSound-Rep reducing Records, of which the following is a' specification.'

My invention relates to sound recording and reproduction, and has for its object, pr i` marily, to make reproducing records of the motions of sound waves in a more `perfect form than has heretofore been attained, andV egree the accuracy and quality oi tone. ofl

the same: v v A The said imperfections-inthe present sound records result from several conditions necesf ing the records,-notably, 1st., the using of metallic or crystalline materials for thelecords and for workingand duplicating them;

'Y are n y rough and vonly ap roxi- Ymately of the form they are inten ed to i have; 3rd.,..themassfand inertia cfg-certain -movmgpartsusedinmakingatrace of the movements of a. sound-receiving diaphragm. rocess employs 'amorphousmaterials in w 'ch to record thesound wave linesand-to take an.

' impression-.of the` sameior reproducing purposes; and'fi'irthenl use' a ht ra. 'as the 5 recording agency and chemica or `ot er simi@ lar means 'both for the recording for thel reduction ofthe record to a ermanent -maf terialiorm for usein repro uction.- l Thus'V there iis no agency -employed, between the Vseundlng diaphra m actuated directlyfby sound waves and t e final lreproducing record as `lused in commerce, which involves 'wei htor inertia to overcme,o'r'whiclr has wit as' in all present methods.

The process which I have themed 'ehn-a.-

sishs broadly, in .viewing h vmy ,of light through the agency of a' body actuated by sound waves, passm l1 lit sensitive surface o thevibrating my;

Y Specification ofLe-tters Patent. f Appunti shiny 2s, isoo. -v sum No'. 1131s;

entally accom-- 2nd. the employment of, which 'itselfvany necessary source of 'inperfections`,.-

'Patented Oct. 1.3, 1908.

to sound waves,- and then developing the or raised 'rid for reproducing purposes, by purely chemical means.

In the classes of light-sensitive materials are used, which are typified, respectively, in the comvchromated gelatin used in photo-engraving drawings.'

' A thm :film vof gelatinous or albuminous substance carrying in suspension in its mass. such a salt as silver bromid, is affectedby extremely shortv exposure to light, -s'as' o.

the portions' of theilrn that are affected by light become black bya chemical change and supposedl a deposit of metallic silverfv-the -unexpose portions remaining tgansp'arent after the g bath. A mass of geatih with such a saltl as ammonium or potassium bichromate re' uires a comparatively lone` exposure to'lig t be re bemg sensibly a 'fected The action 'of the light 'on the salt-in a character which has a sort of tanning1 acseveral liquids, such as acetic acid, sulfuric solve the saine materialwhere it has been protected from the action of the hght. In

carrying out my' recess a' com ound l'm composed of a thin top layer cip albumen containing silver bromid or a 'simi'- lar salt and under la er of gelatin orvalbumen or glue containing ichromate of ammonium or potassium or asimilar sensitizing salt. 1 Also, in order to be able to Vdevelo the destroying the under layer I cover theunder (bichromate) iilm with a protecting1 coat of -collodion or suoli substance. In t sure in recor 'the motion of the light ray the bichromate -is not affected, owing to thesliort duration of time e 'osed; but the "bromid lm isn'eeted to ren er it black on ,develo' ing. 'lhelattei` is then treated to th of the light ray'thereover becomes a lack dine, v4the remaining portions being ftransparent after the bath The c ob coat protects the' bic ornate film-both gelatin o rf to thereby trace .thereona line corresponding photographic line into the form of a groove photographic arts two general .mon silver bromid dryplate and the bireduce the stability of the salt, when,`in the developing of the substance after exposure, i

nous or. albuminous substance impregnated` Ythe presence 'of the'suspendmg medium is 'of i tion on the medium, renderingit insolub e ini p acid, hot water, etc., which yet readily distop layer when it has been exposed 'wit out ,160

e expo- -any o the common developers, when the 11i() 9o I view of these facts, I employ as a means for IlCl-ff .his a vertical section of anV exposing box for from the developer and the fixer, and all these operations being carried on in the dark, the biehromate iilm is still light sensitive, and now has superposed upon it a protecting black coat where the light ray 'hasfplayed over it in recording sound waves. The film is next exposed a comparatively lon time (say 5 or l0 minutes) in strong sun or e ectric light, and then treated to a bath of the sol vent developer, which may be, for example,

glacial acetic acid cold. rlhis dissolves away inafter to be described, l may proceed by placing the bichromate gelatin directly on the bromid gelatin after the latter has been exposed and developed. Thereupon, the second exposure being made from beneath, the solvent developer being ap lied to the outersurfaceleaves thelightstruc portion,u i. c. the portions under the transparent parts of the bromid film, as raised ridges, superposed on the bromid gelatin.

After the sound photograph has been made it may be reproduced in relief in gelatin or glue or similar substance by printing in the sun and dissolving'out, as is done in photoengraving v rlhe form in which the photographic surface is arranged is not material to the process. But l prefer, for cheaper records where 4accuracy is not the sole consideration, to

make the record in the form of a ridgeor a grooved line arranged spirally on a flat plate. For more accurate work l make the compound iilm in the ribbon form, as illustrated in the accompanying drawing at Figure 7.

For carrying out the process and the manipulation of the ilrn and of the light ray I have invented the apparatus illustrated in the accompanying drawings, which drawings also illustrate the steps i ie process. And the process will be exp d in detail in the description of the struct re and use of the apparatus.

Fig. l represents my prererred form of exposing box, telescope and actuator, shown in section.

support of the mirror. Fig 2 is a plan inside.. the dark box, with a plate in position, :cross section ofthe telescope. Fig. 3

vrecording on the ribbon form of the I'ilm.


20a of a revolving table t.

Fig. l is `a vertical section, at right anglesto that of Fig. l, throughthe actuatling diaphragm and its housing, showing the Fig. is a section through another formV of actuator and its telescope. Fig. 5 is a vertin cal section through the telescope. Fig. G is a partial section of the compound lilm carried on a plate. Fig. 7 shows two perspective and sectional views of the ribbon form ol' the film, in two stages of development. Fig. 8 illustrates the head of the lever arm for actuating the light ray, and thc trace of the light ray, as arranged when it is desired to produce a groove in the bichromate gelatin. Fig. 9 illustrates the same as arranged to give a raised ridge in the bichromate gelatin, to be used as a patrix die in stamping out du plicates. Fig. -10 shows a flat plate with a sound photograph traced upon it in spiral form. Fig. ll 1s a pers ectlve view in section of the disk formed )y winding the ribbon of Fig. 7. Fig. 12 shows in section, at two stages of development, the plate form of the double film, and the reproducing plate stamped out therefrom, below.

Considering the cost of producing duplicate records l prefer the form of the. apparatus shown in Figs. l and 2.

A light tight box A contains a motor M having a contact or brush-wheel 22 on a horizontal shaft which has a fine screw extension, 2l. This screw works in a block 2() which has a base 23 mortised in and sliding freely in a groove 26 in a horizontal guide-bar 24 supported as shown at 25. The traveling block 20 has a socket which receives the center pin he table t carries the plate B having the sensitive ilmj" (shown in Fig. 6). The table and plate are revolvedA by the brush wheel 22 and are kept in contact therewith by rollers 19. rl`he box A has a door D for introducing the sensitive On top of the box A is stanchion l) plate. with an adjustable arm 8 which carries the telescope and actuator for the light ray. ln the form of this ligure, a sound receiver 1 screws into and forms part el' a circular housing containing a vibrating diaphragm ll, which may be of glass or mica, held between elastic rings. At the center oi' the diaphragm is a thin aluminum strut 5 to actuate a mirn il. 0n one sidry el the lower housing is attached a thin at influence ceiver i the tion about it face of the in r vibra 'infl r ha a black or white s wt, preferably diamond-shaped. z wn at la. (lf it is black imagr` .i the piatej" will make a clear line photographic trace; if silvered. a black line trace. f--r a purpose hereinafter set forth. Or, the seetionalform of the-ray may be controlled bv an opening. before striking the mirror. i

The diaphragm housing has a tubular extension below which telescopes over a tube 2 whichagain slides in a tube 3'set inthe top of the box A. All the parts 'have set screws for adjusting. Through the side of the tube extends a small tube 1'8 carryingcondensing lenses 17 'which project rays'of l' htv on the center of the mirror -6 and throu the lens 16. The sunlight-is collected and projected into the tube bythe concave mirror 12 held by a universal joint in the head 14 supported by the. telescope as shown.- 'The ray'of light then is 'reflected downwards and is focused by a lens 16 to the fine image on the surface An illustration of the course overtheplate- 1[iai-tialsection at 6.

lter of the plate,'-the screw l21 drag the table and plate laterally underA the l ace will have beeria of light. (See and brilliancy of the recording beam of light are under. complete control.A As is clear from the figure, the ray of light will vibrate' to and fro in a line radial to the diskB, while at the same time the said disk rotating gives the irppinging point of the light ray a resultant smuous motion with respect to the circumference of the late B and roceeding in a spiral p ath over t e surface about the cenocus of the telescopefas the revolution continues.

is shown at Fig. 10.- v The actuator shown at Fig. 4 will sometimesK be used. The small fiat spring 7 supported on the diaphragm housing carries an` arm 27 of light'matenal as aluminum.- At

its inner end it is attached to a ilexible strut 5 made fast to the diaphragm fl. At its outer end, on the lo r ever arm, is-a iiat head 27a ywith a'smalhole (preferably dia, mond shaped), and this head and arm extend' through a slitin the side of thetelesco .and

43 play freely' between the two dis 28 are open at thev center as shown. l'The light is collected and concentrated to the desired degree o n 1the vibratory head27, by a I lens 45. in thetubefihand after'passage through. the opening in the head 27 a of the arm27 the rays are focused by the, lens 47 on the ,suracefof lthe moving sensitive f. The plate B and the iihn are shown in lm f1 is' with a co odionhnjandupon this is placed the bromid of the opening is n best shown. at, line `left on' the herest of the surhe biclrrbrfxate placed en metal orglass andcovered.

ted-te thea'ction Y A ered'ribbon 1s arranged for sound reproduc- On exposure to light again theportion-s of the bichrolnate gelatin under this will be light struck and become insoluble, so that when. the whole vis treated to acetic acid -thetop -lm'f, the collodion coat f and the unex posed portions of the bottom (bichromate.)

tlm f7 will dissollve away, leaving the form shown in section,(f1). This is dried and hardened and then used-as a -patrix die tov stamp into softened celluloid for example, as

at r, leaving'. the sound record in the form of a groove spirally arranged on the plate or disk S.

The more accurate form in which'to make the record is by the use of a'sensitive ribbon, instead of the plateiilm. This is shown at Fi 7, and'is manipulated by the apparatus of' ig.' 3. Y The darkbcx C contains a spool or roller 33 carrying the sensitive ribbon, and a spool or roller 34 to receive it. The ribbon passes over a support 32 under the .vibrating rafy of light and winds on the spool 34, which is driven by a brush Wheel 36 carried on a pivoted arm' 39 and driven by a pulley 37 and cord 38 from the pulley 41 of the motor' M. The arm 39 is pivoted onthe shaft of the pulley 4.1 and has, integral with it, a iinger'39-n w ich extends inside the spool 34 and rests on t e surface of the ribbon already wound thereon. iIt stands parallel and opposite to the arm 39, so that as the ribbon winds on the spool thearm 39*I rises, carrying also the arm 39 outward, keelping the point of contact ofthe driving whee rposite to the last layer of the ribbon and Windiuthe ribbon on the spoolat a constant rate, w atever may be the diameter of the coil on the receiving spool. Either form oi telesco e and actuator may be used with either Form lof ex osing box and ilm. The. sensitive r1 bon is made similar tothe sensitive film on the late heretofore described, save that it'wi be more convenient in making to coat both sides 'of the bichromate film with the collodi'on and the bromid gelatin.

36 always op- Referring to -Fig. 7!:y the thick film f* is the i bichromate gelatin; it is thinly coated with collodion, f3, for protection. Outside this is the-ray of light (when the crm 'of the, actua! tor 'head of Fig.' 8 is, used) results as aline l black line-along 4the ipiddle of, theribbon, as shown. When re-enpesedjto effect thehi- .chromate lm the latter-becomes insoluble alliexce t the rtion protected' by the black le, tlislvent develo er.` Consequently,in the bath'. ofacetic aci the bichromate ribbon is severed along theline representing the sound w 'ch readily dissolves in waves'by thedissolving awayof the rotected l gelatin. Nowdne of the halves lo the sev# '115 a 'thin iilm of thezsilver bromid Velatin, fl. .Upon exposure` and develo ment t e trace of presented for tion as shown in Fig. 11, where the base 7L is a flat disk having a hub. Around this the ribbon is wound in layers with layers of packing of less width than the ribbon, between them, so that the gelatin ribbon f4 stands a little above the general surface, forming, when completed, a spiral ridge on the disk h having its upper edge undulatory to correspond to the sound Waves. y When hardened this may be used yas a atriX die to stamp into softened rubber or ce luloid for commercialuse; or it may be reproduced in various ways.

llt is clear that the packing between the layers of the gelatin ribbon might as well be made Wider,-i. e. higher from the base disk, than the ribbon itself, so that the whole will present a spiral groove whose bottom is the edge of theribbon, shaped in correspondence withlsoundzwaves.

The terms "sound photograph and Hphoi nophotographic record used herein will be understood to indicate the trace of the vibrating spot of light over the surface of the moving bromid film, after development thereon, when the line referred to is either a black opaque line or else a clear line in the gelatin,-

depending on whether the recording spot is lighted or is black. Now the sound photograph may be reproduced in raised or'depressed form in several Ways: when it is made as a dark line trace or negative, I may expose under it directlyr a common bromid lm and make therebyT a positive or clear line trace. This being developed in oxallate or other non-metallic developer, treated to dilute sulfuric acid, dried thoroughly and then steamed; Whereupon the (clear line) trace Will swell and form `a ridge, which can be baked and hardened andused 'as a patrix die, froml which we may stamp out duplicates in the groove form. Again, l vmay use a clear line photophonographic record and reversefit over a plate coveredlwith thick bichromated gelatin and after `printing thereon dissolve out the unex- `posed portions of the said bichromate gelatin, leaving therecord again in the form of al standing ridge. @n using this as a patrix die and stamping out duplicates in Celluloid the record "will be re-reversed and take the form of a groove in the duplicate, now again in obverse and ready for commercial use.

The Ways of duplicating, and of reducing thephotophonographic record to a tangible Vmaterial form for reproducing the sound are given only toillustrate the breadth of my invention, being parts thereof, and while they are alternate forms of procedure in my process l do not limit myself to any @ne or to all of them. I

The apparatus herein described, which forms another part of my invention, have I y patent in my application No.' 158,311 filed May 22/03, and the same .therescares fore forms no-part of the invention covered by claims herein, but- Having thus described my invention, what I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is the following: I

l. The process of making sound reproducing records by photographically recording the movements of a sound-actuated body and photo-etching the said graphic record to produce an undulating surface corresponding inform to the sound waves recorded. i

2. The process of making sound reproducing records by vibrating a ray of light in consonance with the movements of sound waves, moving a light-sensitive film across the field of play of the said ray and reducing the resulting trace of the said ray by chemical means to material form as an undulating surface in amorphous material. y

3. The process of making a reproducing sound record by moving a ray of light in consonance with the vibrations of sound waves, translating a light-sensitive material across the field of play of the said ray, developing, and by chemical means changing the relative elevation of the material along the said trace on the sensitive surface thereof.

4. The process of making sound reproduc- /ing recor s Vwhich consists in exposing successive portions of a light-sensitive 'film to the action of a ray of light vibrated in consonance with the movement of sound waves, developing the same to reduce the trace of the ray to an opaque line, exposing under this 'film a second film rendered insoluble Where lightstruck, and dissolving out the unexposed portions of the said second film, whereby an undulating surface in the form of the path of the light ray is produced in the said second film.

6. llhe nrocess'of making sound reproducing records by photographing upon a light sensitive film the movements of a ray of light vibrated by the agency of a sound wave actuated body, developing the resulting ahotographic trace, exposing beneath it a film capable of being rendered-insoluble by the action of light thereon, dissolving away the unexposed portions of the saine under the sound record trace, to form an undulating surface, and reproducing the resulting sound wave forms by impressing the same into soft ma- -terials1ch as celluloid.

7. The rocess of making sound reproducing recor s which consists 1n vibrating a ray of light by a sound-actuated body, translating a light-sensitive ribbon under the point of incidence ofthe said ray to trace an undulating photographic line thereon, exposin under this record a ribbon of bichromate gelatin, dissolving away the unex osed portions of the latter, so as to divi e the said ribbon into parts having their edges undulating in the form of sound waves. I

8. `The rocess of making sound reproducingqrecor s which consists in exposin successive portions of a li ht-sensitive fi m to the action of a ray of lig t vibrated in consonance with the movements of sound Waves, developing the same to produce an opaque.

line on thel trace of the ray, exposing under this film a second film rendered' insoluble where light-struck, dissolving out the unexposed portions of the said second film so that the form of the edge of the path of the ra of light is imparted to an undulatingv su ace representing sound Waves, and Winding this film about a center so that the said edge is arranged spirally with the volutions of the edge Vpproximatcly in a plane. `9.

. he process lof making sound reproduclng records which consists in vibrating a ray of light by a sound-actuated body, translating alight-sensitive ribbon under the pointv of lncldenceof the said ray to trace anundu lating photographic line thereon, exposing under this record a ribbon of bichromated gelatin, dissolving away the unexposed portions of the latter to sever the ribbon intol parts having their edges in the forrn'of sound waves, and winding the ribbon into disk with the edge of the ribbon forming a spirally arranged surface `with undulations 1n the plane vertical to the plane of the disk.

10.. The process of making sound-producing records which consists in vibrating a ray of light by a sound-actuated body, translating under the point of incidence of said ray a com ound sensitive ribbon composed of a top ayer of silver bromid emulsion and an under layer of bichromated gelatin the latter being protected by a skin of collodion, developing the to film, re-exposing to. effect the under'lm,y issolving away the top film and the unexposed portions of the under film so as to'sever the under film along the line 'of the trace of the lightray, and the resulting wavy-edged ribbon with a ternate layers of packing, into -a disk with the edge of the ribbon forming a spirally arranged surface on the face plane of the disk, the undulations in the forrnof sound Waves beingfin a plane vertical to ,the` disk.

11. The process of making sound reproducing records consisting in vibratinga ray of light falling on a sensitive film in consonance with sound waves, developing the photograph thus formed, exposing under the photograph a strip of amorphous material capab e of being rendered insoluble by action of light, dissolving out the unexposed and soluble portions of the amorphous material, winding the strip thus formed into a` spiral with the undulating edge corresponding to the 'sound waves extending in one direction, and impressing in or upon lplastic material the said undulating spira y arranged edge of the strip.

12. The process of making soundreproducing records which consists in ex osing successive portions of alight-sensitive lm to.

the action of a ray of lightlvibrating in conson'ance With the motionsof ,sound waves, developing the same to. produce an opaglue line, exposing under this'film a second m capable of being rendered insoluble by the,

action of light, dissolving away the unexposedportions of said second film to form the the materlal under the edge of the path ofthe i thereof vcorresponding to sound waves, and composed of amoxphous material renderedv *practically insolub e in water by the action 'of light.

' 14. A hotophono ram having 'a continu-` ousfspira y arrange' undulatory operating surface, the undulations thereof corresponding to sound waves, and composed of amoraction of light.

. 15. deed insoluble by the action of light havin cut therein by tracing with a sound actuate ray of"light"and a developer a spirally ar- `ranged'portion having an undulatlng surface lcorresponding to sound Waves.

In testimony. whereof, I `hereunder sign' my name 1n the resence of two Witnesses. Y. RANCIS W. H. CLAY. Witnesses: l


phous material rendered insoluble by the,-

Asurface of amorphous material ren-V f

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2477640A (en) * 1944-06-27 1949-08-02 Homer R Montague Sound recording method and apparatus
US20030104861A1 (en) * 2001-12-05 2003-06-05 Peter Gaidarev Payout distributions for games of chance

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2477640A (en) * 1944-06-27 1949-08-02 Homer R Montague Sound recording method and apparatus
US20030104861A1 (en) * 2001-12-05 2003-06-05 Peter Gaidarev Payout distributions for games of chance

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