US829969A - Safety appliance for railways. - Google Patents

Safety appliance for railways. Download PDF


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US829969A US31585405A US1905315854A US829969A US 829969 A US829969 A US 829969A US 31585405 A US31585405 A US 31585405A US 1905315854 A US1905315854 A US 1905315854A US 829969 A US829969 A US 829969A
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Charles J Kintner
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    • B61L3/00Devices along the route for controlling devices on the vehicle or vehicle train, e.g. to release brake, to operate a warning signal
    • B61L3/02Devices along the route for controlling devices on the vehicle or vehicle train, e.g. to release brake, to operate a warning signal at selected places along the route, e.g. intermittent control simultaneous mechanical and electrical control
    • B61L3/04Devices along the route for controlling devices on the vehicle or vehicle train, e.g. to release brake, to operate a warning signal at selected places along the route, e.g. intermittent control simultaneous mechanical and electrical control controlling mechanically


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WITNESSES: (5? J6 M S INVENTOR No. 929,999. PATENTED SEPT. 4, 1906.
' c. J. KINTNER.
" INVENTOR No. 829,969. PATENTED SEPT. 4, 1906.
' INVENTOR New York, borough of UNITED srn rns CHARLES J. KINTNER, NEVV'YORK, N. Y.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Sept. 4:, 1906.
Application filed January 27,1905. Renewed May 9,1906. Serial No. 315.854.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, CHARLES J. KINTNER, a citizen of the United States, residing in and State of New York, have made a new and useful Invention in Safety Appliances for Railways, of which the following is a specification.
My invention is directed particularly to improvements upon safety appliances for railways disclosed in prior applications for patents filed by me in the United States Patent 'Oflice and especially to a system embodied in United States application bearing Serial N 0. 211,342, filed June 6, 1904," and it has for its objects, first, to provide improved arrangements of track-circuit-controlling conductors whereby better insulation is effected for such parts, and I am enabled to use signal and switch controlling batteries of higher voltage than is possible with existing types of rail way safety appliances which rely upon track circuit-closing devices controlled by the wheels and aXles'of a car as it passes over the route; second, to provide a system of electrically-controlled railway-signals e1nbodying home and distant signals, in which the two sets of signals are absolutely independently controlled-that is to say, the distant signal is not in any sense acted upon or controlled by its companion home signal, thercby avoiding any possibility of an error due to the failure of the home signal where the dis tant signal is made dependent upon the positive operation or action of the former; third, to provide an improved system of track-circult-closing rails or conductors like that disclosed in my before-mentioned application, in which said track-circuit closing or control ling rails offer a minimum mechanical resistance to the flanges of the wheels of the cars and a minimum amount of metal is required therefor; fourth, to provide a system of sectional track-circuit closing or controlling rails or conductors which are yieldingly sustained by springs closely adjacent to either or both track-rails; fifth, to provide a'system of sectional track-circuit closing or controlling rails or conductors which are effectually iu sulated from-the weather at all times and in such manner that even though a section of the track be flooded a car in passing thereover will control and operate the signals or the circuit connections affected by such trackcircuit closing or controlling rails without a possibility of failure, thereby making the sys- Manhattan, county.
tern practical for all, conditions of weather; sixth, to combine with such track-circuit closing or controlling rails a system of electrical conductors for controlling the movements of trains, both as to signals and as to the pcwercurrent, which conductors are effectually insulated within a conduit or conduits closely adjacent to either one or both of the trackrails; seventh, tocontrol the movements of semaphores through the agency of electric motors having circuit connections such that the motors are always out out of circuit when the semaphores are at safety, they being always positively geared to the armatures of the motors in such manner that when released the armatures of the motors and interconnecting gearing act as retarding means to prevent the too sudden movement of the semaphores in such manner as to harm them by impact or otherwise with parts of the sig nal-sustaining posts; eighth, to provide a novel arrangement of home and distant semaphores such that the home semaphore always gives indication of danger by hanging in a definite position, preferably vertically, and the distant-semaphore indication of caution by hanging in a different position, preferably transverse the track, the arrangement being such that when both semaphores are set they are displayed at right angles to each other, while when both are at safety they are wholly housed and free from action of the weather; ninth, the provision of novel means for releasing the semaphores, the arrangement being such that when the electromagnet or solenoid which controls the locking of the semaphore is dcmagnetized said semaphore will be released with absolute certainty no matter what-the source of power may be for holding it at safety, tenth, the provision of means for protecting the entire system from the effects of statical electricity, whether the same be due to atmospheric conditions or to a statical charge maintained by high pressure from the power-generators or other sources and over the conductors of the system; eleventh, the provision of means for preventing the signaling and switch-controlling batteries of a railway system from freezing; twelfth, the provision of means for preventing the commutators of the operative electric motorsof the system from freezing in connection with rail way signal apparatus where said apparatus is I moved or controlled by such motors thirteenth, the provision of means for preventing leased either by the failure of the independgravity, to a fore the car or locomotive reaches said signal such that where a series or train when acted upon by a trip device bethe accumulation of undue moisture in the signal posts or boxes where the signal-controlling mechanism is located; fourteenth,the arrangement of home and distant signals with relation to a train-control or safety appliance carried by a car in such manner that when either signal is displayed it will act as a tri to automatically actuate the train contro or safety appliance if the same be not first manually moved by the motorman or engineer befifteenth, to provide a railway car or train with a train-control or safety appliance for automatically efiecting the stoppage thereof, said appliance being adapted to be actuated by a trip located beside the roadway, which trip is adapted to be raised against a constantly-acting force, as gravity, by a source of power and is normally held out of operative r lation with the train-control or safety a pliance'by a source of energy independent 0 the first-named source of power and with said first-named source of power disconnected from the motive device which lifts the trip, said trip being also adapted to be reent source of energy or by thepresence of a preceding car or train, the arrangement being of such trips are lo cated beside the roadway each trip protects a car or train upon the section controlled by it from a rear-end collision due to a following car; sixteenth, to provide a system of railways with a train-control or safety appliance adapted to automatically disconnect the source of power and apply the brakes to a car side the roadway, said trip being adapted to be lifted by an applied source of power against a constantly-acting source of power, such as normal position, where it will not act upon the safety appliance, the arrangement being such that when thus lifted the lifting or applied source of power will be disconnected and the trip normally held out of action bfa source of energy independent of the lifting or applied source of power, said trip being released either by the failure of the independent source of energy or by the presence of a preceding car or train; seventeenth, to provide an electric-railway system with a train-control or safety appliance adapted to automatically disconnect the power-house generator from the motor or motors on board a ear propelled thereby andto simultaneously apply the brakes when acted upon by a trip located beside the roadway, said trip being provided with an electroniotive device adapted to be automatically connected to the power-house circuit and to raise the trip de vice against a constantly-acting force, as
gravity, and provided also with additional means controlled by an. independent source of energy for normally holding it out of operation with the train-control or safety appliance, the power-house circuit being disconnected from the motive device when the trip is thus held in its normal or inoperative position, the arrangement being such that said trip may be released either by' the failure of the independent source of energy or by the presence of a preceding car or train; eighteenth, to provide in a safety system for railways a stop device which is normally held out of'operation. with a train control or safety appliance carried by a car and against a constantly-acting force, as gravity, with means for certainly effecting its release when the controlling source of energy is disturbed; nineteent to nclose the signal -lamps wholly within the signal-box and to provide double or duplex glass or other transparent windows in front of such lamps for admitting of the passage of the rays therethrough at all times without any possibility of the accumulation of moisture thereon, such an arran e-- ment also assuring full protection of 516 lamps and windows against the acts of malicious persons.
In systems of railway-signals which are controlled by track-circuits through the agency of the wheels and axles of the cars and the track-rails it has heretofore been impossible to utilize relatively high potential batteries or electrical generators directly with the sectional track-circuits, owing to the relatively low resistance between the rails, which resistance varies from time to time by reason of the presence of more or less moisture and the accumulation of iron-dust on the ties due to the friction of the faces and flan es of the wheels. upon the rails. In fact, it has been stated in the descriptive catalogues of the prominent railway signal companies of the United States that this resistance often falls to a point as low as three ohms, therefore necessitating the use of signalcontrolling batteries in the track-circuits, preferably having an electroinotive force of no more than one volt. The use of such low-voltage batteries, therefore, necessitates the use of extremely delicate relays at the signals in the signalboXes and additional batteries of relativelyhigh voltage, with additional electromagnets for positively controlling the movements of the signals. It is also found to be impracticable to use such systems of delicate relays and low-voltage batteries in connection with electric railways where one of the track-rails is divided into sections and the other bonded together throughout its length so as to constitute the returnscircuit of the power-house dynamo and also of the signaling-circuits, for the reason that in the use of enormous quantity'currents at relatively high voltages for the propulsion of the cars there is found to be such a drop of potential in the return or track rail part of the circuit that the individual po- I to tentials between succeeding sections of the sections; is sufficient to'operate' or' interfere from the main source of electrical energywith the working of the track-signal relays, such, for instance,as the power-house generso that various apparatus has heretofore been ator when used in connection with an elecdevised for adapting such systems of signals trio-railway system or the main generator, 5 in connection with electric railways-in one which supplies the current for operating the .70 instance the use of polarized relays, thereby signal-motors when used in connection with further complicating the system. an ordinary steam-railway system. B this My present improvement obviates these arrangement I am enabled to lock the signals conditions and enables me to use directly in always at safety no matter what may be m the track-controlling circuits batteries or the condition of the power-house circuit, the 75 electrical generators of any preferred voltage motors of the signals having, preferably, such and ampere capacity, the perfection of the current-carrying capacity as will enable insulation'obtained by my novel arrangement them to move each signal to safety, even of track-circuit-controlling rails or conductors when there is insufficient current-flow over making it possible to use relatively high volthe feeder to propel a car or train, thereby 8o ta'ge generators and to such an extent as to assuring the absolute operation of the sigutilize such batteries for driving the motors nals under all conditions of usage. In said which control the signals, thereby eliminatprevious application I have also described ing allrelays and local circuits. and shown the semaphore-arms'as adapted n my prior application above referred to to perform the double function of a sema- 85 I have claimed, broadly, flexible sectional phore and a trip or train-stop, this for the track-circuit-controlling rails or conductors purpose of simpllfying the apparatus, it havlocated closely adjacent to the traclcrails and mg been customary heretofore in the use of a so connected withcirciut-controllingbatteries train-control devices in the nature of trips 5 and eloectrma nets as to .efl'ect the o oration located beside the track to. connect such 90 of the signals irec-tly, and also the operation trips mechanically through a series of levers ofthe switches for sectional third rails where an links to a semaphore, so that both the used in connection with an electric railway semaphoreand the trip might be actuated whesa car travels over the route, the flanges by the same source of power and at the same 3 of the canwheels effectlng the'foperatioh of time, such devices operated bypneumatic 5 the controlling-magnets. pressure and controlled b electricity being One of the essential features of my-present well known and in genera ublic use in the improvement consi'stsin efie'cting a better art. Bg thus combining t e two in one I insulation of these flexible sectional track am ena led to very materially simplify and v rails or conductors. andin minimizing in so cheapen the-structural parts. For this rea loo far as possible the frictional'wearbetween sonanumber of my claims hereinafter made the flanges of the car-wheelsztnd such rails. have been directed to the broad idea of con- In the before-mentioned application I have trolling semaphores or signals in the manner also described, illustrated, and claimed a hereinafter described, and as illustrated in iconovel system of semaphore-signal control thedrawings, and because of such combined 10 5 whereby the semaphores are geared each to or double function I have also embodied the armature of a rotary electric motor have claims hereinafter. to the feature of -training circuit connection with the current feeder control or safety appliances ada ted to be or main in multiple branch circuits, shuntactuated by trip mechanism of t e characcircuits being provided at each signal, which ter described and shown. That which I 110 include the coils of a locking-electromagnet have said hereinbefore with relation to the for locking the semaphores at safety after provision ofalocal source of electrical energy, the motors have been automatically cut out of preferably a battery, which is wholly inde- I circuit through the action'of-the same magpendent of or disconnected from the main net, the arrangement being such that disource of electrical energy for locking and 115 minished current-flow fro the feeder is efcontrolling the semaphore after the current footed through the locking-magnets, while from the powerhouse generator has been cut the signals are held at safety/7 With such off for raising the semaphores to normal po-, antarrangement, however, there is the objecsition, applies with equal force with relation tion that should the current-fiow be largely to the trip devices, inasmuch as I have, as diminished, owing to the presence of a numbefore stated, combined the semaphores and ;-.ber of cars or trains upon any particular portrip devices in suchmanner as to constitute tion of the systenror for other obvious reaa single element adapted to perform a double sons, which would naturally produce a drop function 50' 1n the current potential, the signals would be My invention will be fully understood by 12 5 released. In my present application I avoid referring to the accompanying drawings, in this-objectionable feature by roviding each Which i signal or semaphore with a coal source of Figure 1- is a diagrammatic view. illustratelectrical energy, preferably a battery, which ing an electric railway ofthe sectional thirdis wholly independent or or disconnected rail type embodying one form of my imovement, one pair of concealed or housed ome and distant semaphores being shown in plan view. Figs. 2 and 3 when placed end to end with Fig. 2 upon the'left illustrate my im'v oved system complete with three pairs of ome and distant semaphores, their controlling electric motors, together with circu'its and circuit connections andone pair of grammatically illustrated in these figures.
Fig. 4 is an enlarged sectional view taken the lineV V and as seen lookleft to right in the direction through Fig. 1 on ing thereat from of the arrows, illustratingtwo forms of sectional track-circuit-controlling rails or conductors and two conduits for inclosing all of the .eonductors of the system at points aproximating the plane of the track-rails. igs. 5, 6, and 7 illustrate in sectional view three full- 'zed modified forms of'my improved sectional circuit-controlling rails or conductors, together with the conductors of'the system, the conduits for inclosing the same, a part of a track-tie and one of the track-rails supported thereon, a portion of one of the car-wheelsfull sizebeing shown in dotted lines in Figs. 5 and 7 and full lines in Fi 6. Fi 8 illustrates an enlarged sectiona view ta en through Fig. 2 on the line W W and as seen looking thereat from right 4 to left in the direction of the arrows, showing the track-rails supported by and electrically secured to an iron tie, which in turn iselectrically connected to an earth-plate embedded in moist earth, a car being shown in end elevational view upon the track with a safety appliance carried thereby, an iron signalpost of the next signal in advance being also shown in elevational view and electrically secured ,to the iron tie, the box containing the signal mechanism at the top of the post being shown in sectional view taken on the line Z Z, Fig. 9, and as seen looking thereat from right to left in the direction of the arrows. Fig. 9 is" a sectional view taken through Fig. 8 on the line Y Y and. as seen looking thereat from left to right in the di rection of the arrows, the signal-post, semaphores, and signaling mechanism at the top thereof being shown in elevational view, the signal-lamp and motor for controlling the home semaphore being shown in full lines and the signal-lamp and motor for controlling the distant semaphore in dotted lines, a lightning rod being also shown in eleva tional view on top of the signal-box. Fig. 10 is a full-sized sectional view taken through the signal locking, controlling, and releasing and cautionj other details of improvement ceases appliances, the controlling-magnet and the appliances for positively and absolutely assuring the releasing of the locking appliances being shown in side elevational view. Fig.
' conductors 11 and 11 is a sectional view taken through Fig. 1O on the broken line X X and as seen looking thereat from the top toward the bottom of the drawings, the novel form of the double or duplex controlling-magnet being shown in plan view.
Referring now to the drawings in detail, in all of which like numerals and letters of reference represent like or equivalent parts wherever used throughout the specification, and, first, to Figs. 1, 4, 5, and 6, and particularly to Figs. 5 and 6 as to details, 1 1 represent the track-rails, which are eflectually bonded together and interconnected, as shown, throughout the entire length of the system, so as to constitute them good electrical conductors. 2 2 are sectional third rails of well-known form secured directly to the ties by insulators in the usual way. 3 3
3 are sets of flexible track-rails or conductors connected at their centers, respectively,
to insulated sectional conductors 4 4 and 11 11. 5 is the insulated current-feeder connected directly to the positive pole of a power-house dynamo or generator 6, the negative pole of which is connected to the track-rails 1 1. 7 7 are third-rail switch and signal controlling rectly in circuit with batteries 9 9 and the insulated sectional conductors 4 4. 8 8 are switching-armature levers provided with re tractile springs which hold them normally on their back-stops, said armature-levers being connected at their pivoted ends directly to the current-feeder 5 and adapted when drawn forward to connect said feeder to the corresponding sectional third rails 2, the back contact being connected in each instance through a conductor 12 and the operative electromotive device of the home signal or semaphore and common return-conductor 13 to the track-rails 1 l substantially in the same manner as disclosed in my before mentioned application. The additional insulated sectional conductors 11 11 extend in'each instance over two entire sections of the roadway, their function being to control the op eration of the distant signals or semaphores, and they are connected, respectively, to the central portions of single sets of sectional track-rails or conductors 3 3, parallel with the first-named sets of such rails, as clearly illustrated. 1O .10 are additional batteries,- their function being to control the operation of thedistant signals, said batteries having their positive poles connected directly to the their negative poles to the track-rails 1. The batteries 9 9 and 1c 10 are distinctly local sources of electrical energy for each sec tion that is to say, they are wholly disconnectedfrom or independent magnets connected disectional track-rails o lional conductors -l' -l of the power-house generator, so that their action is to absolutely control the locking of the signals at safety, the function of the powerhouse generator in so far it relates l to the signals being to lift them to safety against the action of a constantly opposing source of energy, as gravity or a spring, the function of the batteries 9 9 being also to control the switches for the third rails locally. no matter what may be the condition 1 of the power-house circuit.
On inspection of Figs. 1 and 4 it will be n ted that the flexible track-rails or conductors 3 3 on theupper side of Fig. l and lefthand side of Fig. 4 of the drawings are arranged in pairs and the like sectional flexible track-rails 3 on the other side of the track are arranged in single relation, both sets being of equal length, preferably slightly greater than the length of the shortest Jar it is designed to l run--say about sixty feet. It will also be noted that these several of flexible secl tional track-rails or conductors are separated i at their adjoining ends by definite spaces, preferably equaling the distance between the l inner pairs of truck-wheels of each car, the I arrangement being such that under no condition will it be possible for a car to pass over the roadway without closing the circuits through the corresponding sectional flexible track-rails at every part of each section on both sides of the track, the car-wheels running" free of friction for the intervening spaces. The double arrangement of sectional flexible traclvrails 3 I; seen upon the upper side of Fig. l and left-hand side of Fig. 4. of the drawings and the manner of supporting the same is illustrated in detail in fullsizcd sectional view in i ig. 5, in which 14 is a wooden stringer extending over the entire l track and preferably painted or treated with I insulating nniterial, as liquid asphalt, said stringer being sustained at definite intervals upon the tics =say about every ten feet-b3 insulatirig-blocks l5 l5; and iron chairs l (S,sc Hired by screws to the ties in the manner; shown. I7 17, &c., are hard-rubber, vegetable fiber, or equivalent insulaling-washcrs, l and its 18 are bolls extending laterally through the stringer l4, their function being l to secure the lower one of the pair of flexible E r ron-ziuctors IS 3 and to insulate the same in the best p05 ble manner from the wooden stringer, p1
points about eighllwn inches to apart. The upper llexible rail of these pairs of rails secured by screws irably at two erlional tint-is is in each instance I iirerl ly in a cover ll) for a i l grooved conduit in the upper surfaro of the stringer ll, In which 'r-onduit are located the (urrcnldweller 5,, the pair of insulated serl'or the home signals or semaphores, and lhenddilional insulated serlional conductor II for the distant signal or semaphore, the over I!) bring hinged at ill, 1
feet 1 which screws also secure one'of the flexible as shown, and iirmly secured at its front edge directly to the stringer 14 by screws 21, ex-
tending through metal connectors 22 in such manner as to form the best possible electrical connection between the upper rail 3 and its corresponding inclosed insulated conductor 4. The lower flexible rail 3 is similarly connected, as shown, by an insulated conductor to its corresponding insulated conductor 4 within the conduit.
Referring now to Fig. 6, I will describe in detail the arrangement of the flexible sectional rails or conductors and corres onding conductors illustrated on the right of F lg. 4. The stringers let in this instance are made preferably of durable flexible woodsucl1 as hickory, oak, or the like-and are sustained at intervals of about ten feet by yielding steel supporting-arms 23, constructed, as shown, so as to be secured together by bolts 24 directly to the lower flange of the track-rail 1, said parts being EFfCCbllllllj insulated there from by a sheet of asbestos, Vegetable fiber, or other insulating material The yielding arms are also preferably coated with insulatingaint to more eli ectually insulate them, an their upper or sustained ends are provided -.with oblong extensions secured by screws in inortises in the lower surface of the stringer 14. In this instance the trackrail or conductor 3 is in the form of an angleiron secured by screws directly to that surface of the stringer M adjacent to the trackrail 1, and it is connected at its center directly by an insulated conductor running to the insulated conductor 11, which in this case is located in an. additional conduit 26, secured directly to the ties and provided with a removable cover, as shown, 5 being an adl donal idle current-feeder for use when desired in the event of the failure of the other e'r above referred to. in l? '2 l have disclosed the preferred form of rrangernent .of flexible sectional track-rails or conductors for use when it is designed to more effectually insulate said parts, at points where the track may be flooded. In this the wooden instance stringer 34 is sustained. by insulated yielding steel supportingarins 23, as before, and the conductors and current-feeder 5 are loeat-ed within a conduit 26, insulated from and seci ed to the ties at intervals and having a le wall 27 secured directly to one face flexible stringer 14 by screws, as shown,
sectional conductors 3, connected, as shown, directly to one 01' the insulated conductors 4,
, the other flexible sectional conductor 3 being attached directly to the inner wall of the connuit .Zli with its free or uaward]y-extending edge located in the path or the movable flexible minim-tor 23, carried by the stringer 14. The flexible wall 27 is preferably made of steel-wire gauze coated exteriorly and inteductors 4 and the current-feeder 5 and all of said conductors having their insulating-surfaces in metallic connection with each, other and with the strip 31, as shown. This strip 31 is in turn electrically connected at intervals to the track-rails 1 1 for the purpose of efiecting the discharge of any statieal electricity which may accumulate upon the surface of the conductors of the system. 28 is an angle-iron secured to the upper and inner faces ofthe stringer 14. and resting normally against the inner face of the track-rail 1, said angle-iron and its supporting-stringer 14 being properly curved or cut away at the ingoing and out oing ends of each section to readilg admit of the wedging action of the flanges o the car-wheels against the face thereof. To the under surface of the cover 19 is secured a metal strip 29, which has a wearingsurface against the upper face of the angleiron 28. All of the conductors are put in place within the conduit in the manner shown, after which the cover is secured directly to the conduit and through the free edge of the flexible wall 27 by a series of screws 21, extending into the upper side 0 the conduit 26. Those spaces ap )IOXillliIting thirty feet in length between the ends of the flexible sectional rails 3 on both sides of the track are occupied by a continuation of the conduit 26, grooved at its top and having a cover, like 19, in each instance, (see Fig. 8,) and the several conductors are inclosed in this continuation of the conduit, 30 being metal plates, preferably about six inches in width, constituting overlapping endcovers for effectually protecting the inner portion of the conduit from the weather, thescrews 21 acting at one and the same time to secure all of the parts together.
The operation of this form of the invention will be apparent, it being obvious that when a car enters a section the car-wheels (shown. in dotted lines, Fig. 7) will force the an le-iron 28 and stringer 14 to the extreme rig t or the position shown in dotted lines, so that the flexible rails or conductors 3 3 are held in .ood electrical contact with each other at t e corresponding parts of each section so long as the flanges c any of the carwheels are passing between the angle-iron 28 and the head of the track-rail 1, such an arrangement possessing great flexibility.
Referring now to Figs. 8 and 9, I will describe the home and distant semaphores and their relation to the safety appliances carried by the cars. 33 represents an iron tie 10- eated at the end of each signaling-section and to which the track-rails 1 are secured by 'brazing' material 35 or by welding or in any preferred manner and in such way as to assure the best electrical contact between the rails' and the tie. nected by a conductor to an earth-plate 34, buried in the earth a sufficient distance to assure good electrical contact with moist earth. 32 is a signal-post, preferably of iron, the base of which is brazed, welded, or other" wise secured directly to the iron tie 33, said signal-post having at its top a signal-box, preferably of the conformation shown, for se curely housing all of the operative parts 0 the signaling apparatus, 36 bein a protecting housing or hood 0 en at its bottom, which normally effectua y home and distant semaphores 37 38, said semaphores being connected to operatingmotors 39 40 by inions and gear-wheels 4.1 42 43, substantiall in the manner disclosed in my before-mentioned application and also as illustratedin Figs. 2 and 3. It will be understood that when the semaphores are in safety position they are both housed, the home semaphore 37 being held horizontally and the distant semaphore 38 at an upwardlyinclined angle with their corresponding red and green glass lenses out of the paths of the rays of the lamps 58 58 in the signal-box, (see Fig. 8,) duplex or double transparent open ings being provided on the front side of the signalbox for admitting of the passage of the rays and correspondingly free o enings in, line therewith in the protecting ousing' or hood 36, (see Fig. 9,) and also that when said semaphores are released the home semaphore 37 hangs vertically and the distant semaphore 38 transverse to the track, (see Fig. 3,) such an arrangement making it impossible for a motorman or engineer to mistake the nature of the semaphore and also placing the end of either semaphore in the ath of the operating-arm a, connected with the vertically-disposed rod s, which in turn is connected to a manually-controlled ap li-, ance, as an operating-wheel, the air-bra es and switchin mechanism for controlling the movement 0 the train being of any wellknown form, but referably the same as that disclosed in my before-mentioned appliea-- tion. The signal box is preferably lined throughout with wood or other insulating material for the'purpose of preventing the accumulation of condensed moisture therein, and the lass or other transparent'windows in each instance embraces twov anea as shown, separated from each other y a volume of air, said transparent panes of glass being preferably hermetically sealed to the box at their edges, such an arrangement constitutin a means for the prevention of the accumu ation of moisture or frost in the ath of the rays of light from the lamps. his
7 This tie is in turn con incloses both the ISO r so
feature constitutes a very important element of my invention, in that it permits of the absolute inclosure of the lamps 58 Within the signal-boxes, thus concealing them from the attacks of malicious persons and placing them in a position in which the temperature is always practically constant, thereby assuring their operation under all conditions of weather and particularly when combined with heating devices hereinafter described. Of course it will be understood that there will be provided at the upper part of the box the necessary outlets for the products of combustion from both lamps and at the bottom of said box the necessary inlets for admitting fresh air through the lower part of the hollow signal-post 32. The housing or hood also ellectually protects the journal-bearing connections of the semaphores from the accumulation of ice, thus absolutely preventing any possibility of failure of the movement of the semaphores from this cause. On top of the. sigmil-boX I have shown a. light ning-rod co, the function of which is to dissipate any atmospheric electricity which may accumulate in the neighborhood of the semaphore-post, thereby avoiding any damaging action of the same to the mechanism within the box. Of course where the entire signal post and box is of iron this lightning-rod would not be needed, but in the event of the post being of wood a conducting-rod of the kind indicated should be connected with the iron tie 33 o with the traclerails 1, such an arrangement, together with the earthing of the metal strip 3i within the conduit 26 and also the earth connection of the frame of the power-house dynamo 6, as shown in Fig. 3, making it absolutely impossible that any damaging ell'ects from statical electricity can occur either to the system as a whole or to the signaling mechanism in the signal-posts,
and this feature constitutes one of the important elements of my invention.
lielorring now to l igs. l and 11, 1 will describe a still further and very important novel feature ol' my invention for assuring the absolute operation of the signaling mcchanism and the certain release ol the semaphores. These. ligures of the drawings illustrutc in lull-sized View an operative appliance, 44 being a locking arinature-lever provided with a retractilc spring or its equivalent, a retractile weight, and having at its free. end a locking-detent with an inclined face, being a controlling-niagnet ol peculiar form designed to give the best possible electronmgnetic results, the same consisting of two spools, as shown in Fig. l 1, having each its own (ore 5?; of substantially horseshoe shape, said cores having their opposite ends extending, respectively, into the paths of the cnds'ol' lwo iii-matures 5i 5:"), the urnmturo 54 being attached direct ly to the locking arlnaturedever 44 and the armature to the contact therewith, thus completing the mag netic circuit, the usual brass pins, four'in number. being provided for preventing sticking of the arniatures to the cores. 49 is a locking-drum carried by the same shaft which supports the gear-wheel 43, said drum being provided on one side Witha looking a erture or o ening 50, adapted to receive ti e detent end of the locking armature-lever 44. 5 9 is a metal tongue pivoted in the free end of the locking armature-lever 44 and hanging freely by reason of its own Weight,
the same constituting means for preventing the locking part of said lever from entering the a erture or openin 50 until the drum-49 shall ave rotated the locking-surface of said aperture from right to lefte definite distance, so that when the free end of the reaches the wall of the aperture 50 the lock i-ng-lever 4&4 will with absolute certainty be drawn forward under the influence of the magnet 45 and suddenly lock the signal in its concealed position and at the same time break the motoncircuit at a point between the conductors 48 52 and the back contact 51, leaving the signal in locked position, as will be more fully described in connection with the description of the mode of operation of the modified form shown in Figs. 2 and 3 of the drawings, in which the circuit relations of the operative parts of the semaphore-controlling motors 39 40 and the circuit connections between the armature-levers 44 and' l? of the controlling-magnets 4-5 and 46 and the adjacent circuits between the feeder and tho track-rails are not materially di'ti'erent from the operation of the like parts disclosed in the before-mentioncd application. 7
Referring again to Figs. 2 and 3, I will now describe the novel moans for preventing the freezing of the batteries 9 and 10 in the signal boxes and for preventing the freez ing of the commutators of the motors 39 and 40 when moisture accumulates thereon, and 1 will also describe additional means for the prevention of accumulation of undue moisture in the signal-boxes at ordinary temperatures, whereby oftentimes the operation of the oleelromagnets of such apparatus is materially disturbed. til, Fig. 3, is a brunch conductor running lrom the positive pole of the battery 9 to and through a switching electromagneto4 and to metal contacts 63, inclosed in a glass-tube (52, containing Inertongue i switching electromagnet 64 will be held on cury, the other end of said conductor being connected to the negative pole of said battery and the arrangement being such that for any temperature above, say, 32 Fahrenheit, 1 or the freezing-point, the armature of the its forward contact, the pivoted end of said arn'iature being connected on one side by a conductor 67 to the track-rail, said conductor being included on the other side through a back contact, an electric heater h, and a switch 66 with the current-feeder '5, and the arrangement such that for temperatures below 82 Fahrenheit the mercury will descend in the glass tube 62 a su'llicient distance to interrupt the circuit through the switchingmagnet 64, thereby allowing the heater-circuit to be closed, so that the temperature within the signal-box will rise owing to the heat generated by the heater h a sufficient amount to prevent freezing of either of the batteries or of the commutators of the controlling-motors. When the temperature rises sulliciently, it will act upon the mercury in the tube 62, again closing the circuit and automatically cutting out the heater. In summer-time or during such seasons as abnormally low tem eratures are not reached the switch 66 may )6 opened, and in like manner the conductor 61 may be disconnected from the switching-magnet 64.
in Fig. 2 l have shown an arrangement whereby the same result may be effected with an open-circuited battery. In this instance the switching-magnet 64 is included in a normally open circuit with the conductor 61 and battery 9 and the m rcury in the glass tube 62 supports by flotation a metal weight 68, connected to a vertically-extending stem having mechanical contact with a spring 6.), the arrangement being such that when the mcrcury descends by reason of increased cold the wcight 68 will cause the circuit to be closcd from the battery 9 through the ccndiictor 61, spring 65), and switching-magnct 64, thereby connecting the heater Ii in circuit with the tccdcr 5 and track-rails l. A sullicicnt risc in tcni wraturc duc to thc hcaicr It will interrupt thc circuit and cut it out at thc contact-points. l have also disclcscd in this ligurc ol' the drawings mcans l'or prcrcnting the accumulation of unduc moisture in signal-bcxcs, thc samc consisting c any wcll-kiiown lorni oi lrvgromctcr 70, to thc movable or rotary slial'l of which or to any ol' thc movablc parls ol' which is conncclcd a conduct ing-arm 71 having a contact 72, adapted to iiiakc .clcctrical contact. with incrcury iii a mcrcury-cup 73, said parts bciiig inclii li'd in a normally open circuit with thc conductor 6] and tlicarrangcmcnt such that. l'cr an abnormal amount ol' moisture in the box thc circuit to thc hcatcr II will bc closed and remain clcscd until lhc amount of heat gcncralcd shall dissipate the moisture, when the hygrometer will. automatically cut out the heater. It is obvious that any wellknown form of thermostat may be substituted for the mercurial thermostatic devices shown and hereinbefore described' for effecting the closure or the breaking of the switching-circuit for the heater h and in such manner as to apply the necessary heat for eii'ecting the result sought. It is also obVi oils that where the operating-batteries 9 and 10 are located in the base of the signal-posts, as such batteries usually are, two heaters may be utilizedin multiple are in the circuit 67, one for the batteries in the base of the post and the other for the motors and located in the signal-box for maintaining the proper temperature therein.
I will first describe the operation of the modified form of the invention illustrated in Figs. 1 and 4. As shown, both of the switch armature-levers 8 ofthe two sections illustrated in Fig. 1 are on their backstops, so that current from the power-house dynamo 6 is flowing through the'feeder 5 and in multiple-arc relation through all of the switching armature-levers 8 of the system, back contacts, conductors 12, to and through the switch-controlling apparatus for the home semaphores 37, by way of the return-conductors 13 in the signahposts, to the dynamo, upon the supposition that the controlling apparatus in the signal-boxes for the home semaphores is like that disclosed in my be distant fore-mentioned application. The semaphores, however, are each operated and controlled in this instance wholly by a battery-currcnt from the local batteries 10, said batteries being in a permanentlyclosed circuit through the conductors 11 and the trackrails 1, Fig. 1, the operating apparatus and circuit connections in the signal-boxes for the distant semaphores being substantially like that disclosed in Figs. 2 and 3, excepting that the entire movement and control of the distant signals is efl'ccted by the batteries It). in other words, in this modified form of the invention the homo semaphores are operated and controlled wholly by the current from thc tower-house enerator throu h theagciicy ot the local batteries 9 in normally opcii circuits 4 4, while the distant sema- .phorcs are independently operated and conti'ollcd by permanently-closcd circuits lrom tlic local batteries it), which are in each iiistancc shortcircuitcd during the time that a car is passing over or standing upon the cori-csponding sections, such an arrangement constituting absolutely--indepcndont control of the home and distant semaphores, so that there is no possibility oi a distant semaphore l'ailing to work by reason of the l'ailurc of the home semaphore, as is the casc with existing wcll-known types of combined home and distant semaphores, always made dependent upon each other. Suppose then a car to have entered the section on the extreme right of Fig. 1 and to be passing from left to right. The flanges of the left-hand sets of car-wheels upon entering the same as looking at Fig. 4 will close the circuit between the pair of flexible track-rails or conductors 3 3 and the insulatedsectional conductors 4 4 from the battery 9 (see Fig. 1) through the switching electromagnets 7, thereby causing the switching armature-lever 8 to be drawn to its forward contact, interrupting the semaphorecontrolling circuit through the conductor 12 to the home signal 37 and allowing said semaphore to drop by its own weight to danger, at the same time establishing a working current through the sectional third rail 2 and to the motors on board the car. The flanges of the right-hand sets of car-wheels on passing between the right-hand track-rail (see Fig. 4) and flexible track-rails or conductors 3, supported by the stringer 14, will make good metallic contact between said flexible rail or conductor and the track-rail 1, thereby shortcircuiting the battery 10 at the outgoing end of the section which the car has just entered. Consequently no current will flow through the conductor 11 to the rear and to the signal operating and controlling mechanism for the distant semaphore at the end of the section on the left of Fig. 1, as will be apparent if the corresponding circuits be examined in Figs. 2 and 3 of the drawings. Hence the distant semaphore at that point will be released and drop by action of gravity to its exposed position. As the flexible sectional track-rails 3 3 on both sides of the track are of slightly greater length than the shortest car it is designed t run, and as the distance between the successive pairs of said track-rails is slightly less than the distance between the pairs of truck-wheels at the opposite ends of the car, the circuit relations just described will never be disturbed as a car or train passes from one set of such rails or conductors to another, and as the proportions of such track rails and the absence thereof are approximately equal the friction of the flanges of the car-wheels will be minimized and the amount of metal required for such track-rails will in like manner be minimized, thereby increasing the total insulating effect and minimizing the total frictional efl'ect.
F or the purpose of further insuring eflective insulation of the track-circuit-closing rails or conductors, and particularly at places in the roadway where there is danger of flooding by water, the modified form illustrated in Fig; 7 is especially designed, and the operation of this form of circuit-closing appliances will now be described. The metal angleiron 23, supported upon the upper surface of the stringer 14, in this instance constitutes simply a wearing-surface and rests normally with its free lateral face against the lateral head of the track-rail 1, the stringer 14, as
' lines.
I before stated, being made preferably of hick ory, oak, or other wood of great durability and sustained, as stated, by yielding steel supporting-arms secured directly to the bottom flange of the track-rail. When the flange f the car-wheel, as shown in dotted lines, enters between the angle-iron 28 and the head of the rail 1, the stringer 14 is forced away and into the position shown in dotted lines, carrying with it that one of the flexible track-rails or conductors 3 which secured thereto, ultimately bringing it into firm electrical contact with its companion flexible rail or conductor 3, secured directly to the ipner face of the conduit 26, the yielding wall 27 assuming the position shown in dotted With such a structural arrangement the insulation of all of the contacts and conducting parts of the system-is absolutely assured, it being understood that the space be tween the successive pairs of stringers 14 is replaced by sections of a covered conduit to which the ends of the flexible wall 27 is efl'ectually secured in such manner as to make the entire conduit waterproof, the metal strips 31 being situated only in those sections wherein the flexible sectional conductors 3 3 are located.
Referring now to Figs. 2, 3, S, and 11, Fig. 2 having previously been placed on the left of Fig. 3, I will describe themodeofoperation of the preferred form of apparatus and all of the details of construction which render the releasing of the signals or semaphores of my improved system practically certain of operation in all conditions of weather. It is to be noted, however, before proceeding, that in Figs. 2 and 3 of the drawings for simplification I have shown the flexible sectional track rails 3 3 upon opposite sides of the track as continuous throughout each section, and it may be assumed, for the purpose of simplify ing the description, that the modified form of flexible sectional track-rails utilized in this form of the invention is that disclosed in Fig. 6 of the drawings, in which the current from both batteries passes through the flanges of the wheels, the yieldingly-supported rails, and the track-rails. In these figures of the drawings, to 10 represent rear wheels of a car which has just entered the section to the ex treme left of Fig. 2 and is passing from right to left, as shown by the arrows in the roadbed. Consequently the battery 9 at the outgoing end of the same section (but notsecn) is short-circuited through the flanges of the upper wheels, so that both of the controllingmagnets 45 and 46 for the home semaphore 'de'magnetized, or if for any reason-it should have stuck or been heldin its forward or locked position when the magnet was demag- 14g eaaeee netized the armature when released would have by reason of the action of the strong springs 56 stru ck the armaturedever A a sudden blow, thereby assuring the release of the inclined ioclring-detent at the upper end of the armaturedever 4a. Vfhen this armaturedever 44 reaches its back contact-stop, the motor-circuit for the controlling-motor 39 is fully closed at the point 51 through eonductors 4B and 52, but it will be noted that the same circuit was broken at the front contact of the armature-lever 47 when the magnet 46 was demagnetized. Hence the motor being out of circuit the home semaphore 3? falls by reason of its own weight to the vertical position indicated in dotted lines in 8, the gearing between the gear-wheel 42, pinion 41, and. gear-wheel 43, and the inertia of the armature acting as a brake a ainst the too sudden movement of the semap role. In like manner the battery 10 at the outgoing end of the section upon which the wheels to w are standing was short-circuited by the lower wheel to in the same manner was the battery 9 by the other wheel, so that the armatures 44 and 47 of the controlling-magnets 45 and 46 of the distant semaphore 38 at the ri ht-hand side of Fi 2 of the drawings were re eased and the action with relation to the operative parts of that semaphore was identically the same as that attributable to like parts of the home semaphore 37 just described, as will be readily understood upon tracing the circuits, said distant semaphore dropping by its own weight, as did the home semaphore, to the position shown in full lines in Fig. 2 and in dotted lines in Fig. 8. Should any car therefore enter the section on Fig. 2 between the semaphores just displayed, the home semaphore 37 at the right of that figure will drop by its own weight to vertical osition, thus displaying both the home and distant semaphores on the right of Fig. 2 in the positions indicated in dotted lines in Fig. 8, at the same time displaying thedistant semaphore in Fig. 3 at caution, thus giving to anincomin motorman or en ineer u on I the section between Figs. 2 and 3 a double warning indicative of the fact that there are two cars or trains upon the sections immediately in advance.
When a car leaves any section, the circuit controlling and operating appliances for the semaphores resume their normal relations and the motor-circuits are closed for the corresponding home and distant semaphores through the armature-levers 47 44 and back contacts 51, so that the arinatures of the cor responding motors 39 and. 40 are set in operation and the semaphores rotated to their safety positions until the toes of the corresponding tongues 59 are released on passing the inclined edge of the aperture or openin'g'r 50 in the locking-drum 49, (see Fig. 10,) these tongues having in each instance a movement through an angle of less than one hun dred and eighty degrees and being so related to the armature lever 4d and the surface of the drum 49 that they always admit of the certain locking and unlocking of the parts, and particularly when combined with the additional special type of controlling-electromagnet 45, with. its armatures 54 and 55, as hereinbefore described. Should the motorman or engineer fail to observe the display of either the distant or the home semaphores, the arm a of the train control or safety appliance on board the car 0 will be rotated when it comes into contact with the end thereof, thus acting as a trip device to out on the steam or other source of power and simultaneously applying the brakes, as will be obvious on inspection of Fig. 8, wl1ere the exposed. positions of both semaphores or trips is made clear in dotted lines. It will also be apparent that should. any car move backward out ofithe end of the section upon which it is for the time being standing the corresponding home and distant semaphores or trip devices for the next section in the rear will be displayed, and also should any train be severed and a part thereof left upon any part of the track the corresponding home and distant semaphores or trip devices will be displayed so long as any'car remains upon the track at that point. Although I prefer to use two batteries 9 and 10 for each pair of-signals, obviously one battery might serve the same purpose, said battery being connected in each instance in multiple to the conductors in the manner shown in dotted lines in Figs. 2 and 3. I prefer to utilize two batteries, as is ordinarily done in signal systems of this nature,
and to provide the usual switches, circuits, I
and circuit connections whereby the batteries me be connected in any preferred relation, an Where storage batteries are used one battery may be utilized while the other is being charged, such matters coining well within. the skill of those versed in the art.
I do not limit my invention to the especial details of construction. illustrated in the accompanying drawings, as a number of the features thereof might be materially departed from and still come within the scope of my claims hereinafter made. 'To illustrate, the armature-levers 65 of the switching-magnets 64 for the heater it might be pcrma nently' held on their forward contacts and the h aters connected in circuit manually by the switches 66 by a track-walker or other authorized employee at such times as the atmospheric conditions of the weather might justify, variable resistance means being provided in a manner well understood for regulating the amount of current which the lr'catcr should utilize under such conditions; nor do 1 limit myself to the use of electrical heaters; as obviously the same might be replaced by any well-known source of energy for generating heat, combined with means for automatically effecting the generation of such heat when the temperature or hygrometric conditions of the weather justify the use thereof, as I believe it is broadly new with me to provide means for automatically preventing freezing of the batteries and the commutators of rotary motors in connection with systems of electrical energy generally where any possibility of accident due to such interconnected operations as have heretofore been found necessary in connection with signals of this type. I believe it is also broadly new with me to place the operative conductors of a signaling system for railways in close proximity to the track-rails and to connect the-entire system with the earth at different points in such manner as to effectually overcome the damaging effects of statical electricity, whether the same be due to the action of'the generators used in connection with the system or to atmospheric electricity, and my claims are also generic as to this feature. I believe it is also broadly new with me to so arrange the home and distant signals of a railway system in connection with a safety appliance or appliances carried by a car that the exposure of either of said signals as a warning to a n'iotorman or an engineer will automaticall; stop his train or car unless he manually slows down his train before he reaches the corresponding signal. I believe it is also broadly new with me to house both the home and distant signals when at safety position and to so arrange them that when either is dis ')layed the angular position as viewed from the motormans or engineers cab is such as to avoid any possibility of his mistaking the nature thereof and that it is new with me to completely house the signallamps and to combine therewith duplex transparent windows inclosing hermeticallysealed volumes of air in such manner as to prevent the presence of moisture or frost in the paths of the rays of the lamps. I believe it is also broadly new with me to provide means for assuring the absolute release of a semaphore or signal when locked or held against the action of gravity by imparting a preliminanv blow to the looking or retaining part of the mechanism, no matter what may be the nature of the signal or what the means for holding the same. It is also obvious that the novel feat ure of duplex transparent win- (lows or glasses in signal-boxes makes it possible to utilize the s1gnal-lamps in day-time as well as at night for thcpurpose of generating sufficient heat to prevent the freezing of the batteries and commutators of the motors when both-are located in the signal-boxes, so that this single source of heat and light in each box is rendered capable of serving a double function, such an arrangement also making it possible to more effectually insulate such signal-boxes from. extreme cold and from the condensation of moisture in the interior thereof. v
In place of the oil-lamps 58 58 shown in the. drawings I may substitute electric lamps having sufficient current-carrying capacity adapted to generate sufficient heat for the purpose of keeping the signal-box warm enough to prevent the batteries ,and commutator-brushes of the motor from freezing,
such lamps being included in circuit in place of the heater'and adapted to be inserted in the. circuit by a handswitch.
I am aware that it has heretofore been proposed to operate or control electric railway signals by utilizing one of the track-rails and a flexible su plemental conducting-rail closely adjacent thereto in connection witn a signal battery and an electric circuit connected to the track-rail and such flexible rail, as disclosed in British Patent No. 2,169 of 1889 and in United States patent to Means, No. 273,377; also, that it has heretofore been proposed to operate or control electric railway-signals b y utilizing both of the trackrails and a pair of ri id supplemental conducting-rails yieldingy supported at their ends and connected together electrically and to one or more electrical circuits including one or more signals, as disclosed. in Unite States patent to Thaler, No. 491,387. In all of the before-mentioned patents, however, it is proposed to utilize the tread-surfaces of the car-wheels for effecting electrical connection between the track rail or rails and thcsupplemental rail or rails. While such an arrangement would be operative, it is open to the objection that with many existing types of rails the head of the rail is practically the same width as the tread-surface of the carwheels, so that oftentimes such an arrange ment would be impractical, and I make no claim hereinafter to this feature per 86, my claims in this particular being limited specifically to the utilization of the flanges of the wheels between the track-rail and the supplemental conducting-rail and the yielding support of such rails in such manner as to effect the desired result. I am also aware that railway-signals have heretofore been devised, as disclosed in United States patent to E. A, Sharp, No. 585,963, July 10, 1888, in which all of the operating and controlling. parts thereof are inclosed within a signal-box having one transparent Wit :dow on each side of lateral extension thereof and a lamp having'a single transparent window secured ,to said lateral extension exterior to the box and in such manner that the three transparent windows permit of the passage of rays of light from the lamp through all of theni and a transparent signal-disk, and I make no claim hereinafter broad enough to include such a structural arrangement, my, most generic claim in. this particular being directed to a signal-box which wholly incloses the operating and controlling mechanism, said signal-box being provided with double or duplex transparent windows and a lamp also wholly inclosed within the box and in such manner that the lamp not only constitutes a means for transmitting light through the transparent windows, but also constitutes an agency of heat suil'icient to maintain the entire signal-box heated to such an extent as to overcome the deleterious eil'ects of cold upon the o erating and controlling mechanism and a so upon the oil of the lamp itself,
well as to effect a complete protection of the lamp against the attacks of vandals.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim, and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States, is-
1. In a railway system a track-circuit-controlling conductor located closely adjacent to but out of contact with one of the trackrails and an electrical circuit including a signal device and a source or electrical energy, said conductor being provided with supporting means which will permit it to yieldlaterally when the flange of a car-wheel enters between it and the adjacent rail, substantially as described.
2. A railway system provided with a series of insulated conductors and a series of trackcircuitcontrolling conductors electrically connected thereto and in close proximity to the track-rails, said track-circuit-(mntrolling conductors approximating the length of the .shortest car or train it is designed to run and separated from each other by definite spaces approximating also the length of such car or train; in combination with electromagnets and a source or sources of electrical energy in circuit with said insulated conductors, substantially as described.
3. A railway system provided with insu lated conductors, an clcctromagnct and a source of electrical energy in circuit therewith; in combination with a series of sectional tracl circuit-co1itrolling rails or conductors electrically connected to said insulated cmiductors at intervals and separated from each other by definite spaces, said trackcircuit-controlling rails being located closely adjacent to and insulated from the trackrails so to be acted upon by the wheels of cars as they pass over the route, substantially as described.
4. A railway system provided with a trackcircu it-controllingrail or conductor yieldingly supported against lateral movement at interva s in close proximity to the track-rails and insulated therefrom, substantially as deat intervals, said track-circuit-controlling rails being located closely adjacent to the track-rails and insulated therefrom, substantially as described.
6. A railway system provided with a trackcircuit-controlling rail or conductor sustained at intervals by insulated yielding supportingarms secured directly to the track-rail, the arrangement being such that said circuit-controlling rail or conductoris adapted to move laterally when the flange of a car-wheel passes between it and the track-rail, substantially as described.
7. A railway system provided with home and distant signals arrangedip pairs; in combination with electric circuits and circuit connections for operating and controlling said signals, each distant signal being absolutely independent of its companion home signal in its mode of operation and control, substan tially as described.
8. A railway system provided with a series of hofnc and distant signals arranged in pairs, each home signal being provided with trackcircuit-controlling devices, elcctromotive devices, circuits and circuit connections where-- by one set of car-wheels efl'ects its operation and control; the companion distant signal being similarly provided with track-circuitcontrolling devices, electromotive devices, circuits and circuit connections wherebythe other set of car-wheels eti'ects its operation and control, the arrangement being such that said signals are wholly independent of each othefin their operation, substantially as described.
9. A railway system provided with sectional t.rack-circuit-closing-rails or conductors closcl y adj accnt to each track-rail and a series of home and distant signals arranged in pairs together with sources of electrical energy, circuits and circuit connections between one set of sectional track-circuit-closing rails or conductors and the home signals and similar sources of electrical energy, circuits and circuit connections between the other sectional track-circuit-closing rails or conductors and the distant signals, whereby each signal is made independently operative when a car is standing upon or passing over the section, substantially as described.
10. A railway system provided with trackcircuit-controlling rails or conductors yieldingly supported at intervals and separated from each other by intervals approximating the lengths of said rails; together with eleciromagncts and local sources of electrical energy included in circuit therewith, said trackcircuit-controllingrails being located in close
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