US8402835B2 - Compensation of stress effects on pressure sensor components - Google Patents

Compensation of stress effects on pressure sensor components Download PDF

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US8402835B2
US8402835B2 US13/029,114 US201113029114A US8402835B2 US 8402835 B2 US8402835 B2 US 8402835B2 US 201113029114 A US201113029114 A US 201113029114A US 8402835 B2 US8402835 B2 US 8402835B2
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stress
resistor
component
method
direction
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US20120204653A1 (en
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Richard J. August
Michael B. Doelle
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Silicon Microstructures Inc
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Silicon Microstructures Inc
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Assigned to SILICON MICROSTRUCTURES, INC. reassignment SILICON MICROSTRUCTURES, INC. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: AUGUST, RICHARD J., DOELLE, MICHAEL B.
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01LMEASURING FORCE, STRESS, TORQUE, WORK, MECHANICAL POWER, MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY, OR FLUID PRESSURE
    • G01L9/00Measuring steady or quasi-steady pressure of a fluid or a fluent solid material by electric or magnetic pressure-sensitive elements; Transmitting or indicating the displacement of mechanical pressure-sensitive elements, used to measure the steady or quasi-steady pressure of a fluid or fluent solid material by electric or magnetic means
    • G01L9/0041Transmitting or indicating the displacement of flexible diaphragms
    • G01L9/0042Constructional details associated with semiconductive diaphragm sensors, e.g. etching, or constructional details of non-semiconductive diaphragms
    • G01L9/0048Details about the mounting of the diaphragm to its support or about the diaphragm edges, e.g. notches, round shapes for stress relief
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01LMEASURING FORCE, STRESS, TORQUE, WORK, MECHANICAL POWER, MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY, OR FLUID PRESSURE
    • G01L19/00Details of, or accessories for, apparatus for measuring steady or quasi-steady pressure of a fluent medium insofar as such details or accessories are not special to particular types of pressure gauges
    • G01L19/04Means for compensating for effects of changes of temperature, i.e. other than electric compensation
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01LMEASURING FORCE, STRESS, TORQUE, WORK, MECHANICAL POWER, MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY, OR FLUID PRESSURE
    • G01L9/00Measuring steady or quasi-steady pressure of a fluid or a fluent solid material by electric or magnetic pressure-sensitive elements; Transmitting or indicating the displacement of mechanical pressure-sensitive elements, used to measure the steady or quasi-steady pressure of a fluid or fluent solid material by electric or magnetic means
    • G01L9/0041Transmitting or indicating the displacement of flexible diaphragms
    • G01L9/0042Constructional details associated with semiconductive diaphragm sensors, e.g. etching, or constructional details of non-semiconductive diaphragms
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01LMEASURING FORCE, STRESS, TORQUE, WORK, MECHANICAL POWER, MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY, OR FLUID PRESSURE
    • G01L9/00Measuring steady or quasi-steady pressure of a fluid or a fluent solid material by electric or magnetic pressure-sensitive elements; Transmitting or indicating the displacement of mechanical pressure-sensitive elements, used to measure the steady or quasi-steady pressure of a fluid or fluent solid material by electric or magnetic means
    • G01L9/0041Transmitting or indicating the displacement of flexible diaphragms
    • G01L9/0051Transmitting or indicating the displacement of flexible diaphragms using variations in ohmic resistance
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01CRESISTORS
    • H01C10/00Adjustable resistors
    • H01C10/10Adjustable resistors adjustable by mechanical pressure or force
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01CRESISTORS
    • H01C17/00Apparatus or processes specially adapted for manufacturing resistors
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01GCAPACITORS; CAPACITORS, RECTIFIERS, DETECTORS, SWITCHING DEVICES OR LIGHT-SENSITIVE DEVICES, OF THE ELECTROLYTIC TYPE
    • H01G5/00Capacitors in which the capacitance is varied by mechanical means, e.g. by turning a shaft; Processes of their manufacture
    • H01G5/01Details
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T29/00Metal working
    • Y10T29/49Method of mechanical manufacture
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T29/00Metal working
    • Y10T29/49Method of mechanical manufacture
    • Y10T29/49002Electrical device making
    • Y10T29/49082Resistor making
    • Y10T29/49103Strain gauge making

Abstract

Pressure sensors having components with reduced variations due to stresses caused by various layers and components that are included in the manufacturing process. In one example, a first stress in a first direction causes a variation in a component. A second stress in a second direction is applied, thereby reducing the variation in the component. The first and second stresses may be caused by a polysilicon layer, while the component may be a resistor in a Wheatstone bridge.

Description

BACKGROUND

Pressure sensors have become ubiquitous the past few years as they have found their way into several new types of products. Utilized in automotive, industrial, consumer, and medical products the demand for pressure sensors has skyrocketed and shows no signs of abating.

Pressure sensors typically include a diaphragm supported by a frame. When a pressure sensor experiences a pressure, the diaphragm responds by changing shape. This causes one or more characteristics of electronic components on the diaphragm to change. These changing characteristics can be measured, and from this the pressure can be determined.

Often, the electronic components are resistors that are configured as a Wheatstone bridge located on the diaphragm. As the diaphragm distorts due to a pressure, the resistance of the resistors change. This change results in an output of the Wheatstone bridge, from which the pressure can be measured.

Unfortunately, other factors can cause characteristics of these components to change. For example, various layers or other components may cause stress to be applied to components, such as resistors, thereby changing their values. Also, various layers used in manufacturing a pressure sensor may have coefficients of thermal expansion that are different from silicon. As a pressure sensor changes temperature, these layers may provide different stresses to the components. For example, one or more of these layers may provide stresses to resistors in a Wheatstone bridge. These stresses may change their resistances, and/or cause the diaphragm to change shape, thereby causing an output of the Wheatstone bridge even in the absence of an applied pressure. This output signal in the absence of an input pressure may be referred to as an offset. In addition, the offset can change as a function of temperature due to the change in stress over temperature which is referred to as the temperature coefficient of offset.

The offset and other mismatches can cause errors, skew pressure readings, and limit the usefulness of a pressure sensor. As a result expensive external compensation would be required to minimize the errors due to the offset and the temperature coefficient of offset.

Thus, what are needed are circuits, methods, and apparatus that provide pressure sensors having components with reduced variations due to stresses caused by various layers and components that are included in the manufacturing process.

SUMMARY

Accordingly, embodiments of the present invention provide pressure sensors having components with reduced variations due to stresses caused by various layers and components that are included in the manufacturing process.

In one exemplary embodiment of the present invention, a first stress in a first direction causes a variation in a component's characteristic. A second stress in a second direction is applied, thereby reducing the variation in the component's characteristic. The second direction can be in an arbitrary direction determined to minimize the components characteristic.

In an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, the component is a diffused resistor. A mathematical description of this effect for a resistor diffused in crystal silicon is shown in FIG. 15. In other embodiments of the present invention, the component may be an implanted, polysilicon, or other type of resistor, a capacitor, transistor, diode, or other active or passive component.

In another exemplary embodiment of the present invention, the first stress is caused by a geometry formed in a polysilicon layer over the component. In other embodiments of the present invention, the first stress may be caused by geometries in other layers, by other active or passive components formed as part of the pressure sensor, or by other effects, such as those resulting from device packaging.

In another exemplary embodiment of the present invention, the size and/or shape of the geometry formed in a polysilicon layer over the component is adjusted such that the variation in the component's characteristic caused by the first stress is reduced by the application of a second stress. In other embodiments of the present invention, the second stress may be caused by other layers, by other active or passive components formed as part of the pressure sensor, or by other effects, such as those resulting from device packaging.

In various embodiments of the present invention, a geometry formed in a polysilicon or other layer and sized to reduce component variations may have various shapes. In various embodiments of the present invention these geometries may be rectangular, square, circular, or they may have other shapes. In various embodiments of the present invention, they may have one or more openings or gaps. In addition these geometries can be remotely located from the stress sensitive component although typically they are in close proximity.

Various embodiments of the present invention may incorporate one or more of these and the other features described herein. A better understanding of the nature and advantages of the present invention may be gained by reference to the following detailed description and the accompanying drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a side view of a resistor experiencing a first stress in a first direction due to a geometry formed in a polysilicon layer;

FIG. 2 illustrates a top view of a resistor experiencing a first stress in a first direction due to a geometry formed in a polysilicon layer;

FIG. 3 illustrates a resistor experiencing a first stress in a first direction and a second stress in a second direction;

FIG. 4 is a flowchart of a method of reducing a variation in a component's characteristic according to an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 5 illustrates a resistor experiencing a first stress a first direction and a second stress in a second direction;

FIG. 6 is a flowchart of a method of reducing a variation in a component's characteristic according to an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 7 illustrates a geometry formed in polysilicon layer according to an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 8 illustrates another geometry formed in a polysilicon layer according to an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 9 illustrates resistors in a Wheatstone bridge located on a diaphragm of a pressure sensor according to an embodiment of the present invention with two of the resistor pairs in a linear configuration and the other two resistor pairs in a folded configuration;

FIG. 10 illustrates a polysilicon geometry that may be placed over a pair of resistors in a linear resistor configuration according to an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 11 illustrates a polysilicon geometry that may be placed over another pair of resistors in a folded resistor configuration according to an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 12 illustrates a portion of diaphragm including polysilicon geometries and containing resistors in both the linear resistor configuration and the folded resistor configuration;

FIG. 13 illustrates low-resistance regions used to connect the resistors in a linear configuration according to an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 14 illustrates low-resistance regions used to connect the resistors in a folded configuration according to an embodiment of the present invention; and

FIG. 15 illustrates a mathematical description for minimizing the change in resistance of a diffused resistor in crystalline silicon due to stress by balancing the stress at the resistor location.

DESCRIPTION OF EXEMPLARY EMBODIMENTS

FIG. 1 is a side view of a resistor experiencing a first stress in a first direction due to a geometry formed in a polysilicon layer. This figure, as with the other included figures, is shown for illustrative purposes only, and does not limit either the possible embodiments of the present invention or the claims.

In this figure, a lightly doped p-type resistor 120 may be located in an n-type well 130. Well 130 may reside in substrate 110, which may be a diaphragm of a pressure sensor. Substrate 110 may be formed of a p− type material. Resister 120 may be covered by polysilicon layer 140.

Polysilicon layer 140 may be used as a shield to protect resistor 120 from external affects, such as charge trapping or charge migration. As such, polysilicon layer 140 may be electrically connected to well 130 and to a low impedance such as an appropriate bias or voltage supply.

It is typically desirable to not cover an entire diaphragm of a pressure sensor with polysilicon layer 140, since this will reduce the sensitivity of the pressure sensor. Also, it is desirable to have separate portions of the polysilicon layer 140 over each resistor on a diaphragm so that the separate portions are not electrically connected. In this way, the polysilicon associated with each resistor may be individually tied to that resistor's well, thereby reducing voltage effects and improving device matching. Accordingly, typically only specific areas that are to be protected, such as the area over resistor 120, are covered with polysilicon layer 140.

Unfortunately, due to stress and stress gradients within the layer, the geometry formed in polysilicon layer 140 may essentially try to curl, bow, or deform in shape. This bowing may result in a stress 150 in a first direction. This stress may cause the resistance of resistor 120 to vary. This variation may result in an offset signal in the pressure sensor. Polysilicon layer 140 may also have a different coefficient of expansion than the silicon including resistor 120. This variation in thermal coefficients may change the resistance of resistor 120 over temperature. Other effects, such as non-repeatability or hysteresis of the offset over temperature known as thermal hysteresis of offset, may also result. Accordingly, embodiments of the present invention apply a second stress, where the second stress reduces component variation, such as the variation in the resistance of resistor 120.

In these examples, the component experiencing a variation is a lightly doped p-type resistor 120. In other embodiments of the present invention, the component may be other types of resistors such as implant resistor, capacitor, diodes, transistors, or other active or passive components. Also, in this example, the first stress results from the geometry in polysilicon layer 140. In other embodiments of the present invention, other layers, such as silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, metal, or other layers may cause stresses on resistor 120. In yet other embodiments of the present invention, other active or passive components or the device packaging may cause stresses on resistor 120. Again, resistor 120 may be a resistor in a Wheatstone bridge located in a diaphragm of a pressure sensor. While this and the other included examples the resistor and other layers are part of a silicon based process, other embodiments of the present invention may utilize other processes, such as silicon germanium, or other types of processes.

FIG. 2 illustrates a top view of a resistor experiencing a first stress in a first direction due to a geometry formed in a polysilicon layer. In this example, resistor 220 resides in well 230. Polysilicon layer 240 covers resistor 220, and applies a stress 250 in a first direction to resistor 220.

Again, the stress 250 applied in a first direction to resistor 220 may cause variations in the resistance of resistor 220. These variations may cause offsets, thermal mismatches, and other inaccuracies. Accordingly, an embodiment of the present invention applies a second stress in a second direction to reduce this variation. An example is shown in the following figure.

FIG. 3 illustrates a resistor experiencing a first stress in a first direction and a second stress in a second direction. In this example, the first stress is due to polysilicon layer 340, though in other embodiments of the present invention, this first stress may have other origins. A second stress 360 in a second direction is applied to reduce variations in the resistance of resistor 320. In this specific example, a second stress is shown as being at least approximately orthogonal to the first stress, though in other embodiments of the present invention, the two stresses may have a different relationship which is determined to minimize the components characteristic. Also, in other embodiments of the present invention, a third stress may also be applied to resistor 320. In still other embodiments of the present invention, four or more stresses may be applied to resistor 320.

In various embodiments of the present invention, the first stress and the second stress are applied in an attempt to minimize component variations. In other embodiments of the present invention, two or more stresses may be adjusted relative to each other such that a net variation is retained. This variation may then further be canceled or reduced by other stress effects. For example, if it is known that an effect, such as device packaging, may cause a stress, two or more other stresses caused by a polysilicon layer may be adjusted in a way to compensate for the packaging induced stress.

A flowchart illustrating a method of reducing variations by applying a second stress is shown in the following figure.

FIG. 4 is a flowchart of a method of reducing a variation in a component's characteristic according to an embodiment of the present invention. In act 410, a first component is formed on a first side of a silicon wafer. This first component may be a resistor or other type of active or passive component. The wafer may be a diaphragm or other portion of a pressure sensor or other electrical component. In act 420, a first layer is formed over the first component. As before, this may be a polysilicon layer or other type of layer. In act 430, the first layer is patterned to form a first geometry over the first component such that a first stress in a first direction is applied to the component. In act 440, a second stress is applied in a second direction to the component such that a variation of the first component is reduced by the second stress.

In various embodiments of the present invention, the second stress may have one or more different origins. For example, the second stress may originate in the polysilicon layer 140. In other embodiments of the present invention, the second stress may originate in other layers, or in other active or passive components. In other embodiments of the present invention, the second stress may originate from other sources, such as packaging or other sources. In a specific embodiment of the present invention, a polysilicon geometry over a component is modified to reduce variations in one or more component characteristics caused by a first stress. An example is shown in the following figure.

FIG. 5 illustrates a resistor experiencing a first stress a first direction and a second stress in a second direction. In this example, polysilicon layer 540 has been sized to produce a second stress 560 in a second direction. As before, polysilicon layer 540 applies a first stress 550 in a first direction to resistor 520. The inclusion of the second stress 560 reduces the variation in the resistance of resistor 520.

FIG. 6 is a flowchart of a method of reducing a variation in a component's characteristic according to an embodiment of the present invention. In act 610, a component is formed in a first side of a wafer. In act 620, a first layer is formed over the first component. In act 630, the first layer is patterned to form a first geometry over the first component such that a first stress in a first direction is applied to the component. In act 640, the first geometry is patterned to apply a second stress in a second direction to the first component such that a variation in a component characteristic is reduced.

In the above examples, polysilicon layer 540 has been shown as being a solid geometry. In other embodiments of the present invention, these geometries may include one or more openings. These openings may be useful to direct stress to particular parts of a component. They may also be useful for other manufacturing steps, such as implantations, diffusions, bonding, or for other reasons. An example is shown in the following figure.

FIG. 7 illustrates a geometry formed in polysilicon layer according to an embodiment of the present invention. This geometry resides over resistor 720 and has openings 770. This geometry provides a first stress 750 in a first direction and a second stress in a second direction 760 to resistor 720. The net result of the two stresses is a reduced variation in the resistance of resistor 720.

FIG. 8 illustrates another geometry formed in a polysilicon layer 840 according to an embodiment of the present invention. In this example, the geometry includes openings 870. As before, this geometry provides a first stress 850 in a first direction and a second stress 860 in a second direction to a resistor 820. As before, the second stress 860 reduces or eliminates variations in component 820.

Again, these resistors may be resistors in a Wheatstone bridge located on a pressure sensor diaphragm. These resistors may be individual resistors, or they may be part of a series or parallel combination of resistors. For example, they may be a resistor in a series of two resistors, where pairs of resistors form resistances in a Wheatstone bridge. An example is shown in the following figure.

FIG. 9 illustrates resistors in a Wheatstone bridge located on a diaphragm of a pressure sensor according to an embodiment of the present invention. In this example, pairs of resistors 930 are shown on the upper and lower part of the sensing diaphragm, and pairs of resistors 940 are shown on the left and right side of the diaphragm. The resistor pairs on the upper and lower part of the diaphragm 930 are formed of two linear resistors in series, while the resistor pairs on the left and right portion of the diaphragm 940 are formed of two folded resistors. In this example, the resistors in the upper and lower diaphragm location are associated with a first polysilicon geometry, while the resistors in the left and right diaphragm location are associated with a second polysilicon geometry. Examples are shown in the following two figures.

FIG. 10 illustrates a polysilicon geometry that may be placed over a pair of resistors according to an embodiment of the present invention. Polysilicon geometry 1040 includes openings 1070. Polysilicon geometry 1040 covers resistors 1020.

FIG. 11 illustrates a polysilicon geometry that may be placed over another pair of resistors according to an embodiment of the present invention. Polysilicon geometry 1140 includes openings 1170. Polysilicon geometry 1140 covers resistors 1120.

FIG. 12 illustrates a portion of diaphragm 1210 including polysilicon geometries 1230 and 1240. These polysilicon geometries 1230 and 1240 may be used to cover resistors 920 in the example of FIG. 9.

In various embodiments of the present invention, it is undesirable to route metal lines over a diaphragm, such as diaphragm 1210, as it may result in thermal hysteresis. Accordingly, very low-resistance regions formed of p+ material may be used to connect resistors, such as resistors 920. Examples are shown in the following figures.

FIG. 13 illustrates low-resistance regions used to connect resistor pairs in a linear configuration according to an embodiment of the present invention. In this example, low-resistance regions 1350 and 1360 are used to connect resistors 1320 to each other and to other interconnect lines (not shown).

FIG. 14 illustrates low-resistance regions used to connect resistor pairs in a folded configuration according to an embodiment of the present invention. In this example, low-resistance regions 1450 and 1460 are used to connect resistors 1420 to each other and to other interconnect lines (not shown).

FIG. 15 illustrates a mathematical description for minimizing the change in resistance of a diffused resistor in crystalline silicon due to stress by balancing the stress at the resistor location.

The above description of embodiments of the invention has been presented for the purposes of illustration and description. It is not intended to be exhaustive or to limit the invention to the precise form described, and many modifications and variations are possible in light of the teaching above. The embodiments were chosen and described in order to best explain the principles of the invention and its practical applications to thereby enable others skilled in the art to best utilize the invention in various embodiments and with various modifications as are suited to the particular use contemplated. Thus, it will be appreciated that the invention is intended to cover all modifications and equivalents within the scope of the following claims.

Claims (27)

What is claimed is:
1. A method of manufacturing a pressure sensor, the method comprising:
forming a first component on a first side of a wafer;
forming a first layer over the first component;
patterning a first geometry over the first component using the first layer such that a first stress in a first direction is applied to the first component; and
applying a second stress in a second direction to the first component such that variation in the first component due to the first stress are at least reduced by the second stress.
2. The method of claim 1 wherein applying the second stress is performed by modifying the shape or sizing the first geometry in the second direction.
3. The method of claim 2 wherein the first layer is a polysilicon layer.
4. The method of claim 2 wherein the first layer is a metal layer.
5. The method of claim 2 wherein the first layer is an oxide or nitride layer.
6. The method of claim 1 wherein the variation in the behavior of the first component due to the first stress is approximately cancelled by the second stress.
7. The method of claim 1 wherein the first component is a lightly-doped p-type resistor located in an n-type well.
8. The method of claim 1 wherein the variation in the first component is a variation in resistance of a resistor.
9. The method of claim 1 wherein the first component is a MOSFET transistor.
10. The method of claim 1 wherein the variation in the first component is a variation in mobility of a MOSFET transistor.
11. The method of claim 1 wherein the first direction and the second direction are at least approximately orthogonal.
12. The method of claim 1 wherein forming a first component comprises diffusing a first resistor in the first side of the wafer.
13. The method of claim 1 wherein the first direction and the second direction have an arbitrary angular relationship and is determined to minimize the first component's characteristic.
14. The method of claim 1 wherein applying the second stress in the second direction is performed by modifying the shape or sizing of a second or third geometry in a different layers.
15. A pressure sensor comprising:
a diaphragm surrounded by a frame;
a well located in the diaphragm
a resistor located in the well;
a first layer over the resistor,
wherein the first layer is patterned to form a first geometry over the resistor such that the first geometry provides a first stress in a first direction to the resistor, and a second stress in a second direction to the resistor, and
wherein the second stress reduces a change in resistance of the resistor caused by the first stress.
16. The pressure sensor of claim 15 wherein the first geometry is approximately rectangular in shape.
17. The pressure sensor of claim 15 wherein the first geometry includes a plurality of openings.
18. The pressure sensor of claim 15 wherein the well is an n-type well.
19. The pressure sensor of claim 18 wherein the resistor is a lightly-doped p-type resistor.
20. The pressure sensor of claim 19 wherein the first layer is a polysilicon layer.
21. The pressure sensor of claim 20 wherein the resistor is a resistor in a Wheatstone bridge.
22. A method of manufacturing a pressure sensor, the method comprising:
forming a first resistor on a first side of a wafer;
forming a first layer over the first component;
patterning a first geometry over the first resistor using the first layer such that a first stress in a first direction is applied to the first component; and
patterning the first geometry to apply a second stress in a second direction to the first component such that a variation in the resistance of the first resistor due to the first stress are at least reduced by the second stress.
23. The method of claim 22 wherein the first resistor is a lightly-doped p-type resistor located in an n-type well.
24. The method of claim 22 wherein the first layer is a polysilicon layer.
25. The method of claim 22 wherein the first geometry includes a plurality of openings.
26. The method of claim 22 wherein the first direction and the second direction are at least approximately orthogonal.
27. The method of claim 22 wherein the first direction and the second direction have an arbitrary angular relationship and is determined to minimize the first components characteristic.
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EP12709999.2A EP2675749A1 (en) 2011-02-16 2012-02-16 Compensation of stress effects on pressure sensor components
JP2013554615A JP5775609B2 (en) 2011-02-16 2012-02-16 Compensation of the stress effect on the element of the pressure sensor
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