US832571A - Crescendo and diminuendo apparatus for mechanical musical instruments. - Google Patents

Crescendo and diminuendo apparatus for mechanical musical instruments. Download PDF


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US832571A US26467305A US1905264673A US832571A US 832571 A US832571 A US 832571A US 26467305 A US26467305 A US 26467305A US 1905264673 A US1905264673 A US 1905264673A US 832571 A US832571 A US 832571A
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William F Cooper
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    • G10F1/00Automatic musical instruments
    • G10F1/02Pianofortes with keyboard


4 SHEETSSHEET 1v No. 832,571 PATENTED OCT. 2, 1906. W. F. COOPER.
driwuw z No. 832,571. PATENTED OCT. 2, 1906. W. F. COOPER.
4 SHEETSSHEET 3v M II 452, 46'" ilnesaeai c nvenlm w y w in arm-mega- 4 SHEETS-SHEET 4 PATENTED 001". 2, 190a.
t n m M d citizen of the I I s ecification,reference being' had thereinto THE A. a-cnasn: 00..
Specification of I Ie'tt ers'Patent.
Patented Oct. 2,. 1906.
Application filed lane 10. 1905. SerialNo. 264.673.
' Be it known that 1, WILLIAM F. COOPER, a United States of America, residing at 'Norwalk in the county of Huron and State of Ohio, have invented certain new and usefuljlmprovements in Crescendo and Diminuendo Apparatus for-Mechanical. Musical Instruments; of which the following is a' t e accompanying drawings.
This invention has relation to crescendo and diminuendo apparatus for -mechanical musical instrumen and relates in particular to apparatus to be'iemployedin connection wit that class, of stringed instruments in ;."which the hammers which strike the strings 'are actuated by pneumatic appliances the operation of which'is-produced and controlled loudest and softest tones o strument is capable.
by means of a moving strip or sheet of perfo-v rated paper.
. The function'which is designed to be performed by my presentim roveme'nts is that of governing theQsuction means of which the movements of the action of the instru ment are produced, sons to cause the action to be operated with more .or less force or power, accordi .to thewill of the operator,
whereby beautiful and desirable effects, known to musicians as phrasing or shad- 311%; can bezobtained. I y
. y invention has forits objectthe provision of novel means whereby in instruments of,the character to which my improvement is applicable the person operating i-the instrumerit can shade or phrase the sound effectsfrom pianisslmo to'forte, or vice versa,.and
e between the throughout any desired ra 'which the in-v My invention has for its further Objechthe provision of novel means whereby the tones of the instrument belonging to the bass por tion Of the scale and thetones of the instrument belonging to .the treble portion of the scale mav be separately shaded, phrased, or
increased and diminished in'power and wherey these effects may be simultaneousl produc'ed in the tones of the bass and treb e por tions of the scale of the instrument at wi l.
- be developed in the following specific cle Still further objects of my invention will.
scribed an claimed.
Inthe accompanying drawings, illustrating my improvement, in the several figures of which like numerals designate corresponding 'parts, Figure 1 is a front elevation of the principal operating parts of a mechanical musical instrument having my improvements a plied thereto. Fig. 2 is atop plan view of t e same. Fig. 3 is an end elevation looking at the left-hand end of Fig. 1, the motor deyices 'being omitted. Fig. 4 is a vertical transverse sectional view through a portion of the a paratus shown in Fig. l, but on an enlarge scale, this portion of the apparatus being knownas the "expression controllerf Fig. 5 is a front elevation of a portion ex ression-controller boardon the same scale as ig. 4, the-top or movable'side of one of the ex 'res'sion-controllers being removed to Show t 'e interior construction'of theexpression-controller.
In the following description I will first deessa-rily into particulars, theconstruction of the mechanical musical instrument to which my improvement is applied and will then specifically describe my imprcvementand t conjunction with the'otherapparatus of a mechanical musical instrument.
Referringfirst to Figil, which shows in front elevation all the principal and essential parts of a mechanical musical instrument, 1 and 2-..designate the which serve as the supports for theentire apparatus. Betweent e end frames 1 and 2 is arra ed -the primary board 3, into which lead t e ducts 4, proceeding from the trackerbox 5, which latter is shown-in dotted lines, so as not to obstruct the view of the parts behind the same:
6 designates the main reservoir, behind which are located the main bellows 7 7, that are actuated by means of pedals or other suitable devicesl (Not shown.) Adjacent to themain reservoir 6 is locatedthe motor pressure-regulator. 8, and adjacent to the latter is arranged the controller-box 9. The motor pressure-regulator and the controller-box 9 are incommunciation with the main reservoir through a passage 10 in the bellows foundaof the e manner in which the .same operates inend frames 01' boards,-
"tion-boardl}, and the controller-b0 is in' scribe, generally, but without entering unnec- .39 l ression-controller board 22,-wh1ch board 1s ormed with certain ports, channels, and'passages that willbe hereinafter more particu- 1 "communication with the motor-"bellows by a conduit 13. -Motion is communicated'to tion is communicated through a crank 17, a rod 18, a, bell-crank- 19, and a rod'2O from a the trackerebo x'rnechanisrn from the motor-' L tempo-lever. 21, that is mounted adjac'entto the tracker-box but as the mechanism withinthe controller-box 9, as well as all the ts which l have so'far enumerated, may
3 e'ofany. desiredconstruction and form no .part of 5m present invention specific descri tion-o the same will not be herein given. Theapparatus which constitutes thesub- {gatmatter of the present invention will now more specifically described, reference being incidentally and necessarily made throughout the description to those other 'portions-ofthe apparatus of a mechanical musical instrument which have been referred to in general termsin' the foregoing descrip- Above the controller-box 9 Iarrange an exlarly described, and this board carriesupon its outer side two ex ression-controllers,(desji'gnated, respective 23 and 24,) and the board 22 is 1n communicationwith the controllenbox' 9 by. a conduit and in communication with the primary board 3. through certain channels 'or passages that will be presently referred-to; 5'
Referring. now -to Fig. 4 tie the drawings,
which is a vertical sectional view taken through the'board 22 and-one of the expression controllers; the: expressionecontroller 23 ybein theone sl owninsectiori in this view, '.it wilfbe observedithatlthe "board 22 is pro- .vided with an 11 per-channel 26"and a lower we rtical channe 27,.the'chan'nel 26 leading :toithe primary board and'the' channel 27 be- .-in gin communicationwith the conduit 25,
,leadingi-to the c'ontroller-box. The .ex res Sl0DvG0I1t-l'0ll6l isiin the form of a smal bellows that is com osed ofza. rectangular; open frame 28, 9, mova le bellows board'29, hlnged .tothe'frame '28at 30,. and a flexibl'e'air-proof 'integurnent 31,,ithat forms thesides andbne nndoif "the bellows structure, which, with its appurtenant parts, constitutes one of the expression-controllers The frame;28 has at one ,side an inwardl projecting bar32, and
t0 this baris attac ed a flap -33 of'fiexible material, that is attachedat lts-otheriend-to a bleck 34, mounted on the inside oftheibol IOWs board-QQ, this being designedto con-- trol a'port 35,*l-eadin'g the channel-27 to within the controller. 'The'be'llows-board 29 carries a small plate 36, that projects latere ally beyond the side of the bellows-board, and a spring 37gis arranged alongside the OXPIGST' sion-controller, 23, the free end of-the's'pring extending under. the plate 36'and the spring tending. to press the';bellows-board 29 out wardly to the osition shown in Fig.4..-
Alongside t e.-port a second'port 38 is provided, this port also affording communi cation between the channel 27 and the inside of the controller 23, and-over this port 38 is placeda flap-valve 39, that-is pivoted tov a bar 40, fastened to the, expression j bellowsboard .22.
8 6 A small spring 41 is connected at one end'to the 'val'vg 39 and at the. other end' to the board 22,. and this springtends to maintain the valve 39 in closed po'sition v 4 that is, closed relatively to the port 38.
A rock-shaft 42, that is ournaled in the end frame 1 and in a block 43, mounted on the expression bellows-board 22, carries adownwardly-extending curved spring-arm 44, that bears upon a friction late ,-mounted'on the outside of the bel ows-board 29, and the rock-shaft 42 has an arm 43" on its outer end, 5
which arm seats between two nuts 44 44",
carried by alrod45, that extends upwardly on the outside of the frame 1. to a point near the top thereof and is there connected toa crank 46, carried on the end of a'ro ck-shaft- 47, which is j ournaled in the frame 1 and in a block 48 and has, an upturned end 49, to a which is pivotally connected a rod 50, thatis' in turn pivot'ally connectedto a-bell-shaped lever 51, pivotally mounted on an arm 52',
extending from the side of the'tracker-boxv5.
- A rock-shaft 53 passes through a groove 54 in the .board'22, and thisrock-shaft is provided 7 with a downwarlly-extending end 55, that is attached to the valve 39 by means of an eye 56,',and the: rock shaft 53 @xtends through the fra'me l and hasan arm'55 on its outer,
end thatbears upon the top of a block 56,- that is adjustably-mounted on-the rod 45,
said block being held in its adjusted'position by a screw 57 to the expression-controller23 :are all re- The parts above desci ibedas appertainingv I IS peated in expression-controller 24,uthe twof controllers being identical inconstruction and f ression-contro ler 24 appear the-drawings have 'distin shed t cm by applying-the rovided'with, the same appurtenant arts ;v at wherethe arts appertaining to t e exsame numera s with the addition of a prime- I mark to each. 'It will be thus easy to dis+.
tinguish-between the parts belonging to the expression-controller- 23 and the a expression controller 24; I
The expression+ 'contr(')lle1 23 controls that" portionof the scale of'the instrument thatcontains-the bass notes, while the expression controller 24 controlsthatportion oftheine" matics and the-other to t e treble pneumatstr'ument that contains the treble notes, and the channel 26 is in communication with the interior of the controller 23 by a port 58, this channel leading to that portion of the channel'of the primary board that is-connected to the pneumatics-which operate the hammers of the bass strings of the instrument, while a similar channel 26, that communicates by a ort' 58 with the expression-controller 24, eads-to that ortion of the channel of the primary boar which is connected -to the Pneumatics which operate the hammers of the treble strings of the instrument. The
channel 27 in the lowerportion of the expression-controller board 22 is in communication with the interior of the expression-controller 24 b'y-two ports 35" and 38,.similar to the' ports-35 and 38, that lead. from the channel 27- into the controller 23. The main channel of the primary board 3 is divided into two sections, oneappertainin bass pneuics, this partition bein designated 3 and shown in dotted lines 0 Fig. 1 of the'draw- Fhe operation is as follows: The main bellows 7 7 being actuatedwill create a partial vacuum. in the main reservoir 6, and the air being exhausted from-the motor-bellows 12 through the conduit 13 the controller-box 9,
'the port 10, and the motor pressureregulator 8 the motor-bellows will be set in motion and will impart motion to the motor-shaft 14, through which and the sprocket-wheel 15 motion will be communicated to the trackerbox mechanism. The perforated sheet of paper in the tracker-box mechanism in passmg over. the tracker-bar will admit air through the perforations in the aper into the ducts 4, and this admission 0 air to the several ducts will of course depend uponthe positions of the perforations. in the paper. The pneumatics by means of which the hammers are operated are caused to collapse, and thus actuate the hammers by reason of the abstraction of air from the pneumatics by the suction created by the main bellows, and this 'action takes place assoon as air has been admitted through the ducts 4-by the movement of the paper in the manner above describedr Thls action of the tracker-box and the pneumatics is old and wellknown, and -I have only referred to it in ord'enfto render clear thefunction and mode of operation of my improvements. It being: understood that the neumatics-are operated by the ex tractionof a'ir therefrom, rt'wi'll be readily understood that the amount of air abstracted in a 'iven' time will determine the force with I whic the neumatics will operate. Thus, for instance, if all the air is abstracted ve suddenly from a pneumatic the-latter wil collapse suddenly and with very great force,
whereas if a less quantity than the maifimflm quantity of air is extracted fromithe pneumatics by the main bellows in the same pe-' riodof time the pneumatic will collapse without an appreciable difference in the time consumed in the operation, but with less force, and the hammer will therefore strike the strings a softer blow than in the first instance. 'Theabstraction of air from the neumatics necessarily involves a flow of air through .the primary-board channel,.
through the channels 26 26 of the expression controller board,- and through the expression-controllers 23 and 24. The tendency of' the springs 37 '37 of the controllers 23 and 24 is to maintain the bellows-board 29 at its maximum forward position, andin this position the flap 33 stands. at a considerable distance from the port 35, and therefore the passa e through this port is unobstructed, and t e maximum amount of force isimparted to the action of the neumatics. In
the normal position of parts the spring-arm 44 is out of contact with the plate 45" on the bellows-board, and the first movement of the ax ression-lever has the effect of closing the va ve 39, this closing being effected gradually or rapidly at the will of the operator. A further movement of the expression-lever brings the arm 44 into contact with the plate 45, and thereafter the further movement of the expression-lever will cause this springarm to bear with increasing strength against the plate on the bellows-board, and this action being opposed to the resilient action of the spring 37 theatmospheric ressure upon the'belloWs-board will gradual y increase in power according as the spring-arm 44 is ressed with increasing force against .the bellbws-board, and the bellows-board will therefore swing 'inwardly and bring the flap 33 gradually closer to the port 35, which action -:will have the effect of throttling the suction,
"and thereby decreasing the force which will be exerted by the pneumatics when they are thrown into operation. to cause the'hammers to strike the strings. A reverse movement of the expression lever will of course result in a reversal of the action of the parts, and the reverse'movement of the expression-lever is effected by means of a-suitable retractingspring 58, connected to the rod 50, andan' 2. In apparatus of the character described,
the combination with the eithe instrument of a bellows in communication with said Bill-REEL a spring arranged to exfiend said bellowsya flap carried by the below andextending over a ort constituting a portion of said air-channe a-second valve" arranged ad acent to a second port, -also communicatmeens for closing said va ve and a which both-said meansare operated; g In an apparatus of th character-demab d, the combination with n'cumaticallyoperated. action afipliances,
expression-comm ers,
ports communicating 'withthe bellows,- a' valve carried by the bellows and'extending over one port, said valve attached to a 'movable' partpf the bellows,-a'-second valve.
arranged adjacent to the' secondport, said -controllers being-each adapted to control a tion appliances andmeans'for separately-pp;
portion of said pneumatically-operated ac crating, each c'ontrolljen; v I
4. Anexpression-controller for mechanical musical instruments comprising a bellows, a
' spring adapted to expand the bellows, I a
valve operable by the movement of the bellows and ada'ptedto govern. the assa e of through a 'port opening into it e' be lows .a second'valve locatedad-jacent said firs tmanually-operable meansfor closing the belwith said climzinel, meansifor 1 overcoming-t e resiliencof said. p'ring',i ever-by a plurality of; each controller com- I prising. a belloWs'f-an air-channel having two rock-shaft and adapte to bear against the bellows for overcoming the resiliency of said spring.
named'valveand'governing' separate-port,
means for operating said second valve and lows in-opposition'tothe expanding action of said s ring. 1
5 n apparatus of the character described, an expression controller adapted to control 4 rality'of ports communicating with saidconv the fioii'efair through the apparatus, a plutroller; a pluralit v of valves arranged adia- -cent to saidports and maintained norm 1y open.-position,- and means for, gradually (and successively closing both said valves.
In testimony whereof I affiic signature in the presence of two witnesses.
. Witnesses: 5
' Joe B. CoNNoLLY,
L. L. Down.
US26467305A 1905-06-10 1905-06-10 Crescendo and diminuendo apparatus for mechanical musical instruments. Expired - Lifetime US832571A (en)

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