US8535377B2 - Double bundle ACL repair system - Google Patents

Double bundle ACL repair system Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US8535377B2
US8535377B2 US13221723 US201113221723A US8535377B2 US 8535377 B2 US8535377 B2 US 8535377B2 US 13221723 US13221723 US 13221723 US 201113221723 A US201113221723 A US 201113221723A US 8535377 B2 US8535377 B2 US 8535377B2
Authority
US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
fig
fixation
graft
tunnel
device
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Active
Application number
US13221723
Other versions
US20120059469A1 (en )
Inventor
Thomas H. Myers
Douglas M. Lorang
Daniel J. Triplett
Chad Lewis
Bryan Howard
Nathan Hansen
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
IMDS LLC
Original Assignee
IMDS Corp
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/08Muscles; Tendons; Ligaments
    • A61F2/0811Fixation devices for tendons or ligaments
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/04Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets for suturing wounds; Holders or packages for needles or suture materials
    • A61B17/0401Suture anchors, buttons or pledgets, i.e. means for attaching sutures to bone, cartilage or soft tissue; Instruments for applying or removing suture anchors
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/16Bone cutting, breaking or removal means other than saws, e.g. Osteoclasts; Drills or chisels for bones; Trepans
    • A61B17/1604Chisels; Rongeurs; Punches; Stamps
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/16Bone cutting, breaking or removal means other than saws, e.g. Osteoclasts; Drills or chisels for bones; Trepans
    • A61B17/1662Bone cutting, breaking or removal means other than saws, e.g. Osteoclasts; Drills or chisels for bones; Trepans for particular parts of the body
    • A61B17/1675Bone cutting, breaking or removal means other than saws, e.g. Osteoclasts; Drills or chisels for bones; Trepans for particular parts of the body for the knee
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/16Bone cutting, breaking or removal means other than saws, e.g. Osteoclasts; Drills or chisels for bones; Trepans
    • A61B17/17Guides or aligning means for drills, mills, pins or wires
    • A61B17/1739Guides or aligning means for drills, mills, pins or wires specially adapted for particular parts of the body
    • A61B17/1764Guides or aligning means for drills, mills, pins or wires specially adapted for particular parts of the body for the knee
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/08Muscles; Tendons; Ligaments
    • A61F2/0805Implements for inserting tendons or ligaments
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/16Bone cutting, breaking or removal means other than saws, e.g. Osteoclasts; Drills or chisels for bones; Trepans
    • A61B17/17Guides or aligning means for drills, mills, pins or wires
    • A61B17/1714Guides or aligning means for drills, mills, pins or wires for applying tendons or ligaments
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/04Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets for suturing wounds; Holders or packages for needles or suture materials
    • A61B17/0401Suture anchors, buttons or pledgets, i.e. means for attaching sutures to bone, cartilage or soft tissue; Instruments for applying or removing suture anchors
    • A61B2017/0404Buttons
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/04Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets for suturing wounds; Holders or packages for needles or suture materials
    • A61B17/0401Suture anchors, buttons or pledgets, i.e. means for attaching sutures to bone, cartilage or soft tissue; Instruments for applying or removing suture anchors
    • A61B2017/0409Instruments for applying suture anchors
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/04Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets for suturing wounds; Holders or packages for needles or suture materials
    • A61B17/0401Suture anchors, buttons or pledgets, i.e. means for attaching sutures to bone, cartilage or soft tissue; Instruments for applying or removing suture anchors
    • A61B2017/0414Suture anchors, buttons or pledgets, i.e. means for attaching sutures to bone, cartilage or soft tissue; Instruments for applying or removing suture anchors having a suture-receiving opening, e.g. lateral opening
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/04Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets for suturing wounds; Holders or packages for needles or suture materials
    • A61B17/0401Suture anchors, buttons or pledgets, i.e. means for attaching sutures to bone, cartilage or soft tissue; Instruments for applying or removing suture anchors
    • A61B2017/0419H-fasteners
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/04Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets for suturing wounds; Holders or packages for needles or suture materials
    • A61B17/0401Suture anchors, buttons or pledgets, i.e. means for attaching sutures to bone, cartilage or soft tissue; Instruments for applying or removing suture anchors
    • A61B2017/0438Suture anchors, buttons or pledgets, i.e. means for attaching sutures to bone, cartilage or soft tissue; Instruments for applying or removing suture anchors slotted, i.e. having a longitudinal slot for enhancing their elasticity
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/04Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets for suturing wounds; Holders or packages for needles or suture materials
    • A61B17/0401Suture anchors, buttons or pledgets, i.e. means for attaching sutures to bone, cartilage or soft tissue; Instruments for applying or removing suture anchors
    • A61B2017/044Suture anchors, buttons or pledgets, i.e. means for attaching sutures to bone, cartilage or soft tissue; Instruments for applying or removing suture anchors with a threaded shaft, e.g. screws
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/04Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets for suturing wounds; Holders or packages for needles or suture materials
    • A61B17/0401Suture anchors, buttons or pledgets, i.e. means for attaching sutures to bone, cartilage or soft tissue; Instruments for applying or removing suture anchors
    • A61B2017/0446Means for attaching and blocking the suture in the suture anchor
    • A61B2017/0448Additional elements on or within the anchor
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/04Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets for suturing wounds; Holders or packages for needles or suture materials
    • A61B17/0401Suture anchors, buttons or pledgets, i.e. means for attaching sutures to bone, cartilage or soft tissue; Instruments for applying or removing suture anchors
    • A61B2017/0446Means for attaching and blocking the suture in the suture anchor
    • A61B2017/0448Additional elements on or within the anchor
    • A61B2017/0453Additional elements on or within the anchor threaded elements, e.g. set screws
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/08Muscles; Tendons; Ligaments
    • A61F2/0811Fixation devices for tendons or ligaments
    • A61F2002/0847Mode of fixation of anchor to tendon or ligament
    • A61F2002/0852Fixation of a loop or U-turn, e.g. eyelets, anchor having multiple holes
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/08Muscles; Tendons; Ligaments
    • A61F2/0811Fixation devices for tendons or ligaments
    • A61F2002/0847Mode of fixation of anchor to tendon or ligament
    • A61F2002/0858Fixation of tendon or ligament between anchor and bone, e.g. interference screws, wedges
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/08Muscles; Tendons; Ligaments
    • A61F2/0811Fixation devices for tendons or ligaments
    • A61F2002/0876Position of anchor in respect to the bone
    • A61F2002/0882Anchor in or on top of a bone tunnel, i.e. a hole running through the entire bone
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2240/00Manufacturing or designing of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof
    • A61F2240/001Designing or manufacturing processes
    • A61F2240/005Templates
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2240/00Manufacturing or designing of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof
    • A61F2240/001Designing or manufacturing processes
    • A61F2240/008Means for testing implantable prostheses

Abstract

A system for single tunnel, double bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction includes implant constructs and instruments. The implant constructs provide a combination of cortical fixation and bone tunnel aperture fixation. The implant constructs separate a graft into distinct bundles. The instruments are used to prepare shaped bone tunnels to receive the implant constructs and graft bundles. Methods for reconstructing the antero-medial and postero-lateral bundles of the anterior cruciate ligament may rely on single femoral and tibial tunnels and a single strand of graft.

Description

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application is a continuation-in-part of:

U.S. application Ser. No. 12/751,072, filed Mar. 31, 2010, entitled DOUBLE BUNDLE ACL REPAIR, which is pending.

U.S. application Ser. No. 12/751,072 claims the benefit of:

U.S. Application No. 61/164,980, filed Mar. 31, 2009, entitled DOUBLE BUNDLE ACL REPAIR, which is expired.

This application claims the benefit of:

U.S. Application No. 61/378,754, filed Aug. 31, 2010, entitled DOUBLE BUNDLE METHOD WITH MODULAR POROUS DOUBLE BUNDLE ACL IMPLANT AND ASSOCIATED INSTRUMENTS, which is pending; and

U.S. Application No. 61/442,536, filed Feb. 14, 2011, entitled ACL TIBIAL IMPLANT CONSTRUCT, which is pending.

The above-referenced documents are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

This disclosure relates to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair surgery. More precisely, the present disclosure relates to implants and instruments for double bundle ACL repair, and methods of use.

It is generally accepted in the field of orthopedic surgery that the anterior cruciate ligament does not heal itself after injury. Initial attempts at repair of this ligament resulted in nearly uniform failure of the ligament to stabilize the knee joint.

Over the course of the last four decades, practitioners have turned to methods of ligament reconstruction in attempts to restore knee stability and normal knee kinematics. Most surgeons have become proficient with a ligament reconstruction technique involving autograft or allograft replacement of the native ACL. Autografts, which are harvested from the patient's own body, may comprise bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB), hamstring tendon (HT), or occasionally quadriceps tendon (QT). Allografts, which are harvested from a donor, may comprise patellar tendon, quadriceps tendon, Achilles tendon, tibialis anterior tendon, hamstring tendons, or occasionally peroneal tendons. Any of these grafts may be placed so that it traverses the intercondylar notch and its ends rest within tibial and femoral bone tunnels.

Two important surgical factors in achieving a stable, fully functional, pain-free knee after ACL reconstruction are correct placement of the femoral and tibial tunnels, so that the ACL graft does not impinge the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) or the roof of the intercondylar notch, and the use of slip-resistant, stiff, strong fixation for the ends of the graft.

Tibial and femoral bone tunnel placement has been a very controversial topic. Anterior placement of the femoral tunnel has become generally accepted as a technical cause of graft failure. Recently, after years of transtibial placement of the femoral bone tunnel, it has become increasingly popular to drill the femoral tunnel separately (i.e., through a medial arthroscopic portal). This may result in more anatomic placement of the femoral tunnel and improved graft orientation.

There are currently many options for graft fixation. Many surgeons who prefer BPTB grafts use interference screw fixation. However, among surgeons who prefer soft tissue grafts, a wide variety of fixation devices are used with little consensus as to what is best. Soft tissue graft fixation can be broadly divided into interference screw-based fixation, cortical fixation, and cross pin fixation.

Interference screw-based fixation of soft tissue grafts may be used in the femur and tibia. This type of fixation generates friction between the graft and the bone tunnel. Many surgeons who were originally trained in BPTB grafts continue to use this method of fixation when they use soft tissue grafts. Metal and bioabsorbable interference screws are currently available. However, there are no interference screws that have demonstrated bony ingrowth, which would be beneficial over the long term.

Cortical fixation may be preferred by surgeons who primarily use soft tissue grafts. A number of devices are known to take advantage of the innate strength of cortical bone. As early as 1966, German surgeon Helmut Bruckner described an ACL reconstruction technique in which a BPTB graft was secured by sutures to a button resting on the lateral aspect of the lateral femoral condyle. Other examples of cortical fixation devices include Endobutton™ (Smith and Nephew) and EZLoc™ (Biomet). Cortical fixation devices have been shown to have some of the highest pullout strengths of any soft tissue graft fixation device. In the femur, these devices may comprise an extracortical anchor attached to a fabric or suture loop. Such a device may be used by draping the graft over the fabric loop, supporting the anchor against the exterior cortical surface so that the graft is suspended within the tunnel, and securing the fabric loop to the anchor. In the tibia, cortical fixation may be achieved by stitching sutures to the free ends of the graft, placing a screw through the anterior tibial cortex, tying the sutures around the screw, and compressing the sutures against the cortex with a washer.

Cross-pin fixation has been gaining in popularity, at least in part because of the perception that it may provide secure fixation closer to the tunnel aperture than that provided by cortical fixation. Cross-pin fixation may be achieved by passing a pin across a bone tunnel close to the aperture and draping the graft over the pin where it crosses the tunnel.

Although there may be little evidence that aperture fixation provides greater stability than does cortical fixation, many surgeons prefer aperture fixation because it may avoid the so-called “bungee effect” of cortical fixation devices. This theory presumes that an ACL reconstruction spanning a longer distance between fixation points will have greater elasticity than an ACL reconstruction spanning a shorter distance. Fixation closer to the joint space may provide higher stability than remote fixation at the cortex because the distance across the joint space is much less than the distance between extracortical fixation points. However, a 2005 meta-analysis of stability after ACL reconstruction showed cortical fixation to be associated with the highest rates of ACL reconstruction stability for soft tissue grafts.

There may be biomechanical evidence that aperture fixation may lead to increased graft stiffness. On the tibia, distal cortical fixation of a soft tissue ACL graft may be stronger, stiffer, and more slip resistant than is aperture fixation with an interference screw alone. The use of an interference screw alone may cause tunnel widening and may prevent circumferential tendon-tunnel healing, which may result in inferior strength and stiffness at 4 weeks compared with cortical fixation. However, the insertion of a bone dowel alongside a tendon graft in the tunnel, in conjunction with distal cortical fixation, may prevent tunnel widening, increase stiffness, promote circumferential healing, and simplify revision surgery.

Aggressive, brace-free rehabilitation with early weight bearing may be safe following high-stiffness, slip-resistant fixation. The high stiffness provided by distal cortical fixation may reduce the graft tension required to restore stability and may lower graft tension during open-chain exercise. Reducing the graft tension without increasing anterior laxity requires high-stiffness fixation which also resists slipping and tension loss during aggressive rehabilitation. Whipstitch-post tibial cortical fixation was the first fixation method used successfully for quadrupled hamstring grafts. Simple interference screw fixation has had mixed results, while interference screw fixation combined with cortical fixation has shown very good results. Similarly, interference screw-based methods such as the Intrafix™ (DePuy Mitek) appear to be promising constructs on the tibial side. Although cross-pin fixation on the tibial side may be popular among surgeons, there is a paucity of clinical data pertaining to it, and the clinical series that have been published to date have shown mixed results.

Despite advancements in single bundle ACL reconstruction, a review of the literature demonstrates that between 10% and 30% of patients report persistent instability following single bundle ACL reconstruction surgery. Among single bundle ACL reconstructions, only 70% of KT1000 test results demonstrate a <2 mm side-to-side difference, with a failure rate of 5% to 10%. The return-to-sport rate for single bundle restorations is only 60% to 70%.

Anatomic studies reveal that the ACL has two functional bundles: the anteromedial (AM) bundle and the posterolateral (PL) bundle. The bundles are named according to their tibial insertion sites. With the knee in extension, the AM and PL bundles are parallel to each other and are oriented generally along the mechanical axis of the leg. When the knee is flexed to 90 degrees, the AM and PL bundles are crossed. This occurs because the PL bundle femoral insertion site is posterior to the AM bundle femoral insertion site when the knee is in extension, and anterior to the AM bundle femoral insertion site when the knee is flexed to 90 degrees. In other words, the AM bundle femoral insertion site rotates over the PL bundle femoral insertion site as the knee flexes. As a result, each bundle makes a unique contribution to knee kinematics at different knee flexion angles. In extension, the PL bundle tightens and the AM bundle relaxes, whereas in flexion, the AM bundle tightens as the PL bundle becomes lax. The AM bundle is the primary restraint against anterior tibial translation and the PL bundle tends to stabilize the knee in full extension, particularly against rotational loads.

Anatomic double bundle ACL reconstruction has some logical rationales in its favor and is supported by biomechanical studies. These studies suggest that conventional single bundle ACL reconstruction may successfully restore anteroposterior knee stability, but the reconstructed knee may be unable to resist combined rotatory loads. Cadaveric studies of double bundle knee reconstructions reveal a closer restoration of normal knee kinematics and better rotational stability. A closer restoration of normal knee kinematics may be associated with improved functional outcomes following ACL reconstruction.

Reciprocal tensile behavior has long been a quest of the surgeon who performs ACL reconstructions and has been a rationale for pursuing the double bundle technique. The concept is that the AM bundle should carry more tension in flexion and the PL bundle should carry more tension in extension. A doubled-over soft tissue graft in a single tunnel may restore reciprocal tensile behavior if the tunnel has been placed to avoid PCL and roof impingement and the centers of the graft bundles can be separated and appropriately oriented at the femoral and tibial tunnel apertures.

Double bundle ACL reconstruction is not without its drawbacks. The most common cause of failure of any kind of ACL reconstruction is improper bone tunnel position. The double bundle procedure, which is more complex than the single bundle technique, may be expected to have more misplaced tunnels. For example, dual tunnels can interfere with each other when they are not meticulously positioned. In particular, a poorly positioned PL tunnel may displace a subsequently formed AM tunnel too far anteriorly, resulting in roof impingement and potential graft rupture.

The double bundle procedure has other potential disadvantages. The greater complexity of double bundle repair results in longer surgical time. Two separate grafts need to be prepared, four tunnels need to be prepared, and four separate fixation devices are required.

Suitable femoral fixation options may be limited. Currently, the EndoButton™ may be the most common femoral fixation device for a double bundle ACL reconstruction due to its low profile. Cross-pin femoral fixation may not be feasible for double bundle ACL reconstruction due to anatomical constraints in the vicinity of the femoral tunnel apertures.

The larger tibial footprint of a double bundle ACL reconstruction offers greater potential for femoral notch impingement by the graft. Larger cross-sectional areas of graft tissue traverse the intercondylar notch in a double bundle ACL reconstruction. This may result in PCL impingement as well as notch impingement simply due to the size of the grafts. PCL impingement has been seen even in single bundle ACL reconstructions. PCL impingement may occur when the tibial tunnel is placed in a vertical orientation at an angle >70 degrees from the medial joint line of the tibia and the femoral tunnel is then drilled through the tibial tunnel. Vertical placement of the ACL graft at the apex of the femoral notch may cause the graft to wrap around the PCL, which may cause high tension in the graft when the knee is flexed. High graft tension in flexion may cause the graft to stretch out or may prevent the patient from regaining full knee flexion. Preventing PCL impingement in single bundle ACL reconstructions requires a femoral notchplasty as well as placement of the femoral tunnel further down the sidewall of the intercondylar notch. PCL impingement may not be an issue with double bundle reconstructions, because the femoral tunnels may be placed in the anatomic footprint of the ACL through an inferomedial arthroscopic portal. However, when two femoral tunnels are separated by a bone bridge (often 2 mm wide), the composite area may extend outside the border of the anatomic ACL footprint. This effectively increases the cross-sectional area of the graft and “overstuffs the notch.” Furthermore, the cross-sectional area of the native ACL as it crosses the PCL is approximately 54.4 square mm, and may be significantly less in smaller people. Therefore, if double bundle ACL reconstruction with a standard size graft is performed with dual femoral and tibial tunnels, the effective cross-sectional area of the graft may exceed 100 square mm. Notch or PCL impingement, loss of knee flexion and eventual stretching and failure of the tissue may result.

Revision is also more difficult with double bundle ACL reconstruction than with single bundle ACL reconstruction. A significant volume of bone is consumed with a four tunnel technique. It may be problematic to place revision tunnels anatomically if there is no bone into which to drill. In order to ensure correct graft placement at the time of revision, a bone grafting procedure may be required to fill the vacant bone tunnels, followed by a second procedure to revise the ACL reconstruction.

Thus, there exists a need in the art for novel ACL reconstruction devices that provide the strength of cortical fixation, the stiffness of aperture fixation, and osteoconductivity for bony ingrowth to allow circumferential healing of the graft/tunnel interface. There also exists a need for a method of fixation that separates an ACL graft into bundles such that knee kinematics are restored without the need for separate bone tunnels and multiple soft tissue grafts. There also exists a need in the art for an ACL reconstruction technique that produces bone tunnels that more closely replicate the anatomic femoral and tibial ACL footprints, uses a single graft separated into bundles to restore the kinematics of the native ACL, and eliminates the problems of increased surgical time and complexity, difficult revision, notch impingement and PCL impingement that are inherent with the current double tunnel, double bundle ACL technique. There also exists a need in the art to provide a fixation implant that can be used to deliver specific therapeutic agents, such as biochemicals that allow for tendon to bone healing or enhance osteoinductivity such that bone may grow into the fixation implant.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present disclosure provides a novel single tunnel, double bundle ACL reconstruction system and method that overcomes the problems and disadvantages associated with current designs and strategies in ACL reconstruction, such as increased surgical time and complexity, difficult revision, notch impingement, and PCL impingement. The disclosed system may anchor a soft tissue graft to bone through a combination of cortical fixation and aperture fixation, and may provide osteoconductive aperture fixation to facilitate circumferential healing of the graft/tunnel interface. The present technology may divide a single strand of graft into a plurality of bundles, and may anatomically orient the bundles to restore normal knee kinematics. The present technology may anchor multiple graft bundles in a single femoral or tibial tunnel, which may be positioned and sized to substantially overlap the anatomic ACL footprint. The present technology may provide a single tunnel, with an hourglass shaped cross section, in each of the femur and the tibia. Alternatively, the cross section of the tunnel may be bowtie shaped, figure eight shaped, dumbbell shaped, bicuspid epicycloid, or Gerono lemniscate. The present technology may deliver therapeutic agents to the graft implantation site.

Graft preparation may involve standard soft tissue graft preparation techniques including cutting the graft to the correct length, whip-stitching the free ends of the graft with strong suture, and sizing the graft prior to tunnel preparation. The graft may be folded over a trial implant component and inserted into one of several differently sized apertures in a sizing block. The differently sized apertures may be available in half millimeter or other reasonable increments such that the graft may be progressively forced through smaller apertures so that it will fit tightly in the bone tunnel. The shape of the apertures may correspond to the shape of the bone tunnels. The double bundle technique may be practiced with any size or type of graft, and may preferably use an 8-9 mm graft, although a graft up to 14 mm is contemplated. The graft may be placed under tension to eliminate creep in the graft and subjected to other graft preparation techniques at the discretion of the surgeon.

The femoral tunnel contemplated in the present disclosure may have an hourglass or figure eight cross section, or any of the other shapes set forth above. In one embodiment, the figure eight shape may be created by drilling two overlapping tunnels: an AM tunnel through the center of the anatomic footprint of the AM bundle of the ACL and a PL tunnel through the anatomic footprint of the PL bundle of the ACL. The AM and PL tunnels may be drilled to the same depth, resulting in a single femoral tunnel with an hourglass shaped cross-section contained within the footprint of the native ACL. The AM tunnel may be drilled over a guide wire placed through the center of the AM bundle footprint, and the PL tunnel may be drilled through a drill guide that references the AM tunnel, or vice versa. The drill guide may have a post that fits into the tunnel, or it may be cannulated to fit over the guide wire. The drill guide may protect the medial femoral condyle and PCL from the drill bit. The drill guide may establish a desired offset between the centers of the AM and PL tunnels. The offset may be determined by referencing the lateral intercondylar ridge and the posterior aspect of the lateral femoral condyle through a medial arthroscopic portal. The drill guide may alternatively be used to place a guide wire for the PL tunnel, over which a drill is subsequently used. The femoral PL tunnel may be oriented anterior and slightly inferior to the AM tunnel, with respect to the tibia with the knee flexed.

The femoral tunnel may be shaped to the appropriate final size using a series of hourglass shaped tamps provided in half millimeter or other reasonable increments. The femoral tunnel may be sized to produce an appropriate press fit with the graft/implant construct. The shaping process may smooth and compact the tunnel walls, thereby increasing their density. The shaping process may produce a flat floor or end of the tunnel. Alternatively, the shaping process may produce a tapered or funnel-shaped floor of the tunnel. The tamps may be cannulated to guide the insertion of a guide wire for a cortical tunnel, or to guide the insertion of a drill bit to drill the cortical tunnel. If a guide wire is inserted, the tamp may then be removed and the cortical tunnel may be drilled from the femoral tunnel to the lateral femoral cortex. The cortical drill bit may have incremental markings which may serve as a depth gage. The smaller diameter cortical tunnel may accommodate a cortical fixation device, such as a cortical button.

Alternatively, the femoral tunnel may be created by drilling a single tunnel through the center of the entire ACL footprint and shaping the tunnel to the appropriate size and shape using the tamps. In another example, the femoral tunnel may be created by shaping alone. In yet another embodiment, the femoral tunnel may be created using a shaped broach or chisel.

The tibial tunnel contemplated in the present disclosure may have an hourglass or figure eight cross section, or any of the other shapes set forth above. The tibial tunnel may be formed by a procedure similar to any of the procedures set forth above with regard to the femoral tunnel. The tibial tunnel may be formed with a drill guide designed so that conjoined tunnels may be drilled from outside-in through an anteromedial approach. An AM bundle guide wire may be placed so that it passes through the center of the anatomic footprint of the AM bundle of the ACL on the tibial plateau and just anterior to the medial collateral ligament (MCL) and pes anserinus insertions on the anteromedial aspect of the tibia. A PL tunnel may be drilled using an offset drill guide placed over the guide wire. The drill guide may receive a drill, or it may receive a guide wire over which a drill may subsequently be passed. The PL tunnel may be angled just posterior and lateral to the AM tunnel to allow more anatomic orientation of the tibial insertion of the graft while remaining contained within the tibial footprint of the ACL. The conjoined tibial tunnels may also be shaped in half millimeter or other reasonable increments to compress the cancellous bone and allow for easy graft insertion.

A femoral graft construct may be prepared by assembling the prepared graft, a femoral implant, a suture loop, and a cortical fixation device. The femoral implant may be sized and shaped to press fit into the constricted midsection at the mouth of the femoral tunnel. The femoral implant may comprise a porous biocompatible material, and may comprise one or more therapeutic agents. The graft may be draped over the femoral implant so that a graft bundle extends along either side of the femoral implant. The suture loop may connect the femoral implant to the cortical fixation device. In another example, the graft construct may comprise the prepared graft and a femoral implant. In this embodiment, a separate cross pin fixation device may be used.

Graft passage technique may include passing a suture loop through the tibial tunnel, into the femoral tunnel, through the lateral cortex and through the lateral soft tissues of the thigh. This loop may be used to draw the femoral graft construct into the femoral tunnel. A tool may be used to push a tight graft construct through the tibial tunnel, across the joint, and into the femoral tunnel. The femoral tunnel geometry may urge the graft bundles into the preferred orientation. The femoral implant may be seated to a predetermined depth in the femoral tunnel to provide a tight press fit of both graft bundles to the periphery of the tunnel walls. This may limit graft micromotion and optimize the chance for tendon to bone healing or bone ingrowth into a porous embodiment of the femoral implant. In one example, the femoral implant may be preloaded with an osteoinductive protein or other growth factor prior to insertion into the knee. This may be performed on the back table prior to femoral implant insertion. The cortical fixation device may be secured to the suture loop so that the cortical fixation device engages the lateral femoral cortex. The cortical fixation device may provide firm, stable cortical fixation for the construct. After the femoral graft construct is secured in place, a graft tensioning instrument may be used to apply tension to the graft.

Tibial fixation then follows in the preferred technique. The strands of the graft may be placed under tension with the knee at roughly 30 degrees of flexion. The tibial implant may be tamped into place in the center of the graft strands (2 or 4). The tibial implant may be tamped to the measured depth of the tunnel such that the spacer on the nose of the implant may be at the joint line. The tibial implant should not protrude into the joint and the strands of the graft should not be drawn into the knee as the tibial implant is advanced into the tunnel. A funnel-shaped tunnel floor or aperture may limit the tibial implant from advancing into the joint. An appropriately sized tapered screw may be inserted distal to the tibial implant, again with maximum tension on the graft. The screw may thread into wings extending from the tibial implant spacer. The wings may expand as the screw is threaded into place, providing an interference fit along the length of the tibial tunnel. The spacer at the end of the tibial implant may compress the graft into the periphery of the conjoined tunnels. This may provide aperture fixation at the tibial interface. Cortical fixation may then be achieved with a stemmed button that fits into the hexagonal slot in the interference screw and has a head diameter greater than the tunnel diameter. Graft sutures may be passed through slots in the button and tied down in standard fashion to provide cortical fixation. This embodiment of a tibial implant provides double fixation of the graft with both stable cortical fixation and aperture fixation so that the tibial implant resists tension, torsion, and bending forces on the graft.

Alternatively, a single tunnel may be drilled through the tibia and femur, followed by an hourglass shaped tamp which shapes the tunnels into a corresponding hourglass shaped cross section which mimics the anatomic footprint of the ACL on the tibia and femur. The femoral end of the graft may be secured with a cortical fixation device remote from the joint space and secured with a femoral implant adjacent to the joint space, thus providing both cortical and aperture fixation. The tibial end of the graft may likewise be secured with a tibial implant adjacent to the joint space and a cortical fixation device remote from the joint space. An intra-tunnel tibial fixation device, such as an interference screw, may alternatively be used instead of an extracortical fixation device. The femoral or tibial implant may force the graft to interact with the outer wall of the tunnel adjacent to the joint space.

The femoral or tibial implant may be fabricated of PEEK, polyglycolic acid (PGA), polylactic acid (PLLA), allograft bone, autograft bone, metal, metal alloys, polymers, ceramic, glass, or any other biocompatible material, or any combination of the preceding materials. The implant may be porous, and may preferably be made of porous polymer such as polyetheretherketone (PEEK). The pore structure of the implant may mimic the pore structure of cancellous bone. The implant may have a solid portion and a porous portion, such as a solid core with a porous outer layer, or a porous first end and a solid second end. An at least partially porous implant may prove to be osteoconductive. Graft fixation may be optimized by press fitting the graft in an hourglass shaped tunnel with a porous femoral or tibial implant whose pore size is similar to that of cancellous bone; this construct may achieve initial stiff aperture fixation and long term bone ingrowth.

A two-piece modular implant may provide an opportunity to use appropriate materials for different portions of the implant depending on the specific function and service loads experienced by each portion. For example, a solid material may be used for a structural portion that experiences high loads, tensile stress, or dynamic loads, and a porous material may be used for a non-structural portion that experiences low loads, compressive stress, or static loads. More specifically, a non-porous or solid material may be used where the highest loads occur in the implant and the porous form of the material may be used where lower loads occur in the implant. A two-piece design may also permit interchangeability among various mating parts, thus increasing the number of different combinations that can be provided with a given inventory of parts. For example, a kit of several different connectors or adapters may be interchangeably mated to several different implant bodies. Each different connector or adapter may be compatible with a specific style of graft or a specific type of fastener.

The two-piece design may allow for the implant to be easily assembled to any type of cortical fixation device intraoperatively with no need for prior assembly. Examples of cortical fixation devices include the EndoButton™ (Smith and Nephew), ToggleLoc™ with Ziploop™ (Biomet), RetroButton™ (Arthrex), and XOButton™ (ConMed).

The implant may include one or more agents, for example: osteobiologic proteins, hydroxyapatite (HA), allograft morselized bone, autograft morselized bone, orthobiologics, anesthetics, analgesics, antimicrobial agents, growth proteins, growth factors, bone morphogenic proteins (BMP), stem cells, osteoprogenitor cells, or platelet rich plasma. The agents may be included in the implant by, for example, injection, infusion, coating, intrinsic incorporation, spraying, dipping, soaking, or dusting. One or more holes, apertures, or cavities in the implant may house the agent. The implant may allow for delayed release or customizable dosing of the agents. The implant may act as a delivery system for osteoinductive factors and may encourage neovascularization or ligamentization of the graft tissue itself over time.

The polymer femoral or tibial implant may be advantageous for revision because a drill will readily pass through PEEK or other polymer, regardless of its porosity.

In another example, the hourglass shaped femoral or tibial tunnel may be asymmetrically shaped so that the graft and implant may only be inserted in one orientation.

The apparatus and method of the present disclosure may facilitate separately tensioning each graft bundle. For example, one bundle may be tensioned while the knee is in extension, generally −10 degrees to 45 degrees, and the other bundle may be tensioned while the knee is in flexion, generally 45 degrees to 145 degrees. In a preferred embodiment, the present technology may facilitate tensioning the PL bundle at a roughly 30 degree bend and the AM bundle at a roughly 90 degree bend. Alternatively, all bundles may be tensioned in flexion, extension, or in an intermediate position.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Various examples of the present technology will now be discussed with reference to the appended drawings. It is appreciated that these drawings depict only typical examples of the invention and are therefore not to be considered limiting of its scope.

FIG. 1 is an antero-medial perspective view of a right knee joint, showing a femur, a tibia, and an intact anterior cruciate ligament;

FIG. 2 is an anterior view of the knee joint of FIG. 1, showing the femur and tibia and a fibula;

FIG. 3 is a cross sectional view of the femur of FIG. 2;

FIG. 4 is a proximal view of the tibia and fibula of FIG. 2;

FIG. 5 is a lengthwise cross sectional view of the knee joint of FIG. 2 in extension;

FIG. 6 is a lengthwise cross sectional view of the knee joint of FIG. 2 in about 90 degrees of flexion;

FIG. 7 is a perspective view of an implant construct, showing a first fixation device, a second fixation device, and a connector;

FIG. 8A is a perspective view of the first fixation device of FIG. 7; and FIG. 8B is an end view of the first fixation device of FIG. 8A;

FIG. 9 is a perspective view of another implant construct, showing another first fixation device, another second fixation device, and another connector;

FIG. 10A is a perspective view of the first fixation device of FIG. 9; and FIG. 10B is an end view of the first fixation device of FIG. 10A;

FIG. 11 is a perspective view of a guide wire;

FIG. 12A is a perspective view of a drill; and FIG. 12B is a detail view of an end of the drill of FIG. 12A;

FIG. 13 is a perspective view of a drill guide;

FIG. 14A is a perspective view of another drill; and FIG. 14B is a detail view of an end of the drill of FIG. 14A;

FIG. 15A is a perspective view of a tamp; and FIG. 15B is an end detail view of the tamp of FIG. 15A;

FIG. 16A is a perspective view of another drill; and FIG. 16B is a detail view of an end of the drill of FIG. 16A;

FIG. 17 is a perspective view of yet another drill;

FIG. 18 is a perspective view of yet another drill;

FIG. 19A is a perspective view of another tamp; and FIG. 19B is an end detail view of the tamp of FIG. 19A;

FIG. 20 is an antero-medial perspective view of the knee joint of FIG. 1 and the guide wire of FIG. 11;

FIG. 21 is an antero-medial perspective view of the knee joint of FIG. 1, the drill of FIG. 12, and the drill guide of FIG. 13;

FIG. 22 is an antero-medial perspective view of the knee joint of FIG. 1 and the guide wire of FIG. 11, showing a first hole formed in the femur;

FIG. 23 is an antero-medial perspective view of the knee joint of FIG. 1 and the drill of FIG. 14;

FIG. 24 is an antero-medial perspective view of the knee joint of FIG. 1, showing the first hole and a second hole partially overlapping the first hole;

FIG. 25 is an antero-medial perspective view of the knee joint of FIG. 1 and the tamp of FIGS. 15A-15B;

FIG. 26 is an antero-medial perspective view of the knee joint of FIG. 1, showing a fully formed femoral tunnel;

FIG. 27 is an antero-medial perspective view of the knee joint of FIG. 1, showing the femoral tunnel and a fully formed tibial tunnel;

FIG. 28 is a perspective view of a graft construct, showing the implant construct of FIG. 7 and a soft tissue graft;

FIG. 29 is an antero-medial perspective view of the knee joint of FIG. 27 and the graft construct of FIG. 28;

FIG. 30A is a perspective view of the femur of FIG. 27 and the graft construct of FIG. 28 along a longitudinal axis of the first fixation device of FIGS. 8A-8B; and FIG. 30B is a cross sectional view of the femur of FIG. 27 and the graft construct of FIG. 28;

FIG. 31 is a perspective view of the implant construct of FIG. 9 and the soft tissue graft of FIG. 28;

FIG. 32 is an antero-medial perspective view of the knee joint of FIG. 27, the graft construct of FIG. 28, and the implant construct of FIG. 9;

FIG. 33 is an antero-lateral perspective view of the knee joint of FIG. 27, the graft construct of FIG. 28, and the implant construct of FIG. 9;

FIG. 34 is a perspective view of a graft sizing block;

FIG. 35 is a perspective view of a trial instrument;

FIG. 36 is a perspective view of the graft sizing block of FIG. 34, the trial instrument of FIG. 35, and the soft tissue graft of FIG. 28;

FIG. 37 is a perspective view of a cap of yet another first fixation device;

FIG. 38 is a perspective view of a base that couples to the cap of FIG. 37;

FIG. 39 is a perspective view of yet another first fixation device;

FIG. 40 is a perspective view of yet another second fixation device;

FIG. 41 is a perspective view of yet another tamp;

FIG. 42 is a perspective view of yet another tamp;

FIG. 43 is a perspective view of another graft sizing block;

FIG. 44 is a perspective view of a trial;

FIG. 45 is a perspective view of another drill guide;

FIG. 46 is a perspective view of yet another drill guide;

FIG. 47 is a perspective view of a knee joint, the tamp of FIG. 41, and a drill;

FIG. 48A is a perspective view of the knee joint of FIG. 47, the drill guide of FIG. 46, and guide wires; and FIG. 48B is an enlarged detail view of a portion of FIG. 48A;

FIG. 49 is a perspective view of the knee joint of FIG. 47 and the tamp of FIG. 42;

FIG. 50 is a perspective view of the knee joint of FIG. 47, the first fixation device of FIG. 52, a graft, and a femoral implant inserter;

FIG. 51A is a perspective view of the knee joint of FIG. 47, the first fixation device of FIG. 52, the first fixation device of FIG. 39, the second fixation device of FIG. 40, and a graft; and FIG. 51B is a perspective view of the first fixation device of FIG. 52, the first fixation device of FIG. 39, the second fixation device of FIG. 40, and a graft;

FIG. 52 is a perspective view of the cap of FIG. 37 coupled to the base of FIG. 38 to form a first fixation device;

FIG. 53A is a perspective view of yet another first fixation device; FIG. 53B is a perspective view of yet another first fixation device; and FIG. 53C is a perspective view of yet another first fixation device;

FIG. 54A is a front perspective view of yet another implant construct, showing yet another first fixation device, yet another second fixation device, and yet another connector; FIG. 54B is a front perspective view of yet another implant construct; and FIG. 54C is a front perspective view of yet another implant construct;

FIG. 55A is an exploded front perspective view of the implant construct of FIG. 54A; FIG. 55B is an exploded front perspective view of the implant construct of FIG. 54B; and FIG. 55C is an exploded front perspective view of the implant construct of FIG. 54C;

FIG. 56 is an exploded bottom perspective view of the implant construct of FIG. 54C;

FIG. 57A is a side view of the implant construct of FIG. 54C; and FIG. 57B is a cross section view of the implant construct of FIG. 57A, taken along section line 57B-57B as shown in FIG. 57A;

FIG. 58A is a bottom view of a second fixation device of the implant construct of FIG. 54C; FIG. 58B is a side perspective view of the second fixation device of FIG. 58A; FIG. 58C is a side view of the second fixation device of FIG. 58A; and FIG. 58D is a front view of the second fixation device of FIG. 58A;

FIG. 59A is a front perspective view of the connector of the implant construct of FIG. 54A; FIG. 59B is a front perspective view of a connector of the implant construct of FIG. 54B; and FIG. 59C is a front perspective view of a connector of the implant construct of FIG. 54C;

FIG. 60A is an exploded front perspective view of the connector of FIG. 59A; FIG. 60B is an exploded front perspective view of the connector of FIG. 59B; and FIG. 60C is an exploded front perspective view of the connector of FIG. 59C;

FIG. 61A is a front perspective view of the first fixation device of the implant construct of FIG. 54A; FIG. 61B is a front perspective view of a first fixation device of the implant construct of FIG. 54B; and FIG. 61C is a front perspective view of a first fixation device of the implant construct of FIG. 54C;

FIG. 62 is a perspective view of the implant construct of FIG. 54C with a graft;

FIG. 63 is a perspective view of the construct of FIG. 62 in a bone tunnel; and

FIG. 64A is a front perspective view of the implant and graft construct of FIG. 62; and FIG. 64B is a cross section view of the implant and graft construct of FIG. 62, taken perpendicular to a slot in the first fixation device and through a center longitudinal axis of the first fixation device, along the section line 64B-64B shown in FIG. 64A.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

The present disclosure advances the state of the art by providing apparatus and methods for single tunnel, double bundle ACL reconstruction.

In this specification, standard medical directional terms are employed with their ordinary and customary meanings. Superior means toward the head. Inferior means away from the head. Anterior means toward the front. Posterior means toward the back. Medial means toward the midline, or plane of bilateral symmetry, of the body. Lateral means away from the midline of the body. Proximal means toward the trunk of the body. Distal means away from the trunk.

In this specification, a standard system of three mutually perpendicular reference planes is employed. A sagittal plane divides a body into bilaterally symmetric right and left portions. A coronal plane divides a body into anterior and posterior portions. A transverse plane divides a body into superior and inferior portions.

In this specification, standard knee anatomical terms are employed with their ordinary and customary meanings.

The present disclosure sets forth examples of systems for securing a ligament graft to a bone, when the graft includes a first portion and a second portion and the bone has a tunnel extending between a first opening and an opposite second end, and the tunnel includes a first longitudinal ridge and an opposite second longitudinal ridge.

In an embodiment, the system includes a first fixation device securable within the first opening. The first fixation device includes a first longitudinal groove, an opposite second longitudinal groove, a first longitudinal indentation between the first and second grooves, and an opposite second longitudinal indentation. The system also includes a second fixation device securable to the bone proximate the second end and a connector linking the first and second fixation devices. When the first and second fixation devices are secured to the bone, the first graft portion is in the first groove, the second graft portion is in the second groove, the first ridge is in the first indentation, and the second ridge is in the second indentation.

In another embodiment, the first fixation device includes a structural portion and a non-structural portion coupled to the structural portion. When the first and second fixation devices are secured to the bone, the structural portion is coupled to the connector.

In yet another embodiment, when the first and second fixation devices are secured to the bone, the non-structural portion is between the first and second graft portions.

In yet another embodiment, the structural portion and the non-structural portion are separate components.

In yet another embodiment, the structural portion is a cap and the non-structural portion is a base. A portion of the first groove is formed in the base and another portion of the first groove is formed in the cap.

In yet another embodiment, the first fixation device includes a porous portion and a non-porous solid portion coupled to the porous portion.

In yet another embodiment, when the first and second fixation devices are secured to the bone, the solid portion is coupled to the connector.

In yet another embodiment, when the first and second fixation devices are secured to the bone, the porous portion is between the first and second graft portions.

In yet another embodiment, the porous portion and the solid portion are separate components.

In yet another embodiment, the first fixation device includes a core and an outer layer over the core.

In yet another embodiment, when the first and second fixation devices are secured to the bone, the core is coupled to the connector.

In yet another embodiment, when the first and second fixation devices are secured to the bone, the outer layer contacts at least a portion of the first or second graft portions.

In yet another embodiment, the core and the outer layer are separate components.

In yet another embodiment, the core is solid and the outer layer is porous.

In yet another embodiment, the first fixation device includes a central longitudinal hole and a longitudinal slot crossing the hole and extending through the first and second indentations, the second fixation device is a washer, and the connector is a screw with a threaded portion and a head opposite the threaded portion. The screw threads longitudinally into the slot and the washer encircles the head of the screw.

Referring to FIG. 1, a right knee joint 1 is shown in an antero-medial perspective view. More specifically, FIG. 1 shows a distal end 13 of a right femur 11, a proximal end 32 of a right tibia 31, and an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) 61 connecting the femur 11 and tibia 31. The distal end 13 of the femur 11 has a medial condyle 14 and a lateral condyle 15, which are separated by an intercondylar notch 17. A cartilaginous articular surface 16 covers portions of the medial condyle 14 and the lateral condyle 15. The proximal end 32 of the tibia 31 has a medial condyle 34 and a lateral condyle 35, which are separated by an intercondylar eminence 37. The medial condyle 34, lateral condyle 35, and intercondylar eminence 37 may be collectively referred to as a tibial plateau 38. A cartilaginous articular surface 36 covers portions of the medial condyle 34 and lateral condyle 35. The ACL 61 is formed of dense regular connective tissue characterized by large amounts of densely packed strands of organized collagenous fibers.

Referring to FIG. 2, the knee 1 of FIG. 1 is shown in an anterior view with the knee 1 flexed to about 90 degrees. Fibula 51 is visible in its natural anatomic relationship to the tibia 31. The ACL 61, not shown, has been removed to reveal an attachment area 20 on the lateral aspect of the intercondylar notch 17, or in other words, on the medial aspect of the lateral condyle 15. The ACL 61 attaches to femur 11 at attachment area 20. Attachment area 20 may be referred to as the femoral footprint of the ACL 61. A cross section line A-A is shown across the distal end 13 of the femur 11 and the proximal end 32 of the tibia 31, generally parallel to the sagittal plane and generally centered in the intercondylar notch 17.

Referring to FIG. 3, the femur 11 of FIG. 2 is shown in a cross sectional view taken along line A-A, shown in FIG. 2, so that the lateral condyle 15 is shown. The femoral ACL footprint, or femoral ACL attachment area 20, has a width 21 that extends generally from antero-proximal to postero-distal, and a thickness, or height 22, that is less than the width 21.

Referring to FIG. 4, the tibia 31 and fibula 51 of FIG. 2 are shown in a proximal view. The ACL 61, not shown, has been removed to reveal an attachment area 40 in the anterior portion of the intercondylar eminence 37, hence the name “anterior cruciate ligament.” The ACL 61 attaches to the tibia 31 at attachment area 40. Attachment area 40 may be referred to as the tibial footprint of the ACL 61. The tibial ACL footprint, or tibial ACL attachment area 40, has a width 41 that extends generally from antero-medial to postero-lateral, and a thickness, or height 42, that is less than the width 41.

Referring to FIG. 5, the knee joint 1 of FIG. 2 is shown in a cross sectional view taken along line A-A, shown in FIG. 2. The knee 1 is fully extended, or in other words, the knee 1 is straight. When the knee 1 is fully extended, the individual strands of the ACL 61 extend generally in parallel between the femoral and tibial ACL attachment areas 20, 40. Strands extend between the antero-medial portion of the tibial ACL attachment area 40 and the antero-proximal portion of the femoral ACL attachment area 20. Likewise, strands extend between the postero-lateral portion of the tibial ACL attachment area 40 and the postero-distal portion of the femoral ACL attachment area 20.

Referring to FIG. 6, the knee joint 1 of FIG. 2 is shown in a cross sectional view taken along line A-A, shown in FIG. 2. The knee 1 is flexed to about 90 degrees. In FIG. 6, the relative orientation of the femoral ACL attachment area 20 to the tibial ACL attachment area 40 has changed in comparison to FIG. 5 due to relative rotation of the femur 11 and tibia 31. In FIG. 6, the antero-proximal portion of the femoral ACL attachment area 20 is closer to the postero-lateral portion of the tibial ACL attachment area 40 and the postero-distal portion of the femoral ACL attachment area 20 is closer to the antero-medial portion of the tibial ACL attachment area 40. As a result, the ACL 61 is twisted when the knee 1 is flexed. It can be readily observed in FIG. 6 that the ACL 61 has at least two bundles which cross each other when the knee 1 is flexed. A first bundle 64 attaches to the antero-medial portion of the tibial ACL attachment area 40 and a second bundle 65 attaches to the postero-lateral portion of the tibial ACL attachment area 40. For the remainder of this specification, the first bundle 64 shall be called the antero-medial (AM) bundle 64 and the second bundle 65 shall be called the postero-lateral (PL) bundle 65.

Each bundle of the ACL 61 makes a unique kinematic contribution to knee function. The AM bundle 64 is moderately lax in extension and tight in flexion. It is the main anterior-posterior stabilizer. The PL bundle 65 is tight in extension and lax in flexion. It is the main rotational stabilizer.

Returning to FIGS. 3-4, it can be appreciated that the femoral ACL attachment area 20 may be divided into an AM area 23 where the AM bundle 64 attaches to the femur 11 and a PL area 24 where the PL bundle 65 attaches to the femur 11. Likewise, the tibial ACL attachment area 40 may be divided into an AM area 43 where the AM bundle 64 attaches to the tibia 31 and a PL area 44 where the PL bundle 65 attaches to the tibia 31.

Referring to FIGS. 7-10, implant constructs according to the present disclosure are shown. The implant constructs may be used to secure an ACL reconstruction graft in the knee joint 1 (FIG. 1). The implant constructs, and individual components thereof, will be set forth and described prior to a discussion of surgical methods for preparing the knee joint 1 and inserting the exemplary implant constructs.

Referring to FIG. 7, a femoral implant construct 100 is shown. The construct 100 may include a first fixation device 110, a second fixation device 140, and a connector 150. First fixation device 110 may be described as an aperture fixation device. Second fixation device 140 may be described as a cortical fixation device. In the illustrated example, the first fixation device may be a plug 111, the second fixation device may be a button 141, and the connector 150 may be a flexible loop 151. The plug 111 may be connected to the button 141 by the loop 151.

Referring to FIGS. 8A and 8B, the plug 111 of FIG. 7 has a body 112 that may extend along a longitudinal axis 114 from a leading end 116 to a trailing end 118. A groove 120 may extend across the leading end 116 and generally parallel to the axis 114 along opposite sides of the body 112. Individual portions of the groove 120 may blend smoothly to form a U-shaped or horseshoe-shaped composite feature on the body 112. A plurality of indentations 122, 123 may be interposed between the grooved sides of the body 112 and may extend generally parallel to the axis 114 along opposite sides of the body 112. The body 112 may also have an aperture 124 extending through the body 112. The aperture 124 may be located proximate the leading end 116 or the trailing end 118, or more centrally located. With reference to FIG. 7, it can be appreciated that the aperture 124 may accept a portion of the loop 151 so as to connect the plug 111 to the loop 151.

With reference to FIG. 8B, the body 112 is shown from the trailing end 118. In this example, the profile shown in FIG. 8B may be constant over at least a portion of the length of body 212. Therefore, the body 112 may be described as having a cross section projected along the axis 114 (FIG. 8A) from the leading end 116 to the trailing end 118. In this example, the profile shown in FIG. 8B may be described as a pair of open crescent portions 126, 127 formed in back-to-back relationship and having a common central portion 128 extending between the indentations 122, 123. This example may include a hole 130 in the trailing end 118 which may extend at least partially into the body 112.

The plug 111 may be conveniently formed in a variety of sizes and shapes to offer an array of plugs from which to select. For example, the length of the plug 111 may be varied, or the radius and depth of the groove 120 may be varied. Variation of any dimension of the plug 111 is contemplated within the scope of the present disclosure. The plug 111 may be formed with a plurality of grooves 120 or a plurality of indentations 122, 123. A kit of plugs may be provided by packaging the array of plugs together in a container. Alternatively, the kit may comprise a selection of plugs which may be packaged individually, or not packaged at all.

The plug 111 may be formed of a material such as metal, polymer, ceramic, or biological tissue. The plug 111 may be formed entirely of a porous material, or may have a porous portion combined with a non-porous portion. In one example, the plug 111 may be formed of a porous polymer such as porous polyetheretherketone (PEEK). The plug 111 may incorporate one or more therapeutic agents for encouraging bony or fibrous ingrowth into the plug 111 or surrounding tissues, for preventing infection, for reducing pain or inflammation, for preventing tissue rejection, or for other therapeutic purposes.

Returning to FIG. 7, the button 141 may have a wide, flat body 142. The body 142 may also have an aperture 144 extending through the body 142. It can be appreciated that the aperture 144 may accept a portion of the loop 151 so as to connect the button 141 to the loop 151. In this manner, the plug 111 may be connected to the button 141.

In other examples, the second fixation device 140 may be an anchor, a toggle fastener, a screw and washer, a nail, a staple, an interference screw, a rivet, a wedge plug, a cross pin, or the like.

The second fixation device 140 may be formed of a material such as metal, polymer, ceramic, or biological tissue. The second fixation device 140 may be formed entirely of a porous material, or may have a porous portion combined with a non-porous portion. The second fixation device 140 may incorporate one or more therapeutic agents for encouraging bony or fibrous ingrowth into the second fixation device 140 or surrounding tissues, for preventing infection, for reducing pain or inflammation, for preventing tissue rejection, or for other therapeutic purposes.

With continued reference to FIG. 7, the loop 151 may be formed of a material such as metal, polymer, ceramic, textile, or biological tissue. The loop 151 may be formed as a monofilament, round braid, flat braid, ribbon, chain, or zip tie. The loop 151 may be continuously formed, or secured with a splice, knot, adhesive, or clamp. Alternatively, the first fixation device 110 may be connected to the second fixation device 140 by a linear connector 150 instead of a loop 151. Any of the materials and structures listed previously may be made into a linear connector by providing a single strand instead of a closed loop. Other examples of linear connectors include tacks, screws, nails, barbs, staples, and the like. In another example, the first fixation device 110 may connect directly to the second fixation device 140 without requiring a separate connector 150. For example, a toggle anchor may be carried on the first fixation device 110.

Referring to FIG. 9, a tibial implant construct 200 is shown. The construct 200 may include a first fixation device 210, a second fixation device 240, and a connector 250. First fixation device 210 may be described as an aperture fixation device. Second fixation device 240 may be described as a cortical fixation device. In this example, the first fixation device may be a plug 211, the second fixation device may be a screw construct 241, and the connector 250 may be a flexible loop 251. The plug 211 may be connected to the screw construct 241 by the loop 251.

Referring to FIGS. 10A and 10B, the plug 211 of FIG. 9 has a body 212 that may extend along a longitudinal axis 214 from a leading end 216 to a trailing end 218. A groove 220 may extend across the leading end 216 and generally parallel to the axis 214 along opposite sides of the body 212. Individual portions of the groove 220 may blend smoothly to form a U-shaped or horseshoe-shaped composite feature on the body 212. Alternatively, the groove 220 may be discontinuous so that the groove 220 extends only along opposite sides of the body 212 and is absent across the leading end 216. A pair of indentations 222, 223 may be interposed between the grooved sides of the body 212 and may extend generally parallel to the axis 214 along opposite sides of the body 212. In this example, the indentations 222, 223 have a larger radius than the indentations 122, 123 of the femoral plug 111. The body 212 may also have an aperture 224 extending through the body 212. The aperture 224 may be located proximate the leading end 216 or the trailing end 218, or centrally located. With reference to FIG. 9, it can be appreciated that the aperture 224 may accept a portion of the loop 251 so as to connect the plug 211 to the loop 251.

With reference to FIG. 10B, the body 212 is shown from the trailing end 218. In this example, the profile shown in FIG. 10B is constant over at least a portion of the length of body 212. Therefore, the body 212 may be described as having a cross section projected along the axis 214 (FIG. 10A) from the leading end 216 to the trailing end 218. In this example, the profile shown in FIG. 10B may be described as a pair of open crescent portions 226, 227 formed in back-to-back relationship and having a common central portion 228 extending between the indentations 222, 223. This example also includes a hole 230 in the trailing end 218 which may extend at least partially into the body 212.

The plug 211 may be conveniently formed in a variety of sizes and shapes to offer an array of plugs 211 from which to select. For example, the length and diameter of the plug 211 may be varied, or the radius and depth of the groove 220 may be varied. The plug 211 may also be alternatively formed with a plurality of grooves 220 or a plurality of indentations 222, 223. A kit of plugs 211 may be provided by placing the array of plugs 211 together in a container. Alternatively, the kit may comprise a selection of plugs 211 which may be packaged individually, or not packaged at all.

The plug 211 may be formed of a material such as metal, polymer, ceramic, or biological tissue. The plug 211 may be formed entirely of a porous material, or may have a porous portion combined with a non-porous portion. In one example, the plug 211 may be formed of a porous polymer such as porous polyetheretherketone (PEEK). The plug 211 may incorporate one or more therapeutic agents for encouraging bony or fibrous ingrowth into the plug 211 or surrounding tissues, for preventing infection, for reducing pain or inflammation, for preventing tissue rejection, or for other therapeutic purposes.

Returning to FIG. 9, the screw construct 241 may include a screw 242 and a washer 244. It can be appreciated that the screw 242 may engage a portion of the loop 251 and the washer 244 may press against the loop 251 so as to connect the screw construct 241 to the loop 251. In this manner, the plug 211 may be connected to the screw construct 241.

In other examples, the second fixation device 240 may be an anchor, a button, a toggle fastener, a nail, a staple, an interference screw, a rivet, a wedge plug, a cross pin, or the like.

The second fixation device 240 may be formed of a material such as metal, polymer, ceramic, or biological tissue. The second fixation device 240 may be formed entirely of a porous material, or may have a porous surface layer combined with a non-porous substrate. The second fixation device 240 may incorporate one or more therapeutic agents for encouraging bony or fibrous ingrowth into the second fixation device 240 or surrounding tissues, for preventing infection, for reducing pain or inflammation, for preventing tissue rejection, or for other therapeutic purposes.

With continued reference to FIG. 9, the loop 251 may be formed of a material such as metal, polymer, ceramic, textile, or biological tissue. The loop 251 may be formed as a monofilament, round braid, flat braid, ribbon, chain, or zip tie. The loop 251 may be continuous or secured with a splice, knot, adhesive, or clamp. Alternatively, the first fixation device 210 may be connected to the second fixation device by a linear element instead of a loop 251. As another alternative, the first fixation device 210 may connect directly to the second fixation device without requiring a separate connection component.

Referring to FIGS. 37-38 and 52, another example of a first fixation device 1500 may include a cap 1510 and a separate base 1516. The first fixation device 1500 may share at least some of the characteristics set forth for first fixation devices 110, 210. The first fixation device 1500 may have a porous portion and a non-porous portion.

The cap 1510 may be described as a structural component of the fixation device 1500 capable of sustaining relatively high stresses, such as tensile stresses. The cap may include a body 1512 and ears 1514 which extend from the body. The ears may also be described as fingers. The cap may be formed of a solid or non-porous material. The cap may be formed of any bio-compatible material, such as cobalt chrome, titanium, nickel, and alloys thereof; polymers, such as PEEK; biocomposites, such as hydroxyapatite/PLLA blend; or variations or combinations thereof. These materials may be solid or porous and may include one or more coatings.

The base 1516 may be described as a non-structural component of the fixation device 1500, at least because the base may experience lower, or more favorable, stresses than the cap 1510. The base 1516 may share at least some of the characteristics set forth for plugs 111, 211. The base may include a longitudinal aperture 1520. The aperture may also be described as a drive feature. The aperture may be hexagonal. The drive feature may be positioned substantially in the center of the implant. The drive feature may enable a complementary instrument to push and/or turn the fixation device 1500 during insertion. The aperture may be filled with biologic material. The drive feature may be used as a guide hole for a reamer during a revision procedure. The base portion 1516 may also include at least one hole transverse to the aperture. The example shown includes two holes 1522 which extend through the base substantially perpendicular to the drive feature. The hole in the base portion may accept a suture to tether the graft tendon to the fixation device 1500. This arrangement may improve fixation and may help the fixation device move as a single unit. Barbs 1523 on the base may grip the graft material. The fixation device may vary in cross-sectional area and length. The fixation device may be flared or straight on the base on each of the sides that lack barbs. The base may be formed of a porous material. For example, the base may be any biocompatible porous material. The porous material of the base may mimic the porous configuration of cancellous bone. The porous material of the base may be loaded with bioactive substances, bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs), stem cells, osteoprogenitor cells, platelet rich plasma, or any other growth factors that might encourage bony ingrowth. For example, any of these substances may be injected into the pores of the base material. The porous nature of the implant may act as a depot and delivery system for osteoinductive/osteoconductive factors which may encourage neovascularization or ligamentization of the graft tissue. The porous base may include other materials such as antimicrobials. Other examples of the base may be formed of the same or similar materials as the cap 1510. These examples of the base may be solid, or may include a solid core with a porous outer layer. The base may have one or more coatings.

Referring to FIG. 52, the fixation device 1500 may be assembled by snapping the ears or fingers 1514 of the cap 1510 onto the base portion 1516. An eyelet 1518 may be formed between the cap and the base portion when the cap and the base portion snap together. The eyelet may resemble and/or function like aperture 124. The eyelet may accept a connector like connector 150. In this arrangement, the connector may be said to couple to the cap 1510, which functions as a structural component to transfer relatively high loads, or stresses, between a graft and a second fixation device. It can be appreciated that, when the fixation device 1500 is assembled, there is a resemblance with previously described first fixation device 110. For example, a groove like groove 120 may be present; a portion of the groove may be formed in the base 1516 and another portion of the groove may be formed in the cap 1510. FIG. 52 illustrates an example in which a portion of the groove is formed by the ears 1514. It can also be appreciated that, in other examples of modular first fixation devices, the arrangement of the cap and the base may be reversed so that the cap forms a trailing end of the first fixation device and the base forms a leading end. Such an example may resemble and/or function like first fixation device 210. In other examples, the snap connection may be reversed so that ears extend from the base rather than from the cap.

Referring to FIGS. 53A-C, other examples of first fixation devices may include means other than holes 1522 for securing the graft to the fixation device. For example, FIG. 53A illustrates a secondary snap cap 1560 which may snap onto the cap 1510 to capture a section of graft material. FIG. 53B illustrates a flexible band which may be captive to, or removable from, the cap. FIG. 53C shows a suture hole 1564 similar to hole 1522, but located in the cap. These graft retention means may be present on unitary or modular fixation devices.

Referring to FIGS. 39-40, another example of a tibial implant construct is shown. The tibial construct may include a first fixation device 1524 (FIG. 39) and a second fixation device 1526 (FIG. 40). The first fixation device 1524 may share some of the characteristics set forth for first fixation devices 110, 210, or 1500. The first fixation device 1524 may divide into wings 1574 at one end. The second fixation device 1526 may share some of the characteristics set forth for second fixation device 240. The second fixation device 1526 may be an interference screw, plug, tack, or the like. In the example shown, the second fixation device 1526 is a screw and washer system that threads into an end of the first fixation device 1524 between the wings 1574. The wings may separate or expand as the screw threads into the device 1524.

Referring to FIGS. 54A-61C, more examples of tibial constructs are shown.

Referring to FIG. 54A, an implant construct 2100 is shown. The construct 2100 may include a first fixation device 2102, a second fixation device 2104, and a connector 2106. In this embodiment, the first fixation device may be a plug 2140, the second fixation device may be a washer 2110, and the connector may include a screw 2120. The construct may also include a collar 2130.

Referring to FIG. 54B, an implant construct 2200 is shown. The construct 2200 may include a first fixation device 2202, a second fixation device 2204, and a connector 2206. In this embodiment, the first fixation device may be a plug 2240, the second fixation device may be a washer 2210, and the connector may include a screw 2220. The construct may also include a collar 2230.

Referring to FIG. 54C, an implant construct 2300 is shown. The construct 2300 may include a first fixation device 2302, a second fixation device 2304, and a connector 2306. In this embodiment, the first fixation device may be a plug 2340, the second fixation device may be a washer 2310, and the connector may include a screw 2320. The construct may also include a collar 2330. FIGS. 56-57B show additional views of implant construct 2300.

The illustrated implant constructs 2100, 2200, 2300 may share common design features, yet may differ in specific dimensions or features, size or shape. For example, screws 2120, 2220, and 2320 may have progressively longer overall lengths, shank lengths, or progressively larger outer diameters. The plugs, washers, and collars may also vary in size and shape.

Referring to FIGS. 55A-55C, the implant constructs 2100, 2200, 2300 may be seen in exploded views. Each construct may be provided in an unassembled, partially assembled, or fully assembled condition. For example, construct 2100 may be provided in a partially assembled condition, in which the washer 2110 is captive to the head of the screw 2120, but the collar 2130 and plug 2140 are separate. In this condition, the system may provide intraoperative flexibility to select the appropriate collar 2130 and plug 2140 to achieve secure fixation and graft strand separation. In another example, a pre-assembled screw-washer subassembly and a pre-assembled collar-plug subassembly may be provided to simplify intraoperative decision-making.

Referring to FIGS. 58A-58D, washer 2310 illustrates design features that may be shared with washers 2110 and 210. Washer 2310 includes a flange 2312 and a socket 2314. The flange may have one or more perimeter notches 2316, which may also be called slots. The socket may intersect the washer at an angle 2318 up to 90 degrees. The socket-flange angle may be selected based on the typical angle between a bone tunnel and the surrounding cortical surface. For example, the angle may be selected based on the average geometry of the antero-medial mouth of the tibial tunnel for ACL reconstruction. The socket may have a larger internal diameter 2311 proximate the flange, and may terminate in a narrow aperture 2313 opposite the flange.

Referring to FIGS. 59A-59C, the screws 2120, 2220, 2320 and respective collars 2130, 2230, 2330 are shown assembled together. It can be appreciated that a screw may be integrally formed with a collar in other examples of the technology. Integral formation may offer advantages in reduced manufacturing cost or tolerances, while separate formation may provide for interchangeability of differently sized parts.

FIGS. 60A-60C show screws 2120, 2220, 2320 and respective collars 2130, 2230, 2330 in exploded views. Screw 2120 has a head 2122, a shank 2124, a shoulder 2126, and exterior threads 2128. The head may be spherical, and may include a drive feature 2121, such as the hex drive feature shown. The shank may be divided by the shoulder into a proximal shank 2123 between the head and the shoulder, and a distal shank 2125 between the shoulder and the threads. The screws 2120, 2220, 2320 may be fabricated from solid or non-porous materials.

Collar 2130 may include a central bore 2132 sized to slide over the threads and distal shank of screw 2120, but smaller than the shoulder of screw 2120. Collar 2130 may have a conically tapered exterior surface 2134 so that collar 2130 has a large end 2136 and a small end 2138. In other examples, the exterior surface of the collar may be pyramidal or stepped in order to produce the large and small ends. Collars 2130, 2230, 2330, and others, may be provided in a range of lengths, taper angles, and/or major diameters. The collars may be formed of a solid or non-porous material.

Referring to FIG. 61A, the plug 2140 has a body 2142 that may extend along a center longitudinal axis from a leading end 2144 to a trailing end 2146. Opposite sides of the body may be grooved 2141, 2143. The grooves may include transverse ridges or teeth 2148. The body may grow progressively wider from the leading end to the trailing end. In use, a strand of an ACL graft may lie in each groove so that the plug 2140 resides between the graft strands. The body may also be indented 2145, 2147 along its remaining sides, so that a cross section of the body taken perpendicular to the center longitudinal axis may be described as a pair of open crescent-shaped portions formed in back-to-back relationship and having a common central portion. In use, the indentations may slide into engagement with a correspondingly-shaped portion of a bone tunnel. For example, the indentations may slide into engagement with opposing projections on opposite sides of a bone tunnel formed by drilling two tunnels whose diameters partially overlap so as to form a finished tunnel with a figure-eight cross section. Thus, in use, the ACL graft strands may be positioned to lie in the grooves of the plug 2140, and the plug 2140 and ACL graft may slide together into a bone tunnel having a figure-eight cross section, so that the indentations on the plug receive corresponding protrusions of the bone tunnel wall in the midportion of the figure-eight shape.

Plug 2140 may also include a central longitudinal hole 2149 in the trailing end. At least a portion of the hole may have internal threads 2139 that correspond to the external threads on screw 2120. Plug 2140 may also include a slot 2137 across the hole and through the indentations. In alternate embodiments, plug 2140 may be tapered. For example, the grooves 2141, 2143 or the indentations 2145, 2147, or both, may diverge from the leading end 2144 to the trailing end 2146.

With reference to FIGS. 55A-55C and 57B, washer 2110 may form a ball and socket joint with the head of screw 2120. Washer 2110 may also be captive to screw 2120 after initial assembly. For example, the threaded tip of screw 2120 may be pressed through washer 2110 from the flange to the aperture until the shoulder passes through the aperture and the head rests within the socket. In this example, it may be desirable to have collar 2130 be separate from screw 2120. In another example, the head of screw 2120 may be pressed through washer 2110 from the aperture toward the flange until the head passes through the aperture and the head rests within the socket. In this example, a screw 2120 with integral collar 2130 may be suitable.

Collar 2130 may slide over the threaded tip of screw 2120 so that the large end of the collar abuts the shoulder of the screw. The threaded hole of plug 2140 may thread onto the threaded tip of screw 2120. As screw 2120 advances within plug 2140, the small end of collar 2130 enters the hole and urges the trailing end of the plug 2140 to expand within the flexibility provided by the slot. Further advancement of the screw 2120 within the hole forces the trailing end of the plug to expand progressively. In this arrangement, the collar may be considered part of first fixation device 2102, and may be described as a solid core inside the plug.

Referring to FIGS. 11-19 and 34-35, a set of instruments is shown. The set of instruments may be used to prepare the knee joint 1 (FIG. 1) to receive one or more implant constructs. The individual instruments will be set forth and described prior to a discussion of surgical methods for preparing the knee joint 1 and inserting the implant constructs 100, 200.

Referring to FIG. 34, a graft sizing block 1300 is shown. The sizing block 1300 may have an aperture 1302 which extends through the block 1300. The aperture 1302 may be described as a plurality of enlarged lobes 1304, 1305 separated by a constricted middle section 1306, a figure eight shape, an hourglass shape, a peanut shell shape, or a bicuspid epicycloid shape. The aperture 1302 may correspond to the shape of a femoral or tibial tunnel, as will be set forth in greater detail below. A slot 1308 may intersect the aperture. The block 1300 may include a mark 1310 adjacent to the aperture 1302 to communicate information about the aperture 1302. The sizing block 1300 may include a plurality of differently configured apertures, each intersected by a slot and having an adjacent mark. The apertures may be arranged in a linear array, as shown in FIG. 34, or in a rectangular, circular, or other arrangement.

Referring to FIG. 35, a trial instrument 1400 is shown. The trial instrument 1400 may comprise a shaft 1402 extending at least partially between a leading end 1404 and a trailing end 1406. The leading end 1404 may have a protruding boss 1408 that may extend along a longitudinal axis 1410. The boss 1408 may have a plurality of indentations 1416, 1417 which extend generally parallel to the axis 1410 along opposite sides of the boss 1408 so as to divide the boss 1408 into a plurality of crescent shaped portions 1418, 1419 so that the boss 1408 may replicate, mimic, or resemble the plug 111 or 211. The trailing end 1406 may include a handle 1422, strike platform 1424, or other configuration.

The boss 1408 may be conveniently formed in a variety of sizes and shapes to offer an array of bosses from which to select. The boss 1408 may also be alternatively formed with more than two crescent shaped portions. A kit of modular bosses may be provided for use with one or more trial instrument assemblies consisting of shaft 1402, handle 1422, and strike platform 1424. A kit of complete trial instruments may also be provided.

Referring to FIG. 11, a guide wire 300 is shown. The guide wire 300 may comprise a shaft 302 with a leading end 304 and a trailing end 306. The shaft 302 has a center longitudinal axis 330. The leading end 304 may be sharpened into a point, trocar, or drill configuration.

Referring to FIG. 12, a first femoral drill 400 is shown. The drill 400 may comprise a shaft 402 with a leading end 404 and a trailing end 406. The shaft 402 has a center longitudinal axis 430. The leading end 404 may be sharpened into a point, trocar, or drill configuration. In the present example, a plurality of cutting flutes 408 are formed in the leading end 404 so as to produce a drill configuration. The trailing end 406 may comprise a shank 410 which may be cylindrical, otherwise known as a straight shank. Alternatively, the shank 410 may be provided with a drive configuration corresponding to a manual or power driver fitting. For example, a drive configuration could comprise a hex shank, an SDS shank, a triangle shank, a Morse taper shank, a threaded shank, or a square shank. It is contemplated that any of these shank configurations could be further modified and remain within the scope of the present disclosure.

Referring to FIG. 13, a femoral drill guide 500 is shown. The drill guide 500 may comprise a shaft 502 with a leading end 504 and a trailing end 506. One or more holes may extend through the shaft 502 from the leading end 504 to the trailing end 506. In the present example, the shaft 502 has a first hole 508 and a second hole 510. The first hole 508 has a first center longitudinal axis 530 and the second hole 510 has a second center longitudinal axis 532 which is spaced apart from, and substantially parallel to, axis 530. The first hole 508 may receive the guide wire 300 with clearance so that the guide wire 300 may slide and rotate within the first hole 508. The second hole 510 may receive the femoral drill 400 with clearance so that the drill 400 may slide and rotate within the second hole 510. Alternatively, the second hole 510 may receive a second guide wire 300 with clearance so that the guide wire 300 may slide and rotate within the second hole 510.

In another example, not shown, the shaft 502 may lack the first hole 508. In this example, the shaft may have a protruding boss at the leading end 504. The boss may be located beside hole 510, similar to the way hole 508 is beside hole 510 in FIG. 13. In this example, the boss has a center longitudinal axis which is spaced apart from, and substantially parallel to, axis 532.

The drill guide may be provided in a variety of sizes to offer an array of drill guides from which to select. For example, the diameter of hole 510 or the distance between axes 530 and 532 may vary. A kit of drill guides may be provided. The kit may include one or more of the drill guide examples set forth above, each in a variety of sizes.

Referring to FIG. 14, a second femoral drill 600 is shown. The drill 600 may comprise a shaft 602 with a leading end 604 and a trailing end 606. The leading end 604 may have a plurality of cutting flutes 608 formed in the leading end 604 to produce a drill configuration, similar to drill 400. A depth mark 612 may be present. The trailing end 606 may comprise a shank 610 which may have various configurations, as described for shank 410 of drill 400. A cannulation, or hole 614, may extend through the shaft 602 from the leading end 604 to the trailing end 506. The hole 614 has a center longitudinal axis 630. The hole 614 may receive the guide wire 300 with clearance so that the guide wire 300 may slide and rotate within the hole 614.

Referring to FIGS. 15A and 15B, a femoral tamp 700 is shown. The tamp 700 may comprise a shaft 702 extending at least partially between a leading end 704 and a trailing end 706. The leading end 704 may have a protruding boss 708 that may extend along a longitudinal axis 710. The boss 708 may have a width 712 and a height 714 which is less than the width 712. The width 712 and height 714 may be oriented generally perpendicular to the axis 710, as shown in FIG. 15A. The boss 708 may have a plurality of indentations 716, 717 which extend generally parallel to the axis 710 along opposite sides of the boss 708 so as to divide the width 712 of the boss 708 into a plurality of lobes 718, 719. A hole 720 may extend through the tamp 700 from the leading end 702 to the trailing end 706 along axis 710. The trailing end 706 may include a handle 722, strike platform 724, or other configuration.

Referring to FIG. 15B, the boss 708 is shown from the leading end 704. In this example, the profile shown in FIG. 15B is constant over at least a portion of boss 708 in a direction generally parallel to axis 710. Therefore, boss 708 may be described as a cross section projected along the axis 710 (FIG. 15A) from the leading end 704 toward the trailing end 706. In this example, the profile shown in FIG. 15B may be described as a plurality of enlarged lobes 718, 719 separated by a constricted middle section established between indentations 716, 717. Alternatively, the profile shown in FIG. 15B may be described as being shaped like a figure eight, hourglass, peanut shell, or bicuspid epicycloid curve.

The boss 708 may be conveniently formed in a variety of sizes and shapes to offer an array of bosses from which to select. For example, the width 712 and height 714 of the boss 708 may be varied. The boss 708 may also be alternatively formed with more than two lobes. A kit of modular bosses may be provided for use with one or more femoral tamp assemblies consisting of shaft 702, handle 722, and strike platform 724. A kit of complete femoral tamps may also be provided.

Referring to FIG. 16, a third femoral drill 800 is shown. The drill 800 may comprise a shaft 802 with a leading end 804 and a trailing end 806. The shaft 802 has a center longitudinal axis 830. The leading end 804 may have a plurality of cutting flutes 808 formed in the leading end 804, similar to drill 400. The trailing end 806 may comprise a shank 810 which may have various configurations, as described for shank 410 of drill 400. At least the leading end 804 and shaft 802 of the drill 800 may be received within the hole 720 of the femoral tamp 700 with clearance so that the drill 800 may slide and rotate within the hole 720. Drill 800 may have a smaller diameter than drill 400 or drill 600. Alternatively, hole 720 may be sized to receive guide wire 300 with clearance so that the guide wire 300 may slide and rotate within the hole 720.

Referring to FIG. 17, a first tibial drill 900 is shown. The drill 900 may comprise a shaft 902 with a leading end 904 and a trailing end 906. The shaft 902 has a center longitudinal axis 930. The leading end 904 may have a plurality of cutting flutes 908 formed in the leading end 904, similar to drill 400. The trailing end 906 may comprise a shank 910 which may have various configurations, as described for shank 410 of drill 400.

Referring to FIG. 18, a second tibial drill 1000 is shown. The drill 1000 may comprise a shaft 1002 with a leading end 1004 and a trailing end 1006. The shaft 1002 has a center longitudinal axis 1030. The leading end 1004 may have a plurality of cutting flutes 1008 formed in the leading end 1004, similar to drill 400. The trailing end 1006 may comprise a shank 1010 which may have various configurations, as described for shank 410 of drill 400.

A kit of drills may be provided. The kit of drills may include drills 400, 600, 800, 900, and 1000, as set forth above. In other words, the kit may include drills which are cannulated and non-cannulated, of various diameters, of various operative lengths, which may have one or more depth marks or depth stops, and which may operatively cooperate with the guide wire 300, drill guide 500, tamp 700, or tamp 1100.

Referring to FIGS. 19A and 19B, a tibial tamp 1100 is shown. The tamp 1100 may comprise a shaft 1102 extending at least partially between a leading end 1104 and a trailing end 1106. The leading end 1104 may have a protruding boss 1108 that may extend along a longitudinal axis 1110. The boss 1108 may have a width 1112 and a height 1114 which is less than the width 1112. The width 1112 and height 1114 may be oriented generally perpendicular to the axis 1110, as shown in FIG. 19A. The boss 1108 may have a plurality of indentations 1116, 1117 which extend generally parallel to the axis 1110 along opposite sides of the boss 1108 so as to divide the width 1112 of the boss 1108 into a plurality of lobes 1118, 1119. A hole, not shown, similar to hole 720 of femoral tamp 700, may be present. The trailing end 1106 may include a handle 1122, striking platform 1124, or other configuration.

Referring to FIG. 19B, the boss 1108 is shown from the leading end 1104. In this example, the profile shown in FIG. 19B is constant over at least a portion of boss 1108 in a direction generally parallel to axis 1110. Therefore, boss 1108 may be described as a cross section projected along the axis 1110 (FIG. 19A) from the leading end 1104 toward the trailing end 1106. In this example, the profile shown in FIG. 19B may be described as a plurality of enlarged lobes 1118, 1119 separated by a constricted middle section established between indentations 1116, 1117. Alternatively, the profile shown in FIG. 19B may be described as being shaped like a figure eight, hourglass, peanut shell, or bicuspid epicycloid curve.

The boss 1108 may be formed in a variety of sizes and shapes, as described above for boss 708. A kit of modular bosses or complete tibial tamps may be provided.

Referring to FIGS. 41-46, another set of instruments is shown. These instruments may share at least some of the characteristics of the instruments of FIGS. 11-19 and 34-35.

Referring to FIG. 43, a graft sizing block 1538 may be like graft sizing block 1300. Graft sizing block 1538 has a lead in feature 1566 around each aperture 1568. The graft sizing block may have figure-eight shaped apertures as illustrated, and as described for block 1300. Apertures of other cross sections are also contemplated, such as oval cross sections.

Referring to FIG. 44, a trial 1540 may be like trial instrument 1400, although trial 1540 may lack a shaft or a handle. Trial 1540 may include a hole 1542 which may accept a suture, wire, or the like so that the trial and graft may be pulled through the graft sizing block 1538 or 1300. Trial 1540 may automatically self-align with the corresponding aperture 1568 as a result of being pulled through the aperture instead of being pushed.

Referring to FIG. 45, a femoral drill guide 1544 may be like femoral drill guide 500. Femoral drill guide 1544 may include a proximal handle 1548 and a distal window 1546 into the larger hole (comparable to hole 510) to allow for greater visibility during drilling.

A femoral drill guide trocar 1550 (not shown) may be used with the femoral drill guide 1544. The trocar may have a proximal handle 1552. The trocar may fill the drill guide and occlude the window 1546 during insertion through a portal, which may minimize soft tissue impingement in the window, essentially acting as a filler until the femoral drill guide is in the joint.

Referring to FIG. 41, femoral tamp 1528 may be like femoral tamp 700. Femoral tamp 1528 may have a distal tapered lead in portion 1530. Proximal to the lead in, the femoral tamp 1528 may include a flare 1532 which may align the graft after removal of the femoral tamp 1528.

Referring to FIG. 46, a tibial drill guide 1554 may have over/under guide tubes to match the ACL tibial footprint for the anatomically placed graft. The tibial drill guide may also include a skive slider 1572. The slider may be a block that slides along the guide tubes to keep the tubes parallel and at the proper distance. The tibial drill guide may be used to position two guide wires substantially parallel to each other (FIGS. 47-51). The tibial drill guide 1554 may match the tibial ACL footprint, and may be used to position the two guide wires to pass through the AM and PL areas, respectively. The tibial drill guide 1554 may then be removed and tunnels drilled over the guidewires.

Referring to FIG. 42, tibial tamp 1534 may be like tibial tamp 1100. Tibial tamp 1534 may include an asymmetric tip length 1536 at the distal end which may allow for a first tip 1568 to enter a tunnel while a second tip 1570 starts within the tunnel. The tibial tamp 1534 may also be self-aligning while tamping and it may either be symmetric or asymmetric.

Standard slap hammers and bone drills (not shown) may be used in conjunction with the instruments of FIGS. 41-46. These standard tools may include, for example, an 8 mm drill, a 7 mm acorn drill, a 7 mm standard drill, and a 4.5 mm drill. These drills may be like drills 400, 600, 800, 900, or 1000. Various sizes of guide pins and/or guide wires may also be used. These pins or wires may be like guide wire 300.

A femoral implant inserter 1556 (FIG. 50) may include a rotational and axial push control feature 1558 at its tip. The control feature may allow a user to push the femoral implant into position while applying torque (i.e., turning the femoral implant if needed). The control feature may include a drive feature, which may be square, hexagonal or other geometric shape. For example, a hexagonal drive feature may be compatible with drive feature 1520 on the base 1516. The femoral implant inserter may include a longitudinal suture groove. The femoral implant inserter may also have a sleeve which may cover the suture and hold the suture within the groove. The femoral implant inserter may also have a handle and/or various diameter shafts. The femoral implant inserter may help the surgeon to align the femoral implant with the femoral tunnel.

Referring to FIGS. 20-32, a method of preparing the knee joint 1 (FIG. 1) and inserting the implant constructs 100, 200 will be described.

Referring to FIG. 20, knee 1 is shown in flexion from an antero-medial view. The femoral ACL attachment area 20 is shown on the medial aspect of the lateral condyle 15. The femoral ACL attachment area 20 is further subdivided into the AM area 23 and PM area 24. The guide wire 300 may be inserted into the AM area 23. In the present example, the guide wire 300 is shown as if inserted from an antero-medial portal to the joint space.

Referring to FIG. 21, the drill guide 500 is positioned so that guide wire 300 is in hole 508, the leading end 504 abuts the medial aspect of the lateral condyle 15, and hole 510 is positioned over the PL area 24. With the drill guide 500 so positioned, axis 530 is substantially collinear with axis 330. The drill 400 may be inserted into hole 510 and rotated so that the leading end 404 of the drill 400 extends a predetermined distance past the leading end 504 of the drill guide 500 and into the medial aspect of the lateral condyle 15. With the drill 400 so positioned, axis 430 is substantially collinear with axis 532.

Referring to FIG. 22, the drill 400 and drill guide 500 have been removed, leaving the guide wire 300 in place. A first femoral hole 70 has been created in the PL area 24 by the drill 400. Hole 70 has a center longitudinal axis 72 which may be spaced apart from, and substantially parallel to, axis 330, similar to the relationship described above between axis 530 and axis 532.

Referring to FIG. 23, the drill 600 is positioned so that guide wire 300 is in hole 614. In this position, axis 630 may be substantially collinear with axis 330. Drill 600 may be advanced and rotated so that leading end 604 extends into the medial aspect of the lateral condyle 15. When depth mark 612 reaches the medial aspect of the lateral condyle 15, this may provide a visual indication that drill 600 has reached a predetermined depth, which may be equal to the distance that leading end 404 of drill 400 extends past leading end 504 of drill guide 500.

Referring to FIG. 24, the drill 600 and guide wire 300 have been removed. A second femoral hole 74 has been created in the AM area 23 by the drill 600. Hole 74 has a center longitudinal axis 76 which may be spaced apart from, and substantially parallel to, axis 72, similar to the relationship described above between axis 530 and axis 532. Holes 70 and 74 form a composite tunnel 80 which has a cross section that can be described as a plurality of enlarged lobes separated by a constricted middle section, a figure eight shape, an hourglass shape, a peanut shell shape, or a bicuspid epicycloid shape. Tunnel 80 has a width 78 which is equal to the sum of the radius of hole 70, the radius of hole 74, and the distance between axes 72 and 76. Tunnel 80 has a height 79 which is equal to the greater of the radii of holes 70 and 74.

Referring to FIG. 25, the femoral tamp 700 may be positioned so that leading end 704 abuts the medial aspect of the lateral condyle 15, lobe 718 is aligned with hole 74, and lobe 719 is aligned with hole 70. In this position, axis 710 may be situated between, and substantially parallel to, axes 72 and 76. The boss 708 may be pushed into tunnel 80, or driven in with a mallet (not shown) or other manual or powered tool. The width 712 of the boss 708 may be greater than the width 78 of the tunnel 80 and the height 714 of the boss 708 may be similar to the height 79 of the tunnel 80. Thus, as boss 708 is advanced within tunnel 80, the tunnel 80 may be selectively expanded along its width 78 more than its height 79. Alternatively, the width 712 and height 714 of the boss 708 may be chosen to selectively expand the tunnel 80 along its height 79 more than its width 78, or along both height 79 and width 78 equally.

While the femoral tamp 700 is fully inserted in the tunnel 80, the drill 800 may be inserted into hole 720 and rotated so that the leading end 804 of the drill 800 extends past the leading end 704 of the tamp 700 and into the lateral condyle 15. With the drill 800 so positioned, axis 830 may be substantially collinear with axis 710. Drill 800 may be advanced within tamp 700 until the leading end 804 penetrates the lateral cortex of the lateral condyle 15.

Alternatively, guide wire 300 may be inserted into a correspondingly sized hole 720 and advanced through the lateral condyle 15. A cannulated drill may be passed over guide wire 300 after removal of femoral tamp 700.

Referring to FIG. 26, femoral tamp 700 has been removed. A shaped tunnel 82 has been formed in the femoral ACL attachment area 20 by the femoral tamp 700. Tunnel 82 has a center longitudinal axis 84 which is substantially collinear with axis 710. Tunnel 82 has taken on a cross sectional shape that substantially corresponds to that of boss 708. Therefore, the cross section of tunnel 82 may be described as a plurality of enlarged lobes 86, 87 separated by a constricted middle section 88, a figure eight shape, an hourglass shape, a peanut shell shape, or a bicuspid epicycloid shape. The constricted middle section 88 may be described as being formed by a pair of opposite longitudinal ridges along the tunnel 82.

A smaller diameter tunnel 90, best seen in FIG. 30B, has been formed in the lateral condyle 15 by drill 800. Tunnel 90 is substantially centered on axis 84 and extends between tunnel 82 and the lateral aspect of the lateral condyle 15.

Referring to FIG. 27, a shaped tunnel 92 has been formed in the tibia 31 according to a method similar to that set forth above with regard to the femoral tunnel 82. In the present example, tunnel 92 is shown extending from the antero-medial aspect of the proximal end 32 of the tibia 31 to the tibial ACL attachment area 40 on the intercondylar eminence 37. Tunnel 92 has a center longitudinal axis 94. Tunnel 92 may be formed using guide wire 300, drill guide 500, drill 900, drill 1000, and tamp 1100. The method of preparing tunnel 92 may differ from the method of preparing tunnel 82 set forth above. Drills 900, 1000 may be of different diameters than corresponding drills 400, 600. Drills 900, 1000 may extend farther past the leading end 504 of the drill guide 500 than do corresponding drills 400, 600, such that the leading ends 904, 1004 of drills 900, 1000 may extend through the tibial ACL attachment area 40. The leading end 1104 of tamp 1100 may be advanced so that it extends to or through the tibial ACL attachment area 40. There may be no smaller diameter tunnel in the tibial 31 analogous to tunnel 90 in the femur 11.

Tunnel 92 has a cross sectional shape that substantially corresponds to that of boss 1108 of tibial tamp 1100. Therefore, the cross section of tunnel 92 may be described as a plurality of enlarged lobes 96, 97 separated by a constricted middle section 98, a figure eight shape, an hourglass shape, a peanut shell shape, or a bicuspid epicycloid shape. The constricted middle section 98 may be described as being formed by a pair of opposite longitudinal ridges along the tunnel 92.

Referring to FIG. 36, the graft sizing block 1300 and trial instrument 1400 are shown combined with a soft tissue graft 1200. Soft tissue graft 1200 may be an autograft or allograft, and may comprise a quadriceps tendon, one or more hamstring tendons, Achilles tendon, tibialis anterior tendon, peroneal tendon, or other tendinous or ligamentous graft material. Graft 1200 may also be a xenograft or artificial graft. Examples of artificial grafts include woven, knitted, or braided structures which may resemble a natural ligament or tendon. Soft tissue graft 1200 may be provided with sutures 1208, 1210, 1212, 1214 which may facilitate manipulation of soft tissue graft 1200 before and during implantation.

Soft tissue graft 1200 is shown draped across the leading end 1404 of the trial instrument 1400 and extending along the boss 1408 generally parallel to axis 1410 so that the soft tissue graft 1200 lies against crescent shaped portions 1419, 1418. The indentations 1416, 1417 of trial instrument 1400 are aligned with the constricted middle section 1306 of the aperture 1302 in the graft sizing block 1300. As the trial instrument 1400 and soft tissue graft 1200 are advanced through the aperture 1302, the relative fit of the instrument 1400 and graft 1200 in the aperture 1302 may be assessed. A snug sliding fit may indicate a proper combination of a particular size boss 1408 with a particular size graft 1200. Once a proper combination of boss 1408, aperture 1302, and graft 1200 is determined, the trial instrument 1400 and graft 1200 may be removed from the graft sizing block 1300.

Referring to FIG. 28, the femoral implant construct 100 is shown combined with the soft tissue graft 1200 to form a graft construct 1210. In the present example, the soft tissue graft 1200 may be a single hamstring tendon which rests in the groove 120 of plug 111. Soft tissue graft 1200 may have a first bundle 1202, a second bundle 1204, and a middle portion 1206.

Referring to FIG. 29, the graft construct 1210 is shown passing through the tibial tunnel 92 with the connector 150 leading and the first and second bundles 1202, 1204 of the soft tissue graft 1200 trailing. The first fixation device 110 and soft tissue graft 1200 are pulled into tunnel 82 behind connector 150. An instrument (not shown) may be used to orient first fixation device 110 with regard to tibial tunnel 92 or femoral tunnel 82 or to urge first fixation device 110 into femoral tunnel 82. For example, an instrument shaft may be inserted into hole 130 to orient and advance the first fixation device 110. Second fixation device 140 is subsequently positioned to engage the lateral aspect of the lateral condyle 15 and secured to connector 150.

Referring to FIGS. 30A and 30B, the graft construct 1210 is shown in the final implanted position in the femur 11.

FIG. 30A is a view of femoral tunnel 82 along axis 84. A cross section line B-B is shown across tunnel 82 and the distal end 13 of the femur 11. First fixation device 110 is shown from the trailing end 118. Axis 114 may be substantially parallel with axis 84; axes 114 and 84 may further be substantially collinear. Indentations 122, 123 congruently engage constricted middle section 88, while crescent portions 126, 127 open toward lobes 86, 87, thus defining separate chambers in which the first and second bundles 1202, 1204 of the soft tissue graft 1200 rest.

FIG. 30B is a cross sectional view of femur 11 taken along line B-B so that the lateral condyle 15 is shown. Second fixation device 140 is shown engaging the lateral aspect of the lateral condyle 15. First fixation device 110 and soft tissue graft 1200 are shown resting in tunnel 82 proximate the articular surface 16. Connector 150 extends from first fixation device 110 through tunnel 90 to second fixation device 140.

Referring to FIG. 31, the tibial implant construct 200 is shown in combination with the soft tissue graft 1200. In the present example, the bundles 1202, 1204 of soft tissue graft 1200 rest in the longitudinal portions of groove 220 of plug 211. According to the present example, the first fixation device 210 and connector 250 of tibial implant construct 200 may be introduced between the bundles 1202, 1204 of soft tissue graft 1200 after the graft construct 1210 has reached its final implanted position in the femur 11. Tibial implant construct 200 may be urged into tibial tunnel 92 so that the leading end 216 of the plug 211 comes to rest proximate the articular surface 36 of the tibia and axes 214, 94 are at least substantially parallel, and preferably substantially collinear. An instrument (not shown) may be used to orient first fixation device 210 with regard to tibial tunnel 92 and to urge first fixation device 210 into tibial tunnel 92. For example, an instrument shaft may be inserted into hole 230 to orient and advance the first fixation device 210.

Referring to FIGS. 32-33, the tibial implant construct 200 and soft tissue graft 1200 are shown in the final implanted position in the tibia 31. Connector 250 extends from first fixation device 210 to the antero-medial aspect of the proximal end 32 of the tibia 31. Second fixation device 240 engages connector 250 and secures the complete tibial implant construct 200 to the tibia 31. In the present example, screw 242 passes through loop 251 and advances into the proximal end 32 of the tibia 31 so that washer 244 presses loop 251 against the proximal end 32 of the tibia 31.

With reference to FIGS. 47-51, another method will now be described.

Tunnel sizes may be determined by using the sizing block 1538 and the implant trial 1540 in conjunction with the graft 1200.

For the femoral side, previously described drilling and tamping steps may be performed to prepare the bone tunnel to receive the implant and graft. A 2.4 mm guide pin, or similar guide pin, may be positioned in the AM area 23 of the femoral ACL footprint 20 until the pin tip just touches the cortical bone, but does not necessarily penetrate into the cortical bone. The femoral trocar 1550 may be inserted into the femoral drill guide 1544, and both may slide over the guide pin and into the joint. The trocar may be removed from the femoral drill guide. The surgeon may use the window 1546 in the femoral drill guide to position the drill guide over the PL area 24 of the femoral ACL footprint 20. A 7 mm drill bit, or similar, may be inserted into the femoral drill guide, and a tunnel drilled into the femur until the stopper contacts the femoral drill guide. The 7 mm drill bit and femoral drill guide may be removed. A 7 mm cannulated acorn drill may be used over the guide pin to drill a second tunnel into the femur to a designated mark on the drill. Tunnel geometry may vary depending on drill size. After the initial bone tunnel is drilled into the femur, tamp 1528 may be used to provide or refine the FIG. 8 shape as desired for the graft and the porous implant. A mallet may be used to insert sequential femoral tamps into the initial tunnel up to the depth marking to shape the tunnel for the implant and the graft. FIG. 47 illustrates leaving the tamp in place and inserting a cortical drill bit, such as drill 800, through the tamp cannulation to drill a smaller diameter tunnel through the lateral femoral cortex. The femoral tamp may then be removed using a slap hammer.

For the tibial side, previously described drilling and tamping steps may be performed to prepare the bone to receive the implant and graft. FIG. 48 illustrates inserting the tibial guide 1554 over the tibial ACL footprint and locking the guide tubes against the antero-medial tibial surface. The skive slider 1572 may slide along the guide tubes to contact the tibia. FIG. 48 also illustrates drilling through the tubes of the tibial guide with 2.4 mm guide pins, or similar. The tibial guide may be removed, leaving the pins behind. An 8 mm cannulated drill, or similar, may be used over the pins to drill through the tibial plateau. FIG. 49 illustrates using a mallet to insert the correct size tamp 1534 into the drilled tunnel until the nose of the tamp emerges into the joint. A slap hammer may be used to remove the tibial tamp.

The femoral implant and graft construct may be pulled into the joint via the tibial tunnel. FIG. 50 illustrates another approach, in which the femoral implant and graft construct is pushed through the antero-medial portal using the implant inserter 1556. Regardless of the trajectory of femoral implant and graft insertion, the femoral implant ends up in the femoral tunnel and aligned with the tunnel as described previously, the cortical fixation device is deployed against the lateral femoral cortex, and the graft tails end up in the tibial tunnel. For example, a cortical button fixation device may be pulled through the small diameter hole and flipped to lie against the cortical surface. The tibial implant may be pressed into the anterior portion of the tibial tunnel until the nose is close to the tibial plateau surface. FIG. 51 illustrates adjusting the depth of the tibial implant by turning the screw, seating the button onto the bone surface, and tying whipstitch sutures over the tibial button.

With reference to FIGS. 62-64B, another method will now be described. This method may use one of the implant constructs disclosed in FIGS. 54A-61C for antero-medial tibial fixation in ACL reconstruction.

A bone tunnel may be formed in a tibia 31 by drilling two parallel tunnels whose diameters partially overlap so as to form a single finished tunnel with a figure-eight cross section. The finished tunnel may extend through the antero-medial tibial cortex 2013 and the intercondylar eminence 37 on the tibial plateau, as best seen in FIG. 63. More specifically, one lobe of the figure-eight may extend through the portion of the tibial ACL footprint corresponding to the antero-medial bundle of the ACL, and the remaining lobe of the figure-eight may extend through the portion of the tibial ACL footprint corresponding to the postero-lateral bundle of the ACL. The finished tunnel may be further modified by selective dilation, for example, to increase the major dimension across the figure-eight. A soft ACL graft 1200, such as a hamstring tendon or artificial ligament, may be doubled on itself and the folded end introduced into the tunnel so that the free ends 2023, 2025 extend outside the antero-medial mouth of the tunnel. The plug may be brought to the tunnel mouth and axially rotated with respect to the tunnel so that the indentations align with the constricted midportion of the figure-eight, and the grooves point towards opposite lobes of the figure-eight. The free ends 2023, 2025 of the graft 1200 may be laid along the grooves, as best seen in FIG. 62. The graft and plug may be advanced together into the tunnel so that the indentations slide along the constricted midportion and the graft slides within the lobes. The screw, with pre-assembled washer and collar, may be threaded into the hole in the trailing end of the plug until the washer contacts the antero-medial cortex and the collar urges the trailing end of the plug to expand outwardly against the graft. Sutures 1208, 1210, 1212, 1214 stitched into the free ends 2023, 2025 of the graft 1200 may be positioned in the notches and tied over the washer.

Alternative examples of the methods set forth above are contemplated within the scope of the present disclosure.

In one example, the femoral tunnel 82 may be formed by inserting the guide wire 300 in the PL area 24, drilling the first femoral hole 70 in the AM area 23, drilling the second femoral hole 74 in the PL area 24, and shaping the composite tunnel 80 with the femoral tamp 700. A similar example is contemplated for tibial tunnel 92.

In another example, the femoral tunnel 82 may be formed by inserting the guide wire 300 in the AM area 23 or the PL area 24, drilling the second femoral hole 74 directly over the guide wire 300 with drill 600, removing the guide wire 300, inserting a boss of another example drill guide into the second femoral hole 74, drilling the first femoral hole 70 beside hole 74 through hole 510 of the alternate drill guide with drill 400, and shaping the composite tunnel 80 with the femoral tamp 700. A similar example is contemplated for tibial tunnel 92.

In yet another example, the tibial tunnel 92 may be prepared before the femoral tunnel 82 is prepared. In this example, the femoral tunnel 82 may be prepared through the tibial tunnel rather than through an antero-medial portal as described previously.

The technology of the present disclosure may be applicable to bone tendon bone grafts, formed and non-formed bone plugs, and/or bone wedge-plugs. For example, any one of the plugs 111, 211, 2140, 2240, or 2340; the base 1516; or the fixation device 1524 may be prepared by trimming and shaping a bone sample, with or without attached ligament or tendon. In other examples, it can be appreciated that the disclosed technology may be compatible with, or readily adaptable to, interference screws in conjunction with plugs, dual tibial tunnels, independent bundle tensioning, tibial tensioning devices, all-inside fixation systems and methods, outside-in surgical procedures and systems, all-tendon fixation systems and methods, cross-pin systems, retrograde tibial and femoral fixation (for example, with an expanding aperture implant), medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) applications in which the double bundle single tunnel technique may minimize fracture, medial collateral ligament (MCL) applications in which the technology herein may result in a surgical reconstruction that mimics the broad bone insertion area of the MCL, acromio-clavicular joing (AC) in the shoulder, rotator cuff repair, any systems with at least two graft bundles, artificial soft tissue replacements (grafts), transtibial or medial portal techniques for ACL reconstruction, and/or post-surgery delivery system of bioactive substance into the implant, for example, through a water tight docking catheter system.

One way to view the teachings set forth above is to characterize certain structures as a body means for separating a graft into a plurality of bundles and for urging the bundles against a side wall of a first bone tunnel at a first end of the first tunnel. In the various examples set forth above, the first fixation devices 110, 210, as shown in FIGS. 7-10 and 28-33 and as described in the accompanying written description, can be characterized as body means.

Certain aspects of the teachings set forth above can be characterized as fixation means for securing a first end of a graft to a first bone. In the various examples set forth above, the second fixation devices 140, 240, as shown in FIGS. 7, 9, and 28-33, can be characterized as fixation means.

Certain aspects of the teachings set forth above can be characterized as connection means for securing the body means to the fixation means. In the various examples set forth above, the connectors 150, 250, as shown in FIGS. 7, 9, and 28-33, can be characterized as connection means.

The present technology may be embodied in other specific forms without departing from its spirit or essential characteristics. It is appreciated that various features of the above-described examples can be mixed and matched to form a variety of other alternatives. As such, the described examples are to be considered in all respects only as illustrative and not restrictive. The scope of the invention is, therefore, indicated by the appended claims rather than by the foregoing description. All changes which come within the meaning and range of equivalency of the claims are to be embraced within their scope.

Claims (30)

The invention claimed is:
1. A system adapted to secure a ligament graft in a tunnel extending between a first opening and an opposite second end having a first longitudinal ridge and an opposite second longitudinal ridge, the system comprising:
a ligament graft having a first portion and a second portion;
a first fixation device securable within the first opening, wherein the first fixation device comprises a first longitudinal groove, an opposite second longitudinal groove, a first longitudinal indentation between the first and second grooves, an opposite second longitudinal indentation, a structural portion, and a non-structural portion coupled to the structural portion;
a second fixation device adapted to be secured in the tunnel proximate the second end; and
a connector linking the first and second fixation devices;
wherein, when the first and second fixation devices are secured in the tunnel, the first graft portion is in the first groove, the second graft portion is in the second groove, the first ridge is in the first indentation, the second ridge is in the second indentation, and the structural portion is coupled to the connector;
and wherein the structural portion comprises a cap; wherein the non-structural portion comprises a base; wherein a portion of the first groove is formed in the base and another portion of the first groove is formed in the cap.
2. The system of claim 1, wherein, when the first and second fixation devices are secured in the tunnel, the non-structural portion is between the first and second graft portions.
3. The system of claim 1, wherein the structural portion and the non-structural portion are separate components.
4. The system of claim 1, wherein the first fixation device comprises a porous portion and a non-porous solid portion coupled to the porous portion.
5. The system of claim 4, wherein, when the first and second fixation devices are secured in the tunnel, the solid portion is coupled to the connector and the porous portion is between the first and second graft portions.
6. The system of claim 4, wherein the porous portion and the solid portion are separate components.
7. The system of claim 1, wherein the first fixation device comprises a core and an outer layer over the core.
8. The system of claim 7, wherein, when the first and second fixation devices are secured in the tunnel, the core is coupled to the connector and the outer layer contacts at least a portion of the first or second graft portions.
9. The system of claim 7, wherein the core is solid and the outer layer is porous.
10. The system of claim 1, wherein the first fixation device comprises a central longitudinal hole and a longitudinal slot crossing the hole and extending through the first and second indentations; wherein the second fixation device comprises a washer; wherein the connector comprises a screw with a threaded portion and a head opposite the threaded portion; wherein the screw threads longitudinally into the slot; wherein the washer encircles the head of the screw.
11. A system adapted to secure a ligament graft in a tunnel extending between a first opening and an opposite second end having a first longitudinal ridge and an opposite second longitudinal ridge, the system comprising:
a ligament graft having a first portion and a second portion;
a first fixation device adapted to be secured within the first opening, wherein the first fixation device comprises a first longitudinal groove, an opposite second longitudinal groove, a first longitudinal indentation between the first and second grooves, an opposite second longitudinal indentation, a porous portion, and a non-porous solid portion coupled to the porous portion;
a second fixation device adapted to be secured in the tunnel proximate the second end; and
a connector linking the first and second fixation devices;
wherein, when the first and second fixation devices are secured in the tunnel, the first graft portion is in the first groove, the second graft portion is in the second groove, the first ridge is in the first indentation, and the second ridge is in the second indentation;
and wherein the first fixation device comprises a central longitudinal hole and a longitudinal slot crossing the hole and extending through the first and second indentations; wherein the second fixation device comprises a washer; wherein the connector comprises a screw with a threaded portion and a head opposite the threaded portion; wherein the screw threads longitudinally into the slot; wherein the washer encircles the head of the screw.
12. The system of claim 11, wherein, when the first and second fixation devices are secured in the tunnel, the solid portion is coupled to the connector and the porous portion is between the first and second graft portions.
13. The system of claim 11, wherein the porous portion and the solid portion are separate components.
14. The system of claim 11, wherein the first fixation device comprises a core and an outer layer over the core.
15. The system of claim 14, wherein, when the first and second fixation devices are secured in the tunnel, the core is coupled to the connector and the outer layer contacts at least a portion of the first or second graft portions.
16. The system of claim 14, wherein the core is solid and the outer layer is porous.
17. A system adapted to secure a ligament graft in a tunnel extending between a first opening and an opposite second end having a first longitudinal ridge and an opposite second longitudinal ridge, the system comprising:
a ligament graft having a first portion and a second portion;
a first fixation device securable within the first opening, wherein the first fixation device comprises a first longitudinal groove, an opposite second longitudinal groove, a first longitudinal indentation between the first and second grooves, and an opposite second longitudinal indentation;
a second fixation device securable within the tunnel proximate the second end; and
a connector linking the first and second fixation devices;
wherein, when the first and second fixation devices are secured in the tunnel, the first graft portion is in the first groove, the second graft portion is in the second groove, the first ridge is in the first indentation, and the second ridge is in the second indentation;
and wherein the first fixation device comprises a central longitudinal hole and a longitudinal slot crossing the hole and extending through the first and second indentations; wherein the second fixation device comprises a washer; wherein the connector comprises a screw with a threaded portion and a head opposite the threaded portion; wherein the screw threads longitudinally into the slot; wherein the washer encircles the head of the screw.
18. The system of claim 17, wherein the first fixation device comprises a core and an outer layer over the core.
19. The system of claim 18, wherein, when the first and second fixation devices are secured in the tunnel, the core is coupled to the connector and the outer layer contacts at least a portion of the first or second graft portions.
20. The system of claim 18, wherein the core is solid and the outer layer is porous.
21. A system adapted to secure a ligament graft in a tunnel extending between a first opening and an opposite second end having a first longitudinal ridge and an opposite second longitudinal ridge, the system comprising:
a ligament graft having a first portion and a second portion;
a first fixation device securable within the first opening, wherein the first fixation device comprises a first longitudinal groove, an opposite second longitudinal groove, a first longitudinal indentation between the first and second grooves, an opposite second longitudinal indentation, a structural portion, and a non-structural portion coupled to the structural portion;
a second fixation device securable within the tunnel proximate the second end; and
a connector linking the first and second fixation devices;
wherein, when the first and second fixation devices are secured in the tunnel, the first graft portion is in the first groove, the second graft portion is in the second groove, the first ridge is in the first indentation, the second ridge is in the second indentation, and the structural portion is coupled to the connector;
wherein the first fixation device comprises a central longitudinal hole and a longitudinal slot crossing the hole and extending through the first and second indentations; wherein the second fixation device comprises a washer; wherein the connector comprises a screw with a threaded portion and a head opposite the threaded portion; wherein the screw threads longitudinally into the slot; wherein the washer encircles the head of the screw.
22. The system of claim 21, wherein, when the first and second fixation devices are secured in the tunnel, the non-structural portion is between the first and second graft portions.
23. The system of claim 21, wherein the structural portion and the non-structural portion are separate components.
24. The system of claim 21, wherein the structural portion comprises a cap; wherein the non-structural portion comprises a base; wherein a portion of the first groove is formed in the base and another portion of the first groove is formed in the cap.
25. The system of claim 21, wherein the first fixation device comprises a porous portion and a non-porous solid portion coupled to the porous portion.
26. The system of claim 25, wherein, when the first and second fixation devices are secured in the tunnel, the solid portion is coupled to the connector and the porous portion is between the first and second graft portions.
27. The system of claim 25, wherein the porous portion and the solid portion are separate components.
28. The system of claim 21, wherein the first fixation device comprises a core and an outer layer over the core.
29. The system of claim 28, wherein, when the first and second fixation devices are secured in the tunnel, the core is coupled to the connector and the outer layer contacts at least a portion of the first or second graft portions.
30. The system of claim 28, wherein the core is solid and the outer layer is porous.
US13221723 2009-03-31 2011-08-30 Double bundle ACL repair system Active US8535377B2 (en)

Priority Applications (5)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US16498009 true 2009-03-31 2009-03-31
US12751072 US8617241B2 (en) 2009-03-31 2010-03-31 Double bundle ACL repair
US37875410 true 2010-08-31 2010-08-31
US201161442536 true 2011-02-14 2011-02-14
US13221723 US8535377B2 (en) 2009-03-31 2011-08-30 Double bundle ACL repair system

Applications Claiming Priority (7)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US13221723 US8535377B2 (en) 2009-03-31 2011-08-30 Double bundle ACL repair system
PCT/US2011/050040 WO2012031007A1 (en) 2010-08-31 2011-08-31 Double bundle acl repair system
CA 2808231 CA2808231C (en) 2010-08-31 2011-08-31 Double bundle acl repair system
JP2013527282A JP5892446B2 (en) 2010-08-31 2011-08-31 Double bundle acl repair system
EP20110755519 EP2611385B1 (en) 2010-08-31 2011-08-31 Double bundle acl repair system
EP20170177203 EP3251630A1 (en) 2010-08-31 2011-08-31 Double bundle acl repair system
US13968600 US20130331941A1 (en) 2009-03-31 2013-08-16 Double bundle acl repair system

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US12751072 Continuation-In-Part US8617241B2 (en) 2009-03-31 2010-03-31 Double bundle ACL repair

Related Child Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US13968600 Continuation US20130331941A1 (en) 2009-03-31 2013-08-16 Double bundle acl repair system

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20120059469A1 true US20120059469A1 (en) 2012-03-08
US8535377B2 true US8535377B2 (en) 2013-09-17

Family

ID=44645835

Family Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US13221723 Active US8535377B2 (en) 2009-03-31 2011-08-30 Double bundle ACL repair system
US13968600 Pending US20130331941A1 (en) 2009-03-31 2013-08-16 Double bundle acl repair system

Family Applications After (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US13968600 Pending US20130331941A1 (en) 2009-03-31 2013-08-16 Double bundle acl repair system

Country Status (5)

Country Link
US (2) US8535377B2 (en)
EP (2) EP2611385B1 (en)
JP (1) JP5892446B2 (en)
CA (1) CA2808231C (en)
WO (1) WO2012031007A1 (en)

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20110196490A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2011-08-11 Gadikota Hemanth R Single Tunnel, Double Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using Bone-Patellar Tendon-Bone Grafts
US20140031932A1 (en) * 2009-03-31 2014-01-30 Imds Corporation Double bundle acl repair
US20140172095A1 (en) * 2009-07-09 2014-06-19 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Tissue graft anchor assembly and instrumentation for use therewith
US8968402B2 (en) 2011-10-18 2015-03-03 Arthrocare Corporation ACL implants, instruments, and methods
US9861410B2 (en) 2016-05-06 2018-01-09 Medos International Sarl Methods, devices, and systems for blood flow

Families Citing this family (20)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US9826992B2 (en) 2007-12-21 2017-11-28 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Multiple portal guide
EP2231035A1 (en) 2007-12-21 2010-09-29 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Multiple portal guide
US8932355B2 (en) 2008-02-22 2015-01-13 Coalign Innovations, Inc. Spinal implant with expandable fixation
US20100145455A1 (en) 2008-12-10 2010-06-10 Innvotec Surgical, Inc. Lockable spinal implant
US8696751B2 (en) * 2008-12-10 2014-04-15 Coalign Innovations, Inc. Adjustable distraction cage with linked locking mechanisms
US8992620B2 (en) 2008-12-10 2015-03-31 Coalign Innovations, Inc. Adjustable distraction cage with linked locking mechanisms
US8535377B2 (en) 2009-03-31 2013-09-17 Imds Corporation Double bundle ACL repair system
EP2263608B1 (en) * 2009-06-19 2016-09-07 Arthrex, Inc. Bone-tendon-bone suture button construct
US9192404B2 (en) 2010-09-27 2015-11-24 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Device and methods for use during arthroscopic surgery
US8784426B2 (en) 2011-10-03 2014-07-22 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Double-loop endobutton, ovoid tunnel guide, and method of ACL re-construction using the ovoid tunnel guide and the double-loop endobutton
US8790352B2 (en) * 2011-10-03 2014-07-29 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Ovoid tunnel guide and method of ACL reconstruction
WO2014128551A4 (en) * 2013-02-22 2015-04-16 Sports Medicine Innovations Ag System, devices and methods for anatomically correct reconstruction of ligaments
WO2014134328A1 (en) * 2013-02-27 2014-09-04 Coorstek Medical Llc D/B/A Imds Graft fixation
EP2777570A1 (en) * 2013-03-13 2014-09-17 K2M, Inc. Fixation implant and method of inseration
CN104287797A (en) * 2013-07-18 2015-01-21 美多斯国际有限公司 Methods and devices for positioning and securing ligament grafts
US20150025631A1 (en) * 2013-07-18 2015-01-22 Medos International Sárl Methods and devices for positioning and securing ligament grafts
US9345589B2 (en) * 2013-12-19 2016-05-24 Ilion Medical, Inc. Bone implants for orthopedic procedures and corresponding methods
JP2016000114A (en) * 2014-06-12 2016-01-07 長田電機工業株式会社 Cutting tool, instrument for bone surgery and cutting method
DE102015007541A1 (en) * 2015-06-16 2016-12-22 Adalbert Missalla Tool for dilation of bone holes in reconstructive surgery and tool kit comprising such a tool
US20160375460A1 (en) 2015-06-25 2016-12-29 Joseph J. Matsko Portable Powered Paint System

Citations (105)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4738255A (en) * 1986-04-07 1988-04-19 Biotron Labs, Inc. Suture anchor system
US4772286A (en) 1987-02-17 1988-09-20 E. Marlowe Goble Ligament attachment method and apparatus
US5037422A (en) * 1990-07-02 1991-08-06 Acufex Microsurgical, Inc. Bone anchor and method of anchoring a suture to a bone
US5100417A (en) * 1990-07-13 1992-03-31 American Cyanamid Company Suture anchor and driver assembly
US5112335A (en) 1989-07-11 1992-05-12 Laboureau Jacques Philippe Instrument for marking and drilling femoral and tibial insertion tunnels
US5171259A (en) * 1990-04-02 1992-12-15 Kanji Inoue Device for nonoperatively occluding a defect
US5176682A (en) * 1992-06-01 1993-01-05 Chow James C Y Surgical implement
US5234430A (en) * 1991-12-18 1993-08-10 Huebner Randall J Orthopedic fixation screw and method
US5236445A (en) * 1990-07-02 1993-08-17 American Cyanamid Company Expandable bone anchor and method of anchoring a suture to a bone
US5258016A (en) * 1990-07-13 1993-11-02 American Cyanamid Company Suture anchor and driver assembly
US5268001A (en) * 1990-09-25 1993-12-07 Innovasive Devices, Inc. Bone fastener
US5306301A (en) 1993-02-11 1994-04-26 American Cyanamid Company Graft attachment device and method of using same
US5370662A (en) * 1993-06-23 1994-12-06 Kevin R. Stone Suture anchor assembly
US5376101A (en) * 1992-10-09 1994-12-27 The United States Surgical Corporation Suture retaining clip
US5383905A (en) * 1992-10-09 1995-01-24 United States Surgical Corporation Suture loop locking device
US5393302A (en) * 1992-10-05 1995-02-28 Clark; Ron Process for endosteal ligament mounting
WO1995019141A2 (en) 1994-01-13 1995-07-20 Mcguire David A Bone-cutting guide
US5458601A (en) * 1994-03-28 1995-10-17 Medical University Of South Carolina Adjustable ligament anchor
US5464427A (en) * 1994-10-04 1995-11-07 Synthes (U.S.A.) Expanding suture anchor
US5545180A (en) * 1993-12-13 1996-08-13 Ethicon, Inc. Umbrella-shaped suture anchor device with actuating ring member
US5562669A (en) 1994-01-13 1996-10-08 Mcguire; David A. Cruciate ligament reconstruction with tibial drill guide
US5584835A (en) * 1993-10-18 1996-12-17 Greenfield; Jon B. Soft tissue to bone fixation device and method
US5601557A (en) * 1982-05-20 1997-02-11 Hayhurst; John O. Anchoring and manipulating tissue
US5681320A (en) 1991-12-13 1997-10-28 Mcguire; David A. Bone-cutting guide
US5707395A (en) * 1997-01-16 1998-01-13 Li Medical Technologies, Inc. Surgical fastener and method and apparatus for ligament repair
US5733307A (en) * 1996-09-17 1998-03-31 Amei Technologies, Inc. Bone anchor having a suture trough
US5827285A (en) * 1996-12-12 1998-10-27 Bramlet; Dale G. Multipiece interfragmentary fixation assembly
US5871504A (en) * 1997-10-21 1999-02-16 Eaton; Katulle Koco Anchor assembly and method for securing ligaments to bone
US5935129A (en) * 1997-03-07 1999-08-10 Innovasive Devices, Inc. Methods and apparatus for anchoring objects to bone
US5957953A (en) * 1996-02-16 1999-09-28 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Expandable suture anchor
US5961520A (en) * 1993-06-14 1999-10-05 Beck, Jr.; Charles L. Endosteal anchoring device for urging a ligament against a bone surface
US5997539A (en) * 1997-05-15 1999-12-07 Spinal Concepts, Inc. Polyaxial pedicle screw having a compression locking rod gripping mechanism
US6022356A (en) 1998-03-18 2000-02-08 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Cruciate ligament reconstruction template
US6022373A (en) * 1996-09-10 2000-02-08 Li Medical Technologies, Inc. Surgical anchor and package and cartridge for surgical anchor
US6099568A (en) 1998-03-03 2000-08-08 Linvatec Corporation ACL graft fixation device and method
US6099530A (en) 1998-04-09 2000-08-08 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Soft-tissue intra-tunnel fixation device
US6110207A (en) 1996-04-23 2000-08-29 Aesculap Ag & Co. Kg Implant for securing a tendon replacement member
US6290711B1 (en) * 1999-08-13 2001-09-18 Innovasive Devices, Inc. Connector device and method for surgically joining and securing flexible tissue repair members
US6355066B1 (en) * 1998-08-19 2002-03-12 Andrew C. Kim Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction hamstring tendon fixation system
US20020165611A1 (en) * 1998-12-22 2002-11-07 Robert-Jan Enzerink Graft material convenience package
US6508830B2 (en) * 2001-04-30 2003-01-21 Musculoskeletal Transplant Foundation Suture anchor
US6517579B1 (en) * 2000-09-06 2003-02-11 Lonnie E. Paulos Method and apparatus for securing a soft tissue graft to bone during an ACL reconstruction
US6517542B1 (en) * 1999-08-04 2003-02-11 The Cleveland Clinic Foundation Bone anchoring system
US20030065390A1 (en) * 2001-09-28 2003-04-03 Justin Daniel F. Expanding ligament graft fixation system and method
US6547564B1 (en) * 1998-07-17 2003-04-15 Astra Aktiebolag Bone implant having circumferentially oriented roughness
US6554862B2 (en) 1996-11-27 2003-04-29 Ethicon, Inc. Graft ligament anchor and method for attaching a graft ligament to a bone
US6562043B1 (en) * 1998-05-21 2003-05-13 Kwan-Ho Chan Apparatus and method for ligament fixation
US20030130735A1 (en) * 2002-01-09 2003-07-10 Roger Rogalski Graft device and methods of use
US6599289B1 (en) * 2000-03-10 2003-07-29 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Graft anchor
US20030171811A1 (en) * 2002-03-08 2003-09-11 Steiner Anton J. Bone-tendon-bone assembly with allograft bone block and method for inserting same
US20030171810A1 (en) * 2002-03-08 2003-09-11 Steiner Anton J. Bone-tendon-bone assembly with cancellous allograft bone block
US6623524B2 (en) * 2000-06-09 2003-09-23 Arthrex, Inc. Method for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using cross-pin implant with eyelet
US6629977B1 (en) * 1999-11-15 2003-10-07 Arthrex, Inc. Tapered bioabsorbable interference screw and method for endosteal fixation of ligaments
US20030191530A1 (en) * 1999-02-09 2003-10-09 Sklar Joseph H. Graft ligament anchor and method for attaching a graft ligament to a bone
US20030216780A1 (en) 2002-05-15 2003-11-20 Fitts Steven E. Two piece cross-pin graft fixation
US6652563B2 (en) * 2001-10-02 2003-11-25 Arthrex, Inc. Suture anchor with internal suture loop
US6652560B1 (en) * 1999-07-03 2003-11-25 Arthrocare Corporation Bone anchor
US6656183B2 (en) * 2001-11-08 2003-12-02 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Tissue repair system
US6679890B2 (en) * 2001-08-28 2004-01-20 Joseph Y. Margulies Method and apparatus for augmentation of the femoral neck
US6712849B2 (en) * 2001-10-01 2004-03-30 Scandius Biomedical, Inc. Apparatus and method for reconstructing a ligament
US6716234B2 (en) 2001-09-13 2004-04-06 Arthrex, Inc. High strength suture material
US20040153153A1 (en) 2001-05-31 2004-08-05 Elson Robert J. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction system and method of implementing same
US6818010B2 (en) * 2000-04-29 2004-11-16 Aesculap Ag & Co. Kg Suture anchor system for joining pieces of tissue and instrument for inserting an anchor implant
US20040243132A1 (en) 2003-05-27 2004-12-02 Ethicon, Inc. Tissue fixation device
US20040267361A1 (en) * 2003-06-27 2004-12-30 Donnelly Lisa M. Flexible tibial sheath
US20040267318A1 (en) * 1997-07-23 2004-12-30 Boucher James A Apparatus and method for tibial fixation of soft tissue
US20050010289A1 (en) * 1998-01-28 2005-01-13 Mckernan Daniel J. Method and apparatus for fixing a graft in a bone tunnel
US6863671B1 (en) * 1999-10-21 2005-03-08 Storz Gmbh & Co. Kg Biodegradable fixation element
US20050071004A1 (en) * 2001-10-01 2005-03-31 Paul Re Apparatus and method for reconstructing a ligament
US6878166B2 (en) * 2000-08-28 2005-04-12 Ron Clark Method and implant for securing ligament replacement into the knee
US6902573B2 (en) * 1999-09-01 2005-06-07 Karl Storz Gmbh & Co. Kg Instrumentarium for implanting a tendon replacement
US20050159812A1 (en) * 2004-01-16 2005-07-21 Dinger Fred B.Iii Bone-tendon-bone implant
US6942666B2 (en) * 2002-03-29 2005-09-13 Ethicon, Inc. Expandable cable anchor
US20060030940A1 (en) * 2004-07-20 2006-02-09 Reinhold Schmieding Use of autogenous growth factors in bone tunnels during ligament reconstruction with mechanical containment implants
US20060142769A1 (en) * 2002-11-21 2006-06-29 Michel Collette Anchoring screw for a relay strip or suture
US7189251B2 (en) * 1995-08-22 2007-03-13 Orthohelix Surgical Designs, Inc. Open helical organic tissue anchor having recessible head and method of making the organic tissue anchor
US7211088B2 (en) * 1999-02-02 2007-05-01 Arthrex, Inc. Bioabsorbable tissue tack with oval-shaped head and method of tissue fixation using the same
US7217279B2 (en) * 2003-11-14 2007-05-15 Ethicon, Inc. Suture loop anchor
US7235100B2 (en) * 2000-09-15 2007-06-26 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp Knotless tissue anchor
US7235074B1 (en) 1999-07-09 2007-06-26 Sklar Joseph H Ligament shim
US20070156151A1 (en) 2005-12-14 2007-07-05 Zhixu Guan Expanding plug for tendon fixation
US7261716B2 (en) * 1999-12-23 2007-08-28 Karl Storz Gmbh & Co. Kg Biodegradable interference screw and tool for attaching a transplant to a bone
EP1836996A1 (en) 2006-03-20 2007-09-26 Inion Oy Implant for securing a flexible piece to bone
US20070225805A1 (en) 2006-03-21 2007-09-27 Reinhold Schmieding Ligament Fixation Using Graft Harness/Bolt Assembly
US7322978B2 (en) * 2004-06-22 2008-01-29 Hs West Investments, Llc Bone anchors for use in attaching soft tissue to a bone
US7326247B2 (en) 2003-10-30 2008-02-05 Arthrex, Inc. Method for creating a double bundle ligament orientation in a single bone tunnel during knee ligament reconstruction
US20080147063A1 (en) * 2006-11-01 2008-06-19 Depuy Mitek, Inc. Cannulated suture anchor
US20080177291A1 (en) * 2006-11-01 2008-07-24 Jensen David G Orthopedic connector system
US20080234819A1 (en) 2007-02-15 2008-09-25 Reinhold Schmieding All-inside double-bundle acl reconstruction
US20080269743A1 (en) * 2007-04-25 2008-10-30 Alaska Hand Research, Llc Method and Device for Stabilizing Joints With Limited Axial Movement
US7468074B2 (en) 2004-10-29 2008-12-23 Arthrex, Inc. Ligament fixation using graft harness
US20090012522A1 (en) * 2005-02-24 2009-01-08 Gunter Lob Fixing Element
US7500983B1 (en) 2004-06-09 2009-03-10 Biomet Sports Medicine, Llc Apparatus for soft tissue attachment
US20100049258A1 (en) 2008-08-19 2010-02-25 Dougherty Christopher P Single tunnel double bundle posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction
US7695503B1 (en) 2004-06-09 2010-04-13 Biomet Sports Medicine, Llc Method and apparatus for soft tissue attachment
US20100249930A1 (en) 2009-03-31 2010-09-30 Medicinelodge, Inc. Dba Imds Co-Innovation Double bundle acl repair
US20100262184A1 (en) * 2009-04-08 2010-10-14 Dreyfuss Peter J Bio-active construct created between fixation device and suture fixed in bone
US7819898B2 (en) 2004-06-09 2010-10-26 Biomet Sports Medicine, Llc Method and apparatus for soft tissue fixation
US20110009885A1 (en) 2009-07-09 2011-01-13 Graf Ben K Tissue Graft Anchor Assembly and Instrumentation For Use Therewith
US8034076B2 (en) * 2000-10-23 2011-10-11 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp Absorbable fastener and applying apparatus
US8114094B2 (en) * 2006-12-21 2012-02-14 Karl Storz Gmbh & Co. Kg Device for introducing an anchor element into a bone
WO2012031007A1 (en) 2010-08-31 2012-03-08 Medicinelodge, Inc Dba Imds Co-Innovation Double bundle acl repair system
US8226716B2 (en) * 2001-03-13 2012-07-24 Depuy Mitek, Inc. Method and apparatus for fixing a graft in a bone tunnel
US20130023928A1 (en) * 2011-07-21 2013-01-24 Dreyfuss Peter J Knotless suture constructs
US8435294B2 (en) 2004-11-18 2013-05-07 Cayenne Medical, Inc. Devices, systems and methods for material fixation

Family Cites Families (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1633007A (en) * 1925-09-28 1927-06-21 Fred C Ehinger Maul
US2237901A (en) * 1938-10-07 1941-04-08 William A Chun Drill
US4263903A (en) * 1979-01-08 1981-04-28 Richards Manufacturing Co., Inc. Medical staple means
WO1998017442A1 (en) * 1996-10-18 1998-04-30 Board Of Regents/University Of Texas System Impact instrument
US20040068262A1 (en) * 2002-10-02 2004-04-08 Mark Lemos Soft tissue fixation implant
CN100360090C (en) * 2005-03-21 2008-01-09 章亚东;侯树勋 Reverse squeezing fixing method and device for ligament
US7942914B2 (en) * 2006-10-17 2011-05-17 Arthroscopic Innovations Llc Method and apparatus for surgical repair
JP5359115B2 (en) * 2007-08-27 2013-12-04 三菱マテリアル株式会社 Polycrystalline silicon crushing hammer
US8470036B2 (en) * 2008-09-30 2013-06-25 William S. Barnes Method and apparatus for reconstructing a ligament

Patent Citations (125)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5601557A (en) * 1982-05-20 1997-02-11 Hayhurst; John O. Anchoring and manipulating tissue
US4738255A (en) * 1986-04-07 1988-04-19 Biotron Labs, Inc. Suture anchor system
US4772286A (en) 1987-02-17 1988-09-20 E. Marlowe Goble Ligament attachment method and apparatus
US5112335A (en) 1989-07-11 1992-05-12 Laboureau Jacques Philippe Instrument for marking and drilling femoral and tibial insertion tunnels
US5171259A (en) * 1990-04-02 1992-12-15 Kanji Inoue Device for nonoperatively occluding a defect
US5037422A (en) * 1990-07-02 1991-08-06 Acufex Microsurgical, Inc. Bone anchor and method of anchoring a suture to a bone
US5236445A (en) * 1990-07-02 1993-08-17 American Cyanamid Company Expandable bone anchor and method of anchoring a suture to a bone
US5100417A (en) * 1990-07-13 1992-03-31 American Cyanamid Company Suture anchor and driver assembly
US5258016A (en) * 1990-07-13 1993-11-02 American Cyanamid Company Suture anchor and driver assembly
US5268001A (en) * 1990-09-25 1993-12-07 Innovasive Devices, Inc. Bone fastener
US5681320A (en) 1991-12-13 1997-10-28 Mcguire; David A. Bone-cutting guide
US5234430A (en) * 1991-12-18 1993-08-10 Huebner Randall J Orthopedic fixation screw and method
US5176682A (en) * 1992-06-01 1993-01-05 Chow James C Y Surgical implement
US5393302A (en) * 1992-10-05 1995-02-28 Clark; Ron Process for endosteal ligament mounting
US5383905A (en) * 1992-10-09 1995-01-24 United States Surgical Corporation Suture loop locking device
US5376101A (en) * 1992-10-09 1994-12-27 The United States Surgical Corporation Suture retaining clip
US5306301A (en) 1993-02-11 1994-04-26 American Cyanamid Company Graft attachment device and method of using same
US5645588A (en) 1993-02-11 1997-07-08 Acufex Microsurgical, Inc. Graft attachment device
US6379361B1 (en) 1993-06-14 2002-04-30 Charles L. Beck, Jr. Endosteal anchoring device for urging a ligament against a bone surface
US5961520A (en) * 1993-06-14 1999-10-05 Beck, Jr.; Charles L. Endosteal anchoring device for urging a ligament against a bone surface
US5370662A (en) * 1993-06-23 1994-12-06 Kevin R. Stone Suture anchor assembly
US5584835A (en) * 1993-10-18 1996-12-17 Greenfield; Jon B. Soft tissue to bone fixation device and method
US5545180A (en) * 1993-12-13 1996-08-13 Ethicon, Inc. Umbrella-shaped suture anchor device with actuating ring member
US5562669A (en) 1994-01-13 1996-10-08 Mcguire; David A. Cruciate ligament reconstruction with tibial drill guide
CA2181179A1 (en) 1994-01-13 1995-07-20 David A. Mcguire Bone-cutting guide
WO1995019141A2 (en) 1994-01-13 1995-07-20 Mcguire David A Bone-cutting guide
US5458601A (en) * 1994-03-28 1995-10-17 Medical University Of South Carolina Adjustable ligament anchor
US5464427A (en) * 1994-10-04 1995-11-07 Synthes (U.S.A.) Expanding suture anchor
US7189251B2 (en) * 1995-08-22 2007-03-13 Orthohelix Surgical Designs, Inc. Open helical organic tissue anchor having recessible head and method of making the organic tissue anchor
US5957953A (en) * 1996-02-16 1999-09-28 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Expandable suture anchor
US6110207A (en) 1996-04-23 2000-08-29 Aesculap Ag & Co. Kg Implant for securing a tendon replacement member
US6022373A (en) * 1996-09-10 2000-02-08 Li Medical Technologies, Inc. Surgical anchor and package and cartridge for surgical anchor
US5733307A (en) * 1996-09-17 1998-03-31 Amei Technologies, Inc. Bone anchor having a suture trough
US8048158B2 (en) * 1996-11-27 2011-11-01 Depuy Mitek, Inc. Graft ligament anchor and method for attaching a graft ligament to a bone
US6554862B2 (en) 1996-11-27 2003-04-29 Ethicon, Inc. Graft ligament anchor and method for attaching a graft ligament to a bone
US5827285A (en) * 1996-12-12 1998-10-27 Bramlet; Dale G. Multipiece interfragmentary fixation assembly
US5707395A (en) * 1997-01-16 1998-01-13 Li Medical Technologies, Inc. Surgical fastener and method and apparatus for ligament repair
US5935129A (en) * 1997-03-07 1999-08-10 Innovasive Devices, Inc. Methods and apparatus for anchoring objects to bone
US5997539A (en) * 1997-05-15 1999-12-07 Spinal Concepts, Inc. Polyaxial pedicle screw having a compression locking rod gripping mechanism
US20040267318A1 (en) * 1997-07-23 2004-12-30 Boucher James A Apparatus and method for tibial fixation of soft tissue
US5871504A (en) * 1997-10-21 1999-02-16 Eaton; Katulle Koco Anchor assembly and method for securing ligaments to bone
US20050010289A1 (en) * 1998-01-28 2005-01-13 Mckernan Daniel J. Method and apparatus for fixing a graft in a bone tunnel
US6099568A (en) 1998-03-03 2000-08-08 Linvatec Corporation ACL graft fixation device and method
US6022356A (en) 1998-03-18 2000-02-08 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Cruciate ligament reconstruction template
US6099530A (en) 1998-04-09 2000-08-08 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Soft-tissue intra-tunnel fixation device
US6562043B1 (en) * 1998-05-21 2003-05-13 Kwan-Ho Chan Apparatus and method for ligament fixation
US6547564B1 (en) * 1998-07-17 2003-04-15 Astra Aktiebolag Bone implant having circumferentially oriented roughness
US6632245B2 (en) 1998-08-19 2003-10-14 Andrew C. Kim Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction hamstring tendon fixation system
US6355066B1 (en) * 1998-08-19 2002-03-12 Andrew C. Kim Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction hamstring tendon fixation system
US20020165611A1 (en) * 1998-12-22 2002-11-07 Robert-Jan Enzerink Graft material convenience package
US7211088B2 (en) * 1999-02-02 2007-05-01 Arthrex, Inc. Bioabsorbable tissue tack with oval-shaped head and method of tissue fixation using the same
US20030191530A1 (en) * 1999-02-09 2003-10-09 Sklar Joseph H. Graft ligament anchor and method for attaching a graft ligament to a bone
US6652560B1 (en) * 1999-07-03 2003-11-25 Arthrocare Corporation Bone anchor
US7235074B1 (en) 1999-07-09 2007-06-26 Sklar Joseph H Ligament shim
US6517542B1 (en) * 1999-08-04 2003-02-11 The Cleveland Clinic Foundation Bone anchoring system
US6290711B1 (en) * 1999-08-13 2001-09-18 Innovasive Devices, Inc. Connector device and method for surgically joining and securing flexible tissue repair members
US6902573B2 (en) * 1999-09-01 2005-06-07 Karl Storz Gmbh & Co. Kg Instrumentarium for implanting a tendon replacement
US6863671B1 (en) * 1999-10-21 2005-03-08 Storz Gmbh & Co. Kg Biodegradable fixation element
US6629977B1 (en) * 1999-11-15 2003-10-07 Arthrex, Inc. Tapered bioabsorbable interference screw and method for endosteal fixation of ligaments
US7261716B2 (en) * 1999-12-23 2007-08-28 Karl Storz Gmbh & Co. Kg Biodegradable interference screw and tool for attaching a transplant to a bone
US6599289B1 (en) * 2000-03-10 2003-07-29 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Graft anchor
US6818010B2 (en) * 2000-04-29 2004-11-16 Aesculap Ag & Co. Kg Suture anchor system for joining pieces of tissue and instrument for inserting an anchor implant
US6623524B2 (en) * 2000-06-09 2003-09-23 Arthrex, Inc. Method for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using cross-pin implant with eyelet
US6878166B2 (en) * 2000-08-28 2005-04-12 Ron Clark Method and implant for securing ligament replacement into the knee
US6517579B1 (en) * 2000-09-06 2003-02-11 Lonnie E. Paulos Method and apparatus for securing a soft tissue graft to bone during an ACL reconstruction
US7235100B2 (en) * 2000-09-15 2007-06-26 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp Knotless tissue anchor
US8034076B2 (en) * 2000-10-23 2011-10-11 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp Absorbable fastener and applying apparatus
US8226716B2 (en) * 2001-03-13 2012-07-24 Depuy Mitek, Inc. Method and apparatus for fixing a graft in a bone tunnel
US6508830B2 (en) * 2001-04-30 2003-01-21 Musculoskeletal Transplant Foundation Suture anchor
US20040153153A1 (en) 2001-05-31 2004-08-05 Elson Robert J. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction system and method of implementing same
US6679890B2 (en) * 2001-08-28 2004-01-20 Joseph Y. Margulies Method and apparatus for augmentation of the femoral neck
US6716234B2 (en) 2001-09-13 2004-04-06 Arthrex, Inc. High strength suture material
US20050171603A1 (en) * 2001-09-28 2005-08-04 Ethicon, Inc. Expanding ligament graft fixation system and method
US20030065390A1 (en) * 2001-09-28 2003-04-03 Justin Daniel F. Expanding ligament graft fixation system and method
US6887271B2 (en) * 2001-09-28 2005-05-03 Ethicon, Inc. Expanding ligament graft fixation system and method
US7008451B2 (en) 2001-09-28 2006-03-07 Ethicon, Inc. Expanding ligament graft fixation system and method
US20050071004A1 (en) * 2001-10-01 2005-03-31 Paul Re Apparatus and method for reconstructing a ligament
US20060265064A1 (en) * 2001-10-01 2006-11-23 Paul Re Apparatus and method for reconstructing a ligament
US7063724B2 (en) * 2001-10-01 2006-06-20 Scandius Biomedical, Inc. Apparatus and method for reconstructing a ligament
US6712849B2 (en) * 2001-10-01 2004-03-30 Scandius Biomedical, Inc. Apparatus and method for reconstructing a ligament
US20040172034A1 (en) * 2001-10-01 2004-09-02 Paul Re Apparatus and method for reconstructing a ligament
US6652563B2 (en) * 2001-10-02 2003-11-25 Arthrex, Inc. Suture anchor with internal suture loop
US6656183B2 (en) * 2001-11-08 2003-12-02 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Tissue repair system
US20030130735A1 (en) * 2002-01-09 2003-07-10 Roger Rogalski Graft device and methods of use
US20030171811A1 (en) * 2002-03-08 2003-09-11 Steiner Anton J. Bone-tendon-bone assembly with allograft bone block and method for inserting same
US20040030385A1 (en) * 2002-03-08 2004-02-12 Steiner Anton J. Bone-tendon- bone assembly with cancellous allograft bone block
US20050203623A1 (en) * 2002-03-08 2005-09-15 Musculoskeletal Transplant Foundation Bone tendon bone assembly with cylindrical allograft bone block
US20030171810A1 (en) * 2002-03-08 2003-09-11 Steiner Anton J. Bone-tendon-bone assembly with cancellous allograft bone block
US6942666B2 (en) * 2002-03-29 2005-09-13 Ethicon, Inc. Expandable cable anchor
US20030216780A1 (en) 2002-05-15 2003-11-20 Fitts Steven E. Two piece cross-pin graft fixation
US20060142769A1 (en) * 2002-11-21 2006-06-29 Michel Collette Anchoring screw for a relay strip or suture
US20040243132A1 (en) 2003-05-27 2004-12-02 Ethicon, Inc. Tissue fixation device
US20040267361A1 (en) * 2003-06-27 2004-12-30 Donnelly Lisa M. Flexible tibial sheath
US7326247B2 (en) 2003-10-30 2008-02-05 Arthrex, Inc. Method for creating a double bundle ligament orientation in a single bone tunnel during knee ligament reconstruction
US20080119929A1 (en) 2003-10-30 2008-05-22 Reinhold Schmieding Method for creating a double bundle ligament orientation in a single bone tunnel during knee ligament reconstruction
US7217279B2 (en) * 2003-11-14 2007-05-15 Ethicon, Inc. Suture loop anchor
US20050159812A1 (en) * 2004-01-16 2005-07-21 Dinger Fred B.Iii Bone-tendon-bone implant
US7967843B2 (en) 2004-06-09 2011-06-28 Biomet Sports Medicine, Llc Method for soft tissue attachment
US7819898B2 (en) 2004-06-09 2010-10-26 Biomet Sports Medicine, Llc Method and apparatus for soft tissue fixation
US7776077B2 (en) 2004-06-09 2010-08-17 Biomet Sports Medicince, LLC Method for soft tissue attachment
US7500983B1 (en) 2004-06-09 2009-03-10 Biomet Sports Medicine, Llc Apparatus for soft tissue attachment
US7695503B1 (en) 2004-06-09 2010-04-13 Biomet Sports Medicine, Llc Method and apparatus for soft tissue attachment
US7322978B2 (en) * 2004-06-22 2008-01-29 Hs West Investments, Llc Bone anchors for use in attaching soft tissue to a bone
US20060030940A1 (en) * 2004-07-20 2006-02-09 Reinhold Schmieding Use of autogenous growth factors in bone tunnels during ligament reconstruction with mechanical containment implants
US7468074B2 (en) 2004-10-29 2008-12-23 Arthrex, Inc. Ligament fixation using graft harness
US8435294B2 (en) 2004-11-18 2013-05-07 Cayenne Medical, Inc. Devices, systems and methods for material fixation
US20090012522A1 (en) * 2005-02-24 2009-01-08 Gunter Lob Fixing Element
US20070156151A1 (en) 2005-12-14 2007-07-05 Zhixu Guan Expanding plug for tendon fixation
EP1836996A1 (en) 2006-03-20 2007-09-26 Inion Oy Implant for securing a flexible piece to bone
US20070225805A1 (en) 2006-03-21 2007-09-27 Reinhold Schmieding Ligament Fixation Using Graft Harness/Bolt Assembly
US20080147063A1 (en) * 2006-11-01 2008-06-19 Depuy Mitek, Inc. Cannulated suture anchor
US20080177291A1 (en) * 2006-11-01 2008-07-24 Jensen David G Orthopedic connector system
US8114094B2 (en) * 2006-12-21 2012-02-14 Karl Storz Gmbh & Co. Kg Device for introducing an anchor element into a bone
US20080234819A1 (en) 2007-02-15 2008-09-25 Reinhold Schmieding All-inside double-bundle acl reconstruction
US20080269743A1 (en) * 2007-04-25 2008-10-30 Alaska Hand Research, Llc Method and Device for Stabilizing Joints With Limited Axial Movement
US20100049319A1 (en) 2008-08-19 2010-02-25 Dougherty Christopher P Single-tunnel double bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction
US20100049258A1 (en) 2008-08-19 2010-02-25 Dougherty Christopher P Single tunnel double bundle posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction
US20100249930A1 (en) 2009-03-31 2010-09-30 Medicinelodge, Inc. Dba Imds Co-Innovation Double bundle acl repair
US20110137416A1 (en) 2009-03-31 2011-06-09 Thomas H. Myers Double bundle acl repair
US20120059469A1 (en) 2009-03-31 2012-03-08 Medicinelodge, Inc. Dba Imds Co-Innovation Double bundle acl repair system
WO2010120520A2 (en) 2009-03-31 2010-10-21 Medicinelodge, Inc. Dba Imds Co-Innovate Double bundle acl repair
US20100262184A1 (en) * 2009-04-08 2010-10-14 Dreyfuss Peter J Bio-active construct created between fixation device and suture fixed in bone
US20110009885A1 (en) 2009-07-09 2011-01-13 Graf Ben K Tissue Graft Anchor Assembly and Instrumentation For Use Therewith
WO2012031007A1 (en) 2010-08-31 2012-03-08 Medicinelodge, Inc Dba Imds Co-Innovation Double bundle acl repair system
US20130023928A1 (en) * 2011-07-21 2013-01-24 Dreyfuss Peter J Knotless suture constructs

Non-Patent Citations (23)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
Basdekis George, Christel Pascal, Anne Francois. Validation of the Position of the Femoral Tunnels in Anatomic Double-Bundle ACL Reconstruction with 3-D CT Scan. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc (2009) 17:1089-1094.
Cha Peter, Brucker Peter, West Robin, Zelle Boris, Yagi Masayoshi, Kurosaka Masahiro, Fu Freddie. Arthroscopic Double-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: An Anatomic Approach, Techinical Notes: Arthroscopy vol. 21, No. 10, Oct. 2005: pp. 1275-1277.
Craig D. Morgan, Divid Caborn. Anatomic Graft Fixation Using a Retrograde Biointerference Screw for Endoscopic Anterior Cruciate Ligament. Reconstruction: Single-Bundle and 2-Bundle Techniques, Techniques in Orthopaedis 20(3): 297-302 2005.
Duthon VB, Barea C, Abrassart S, Fasel JH, Fritschy D, Menetrey J. Anatomy of the anterior cruciate ligament. Knee Surgery Sports Traumatoloty Arthroscopy 2006;14(3):204-213.
Freddie H. Fu, C. Benjamin. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using Quadruple Hamstring. Operative Techniques in Orthopaedics, vol. 9 No. 4 Oct. 1999: pp. 264-272.
Fu FH, Lo MY, Lo MS, Pombo MW, Singleton R. Anatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction: patient information handout/frequently asked questions. Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh. Not formally published. No date.
Hara K, Mochizuki T, Sekiya I, Yamaguchi K, Akita K, Muneta T. Anatomy of normal human anterior cruciate ligament attachments evaluated by divided small bundles. The American Journal of Sports Medicine 2009; 37(12) :2386-2391.
Joel T. Rohrbough, Russell F. Warren, Thomas Wickiewicz. Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Single Versus Double-Bundle Technique. Techiniques in Orthopaedics 16(2): 119-126 2001.
Lenschow, S., et al. Structural Properties of a New Device for Graft Fixation in Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: The Shim Technique. Arthroscopy Orthopedic Trauma Surg. (2001) 131:1067-1072.
Lenschow, S., et al. Structural Properties of a New Fixation Strategy in Double Bundle ACL Reconstruction: The MiniShim. Arthroscopy Orthopedic Trauma Surg. (2011) 131: 1159-1165.
Marshall JL, Warren RF, Wickiewicz TL, Reider B. The Anterior Cruciate Ligament: A Technique of Repair and Reconstruction, Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research No. 143 Sep. 1979 pp. 97-106.
Masaaki Takahashi, Mitsuhito Doi, Masashi Abe, Daisuke Suzuki, Akira Nagano. Anatomical Study of the Femoral and Tibial Insertions of the Anteromedial and Posterolateral Bundles of Human Anterior Cruciate Ligament. Am J Sports Med 2006 34: 787.
Mitsuhito Doi, Masaaki Takahashi, Masashi Abe, Daisuke Suzuki, Akira Nagano. Lateral Radiographic Study of the Tibial Sagital Insertions of the Anteromedial and Posterolateral Bundles of Human Anterior Cruciate Ligament. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol (2009) 17: 347-351.
Mochizuki T, Muneta T, Nagase T, Shirasawa SI, Akita KI, Sekiya I. Cadaveric knee observation study for describing anatomic femoral tunnel placement for two-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Arthroscopy 2006;22(4):356-361.
Petersen W, Zantop T. Anatomy of the anterior cruciate ligament with regard to its two bundles. Clinical Orthopedics and Related Research 2007;454:35-47.
Ramon A. Ruberte Thiele, M.S., Robert Brick Campbell, M.D., Annunziato Amendola, M.D., Jon K. Sekiya, M.D. Biomechanical Comparison of Figure-of-8 Versus Cylindrical Tibial Inlay Constructs for Arthroscopic Posterioe Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. Arthroscopy. The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery, vol. 26, No. 7 Jul. 2010:pp. 977-983.
Ranawat A, Fu FH. Double bundle ACL reconstruction restores anatomy, kinematics, Orthorpedics Today 2007:27:94.
Tallay Andras, Lim Mui-Hong, Bartlett John. Anatomical Study of the Human Anterior Cruciate Ligament Stum's Tiial Insertion Footprint. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc (2008) 16:741-746.
Tan JI, Chang PCC, Mitra AK, Tay BK. Anthropometry of Anterior Cruciate Ligament in Singaporean Chinnese. Ann Acad Med Singapore 1998: 27:776-9.
Wang JQ, Ao YF, Yu CL, Liu P, Xu Y, Chen LX. Clinical evaluation of double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstrcution procedure using hamstring tendon grafts: a prospective, randomized and controlled study. Chinese Medical Journal 2009;122(6):706-711.
Yong Seuk Lee, Sung Kon Kim, Jung Ho Park, Jong Woong Park, Joon Ho Wnag, Young Bok Jung, Jin Hwan Ahn. Double-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using Two Different Suspensory Femoral Fixation: A Technical Note. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. (2007) 15:1023-1027.
Zaffagnini Stefano, Bruni Danilo, Martelli Sandra, Imakiire Naoaki, Marcacci Maurilio, Russo Alessandro. Double-bundle ACL reconstruction: Influence of Femoral Tunnel Orientationin Knee Laxity Analysed with a Navigation System-an in-vitro Biomechanical Study. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2008, 9:25doi:10.1186/1471-2474-9-25 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2474/9/25.
Zaffagnini Stefano, Bruni Danilo, Martelli Sandra, Imakiire Naoaki, Marcacci Maurilio, Russo Alessandro. Double-bundle ACL reconstruction: Influence of Femoral Tunnel Orientationin Knee Laxity Analysed with a Navigation System—an in-vitro Biomechanical Study. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2008, 9:25doi:10.1186/1471-2474-9-25 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2474/9/25.

Cited By (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20110196490A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2011-08-11 Gadikota Hemanth R Single Tunnel, Double Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using Bone-Patellar Tendon-Bone Grafts
US9770323B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2017-09-26 The General Hospital Corporation Single tunnel, double bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using bone-patellar tendon-bone grafts
US9011533B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2015-04-21 The General Hospital Corporation Single tunnel, double bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using bone-patellar tendon-bone grafts
US20140031932A1 (en) * 2009-03-31 2014-01-30 Imds Corporation Double bundle acl repair
US9549811B2 (en) * 2009-03-31 2017-01-24 Imds Llc Double bundle ACL repair
US20150374488A1 (en) * 2009-03-31 2015-12-31 Thomas H. Myers Double bundle acl repair
US9216079B2 (en) * 2009-03-31 2015-12-22 Imds Llc Double bundle ACL repair
US9333020B2 (en) 2009-07-09 2016-05-10 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Tissue graft anchor assembly and instrumentation for use therewith
US9364276B2 (en) 2009-07-09 2016-06-14 Smith & Nephew, Inc Tissue graft anchor assembly and instrumentation for use therewith
US8956395B2 (en) * 2009-07-09 2015-02-17 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Tissue graft anchor assembly and instrumentation for use therewith
US20140172095A1 (en) * 2009-07-09 2014-06-19 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Tissue graft anchor assembly and instrumentation for use therewith
US8968402B2 (en) 2011-10-18 2015-03-03 Arthrocare Corporation ACL implants, instruments, and methods
US9861410B2 (en) 2016-05-06 2018-01-09 Medos International Sarl Methods, devices, and systems for blood flow

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
EP3251630A1 (en) 2017-12-06 application
US20130331941A1 (en) 2013-12-12 application
JP5892446B2 (en) 2016-03-23 grant
CA2808231A1 (en) 2012-03-08 application
WO2012031007A1 (en) 2012-03-08 application
EP2611385A1 (en) 2013-07-10 application
EP2611385B1 (en) 2017-08-23 grant
US20120059469A1 (en) 2012-03-08 application
CA2808231C (en) 2016-12-20 grant
JP2013539393A (en) 2013-10-24 application

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US6325804B1 (en) Method for fixing a graft in a bone tunnel
US8523902B2 (en) System and method for attaching soft tissue to bone
US8506597B2 (en) Method and apparatus for interosseous membrane reconstruction
US8231654B2 (en) Adjustable knotless loops
US7914539B2 (en) Tissue fixation device
US5306301A (en) Graft attachment device and method of using same
US7175632B2 (en) Cross-pin graft fixation instruments and method
US5968045A (en) Intra-articular tendon sling fixation screw
Zelle et al. Anatomical double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction
US20030023268A1 (en) Suture anchor system and method of use
US8562647B2 (en) Method and apparatus for securing soft tissue to bone
US20080161864A1 (en) Femoral fixation
US8771352B2 (en) Method and apparatus for tibial fixation of an ACL graft
US7998203B2 (en) Total knee prosthesis and method for total knee arthroplasty
US20040260298A1 (en) Device and method of fastening a graft to a bone
US20120109156A1 (en) Methods for approximating a tissue defect using an anchor assembly
US20070055255A1 (en) Bioabsorbable Endosteal Fixation Device and Method of Use
US8231674B2 (en) Bone-tendon-bone suture button constructs and methods of tissue fixation
US7651528B2 (en) Devices, systems and methods for material fixation
Shelton et al. Meniscus replacement with bone anchors: a surgical technique
US20080195205A1 (en) Articular Cartilage Fixation Device and Method
US7217279B2 (en) Suture loop anchor
EP2238944A2 (en) Adjustable suture button construct for tissue reconstruction
US20120116452A1 (en) Method and Apparatus for Soft Tissue Fixation
US7338492B2 (en) Cross-pin graft fixation, instruments, and methods

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: MEDICINELODGE, INC. DBA IMDS CO-INNOVATION, UTAH

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:MYERS, THOMAS H.;LORANG, DOUGLAS M.;TRIPLETT, DANIEL J.;AND OTHERS;SIGNING DATES FROM 20110905 TO 20111109;REEL/FRAME:027236/0310

Owner name: MYERS, THOMAS H., GEORGIA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:MYERS, THOMAS H.;LORANG, DOUGLAS M.;TRIPLETT, DANIEL J.;AND OTHERS;SIGNING DATES FROM 20110905 TO 20111109;REEL/FRAME:027236/0310

AS Assignment

Owner name: IMDS CORPORATION, UTAH

Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:MEDICINELODGE, INC. DBA IMDS CO-INNOVATION;REEL/FRAME:031013/0814

Effective date: 20120501

AS Assignment

Owner name: IMDS LLC, UTAH

Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:IMDS CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:040383/0218

Effective date: 20130901

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 4