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US8182485B1 - Fracture fixation system - Google Patents

Fracture fixation system Download PDF

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Publication number
US8182485B1
US8182485B1 US11050304 US5030405A US8182485B1 US 8182485 B1 US8182485 B1 US 8182485B1 US 11050304 US11050304 US 11050304 US 5030405 A US5030405 A US 5030405A US 8182485 B1 US8182485 B1 US 8182485B1
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Prior art keywords
bone
shaft
fracture
fixation
rod
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US11050304
Inventor
Eduardo Gonzalez-Hernandez
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Toby Orthopaedics Inc
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Toby Orthopaedics Inc
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/56Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor
    • A61B17/58Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor for osteosynthesis, e.g. bone plates, screws, setting implements or the like
    • A61B17/68Internal fixation devices, including fasteners and spinal fixators, even if a part thereof projects from the skin
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/56Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor
    • A61B17/58Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor for osteosynthesis, e.g. bone plates, screws, setting implements or the like
    • A61B17/68Internal fixation devices, including fasteners and spinal fixators, even if a part thereof projects from the skin
    • A61B17/72Intramedullary pins, nails or other devices
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/56Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor
    • A61B17/58Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor for osteosynthesis, e.g. bone plates, screws, setting implements or the like
    • A61B17/68Internal fixation devices, including fasteners and spinal fixators, even if a part thereof projects from the skin
    • A61B17/72Intramedullary pins, nails or other devices
    • A61B17/7233Intramedullary pins, nails or other devices with special means of locking the nail to the bone
    • A61B17/7241Intramedullary pins, nails or other devices with special means of locking the nail to the bone the nail having separate elements through which screws pass
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/56Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor
    • A61B17/58Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor for osteosynthesis, e.g. bone plates, screws, setting implements or the like
    • A61B17/68Internal fixation devices, including fasteners and spinal fixators, even if a part thereof projects from the skin
    • A61B17/80Cortical plates, i.e. bone plates; Instruments for holding or positioning cortical plates, or for compressing bones attached to cortical plates
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/56Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor
    • A61B17/58Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor for osteosynthesis, e.g. bone plates, screws, setting implements or the like
    • A61B17/68Internal fixation devices, including fasteners and spinal fixators, even if a part thereof projects from the skin
    • A61B17/80Cortical plates, i.e. bone plates; Instruments for holding or positioning cortical plates, or for compressing bones attached to cortical plates
    • A61B17/8061Cortical plates, i.e. bone plates; Instruments for holding or positioning cortical plates, or for compressing bones attached to cortical plates specially adapted for particular bones

Abstract

A bone fracture fixation system configured towards the treatment of a variety of different human bone fractures. The fracture fixation system including a plate portion configured to abut bone structure and having a plurality of threaded apertures designed to matingly receive a plurality of screws therein. The bone fracture fixation system will also include at least one scaffold building screw configured to extend through the plate portion and into the bone structure. The scaffold building screw will be configured to include any of a number of different configurations of bracing pegs and/or bracing screws therein to provide substantial structural integrity to the system.

Description

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application is a continuation of U.S. Non-Provisional patent application Ser. No. 10/993,723, filed on Nov. 19, 2004, (now abandoned); which claims the benefit of Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/552,632, filed on Mar. 12, 2004; Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/541,540, filed on Feb. 3, 2004; and Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/523,960, filed on Nov. 21, 2003; each of which is incorporated herein in its entirety.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention

The present invention relates generally to medical devices configured towards the treatment of bone fractures, and more particularly, to a multi-faceted bone fixation system configured towards treating a variety of different human bone fractures.

2. Description of the Prior Art

A wide variety of devices have been developed for the support and treatment of different bone fractures. Existing solutions have ranged from simplistic measures, such as bone support plates, structural rods, and other single-function prosthetic devices, to more elaborate mechanisms involving a complex arrangement of different components.

Although a variety of different approaches have been attempted in the past, existing solutions have consisted basically of familiar, expected, and obvious structural configurations that have proven to be inadequate or impractical in application.

In this respect, there is a need in the art for an efficient and effective fracture fixation system that substantially departs from the prior art, and in so doing, provides a fracture fixation system oriented towards providing significant initial structural integrity as well as rapid patient recovery.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention is directed to a bone fixation system including a plate portion and a rod portion configured for significant initial structural integrity and rapid patient recovery.

An object of the present invention is to provide a fracture fixation system configured to offer substantial initial structural integrity in the proximity of a bone fracture.

A further object of the present invention is to provide a fracture fixation system incorporating a plurality of screws configured and placed so as to maximize imbedded screw depth into bone structure having the greatest density.

Another object of the present invention is to provide a fracture fixation system utilizing a plurality of screws configured specifically for a rigid and tight hold resistant to free play and loosening.

An additional object of the present invention is to provide a fracture fixation system utilizing fasteners configured for divergent angle placement in order to provide increased structural load resistance.

A further object of the present invention is to provide a fracture fixation system configured for strategic placement in any of a wide variety of bone fracture applications.

These and other objects, features, and advantages of the present invention will become more readily apparent from the attached drawings and the detailed description of the preferred embodiments, which follow.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The preferred embodiments of the invention will hereinafter be described in conjunction with the appended drawings provided to illustrate and not to limit the invention, where like designations denote like elements, and in which:

FIG. 1 is a rear view of a humerus bone as located in the human skeletal system;

FIG. 2 is a rear view of a fractured humerus bone shown in conjunction with plates and screws as typically utilized in the prior art;

FIG. 3 is a rear view showing a fractured humerus bone showing an aperture drilled axially therein for placement of a rod in accordance with an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 4 is a side view of the fractured humerus bone of FIG. 3 showing the axially drilled aperture in accordance with an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 5 is a side view of the fractured humerus bone shown before insertion of the rod and plate portion of the fracture fixation system in accordance with an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 6 is a side view of the fractured humerus bone shown after insertion of the rod and plate portion of the fracture fixation system in accordance with an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 7 is a rear view of the fractured humerus bone shown after complete securement of the rod and plate portion of the fracture fixation system in accordance with an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 8 is a side view of the fractured humerus bone shown after complete securement of the rod and plate portion of the fracture fixation system in accordance with an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 9 is a bottom view of the fractured humerus bone shown after complete securement of the rod and plate portion of the fracture fixation system in accordance with an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 10 is a front view showing an illustrative screw configuration utilized in conjunction with an exemplary embodiment of the present invention; and

FIG. 11 is a rear view of the humerus bone shown in conjunction with a bone scaffolding system in accordance with an alternative embodiment of the present invention.

Like reference numerals refer to like parts throughout the several views of the drawings.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

Shown throughout the figures, the present invention is generally directed to a fracture fixation system configured towards treating a variety of different human bone fractures.

For purposes of clarity and simplicity, the fracture fixation system of the present invention will be described and illustrated in conjunction with a fractured humerus bone 100. As such, FIG. 1 depicts a rear view of the humerus bone 100 alongside a human figure for perspective. It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, however, that the fracture fixation system is by no means limited to the support and treatment of the humerus bone 100 and may be adapted to any of a wide variety of other situations without departing from the present invention.

FIG. 2 shows a fractured humerus bone 100 in conjunction with a typical prior art plate and screw support structure. In this figure, it is seen that the humerus bone 100 has multiple fracture lines 130 in the distal end 140 and is supported externally through separate plate components without any internal support mechanism.

Turning to the present invention, FIGS. 3-11 illustrate the fracture fixation system 10 in various stages of completion. Initially, as indicated by the phantom lines of FIG. 3, access to the medullary cavity 110 is achieved by drilling axially from an insertion point 120 at the distal end 140 of the humerus bone 100 as indicated by the phantom lines shown. It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that any of a wide variety of known methods may be utilized to create access to the medullary cavity 110 without departing from the present invention. FIG. 4 shows a side view of the humerus bone 100 along with the medullary cavity 110 illustrated in phantom lines.

The fracture fixation system 10 is illustrated before insertion into a fractured humerus bone in FIG. 5. The fracture fixation system 10 of the present invention includes a rod portion 20 and a plate portion 30 as shown. The rod portion preferably includes a tip 22, a tip portion 24, tapered central portion 26, and a generally curved plate abutting portion 28. As illustrated in FIG. 6, the plate portion 30 is configured to abut the distal end 140 of the humerus bone 100 in a secure and snug fashion when in a fully inserted position. As shown, the plate portion 30 will include a plurality of apertures 32 therein configured to permit entry of screws 40 therethru and into bone structure 100. The screws 40 are shown in a fully inserted position in the fracture fixation system of the present invention in FIGS. 7-9.

The apertures 32 in the plate portion 30 will preferably be configured such that the central axes of the screws are not parallel to each other. In a most preferred embodiment, each screw 40 will be maintained such that its central axis is not parallel to the central axis of any other screw 40. Such an orientation significantly increases the structural integrity of the fracture fixation system and helps prevent the plate portion from coming loose during loading conditions. Cartilage bearing bone 105 is always weakest in its central portion where it is soft, spongy trabecular bone. The mechanical quality of the cartilage bearing bone 105 is much better just below the cartilage itself, where it is known by the name of subchondral bone. A plurality of pins 34 will be utilized as shown. The pins 34 extend through apertures 35 in a manner configured to maximize the depth that is embedded into high density bone, and likewise, minimize embedded depth into weak bone. The orientation of the pins 34 is as tangential as possible to the articular surface to achieve the best purchase into the hard subchondral bone.

Referring now to FIG. 10, an exemplary embodiment of the front view of the screw 40 is shown. As illustrated, the screw 40 will be generally cylindrical in shape extending from an initial point 42 to a terminal end 46 and include thread 44 on an outer circumference thereupon. In a most preferred embodiment, the thread 42 will extend all the way up to the terminal 46 of the screw 40. As the threading continues up to the terminal end 46 of the screw 40, it is seen that a tight and secure connection is formed. Threading the screw 40 up to and including the terminal end 46 helps prevent any lateral displacement of the terminal end 46 of the screw 40. In the preferred embodiment, the apertures 32 in the plate portion 30 will be internally threaded to matingly correspond to the threads 44 of screws 40.

The pins 34 of the fracture fixation system 10 may be configured similar to the screws 40 in that they may be threaded to matingly correspond to internal threads of apertures 35. As will be clear to those skilled in the art, a wide variety of known pin and screw configurations may be alternatively utilized without departing from the present invention.

As previously described, the fracture fixation system 10 includes a rod portion 20 and a plate portion 30 as best illustrated in FIGS. 5-8. The rod portion 20 is formed in an elongate conical configuration having a tip 22, a tip portion 24, tapered central portion 26, and a generally curved plate abutting portion 28. The generally curved plate abutting portion 28 includes a plurality of apertures 36 therein as shown. The apertures 36 of the plate abutting portion 28 are configured to receive a screw 48 therein as depicted in FIGS. 7-8.

In an alternative embodiment of the present invention, a screw system is provided comprising a rod screw 60 configured for insertion into a scaffold locking screw 50 as illustrated in FIG. 11. The scaffold locking screw 50 will preferably be configured for insertion into the bone in such a manner as to permit a rod screw 60 to be cooperatively engaged an aperture 55 therein. Although FIG. 11 shows an exemplary embodiment wherein the rod screw 60 enters the scaffold locking screw 50 in a generally perpendicular manner, it will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that such a configuration is not required. In fact, any of a number of angular variations is possible and may be preferred depending upon specific circumstances surrounding a particular surgery. The rod screw 60 can be configured with threads 62 thereupon for secure engagement within the bone of a patient. Likewise, it may be desirable that the scaffold locking screw 50 include threads on an outer surface thereof to engage bone structure in a secure manner. The scaffold locking screw 50 may also include threads on an inner surface of the aperture 55 therein configured to securely engage cooperating threads on the outside circumference of the rod screw 60.

Since many modifications, variations, and changes in detail can be made to the described preferred embodiments of the invention, it is intended that all matters in the foregoing description and shown in the accompanying drawings be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense. Thus, the scope of the invention should be determined by the appended claims and their legal equivalence.

Claims (34)

1. A bone fracture fixation assembly comprising:
a plate adapted to abut a surface of a bone adjacent a fracture thereof, said plate having a screw receiving aperture therethrough, a lower surface and an upper surface opposite said lower surface, said aperture being threaded, and said lower surface being adapted to abut the surface of the bone;
an elongated shaft having a distal end, an opposite proximal end, and a length therebetween, said shaft having a longitudinal axis along the length thereof, at least a portion of said shaft being threaded to cooperatively engage said aperture of said plate, said shaft configured to extend into the bone and said shaft engaging said plate such that the longitudinal axis of said shaft is transversely oriented with respect to a portion of said lower surface of said plate, said shaft having a hole extending therethrough, said hole having an axis transverse to the longitudinal axis of said shaft, and
a rod configured to extend into the bone and for insertion into said hole of said shaft, wherein, when said shaft and said rod are positioned with respect to said plate and the bone, said rod is inserted into said hole, the entirety of said rod is spaced from said plate, and said shaft and said rod are engageable to one another within the bone.
2. The bone fracture fixation assembly of claim 1, wherein said hole of said shaft is threaded and said rod has a threaded portion adapted to threadably engage said hole of said shaft.
3. The bone fracture fixation assembly of claim 1, wherein the axis of said hole is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of said shaft.
4. The bone fracture fixation assembly of claim 1, wherein the axis of said hole is at an non-perpendicular angle to the longitudinal axis of said shaft.
5. The bone fracture fixation assembly of claim 1, wherein said shaft has a threaded portion configured to engage the bone.
6. The bone fracture fixation assembly of claim 1, wherein said shaft has a non-threaded portion configured to contact the bone.
7. The bone fracture fixation assembly of claim 1, wherein said shaft is a locking screw.
8. The bone fracture fixation assembly of claim 1, wherein said rod is a screw.
9. The bone fracture fixation assembly of claim 1, wherein said rod has a threaded portion configured to engage the bone.
10. The bone fracture fixation assembly of claim 1, wherein said rod has a non-threaded portion configured to contact the bone.
11. The bone fracture fixation assembly of claim 1, wherein said rod has a non-threaded portion configured to fit within said hole of said shaft.
12. The bone fracture fixation assembly of claim 1, wherein said rod has a length greater than the length of said shaft.
13. The bone fracture fixation assembly of claim 1, wherein said rod has a shaft with a distal end and an opposite proximal end, at least a portion of said shaft of said rod being threaded, and said distal end of said shaft of said rod being configured to pass through and extend beyond said hole of said elongated shaft.
14. The bone fracture fixation assembly of claim 1, wherein said plate includes a length and a width, said length being greater than said width, and said plate being curved along said length.
15. A bone fracture fixation assembly comprising:
a plate adapted to abut a surface of a bone adjacent a fracture thereof, said plate having a screw receiving aperture therethrough, a lower surface, and an upper surface opposite said lower surface, said aperture being threaded, and said lower surface being adapted to abut the surface of the bone;
an elongated shaft having a distal end, an opposite proximal end, and a length therebetween, said shaft having a longitudinal axis along the length thereof, at least a portion of said shaft being threaded to cooperatively engage said aperture of said plate, said shaft configured to extend into the bone and said shaft engaging said plate such that the longitudinal axis of said shaft is transversely oriented with respect to a portion of said lower surface of said plate, said shaft having a hole extending therethrough, said hole having an axis transverse to the longitudinal axis of said shaft, and
a rod having a proximal end and a distal end opposite said proximal end, said rod being configured to extend into the bone, and said distal end of said rod being adapted for insertion into said hole of said shaft, wherein, when said shaft and said rod are positioned with respect to said plate and the bone, said proximal end and said distal end of said rod is spaced from said plate, and said shaft and said rod are engageable to one another within the bone.
16. The bone fracture fixation assembly of claim 15, wherein said hole of said shaft is threaded and said rod has a threaded portion adapted to threadably engage said hole of said shaft.
17. The bone fracture fixation assembly of claim 15, wherein the axis of said hole is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of said shaft.
18. The bone fracture fixation assembly of claim 15, wherein the axis of said hole is at an non-perpendicular angle to the longitudinal axis of said shaft.
19. The bone fracture fixation assembly of claim 15, wherein said shaft is a locking screw.
20. The bone fracture fixation assembly of claim 15, wherein said rod is a screw.
21. The bone fracture fixation assembly of claim 15, wherein said rod has a threaded portion configured to engage the bone.
22. The bone fracture fixation assembly of claim 15, wherein said rod has a non-threaded portion configured to contact the bone.
23. The bone fracture fixation assembly of claim 15, wherein said rod has a non-threaded portion configured to fit within said hole of said shaft.
24. The bone fracture fixation assembly of claim 16, wherein said rod has a shaft with a distal end and an opposite proximal end, at least a portion of said shaft of said rod being threaded, and said distal end of said shaft of said rod being configured to pass through and extend beyond said hole of said elongated shaft.
25. A bone fracture fixation assembly comprising:
a plate adapted to abut a surface of a bone adjacent a fracture thereof, said plate having a screw receiving aperture therethrough, a lower surface, and an upper surface opposite said lower surface, said aperture being threaded and said lower surface being adapted to abut the surface of the bone;
an elongated shaft having a distal end, an opposite proximal end, and a length therebetween, said shaft having a longitudinal axis along the length thereof, at least a portion of said shaft being threaded to cooperatively engage said aperture of said plate, said shaft configured to extend into the bone and said shaft engaging said plate such that the longitudinal axis of said shaft is transversely oriented with respect to a portion of said lower surface of said plate, said shaft having a hole extending therethrough, said hole having an axis transverse to the longitudinal axis of said shaft, and
a rod having a proximal end and a distal end opposite said proximal end, said rod being configured to extend into the bone, and said distal end of said rod being adapted for insertion into said hole of said shaft, wherein, when said shaft and said rod are positioned with respect to said plate and the bone, said rod is inserted into said hole to engage said shaft and the remainder of said rod is configured to contact the bone, and said shaft and said rod are engageable to one another within the bone.
26. The bone fracture fixation assembly of claim 25, wherein said hole of said shaft is threaded and said rod has a threaded portion adapted to threadably engage said hole of said shaft.
27. The bone fracture fixation assembly of claim 25, wherein the axis of said hole is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of said shaft.
28. The bone fracture fixation assembly of claim 25, wherein the axis of said hole is at an non-perpendicular angle to the longitudinal axis of said shaft.
29. The bone fracture fixation assembly of claim 25, wherein said shaft is a locking screw.
30. The bone fracture fixation assembly of claim 25, wherein said rod is a screw.
31. The bone fracture fixation assembly of claim 25, wherein said rod has a threaded portion configured to engage the bone.
32. The bone fracture fixation assembly of claim 25, wherein said rod has a non-threaded portion configured to contact the bone.
33. The bone fracture fixation assembly of claim 25, wherein said rod has a non-threaded portion configured to fit within said hole of said shaft.
34. The bone fracture fixation assembly of claim 25, wherein said rod has a shaft with a distal end and an opposite proximal end, at least a portion of said shaft of said rod being threaded, and said distal end of said shaft of said rod being configured to pass through and extend beyond said hole of said elongated shaft.
US11050304 2003-11-21 2005-02-03 Fracture fixation system Active 2027-10-10 US8182485B1 (en)

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US52396003 true 2003-11-21 2003-11-21
US54154004 true 2004-02-03 2004-02-03
US55263204 true 2004-03-12 2004-03-12
US99372304 true 2004-11-19 2004-11-19
US11050304 US8182485B1 (en) 2003-11-21 2005-02-03 Fracture fixation system

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US11050304 US8182485B1 (en) 2003-11-21 2005-02-03 Fracture fixation system
US12803394 US8361075B2 (en) 2003-11-21 2010-06-25 Method for repairing fractured bone
US13753067 US8574234B2 (en) 2003-11-21 2013-01-29 Fracture fixation system

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US12803394 Division US8361075B2 (en) 2003-11-21 2010-06-25 Method for repairing fractured bone

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US12803394 Active US8361075B2 (en) 2003-11-21 2010-06-25 Method for repairing fractured bone
US13753067 Active US8574234B2 (en) 2003-11-21 2013-01-29 Fracture fixation system

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US13753067 Active US8574234B2 (en) 2003-11-21 2013-01-29 Fracture fixation system

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US20110152943A1 (en) * 2009-12-22 2011-06-23 Eduardo Gonzalez-Hernandez Bone plate and tool assembly and method for use thereof
US8469999B2 (en) 2008-04-17 2013-06-25 Eduardo Gonzalez-Hernandez Soft tissue attachment system and clip
US8764808B2 (en) 2008-03-10 2014-07-01 Eduardo Gonzalez-Hernandez Bone fixation system
US8870963B2 (en) 2010-10-27 2014-10-28 Toby Orthopaedics, Inc. System and method for fracture replacement of comminuted bone fractures or portions thereof adjacent bone joints
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US9333014B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2016-05-10 Eduardo Gonzalez-Hernandez Bone fixation and reduction apparatus and method for fixation and reduction of a distal bone fracture and malunion
US9402667B2 (en) 2011-11-09 2016-08-02 Eduardo Gonzalez-Hernandez Apparatus and method for use of the apparatus for fracture fixation of the distal humerus
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US20110184413A1 (en) * 2006-05-17 2011-07-28 Gordon Slater Ankle Fusion Plate
US8568417B2 (en) 2009-12-18 2013-10-29 Charles River Engineering Solutions And Technologies, Llc Articulating tool and methods of using
EP2468216B1 (en) * 2010-12-23 2014-05-14 Baumgart, Rainer, Dipl.-Ing. Dr. med. Implantable prosthesis for replacing human hip or knee joints and the adjoining bone sections
GB201407548D0 (en) 2011-09-30 2014-06-11 Acute Innovations Llc Bone fixation system with opposed mounting portions
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US20160354127A1 (en) * 2015-06-08 2016-12-08 Andrew Lundquist Combined Intramedullary - Extramedullary Bone Stabilization and Alignment System

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US20130144291A1 (en) 2013-06-06 application
US20100274245A1 (en) 2010-10-28 application

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