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US8196279B2 - Stent-graft covering process - Google Patents

Stent-graft covering process Download PDF

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US8196279B2
US8196279B2 US12392057 US39205709A US8196279B2 US 8196279 B2 US8196279 B2 US 8196279B2 US 12392057 US12392057 US 12392057 US 39205709 A US39205709 A US 39205709A US 8196279 B2 US8196279 B2 US 8196279B2
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stent
graft
diameter
layer
mandrel
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US20090211076A1 (en )
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Martin Schlun
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CR Bard Inc
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CR Bard Inc
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/04Hollow or tubular parts of organs, e.g. bladders, tracheae, bronchi or bile ducts
    • A61F2/06Blood vessels
    • A61F2/07Stent-grafts
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/82Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/86Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure
    • A61F2/90Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/04Hollow or tubular parts of organs, e.g. bladders, tracheae, bronchi or bile ducts
    • A61F2/06Blood vessels
    • A61F2/07Stent-grafts
    • A61F2002/075Stent-grafts the stent being loosely attached to the graft material, e.g. by stitching
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29DPRODUCING PARTICULAR ARTICLES FROM PLASTICS OR FROM SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE
    • B29D23/00Producing tubular articles
    • B29D23/001Pipes; Pipe joints
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29LINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASS B29C, RELATING TO PARTICULAR ARTICLES
    • B29L2023/00Tubular articles
    • B29L2023/005Hoses, i.e. flexible
    • B29L2023/007Medical tubes other than catheters
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T29/00Metal working
    • Y10T29/49Method of mechanical manufacture
    • Y10T29/49826Assembling or joining
    • Y10T29/49908Joining by deforming

Abstract

A method of making a stent-graft includes providing a self-expanding stent having a collapsed configuration with a first diameter and an expanded configuration with a second diameter greater than the first diameter, the stent including a polymeric coating on at least an inner surface, disposing a graft on a mandrel having a third diameter greater than the second diameter, and contacting an outer surface of the graft with the coated inner surface of the stent, the stent applying a compressive force to the graft.

Description

PRIORITY

This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61/031,818, filed Feb. 27, 2008, which is incorporated by reference in its entirety into this application.

BACKGROUND

Intraluminal prostheses used to maintain, open, or dilate blood vessels are commonly known as stents. Stent constructions generally include lattice type cylindrical frames that define a plurality of openings. Stents may have self-expanding and/or balloon expandable properties. Stents can be made of various metals and polymers and can include a combination of self-expanding and balloon expandable properties.

Synthetic vascular grafts are routinely used to restore the blood flow in patients suffering from vascular diseases. For example, prosthetic grafts made from expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) are commonly used and have shown favorable patency rates, meaning that depending on a given time period, the graft maintains an open lumen for the flow of blood therethrough. Grafts formed of ePTFE include a microstructure characterized by spaced apart nodes connected by fibrils, the distance between the nodes defined as internodal distance (IND), and are generally extruded either as a tube or as a sheet or film that is fashioned into a tube.

It is known in the art to use stents in combination with vascular grafts or covering layers to form stent-grafts. A vascular graft or covering layer, such as an ePTFE tube, is positioned adjacent an inner and/or outer surface of the stent and adhered thereto. For instance, U.S. Pat. No. 6,004,348 to Banas et al., which is incorporated by reference in its entirety into this application, describes an encapsulated stent formed by providing a first ePTFE graft about a mandrel, concentrically positioning a stent about the first ePTFE graft, and concentrically positioning a second ePTFE graft about the stent. Circumferential pressure is then applied to the assembly by helically wrapping ePTFE tape under tension over the outer surface of the second ePTFE graft. Thereafter, the assembly is heated to bond the first ePTFE graft to the second ePTFE graft through the openings of the stent. Following the sintering process, the ePTFE tape is unwrapped from the assembly.

U.S. Pat. No. 6,214,039 to Banas et al. describes a method of forming a stent-graft with a single graft or covering layer disposed on the abluminal surface of the stent, including sliding an ePTFE graft over a tapered mandrel with an increasing diameter to dilate the ePTFE graft and then sliding the dilated graft onto an unexpanded stent such that the graft is retained about an outer surface of the stent by the inherent recoil properties of the graft. Methods of forming a stent-graft with a single graft or covering layer on the luminal surface of the stent generally involves the use of adhesives or coatings positioned on the stent and/or surface of the graft. For example, an ePTFE graft is placed on a mandrel and a stent with a polymeric coating is positioned over the graft. As with the encapsulation procedure described above, tape is then helically wrapped about the outer surface of the stent under tension and the stent-graft is heated to achieve bonding of the ePTFE graft to the coated stent. However, differently from the encapsulation procedure, removal of the tape from the stent-graft is often difficult due to the tendency of the stent coating to melt and bond to the tape, such that the removal process may result in tearing of the graft and/or deposit of tape fragments on the stent-graft (requiring manual removal).

It is advantageous to have a graft or covering layer on the luminal surface of the stent-graft in order to provide a smooth surface for the flow of blood through the stent-graft. Moreover, a stent-graft with a single luminal graft or covering layer may provide advantages over a stent-graft with two or more graft layers, such as providing a lower profile for insertion and increasing flexibility. Thus, a method of applying pressure to the stent-graft with a single luminal graft or covering layer is desirable.

References related to stent-grafts include: U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,004,348; 6,214,039; 6,364,903; 6,488,701; and U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2005/0096737, each of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety into this application.

Applicants have recognized that it would be desirable to provide a method for forming a stent-graft with a single graft layer on the luminal surface of the stent, embodiments of which are described herein.

SUMMARY

Accordingly, described herein are methods for forming a stent-graft. In one embodiment, a method of making a stent-graft includes providing a self-expanding stent having a collapsed configuration with a first diameter and an expanded configuration with a second diameter greater than the first diameter, the stent including a polymeric coating on at least an inner surface, disposing a graft on a mandrel having a third diameter greater than the second diameter, and contacting an outer surface of the graft with the coated inner surface of the stent, the stent applying a compressive force to the graft.

In another embodiment, a method of making a stent-graft, includes providing a self-expanding stent having a collapsed configuration with a first diameter and an expanded configuration with a second diameter greater than the first diameter, the stent including a polymeric material on at least a portion of an inner surface, disposing an ePTFE graft on a mandrel having a third diameter about 1 mm greater than the second diameter, placing the stent onto the graft by expanding the stent to a fourth diameter greater than the third diameter, positioning the stent over the graft and releasing the stent, and heating the stent-graft.

In yet another embodiment, a method of making a stent-graft includes providing a self-expanding stent having a collapsed configuration with a first diameter and an expanded configuration with a second diameter greater than the first diameter, the stent including a polymeric coating on at least an inner surface, disposing an ePTFE graft on a mandrel having a third diameter greater than the second diameter, expanding the stent to a fourth diameter greater than the third diameter, positioning the stent over the graft and releasing the stent, the coated inner surface of the stent contacting an outer surface of the ePTFE graft, wrapping ePTFE tape about an outer surface of the stent under tension, and removing the ePTFE tape prior to subjecting the stent-graft to a heating step.

These and other embodiments, features and advantages will become more apparent to those skilled in the art when taken with reference to the following more detailed description of the invention in conjunction with the accompanying drawings that are first briefly described.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1A is a partial side view of a stent in a collapsed configuration.

FIG. 1B is a partial side view of a stent in an expanded configuration.

FIG. 1C is a partial side view of a graft and stent positioned on a mandrel.

FIG. 1D is a partial side view of the bonded stent-graft after removal from a mandrel.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

The following description should be read with reference to the drawings, in which like elements in different drawings are identically numbered. The drawings, which are not necessarily to scale, depict selected embodiments and are not intended to limit the scope of the invention. The description illustrates by way of example, not by way of limitation, the principles of the invention. This description will clearly enable one skilled in the art to make and use the invention, and describes several embodiments, adaptations, variations, alternatives and uses of the invention, including what is presently believed to be the best mode of carrying out the invention.

As used herein, the terms “about” or “approximately” for any numerical values or ranges indicate a suitable dimensional tolerance that allows the part or collection of components to function for its intended purpose as described herein. Also, as used herein, the terms “patient”, “host” and “subject” refer to any human or animal subject and are not intended to limit the systems or methods to human use, although use of the subject invention in a human patient represents a preferred embodiment.

Described herein is a process to create a stent-graft assembly, including a stent with an single graft layer, without using an outer wrapping of tape during a heating step. A stent-graft employing a single graft layer (as opposed to multiple layers) increases flexibility and reduces the overall delivery system profile. However, creating a single graft layer stent-graft has proved more difficult than a dual graft layer stent-graft, in which an inner graft layer is bonded to an outer graft layer with the stent positioned therebetween. This is due to the fact that the dual graft layer stent-graft utilizes graft-to-graft bonding, whereas the single graft layer stent-graft must bond to the stent surface. Thus, a coating or adhesive is generally applied to the stent surface in order to achieve sufficient bonding between the stent and the graft layer in a single graft layer stent-graft. However, whereas in a dual layer stent-graft an outer tape wrap can be applied to the outer graft layer to aid in bonding of the graft layers by applying external pressure, such an aid can prove problematic in a single graft layer stent-graft, at least where the single layer is positioned against the luminal surface of the stent. This is due to the outer tape wrap adhering to the coating (or a film layer, such as Kapton film, positioned over the outer surface of the stent prior to wrapping with tape) during a heating step, making removal thereof difficult and potentially damaging to the stent-graft. Accordingly, described herein is a process for creating a single graft layer stent-graft that overcomes the problems inherent in providing external pressure via a tape wrap to aid in bonding during a heating process and increases the bond strength between a single inner graft layer and a stent to reduce potential complications associated with delamination or separation of the graft layer from the stent.

A method of creating a single layer stent-graft is shown in FIGS. 1A-1D. FIG. 1A illustrates a first step in which an expandable stent is provided. Stent 10 has a first diameter d1, while in a collapsed configuration to assist in the implant delivery procedure. In an expanded configuration, the stent 10 has a second diameter d2, as shown in FIG. 1B. The diameter d2 of the expanded configuration is greater that the diameter d1 in the collapsed configuration. When implanted, the stent deploys to an expanded configuration in order to open a body lumen and permit blood flow therethrough. Therefore, the expanded diameter d2 is sufficient to hold open a patient's body lumen. Generally, the expanded diameter d2 is about 4 mm to about 8 mm. The process described herein may be employed with any stent design, including self-expanding stents or balloon expandable stents, although the preferred embodiment is self-expanding stents. The stent may be designed to collapse or expand radially in a uniform or non-uniform fashion to assist during delivery. The stent is generally sufficiently rigid to remain open when inserted into a body lumen. The stent may be formed of a shape memory material, including, for example, shape memory metals, shape memory alloys, super elastic shape memory metal alloys, linear elastic shape memory alloys, metal alloys, shape memory polymers, polymers, bio-resorbable material, and combinations thereof. One preferred shape memory material is Nitinol. The stent may alternatively be formed of metal, such as, for example, stainless steel, platinum, and Elgiloy, or certain polymers.

In one embodiment, the stent is coated with a polymeric bonding layer in order to secure a stent surface to a graft layer. The bonding layer may be applied by powder coating, spray coating, dipping in a liquid, or other methods known to one skilled in the art. The polymer can be PTFE, PET, fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP), etc., or any other fluoropolymer. The polymeric coating may, additionally, be a combination of coatings, such as, for example, a first coat of PTFE and then a top coat of FEP.

As shown in FIG. 1C, a graft layer 12 is positioned on a mandrel 14 and the stent 10 is positioned over the graft layer 12. The graft layer 12 is generally a tubular member as indicated by the dotted line. The graft layer 12 may extend past the end of the stent during assembly, as shown in FIG. 1C, or may be coextensive therewith. The relative lengths of the stent and graft are illustrated for clarity only. Preferably, the graft layer terminates at about the ends of the stent or proximal of the stent ends. The graft material may include, for example, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE), polymer, polyurethane, fluoropolymers, such as perfouorelastomers and the like, silicones, urethanes, ultra high molecular weight polyethylene, aramid fibers, and combinations thereof. The graft may be made by any method. A tape may be wound helically to form a tube, or a sheet may be rolled into a tube. A graft formed in this way may be wrapped directly onto the mandrel, before the stent is disposed about the mandrel. Preferably, the graft is an extruded ePTFE tube. A graft formed in this way may be slid directly onto the mandrel 14. Alternatively, the graft may be folded and positioned within the stent. The graft and stent are then properly positioned, and the mandrel is inserted through the graft lumen. The wall thickness of the graft may be in the range of about 40 microns to about 200 microns, but generally less than about 100 microns. Preferably the wall thickness is between about 40 microns and about 100 microns.

According to one embodiment, a method of making a stent-graft includes providing an expandable stent, which is coated at least on an inner surface thereof, disposing a graft on a mandrel, and contacting the outer surface of the graft with the coated inner surface of the stent. As shown in FIG. 1C, a mandrel 14 has a third diameter d3 that is greater than the stent expanded diameter d2. The mandrel diameter d3 in one embodiment is less than about 2 mm greater than the expanded stent diameter d2. Preferably, the mandrel diameter d3 is about 0.1 mm to about 0.3 mm greater than the expanded stent diameter d2. However, the mandrel diameter should not exceed the stent diameter at which plastic deformation occurs. Because the mandrel diameter exceeds the stent expanded diameter, the stent supplies a compressive force to the graft 12 when the stent 10 is positioned over the graft, the compressive or external force aiding in bonding of the graft 12 to the stent 10.

The graft may be disposed on the mandrel by sliding a generally tubular graft onto the mandrel. Alternatively, an ePTFE film may be wrapped around the mandrel. An ePTFE tape may be helically wrapped around the mandrel to form a generally cylindrical tube over the mandrel, or a ePTFE sheet may be wrapped around the mandrel to form the generally cylindrical tube. The stent is then placed over the mandrel and the graft. To place the stent over the mandrel, the stent may be expanded to a fourth diameter, greater than the mandrel diameter d3 and then released after it is properly positioned over the graft layer. A tool may be used to facilitate this step. Alternatively, the stent can be placed over the mandrel by first folding the graft and properly positioning it within the stent, followed by inserting the mandrel through the graft lumen. The stent-graft, after being positioned on the mandrel, may be wrapped to create a greater compressive force between the stent and graft layer. An ePTFE tape may be wrapped around the outer surface of the stent-graft assembly. The stent-graft may be wrapped with tape in helical windings. A second layer of tape may be wrapped in the opposite direction of the first tape layer to create an additional compressive uniform force. The tape is applied under tension, during the wrapping step. However, in embodiments where the stent-graft is heated, the tape is removed before the heating step. FIG. 1D shows the stent-graft removed from the mandrel and collapsed to a collapsed diameter, e.g., about the diameter d1, for implantation into a patient.

In one embodiment, the stent-graft assembly on the mandrel is inserted into an oven or other heating apparatus to strengthen the bond between the polymeric stent coating and the graft layer. Additional bond strength between the stent and the graft material is achieved by heating the assembly above the melting temperature of the polymeric coating. The melted polymer between the stent and the graft penetrates into the graft material, which is porous. The graft and stent may be heated to a temperature in the range of about 320 degrees C. to about 360 degrees Celsius, preferably heated to about 340 degrees C. for about 10 to 11 minutes. The stent-graft may be pre-wrapped with tape under tension to aid in bonding of the graft to the stent prior to heating and remain wrapped about the stent-graft for several minutes. Preferably, the stent-graft is pre-wrapped for a period in the range of about 5 minutes to about 10 minutes before removing the tape; however, in some embodiments, the tape may remain on the stent-graft assembly for a longer period.

By way of non-limiting illustration, specific embodiments of the method described herein are provided. In one embodiment, a self-expanding stent, having a 6 mm expanded diameter and a coating including a primer coat of PTFE and a top coat of FEP, was provided. A 7 mm ePTFE tubular graft layer was disposed over a 7 mm mandrel and the stent was expanded greater than about 7 mm, positioned over the graft layer, and released. The assembly was then heated to about 340 degrees C. for approximately 10.5 minutes. Following the heating step, the bond strength of the assembly was tested by performing a bond peel test. The procedure includes placing an end portion of the stent and an end portion of the graft in a tensile testing apparatus. For example, the end portion of the graft is inverted through the lumen of the stent-graft and placed in a clamp of the apparatus opposite the clamp of the apparatus holding the end portion of the stent. These end portions are then pulled apart by the tensile testing apparatus and a bond strength (gF/mm) is recorded at intervals along the stent-graft. An average of the bond strengths is then calculated. The average bond peel strength in the above-described embodiment was about 9.5 gF/mm. Generally, the bond strength for the stent-graft was in the range of about 2 gF/mm to about 13 gF/mm.

In another embodiment, the same materials and process as the above-described embodiment were employed, but the stent-graft assembly was tape-wrapped prior to heating. The stent-graft assembly was helically wrapped with ePTFE tape in two layers: a first layer in a first direction, and a second layer over the first layer in a second direction opposite the first direction. The tape was then removed after approximately 5 to 10 minutes. The stent-graft assembly, without the tape, was then heated to approximately 340 degrees Celsius for about 10.5 minutes. A bond peel test was performed and the average bond strength was about 12.3 gF/mm. Generally, the bond strength was in the range of about 4 gF/mm to about 14 gF/mm.

This invention has been described and specific examples have been portrayed. While the invention has been described in terms of particular variations and illustrative figures, those of ordinary skill in the art will recognize that the invention is not limited to the variations or figures described. In addition, where methods and steps described above indicate certain events occurring in certain order, those of ordinary skill in the art will recognize that the ordering of certain steps may be modified and that such modifications are in accordance with the variations of the invention. Additionally, certain of the steps may be performed concurrently in a parallel process when possible, as well as performed sequentially as described above. Therefore, to the extent there are variations of the invention, which are within the spirit of the disclosure or equivalent to the inventions found in the claims, it is the intent that this patent will cover those variations as well. Finally, all publications and patent applications cited in this specification are herein incorporated by reference in their entirety as if each individual publication or patent application were specifically and individually put forth herein.

Claims (15)

1. A method of making a stent-graft, comprising:
providing a self-expanding stent having a collapsed configuration with a first diameter and an expanded configuration with a second diameter greater than the first diameter, the stent including a polymeric coating on at least an inner surface;
disposing a graft on a mandrel having a third diameter greater than the second diameter; and
contacting an outer surface of the graft with the coated inner surface of the stent, the stent applying a compressive force to the graft.
2. The method according to claim 1, wherein the contacting step comprises expanding the stent to a fourth diameter greater than the third diameter, positioning the stent over the graft and releasing the stent.
3. The method according to claim 1, further comprising the step of heating the stent-graft.
4. The method according to claim 3, wherein the heating step includes processing at a temperature of about 340 degrees C. for a time period in the range of about 10 minutes to about 11 minutes.
5. The method according to claim 1, wherein the disposing step includes sliding a generally tubular ePTFE graft onto the mandrel.
6. The method according to claim 1, wherein the disposing step includes wrapping an ePTFE film about the mandrel, the ePTFE film having a thickness in the range of about 40 microns to about 100 microns.
7. The method according to claim 1, wherein the providing step includes providing a stent comprised of shape memory metal.
8. The method according to claim 1, wherein the third diameter is in the range of about 0.1 mm to about 1 mm greater than the second diameter.
9. The method according to claim 8, wherein the second diameter is in the range of about 4 mm to about 14 mm.
10. The method according to claim 1, wherein the polymeric coating comprises PTFE.
11. The method according to claim 1, wherein the bond strength of the stent-graft is in the range of about 2 gf/mm to about 13 gf/mm.
12. The method according to claim 1, further comprising wrapping ePTFE tape about an outer surface of the stent under tension and heating the stent-graft, wherein the tape is removed from the stent before the heating step.
13. The method according to claim 12, wherein the ePTFE tape is removed from the stent after a period in the range of about 5 minutes to about 10 minutes.
14. The method according to claim 12, wherein the wrapping step comprises helically wrapping a first and second layer of tape about the outer surface of the stent.
15. The method according to claim 12, wherein the bond strength of the stent-graft is in the range of about 4 gf/mm to about 14 gf/mm.
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US8617441B2 (en) 1995-03-10 2013-12-31 Bard Peripheral Vascular, Inc. Methods for making an encapsulated stent
US8617337B2 (en) 1999-02-02 2013-12-31 Bard Peripheral Vascular, Inc. Partial encapsulation of stents

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US9114000B2 (en) 2011-03-14 2015-08-25 Cook Medical Technologies Llc Apparatus and methods to enhance bonding in endoluminal prostheses
CN103998208B (en) * 2011-12-14 2016-10-19 帝斯曼知识产权资产管理有限公司 The method of preparation and their use in medical assembly
WO2013114358A9 (en) * 2012-01-30 2013-12-27 Hipokrat Negatively charged vascular stent
US20130327113A1 (en) * 2012-06-06 2013-12-12 Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Apparatus, systems and methods for medical device expansion

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