US863101A - Automatic gun - Google Patents

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US863101A
US863101A US1904229406A US863101A US 863101 A US863101 A US 863101A US 1904229406 A US1904229406 A US 1904229406A US 863101 A US863101 A US 863101A
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Prior art keywords
cartridge
breech
mechanism
feed
belt
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Expired - Lifetime
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Andreas Wilhelm Schwarzlose
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Andreas Wilhelm Schwarzlose
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41AFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS COMMON TO BOTH SMALLARMS AND ORDNANCE, e.g. CANNONS; MOUNTINGS FOR SMALLARMS OR ORDNANCE
    • F41A9/00Feeding or loading of ammunition; Magazines; Guiding means for the extracting of cartridges
    • F41A9/29Feeding of belted ammunition
    • F41A9/30Sprocket-type belt transporters

Description

No. 863,101. PATENTED AUG. 13, 1907. A. W. SGHWARZLOSE.

AUTOMATIC GUN.

APPLICATION FILED 00121, 1904.

8 SHEETS-SHEET 1.

No. 863,101. PATENIVIED AUG. 13, 1907. A. -W. SGHWARZLOSE.

AUTOMATIC GUN.

APPLIOATION FILED 0012.21, 1904.

6 SHEETS-SHEET .3.

No. 863,101. PATENTED AUG. 13, 1907. A. W. SGHWARZLOSE.

AUTOMATIC GUN.

APPL IOATION FILED 00T.21, 1904.

6 SHEETS-SHEET 4.

PATENTED AUG. 13, 1907.

A. W. SGHWARZLOSE.

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PATENTEDAUG. 13, 1907.

A. W. SGHWARZLOSE.

AUTOMATIC GUN.

APPLICATION FILED 0013.21, 1904.

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UNITE SATES n rfnn'r ornicn.

AUTOMATIC GUN Specification of Letters Patent. Application filed October 21,1904. Serial No- 229,466. 7

Patented Aug. .13, 19cm To all whom it may concern:

Be it known that I, ANDREAS WILHELM SorrwAnz- Losn, a subject of the German Emperor, residing at Charlottenburg, Germany, have invented certain new. and useful Improvements in Automatic Guns, of which the following is a specification.

The present invention relates to means for feeding the ammunition in the case of such automatic guns as have their ammunition arranged in the form of single projectiles one behind the other on a flexible belt which is so placed in connection with the breech mechanism, either above, below, or at the side of the same, that by the movements of the same on firing, one cartridge after the other can be taken from the belt and be introduced into the barrel of the gun.

As far as the present invention is concerned, it is quite of minor importance whether the automatic guns are provided with movable or with fixed barrels, or not, that is, whether the guns are those in which the requisite loading functions of the breech-mechanism are indirectly started by the mechanical work of the movable barrel, or directly by the reaction of the driving means. As far as the present invention is concerned, it is likewise a matter of minor importance as to what sort of a breech-mechanism is chosen; whether a toggle-j oint breech-mechanism is selected, or whether a cylinder breech-mechanism guided rectilineally, or formed as a rotary breech-mechanism, is chosen. In the case of all these forms of breech-mechanism, the present cartridge feeding device is applicable in so far as the removal of the cartridges from the belt comes into consideration.

The new feeding mechanism is shown in the appended drawings by way of example on an automatic gun having a toggle-joint breech mechanism.

An important feature of the new device in its preferred form which will be immediately recognized, is

that the star roller (which is well'khown per se) for.

advancing the cartridge belt step by step, is adapted not merely to serve this latter purpose, but also partially pushes out the cartridges from the belt and finally brings the cartridge, which has been drawn out of the belt, into the loading position in the extension of the barrel axis, so that it can be pushedinto the when the latter moves forward.

An embodiment of the present invention is illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which Figure 1. shows the breech-piece of the gun seen from the right side, the feeding cover-plate being removed, and the breech-mechanism being closed and one car- .tridge being in the barrel. Fig. 2. is a view similar to Fig. 1. showing the positions of the various parts after the delivery of a shot, the uppermost cartridge having been drawn out of the belt and the breech-mechanism having been opened. .Fig. 3. is a section on the line .a-b of Fig. 1. Fig. 4. is a section on the line bc of Fig. -2. Fig. 5. is a part-sectional elevation corresponding to Fig. 1. Fig. 6. is a part-sectional elevation corresponding to Fig. 2. Fig; 7. is a section on the line d-e of Fig. 5. 0 Fig. 8. is a section on the line ef of Fig. 6. Fig. 9; is a section on the line g-h of Fig. 6. Figs. 10. & 11. are detail views of its wedge-guides for the control-wheel 5.

It is not necessary to give here a detailed description of the toggle-joint breech-mechanism which is shown'in the drawings by way of example, on account of the reasons stated above, and because this breechmechanism in'particular is well known, having been described in the German patent specification No. 140,380. 4

The cartridge feed-mechanism itself consists of only two working parts, the feed-roller 1. and the detentslide 2. The feed-roller consists of the front part, the middle part, and the control-wheel 5. The front part is provided with two rows of curved teeth 6. 7. which embrace the foremost cartridges on the belt coming into their reach, and which, on the rotation of the wheel, draw the same into the gun. The middle part has a star with teeth 8, between which and the teeth 7, deep guide-grooves 29 for the cartridge-bottoms are milled on the shaft of the feed-roller.

The teeth 8 of the feed-roller are displaced slightly forward in the direction of rotation with regard to the front belt-transporting teeth 7 and 6, and the guidegrooves 29 for the cartridge bottoms, which grooves correspond with the teeth 8, taper and become shallower and shallower towards their back end so that the cartridges on being drawn backwards from off the belt and even before the wheel is turned, move forward towards the bore of the barrel, whereby the recess which it is necessary to make in the breech-case at the cartridge-bearing for the'free passage of the charged cartridge-belt may be kept as small as possible, or in other words in order' that the cartridge-bearing may be kept as strong as possible. The control-wheel 5 serves for the regulation of the step-by-step movements of the feed-roller. The feed-rolleris inserted with its two pivots 9 & 10 in corresponding bearings in the breech-case h, in such a way, that its longitudinal and so that the feed-teeth 7 pass a short distance behind the barrel.v The'breech-case h is provided with incisions or recesses corresponding .to the form of the roller, so that the latter can freely rotate. The controlwheel 5 projects with its teeth 11 to such an extent into the path of the breech-block b, that on opening the breech mechanism, the front wedge-piece 12 on the breech-block comes into engagement with the uppermost tooth 11 of the control-wheel 5 and'tums the axis is parallel to the longitudinal axis ofthe barrel,

the breech-block with on the breech-case.

ism, the nose 18 of the hand-lever e strikes against the,

tappet 19 of the detent-slide shortly before the reversal of the motion, and pushes said slide forwards through a short distance, so that the back tongue 20 of the slide enters under the right-handtooth of the control-wheel, after the latter was turned by the wedge-piece 12 on the breech-block, when sliding back. The control-wheel as well as the feed-roller, consequently cannot again move backwards when the breech-block moves forward again, and when thereby the front Wedge-surface 12 of the same has come out of engagement with the controlwheel. On closing the breech-mechanism, the nose 21 of the hand-lever, which nose works in-the opposite sense to the nose 18, now strikes against the tappet 19 on the detent-slide and pushes the latter back again into its former position, whereby the back tongue 20 on said slide sets the control-wheel free, while the front tongue 22 simultaneously acts on the same and holds it fast once more. I

4 The drawingout from the cartridgebelt of the cartridge which lies uppermost is provided for by the fixed hook 23 which is rigidly connected with the breechblock b. When the breech-block moves forward, the hook 23 slides past the edge of the uppermost cartridge if the breech mechanism is still at a distance of about 15 mm. from the barrel. Immediately afterwards the feed-roller is turned inwards by the wedgesurface'13 on the under side of the breech-block and the next following cartridge enterswith its edge behind the hook, in order :that when the breech-mechanism is opened'it may be drawn back out of the belt. Ifthe point of the projectile has hereby left the belt, the cartridge comes to rest, because the deepened guidegrooves 29 on the shaft of the feed-roller 1 render possible or cause the downward movement of the edge of the cartridge and consequently itjslips off from the hook 23. The cartridge, as seen from the side, now lies with its projectile between two teeth ofthe series of teeth 7, and with the bottom between two teeth of the series8. As seenfrom behind it takes up the position drawn in Fig. 4 being situated consequently on the right-hand side of the cartridge-bearing in the barrel; In order that it can be raised behind the-latte -a gap 25 is made in the breech-ease h, th e'bottom of which is at 26 formed tongue-shaped (Fig. '4.) On the subsequent rotation to the left of the wheel, brought about by the, front wedge-surface 12 on the under side of the returning breech-block, the cartridge which has been drawn back is rolled up by means of the .teeth 7 and 8 on to the tongue 26 (being to a certain'extent taken off by the same), so that the cartridge takes up the position drawn in Fig. 9. In this position it is grasped by the advancing breech-block and is pushed. into the. barrel. The cartridges are thrown towards the left with considerable velocity, and they must consequently be suitably held fast between the cartridge-race in the scene:

breech-case and the teeth 7 and 8 of the roller, as

otherwise in consequence of the momentum received they would rise with the projectile point or would be jerked over the incision in the case. The teeth 8 are consequently in any case to be placed so far backwards that they also hold securely the edge of the cartridge. On the other h; nd, the cartridge bottom must also be firmly support id, because it would otherwise, fall downwards, and the advancing breech-block would no longer grasp it. Both conditions are satisfied -in the present case by leaving free a projecting tongue .27 on the breech-case on'the back bounding surface of the :recess for the wheel-teeth 8, which tongue supports the cartridge-bottom. Fig. 9 shows the position and cross-section of the tongue and Figs. 2 and 6 its side olevation. The wheel-teeth 8 are on the contrary provided with undercuts 28 and can consequently freely move over the tongue 27 and press the cartridge-edge against the case wall.

The teeth 8 of the feed-roller are displaced slightly forward in the direction of rotation with' regard to the front belt-transporting teeth 7 and 6,3 and the guide-, grooves 29 for the cartridge-bottoms, which grooves with the teeth 8, taper and become shallower and shallower towards their back end, so thatthe cartridges on being drawn backwards from off the belt and even before the wheel is turned, move forwards towards the bore of the barrel, whereby the recess which it is necessary to make in the breech-case at the cartridge-bearing, for the free passage of the charged cartridge-belt may be kept as small as possible, or in other words in order that the cartridge-bearing may be kept as strongas possible.

The cycle of operations of the described feed-device is as follows: In order to load the gun a charged cartridge-belt 30 is so laid etween the teeth-rows 6 and 7 that the points of the projectiles point forwards, the first cartridge lying on the uppermost free tooth-space; hereupon the breech-mechanism is opened and closed once by hand, whereby the belt is moved farther by a distance equal to the pitch. The uppermost cartridge now takes up the position as in Fig. 4 and its edge has been rotated behind the hook 23 (Fig. 5). If the breech-mechanism is now once more opened by hand,

the hook 23 draws the cartridge from the belt back to the middle-part. 4 of'the feed-roller. The edge of the cartridge then slides down from the hook 23, the wedgepiece 12 begins to press on the control-wheel and turns the latter with the feed-roller towards the left. The teeth 7 and 8 hereby push the cartridge which has been drawn back, on to the tongues 26 and 27, so that it takes tip the position drawn in Figs. 6 and 9 after the breechmechanism is almost completely opened. Finally the nose 18 on the hand-lever e strikes against the detentslide, draws this somewhatforward, and pushes its tongue 20 behind one of the teeth 11 of the controlwheel 5, holding the latter fast. After the release of the ihand-lever, the breech-mechanism is again rapidly adv'anced automatically by its spring (not' shown); the breech-block hereby grasps the bottom of the supplied cartridge and pushes the latter into the barrel. In the latter part of the forward motion the back wedge-sure and secures the wheel in its proper position by means of the tongue 22.

What I claim is:

1. In a gun, a star feed roller adapted to feed a cartridge belt, said roller having a series of inclined guide ways at its rear, said guide ways being adapted to receive the cartridges as they are withdrawn from the belt, and means for rotating said roller to bring the withdrawn cartridges into loading position.

2. In a gun. a star feed roller adapted to feed a cartridge belt, said roller having a series of inclined guide ways at its rear, said guide ways being adapted to receive the cartridges-as they are withdrawn from the belt, a breech mechanism, means for opening said mechanism, and a part actuated by said means for withdrawing the cartridges from said belt.

3. An automatic gun having a barrel, a cartridge hearing at the end thereof, a breech mechanism, a cartridge l'eed device adapted to feed a flexible cartridge belt including a star feed'roller having a rear extension adapted to receive the cartridge when drawn from the belt, means for drawing the cartridge from the belt actuated by the breech mechanism, and means in operative connection -with the breech mechanism for rotating the feed roller into position behind the cartridge bearing of the barrel.-

' 4. An automatic gun having a barrel, a cartridge hearlng at the end thereof, a breech mechanism,-a cartridge feed device adapted to feed a flexible cartridge belt including a star feedroller having a rear extension adapted to -receive the cartridge when drawn from the belt, such extension having a series of teeth 8, means for. drawing the cartridge from the belt on to said extension, such means being operated by the breech mechanism during its opening movement, and means in operative connection with the breech mechanism for rotating the feed roller until the cartridge is in loading position behind the cartridge beau the belt 'on to such extension, such means being operated by the breech" mechanism during its opening movement, and means in operative connection with the breech mechanism for rotating the feed roller until the cartridge rests' upon the tongue 27 in loading position behind the cartridge-bearing.

6. An automatic gunhaving a barrel, a cartridge bearing at the end thereof, a breech mechanism, a cartridge feed device adapted to feed a flexible cartridge belt includinga star feed roller having a rear extension adapted to receive the cartridge when drawn from the belt, said feed roller having two series of belt actuating teeth 6 and 7 .and'having a rear extension provided with teeth 8 displaced with relation to the teeth 6 and 7 in a slightly forward direction and,having tapering guide grooves 29 corresponding with the teeth 8 and extending between said N teeth and the teeth 7, such grooves being adapted to receive the cartridge bottom, means operated by the breech mechanism for drawing the cartridge from the belt on to the rear extension of the feed roller during the opening movement of the breech mechanism, and means operated by the breech mechanism for rotating the feed roller'to move the cartridge into,loading position behind the cartridge bearing.

7. .An-automatic gun having a barrel, a cartridge bearmg at the end thereof, a breech mechanism, a cartridge feed device adapted to feed a flexible'cartridge belt including a star feed roller adapted to feed'the' cartridge to load-.

ing position, such feed roller having a real" extension, adapted to receive a cartridge when drawn from the belt, and said feed roller havlnga toothed controlwheel-rig' idly connected therewith, means operated by the breech mechanism for drawing the cartrldgetrom'the belt such said breech mechanism having wedge pieces adapted when such mechanism is opened and closed to engage the toothed control wheel to rotate the feed roller until the-cartridge is in loading position behind the cartridge bearing.

8. Au automaticgun having a barrel, a cartridge hearing. at the end thereof, a breech mechanism, a cartridge feed device adapted to feed a flexible cartridge belt including a star feed roller adapted to feed the cartridge to loading position, such teed roller having a toothed control wheel rigidly connected therewith, means operated by the breech mechanism for drawing the cartridge from the belt, such means being operated by the breech mechanism during its opening movement, a breech block forming a. part of said breechmechanism having wedge piecesadapted when such mechanism is opened and closed to engage the toothed control wheel to rotate the feed roller until the cartridge is in.loading position behind the cartridge hearing, a hand lever forming part of such breech mechanism having noses 1S and 21, and a detent slide having a tappet 1!.) and two' tongues 20 and 22 adapted to engage said control wheel.

5). An automatic gun having abiirrcl, a cartridge hearing at the end thereof, a breech mechanism, a cartridge teed device adapted to feed a flexible cartridge belt including a star feed roller having a rear extension, means for drawing a cartridge from said belt on to said rear extensien, said means being actuated by the breech mechanism during its opening movement, and said means comprising in part a cartridge drawing hook rigidly connected with the breech block, and means for rotating the feed roller during the closing of the breech mechanism to bring the edge of the succeeding cartridge behind the hook of the breech block.

10. In an automatic gun having a barrel with a cartridgi bcaring, a loading breech-mechanism, and means for opening and closing the same, a cartridge feed-device consisting of the combination of afiexible cartridge-belt. a plurality of cartridges, each having a projectile and a bottom. said cartridges being mounted side by side on the cartridge-belt. a star feed-roller for feeding the cartridges to the loading mechanism, said feed-roller having a backward extension provided at its back end with teeth 8, cartridge-drawing means moved by the means for opening the breech-mechanism and adapted to draw one of the cartridgcs, while the breech-mechanism is being opened, from the belt and on to the backward extension of the feed roller and between the teeth of the same, and means in operative connection with the means for opening the breech-mechanism for rotating the feed-roller until the said cartridge is in the loading position behind the cartridge-bearing of the barrel, substantially as and for the purpose set forth.

11. In an automatic gun having a barrel with a cartridge-bearlng, a loading breech-mechanism, and means for opening and closing the same, a cartridge feed-device consisting 'of the combination of a flexible cartridge-belt, a plurality of cartridges, each having a projectile and a bottom. said cartridges being mounted side by side on the cartridge-belt, a star feed-roller for feeding the cartridges -to the loading-mechanism, said feed-roller having a backward extension provided at its back end with teeth 8, the back surfaces of which are provided with undercuts, a breech-case having a cartridge-supporting tongue .27 projecting into the undercuts of the teeth 8, cartridge-drawing means moved by the means for opening the breechmechanism and adapted to draw one of the cartridges. whilethe breech-mechanism is being opened, from the belt and on to the backward extension of the feed-roller, and

means in operative connection with the means for opening the breech-mechanism for rotating the fced-roller until the said cartridge rests with its bottom on the tongue 27 in the loading position behind the cartridge-bearing of the barrel, substantially as and forthe purpose set forth,

12. In an automatic gun having a barrel with a cartridge-bearing, a loading breech-mechanism, and means for opening and closing'the same, a. cartridge feed device consisting of the combination of a flexible cartridge-belt, a plurality 0t cartridges, each having a. projectile and a hot-- tom, said cartridges being mounted side by side on the cartridge-belt, a star feed-roller for feeding the cartridges to the loading mechanism, said feed-roller having two series of belt-transporting teeth 7, 6, a backward extension provided with teeth 8 displaced slightly forward in the direction of rotation with regard to the teeth 7, 6 and tapering-gulde-grooves 29 for the cartridge-bottoms corresponding with the teeth 8 and extending between said teeth and the teeth 7, cartridge-drawing means moved by the means for opening the breech-mechanism and adapted to draw one of the cartridges, -while the breech-mechanism is being opened, from the belt and onto the backward extension of the feed-roller and between the teeth of the same, and means in operative connection with the means for opening the breech-mechanism for rotating the feedroller until the said cartridge is in the loading position behind the cartridge-bearing of the barrel, substantially as and for the purpose set forth.

13. In an automatic gun having a barrel with a cartridgebearing, a loading breech-mechanism, and means for opening and closing the same, a cartridge feed-device consisting of the combination of a flexible cartridge belt, a plurality of cartridges, each having a projectile and a bottom, said cartridges being mounted side by side on the cartrldgebclt, a star feed-roller for feeding the cartridges to the loading mechauism,-said feed-roller having a toothed control-wheel in rigid connection with said feedroller, cartridge-drawing means moved by the means for opening the breech-mechanism and adapted to draw one of. the cartridges, while the breech mechanism is being opened, from the belt and onto the backward extension of the feed-roller, and a breech-block having wedge-pieces adapted when the breech-mechanism is opened and closed to engage with the toothed control-wheel to rotate the 'tom, said cartridges being mounted side by side on the cartridge-belt, a star feed-roller for feeding the cartridges to the loading mechanism, said feed-roller having a ,toothed control-wheel in rigid connection with said feedroller, cartridge-drawing means moved by the means for opening the breech-mechanism and adapted to draw one of the cartridges, while the breech-mechanism is being opened, from the belt andonto the backward extension of the teed-roller, and a' breech-block having wedge-pieces adapted when the breech mechanism is opened and closed to engage with the toothed control wheel to rotate the feed-roller until the said cartridge is in the loading position behind the cartridge-bearing of the barrel, a breech-case, a breech mechanism hand-lever having two noses 18, 21, a detent-slide having a tappet 19 and two tongues 20, 22 mounted on said breech-case and adapted to engage said control wheel substantially as and for the purpose set forth.

15. In an automatic gun having a barrel with a cartridge-bearing, a loading breech-mechanism, and means for opening and closing the same, a cartridge teed-device consisting of the combination of a flexible cartridge-belt, a plurality of cartridges mounted side by side on the same, a star teed-roller for feeding the cartridges to the loading mechanism, said feed-roller having a backward extension a cartridge-drawing hook, moved by the means for opening the breech-mechanism and adapted to draw one of the cartridges, while the breech-mechanism is being opened, from the belt and on to the backward extension of the feed-roller, and means in operative connection-with the means for opening the breech-mechanism for'rotating the feed-roller until the said cartridge is in theloading position behind the' cartridge-bearing of the barrel, av breech-block having'said cartridge-drawing hook rigidly connected thereto, and means in operative connection with the means for closing the breech mechanism for rotating the feed-roller during the closing of the breech-mechanism to bring the edge of the uppermost cartridge behind the book of the breech-block substantially as described.

Dated this 8th. day of October 1904.

In witness whereof, I have hereunto signed my name in the presence of two subscribing witnesses.

ANDREAS WILHELM SCHWARZLOSE.

Witnesses i WOLDEMAR Hnor'r, 1 HENRY HASPER.

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Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2466577A (en) * 1944-12-06 1949-04-05 Lockheed Aircraft Corp Bolt mechanism for guns
US2466697A (en) * 1942-05-22 1949-04-12 George C Gentry Feed mechanism for cartridge belts
US2669160A (en) * 1948-06-19 1954-02-16 Brev Aero Mecaniques S A Soc Belt feed for firearms
US2875671A (en) * 1953-08-06 1959-03-03 Russell S Robinson Ammunition belt feed system for automatic firearms
US3998125A (en) * 1973-08-03 1976-12-21 Rheinmetall G.M.B.H. Belt feeder for an automatic weapon
US4587879A (en) * 1983-11-18 1986-05-13 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Weapon cartridge feeder apparatus and method

Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2466697A (en) * 1942-05-22 1949-04-12 George C Gentry Feed mechanism for cartridge belts
US2466577A (en) * 1944-12-06 1949-04-05 Lockheed Aircraft Corp Bolt mechanism for guns
US2669160A (en) * 1948-06-19 1954-02-16 Brev Aero Mecaniques S A Soc Belt feed for firearms
US2875671A (en) * 1953-08-06 1959-03-03 Russell S Robinson Ammunition belt feed system for automatic firearms
US3998125A (en) * 1973-08-03 1976-12-21 Rheinmetall G.M.B.H. Belt feeder for an automatic weapon
US4587879A (en) * 1983-11-18 1986-05-13 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Weapon cartridge feeder apparatus and method

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