US775939A - Calculating-machine. - Google Patents

Calculating-machine. Download PDF


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US775939A US10850002A US1902108500A US775939A US 775939 A US775939 A US 775939A US 10850002 A US10850002 A US 10850002A US 1902108500 A US1902108500 A US 1902108500A US 775939 A US775939 A US 775939A
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Bertram H Saunders
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Bertram H Saunders
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    • G06C23/00Driving mechanisms for functional elements
    • G06C23/04Driving mechanisms for functional elements of pin carriage, e.g. for step-by-step movement


PATENTED NOV. 29, 1904.
ATTORNEY No. 775,939. PATENTED NOV. 29, 1904- B. H. SAUNDERS.
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ATTORNEY UNITED STATES Patented November 29, 19134..
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 775,939, dated. November 29, 1904;.
Application filed May 22, 1902. Serial No. 108,500; (No model.)
To all whom, it Duty concern.-
Be it known that I, BERTRAM H. SAUNDERS, of Clifton, Passaic county, New Jersey, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Calculating-Machines, of which the following is a full, clear, and exact description.
My invention relates to improvements in calculating-machines; and the object of my invention is to produce a machine which will solve all problems in multiplication quickly and easily, and especially to produce a machine in which the operations of certain parts do not have to be repeated to any extent by the operator in solving a problem, to the end that mistakes may be avoided, as it is very easy for an operator to get confused in moving a certain part a definite number of times and become uncertain as to whether he has moved the said part, say, five or six times. In my machine the keys are arranged in banks and with the digits thereon including fractions, and the operator merely presses the necessary keys which indicate the numbers used in the computations, and then by a simple movement of a lever all the calculations are systematically, accurately, and mechanically carried out. In other words, I contemplate producing a machine in which the operator merely indicates the numbers to be computed, the remainder of the work being done by the machine when the lever is given a single movement.
A further object of my invention is to produce a machine in Which no complex formulas are required for its successful working, thus still further rendering mistakes unlikely.
IVith these ends in view and with the further end of producing generally a calculatingmachine which shall be accurate in action and simple in use my invention consists of certain features of construction and certain combinations and organizations of parts and groups of mechanism, which will be hereinafter described and claimed.
Reference is to be had to the accompanying drawings, forming part of this specification, in which similar characters of reference refer to similar parts throughout the several views.
Figure l is a diagrammatic view showinga development of the primary calculating-disks.
chine, Figs. 3 and 8, which will be referred to in the body of the specification as Figs. 3, showing a partly-broken plan view of the machine with the rack-plates and checkle\ 'ers removed, the two views being necessary to show the complete plan without making the parts too small. Fig. i is a side elevation of the machine. Fig. 5 is a broken longitudinal section on the line 5 of Fig. 3. Fig. 6 is a vertical longitudinal section on the line 6 6 of Fig. 3, showing a broken view of the carriage. Fig. 7 is a broken view, partly in horizontal section, of the linger-bars, the primary calculator-disks, and the calculator-carriage. Figs. 7, 7, and 7 are detail views showing the toothed surfaces of the several rack-plates used in the machine. Fig. 8 is a diagramn'iatic plan of the communicating mechanism. Fig. 9 is a vertical cross-section on the line 9 9 of Fig. 5, showingthe registeringmechanism and the calculator-carriage with the other mechanism removed. Fig. 10 is an enlarged detail sectional view of one of the registering-1evers, showing how it is fastened to its shaft. Fig. 11 is a broken detail perspective view of the key mechanism, taken from the reverse side to that shown in the principal views of the machine. Fig. 12 is abroken perspective view of the parts shown in Fig. 11, one of the keys being depressed. Fig. 13 is a detail side elevation of the various racks employed in the communicating mechanism. Fig. 1a is a detail of the trip-bar.
To make the description clearer, I shall describe the various groups of mechanism consecutively, taking up in order the key mechanism, the communicating mechanism, the primary calculator, the secondary calculator or carriage, the registering mechanism, and the actuating mechanism.
The machine is provided with a frame 10, which can be of any suitable construction and the opposite parts of which are shown tied together by tie-bars 11, which brace the ma' chine and serve also as supports for parts of the mechanism to be hereinafter described.
On the front upper part of the machine are the key-banks 12, and, as shown, the machine has seven of these key-banksthree with Fig. 2 is a broken front elevation of the mawhite keys with the digits from 1 to 9,
,1 raga-m9 one with a key, also white, two with black keys bearing the digits from 1 to H. M V I, 9, and one with black. keys bearing the fractions from u to E. The construction of these key-banks is exactly similar whether there are more or less keys, the difference being only in the number of keys. Each key 13 is arranged to slide vertically in the key-bar 15, these bars being parallel with each other, as shown in 3 and 3, and each key-bar carrying a row of keys, as illustrated. The key 13 slides in slot 16 in the said key-bars and is normally pressed upward by a spring 17, which is secured to the lateral foot 13 on each key and to a pin or equiva lent 18 on the key-bar 15. At its ends the key-bar 15 has hollow studs 15, which are secured to the tie-bars 11, as shown best in Fig. 6. At the side of each key-bar and on a little lower plane is a slide-bar 19, which has a very slight longitudinal movement, the bar having at the ends, as shown in Fig. 6, elongated holes 20, which fit over the studs 15. The slide-bar is normally pressed rear ward by a spring 21, (see Fig. 6,) which is attached, as shown at 22, t0 the slide-bar 19 and, as shown at 23, to the key-bar 15. The slide-bar 19 has also opposite each key 13 and at a point below the key-bar 15 a laterallyextending pin 24, which enters the Z-shaped slot in the opposite key, as shown clearly in Figs. 11 and 12, this slot having its middle portion inclined and its upper and lower part formed into horizontal legs 26 and 27, the former of which is much shorter than the latter, so that when a key 13 is depressed the pull of the string 21 will cause the slide-bar 19 to be moved, when the pin 2 1 comes into registry with the part 26 of the Z-shaped slot, thus forcing the pin into the slot, as shown in Fig. 12, and locking the key in its depressed position, while the other pins on corresponding keys will enter the lower legs 27, as shown in the same figure referred to, and so lock all the keys save the one depressed in their upper or normal positions, thus making it impossible to confuse operations and to depress another key while the operation is going on.
The means for releasing the keys and slidebars is as follows: At the forward end of each slide-bar 19 is a little pin 28, which engages with a pin 29 on the transverse shaft 30, this being journaled in the ends of the key-bars 15. On the under side of the shaft 30 and near one end (see Fig. 2) is a depending bent arm or dog 31, which engages the inclined spur 32 on the upper edge and outer end of the bar 33, which slides to a limited extent longitudinally of the machine in guides 34, (see Fig. 1,) and this bar (shown in detail in Fig. 14L) is provided at its rear end with a slot 33, the function of which will hereinafter appear, also with a slot 33 for the reception of the transverse master-bar 35, which extends across 1 the machine transversely through the said slot and through the slots of the rack-bars to be hereinafter referred to. The tri )-bar 33 is l. also provided with still another slot, 33, which will also be hereinafter referred to.
iVhen the master-bar 35, which is operated l in a way to be hereinafter described, releases the trip-bar 33 by moving forward the said trip-bar, the trip or spur 32 strikes the dog 31 and passes it; but this motion does not disturb the keys, because the pins 29 are caused to move away from the pins 28, and when the trip has passed the dog the pins are brought back into light contact with each other by the spring 36, which, as shown in Fig. 2, is fastened at one end to a pin on the shaft 30 and at the other to one of the guide-bars 11. \Vhen all the parts of the machine are being returned to their normal position, the master-bar 35, contacting with the rear end of the slot 33" in the trip-bar 33, carries the bar back and brings the spur 32 past the dog or arm 31, which it trips in its passage, giving the shaft 30 a partial rotation and causing the pins 29 to press hard enough against the pins 28 to draw forward the slide-bar 19 against the action of the spring 21, thus bringing the pin 24, with depressed key 13, out of the leg 26 of the slot 25, thereby allowing the said key to rise to its normal position. The shaft 30 after being tripped is immediately released to the control of the slide-bars 19, and their springs and both slide-bars and shaft return to their normal position.
Referring to Figs. 4C and 6, it will be noticed that on the rear stud 15 of each key-bar 15 and at the side of the slide-bar 10 is a catch in the form of a bell-crank lever, one arm 37 of which extends upward and is slotted to receive a pin 38, which is carried by the slidebar 19 or by a part attached thereto, and the catch has a rearwardly-extending arm 39, terminating in a depending lug 10, which is adapted to engage the step 11 of the governing rack-bar 12 or 13, as the case may be. These governing rack-bars are similar except for the slightly-diflierent arrangement of the slots 33" in each and the further fact that the steps 44. of the governing rack-bar 43, which is the multiplier-bar, are longer than the steps on the bar 12, thus, as compared with the bar 13, providing fora shorter movement between each step on the bar and its corresponding key. The governing rack-bars have slots 33 and 33, which are adapted to register with the corresponding slots in the tripbar 33, already referred to, so that the master-bar 35 can extend through the slots 33 in the whole series of rack-bars and the trip-bar, while the master rod or bar 35 extends in the same way through the slots of the series.
The function and operation of these masterbars will be hereinafter fully described.
The lug or catch 40, above referred to, lies normally in front of the step 4E1, above mentioned, and when a key is depressed and the slide-bar 19 has been carried forward, as already described, the action will be transmitted by the pin 38 to the catch 37 39, thus tilting the catch and lifting the lug 40 from the path of the step 41, thereby allowing that particular bar when released by the actuating mechanism, to be hereinafter described, to slide forward until one of its steps 44 (see Figs. 6 and 13) engages with the depressed key. There are as many of these steps 44 as there are keys in its particular keybank,
and therefore the step which engages the key will correspond in number to the number of such key.
There is a governing rack-bar 42 or 43 for each key-bank, the said governing rack-bar controlling a series of sliding rack-bars 45 or 46 through one of the shafts 47, 47, 47", 47 47", or 47 there being a shaft for each governing rack-bar, and the governing rack-bars 42 and 43 are toothed on the under side, as shown at 49 in Fig. 13, the said tooth part engaging with a pinion 48 on its particular shaft, and as the rack-bars 45 and 46 are likewise geared to the shafts it will be seen that the governing rack-bar will by its movement control the movements of all the rack-bars 45 and 46 which happen to be geared to the same shaft. The rack-bars 45 and 46 are similar in construction, except that the former has at its rear end and under edge a spur 50, which has an abrupt straight shoulder on its inner side and is adapted to engage one of the pins 52 (see Fig. 6) of the primary calculator-disks 53, while the rack-bar 46 has instead of the spur 50 a rack 51, which engages the pinion 54 on the hub of its appropriate primary calculator disk 53.
It will be seen then that as each shaft is controlled by a governing rack-bar and as there is a shaft for each key-bank the rotation of the shaft and the movement of the bar depends on the key which is depressed. hen, as in the case of the numeral 10, it is not necessary to depress a key on a certain bank, there being no O on the key-bank, O being computed by omitting to depress the key on the bank where it would naturally come, the lug 40 is not raised, and therefore when the governing rack-bars are allowed to move forward the bar adapted to act on the key-bank where the keys are all at normal will not move, because it is held by the lock 40, so that the shaft controlled by that keybank will not rotate and all the rack-bars 45 or 46 in mesh with the pinions on that particular shaft will remain stationary. The rotation of these shafts 47 47, 47 47, 47, 47 and 47 is caused upon the release of the master-bars 35 and 35 by helical springs 55, which are attached at their forward end to one of the tie-bars 11 and at their rear ends to the pins or studs 56 on one of the rack-bars. It
will be seen that one of these springs attached to one rack-bar in a series in mesh with the pinions of any single shaft will through the shaft actuate all the rack-bars of the series, so that there is one spring for each shaft and one to operate the sliding trip-bar 33, making eight springs in all. These rack-bars 45 and 46 and the shafts with which they gear communicate to the primary calculator-disks 53 the numbers depressed on the key-board and are therefore termed the communicating mechanism.
The key-banks which are supplied with the black keys (see Fig. 3) are the ones on which the number to be multiplied is indicated, and these key-banks control, as described,the rackbars 46, which have their teeth 51 in mesh with the gears 54 of the primary calculatordisks 53, so that the movement of these bars determines the degree of rotation of the said calculator-disks. These disks 53 serve to regulate the movement of the linger-bars, and indirectly they control the gears which transmit certain computations of the machine, as will hereinafter be clearly pointed out. The key-banks having the black keys, Fig. 3, are the ones on which the multiplier is indicated. These key-banks control the rack-bars 45, which have at their rear end the spurs 50.
WVhen the lever 138 is actuated, the rackbars having the teeth 51 move forward, rotating the primary calculator-disks 53 through a partial rotation, the degree of which is, as stated, determined by the key which is depressed. Immediately following this movement the rack-bars having the spurs 50 move into contact with whichever of the pins happens to come in their path. After contacting with the pins 52 the spurs continue their forward travel until stopped by the keys governing them, giving the disks 53 a slight additional rotation. The four series of rackbars 46 and the four governing rack-bars 43 which control them are acted upon by the master-bar 35 of the actuating mechanism, which acts upon the rear ends of the slots 33 of the several rack-bars, and the rack-bars can only move forward when the master-bar is drawn forward, as hereinafter described, to permit their movement. They are brought back again to normal position by the return or rearward movement of the master-bar The rack-bars 45, having the spurs 50, are also controlled by a master-bar 35, which works exactly like the master-bar 35, except that it is in the slots 33 (see Figs. 13 and 14) of the several rack-bars and is adapted to act only upon the bars 45, because the slots 35 C in these bars are short, and the master-bar 35" will contact with the rear end of the slots, while, because the slot 33 in the bars 46 is long, the master-bar 35 will not act upon them at all. It will be seen then that both series of rack-bars have the slots 33 and 33; but in IIO the ease of the bars 46 the slots 33 are only for clearance, and in the case of the bars 45 the slots 33 are only for clearance.
The construction and arrangement of the primary calculator-disks 53 will be clearly seen by reference to Figs. 4, 6, and 7. The disks are mounted in groups on hubs, which rotate on one of the tie-bars 11, and they are separated by collars 60, as shown best in Fig. 7. Each group of disks 53 has a composite hub, which consists of an inner sleeve 57, having at one end a flange 58, which at one point is prolonged to conform to the radial arm 59. (Shown best in Fig. 6.) At the other end the sleeve is secured to the gear 54, already referred to. On each sleeve 57 is journaled a second sleeve 61, having the end flange 62, which at one part is prolonged or exaggerated to form a segment 63 (see Fig. 6) and at another point is cut away segmentally, as shown at 64 in the same ligure. The inner flange 58 is let into the sleeve 61, so that the flanges 58 and 62 are in the same vertical plane, and the arm 59, above referred to, has an oscillatory movement in the cut-away portion 64 of the flange 62. The several disks 53 and their separating collar or collars 60 are held on the part or sleeve 61 of the hub and against the flange 62 by a nut 65, as shown in Fig. 7.
One of the disks 53 of each group carries the nine pins 52, above mentioned, and these are adapted to be engaged by the spurs 50 of the rack-bars 45, above named. It will be notieed that the outer sleeve 61 of the disk-hubs can be rotated on the inner sleeve 57 a distance corresponding to the movement of the arm 59 in the recess 64. The arm 59 is held normally in contact with one edge of the segment 63 by a spring 66, (see Fig. 6,) one end of which is attached to the arm 59 and the other to the segment 63. The gears 54 have nine teeth, so that the movement of the rackbars 46, having the teeth 51, which engage the gears a distance of one tooth, rotates the hubs of the disks 53 one-ninth of their circumference, the movement of the bar two teeth will rotate the hub two-ninths, and so on.
hen the hubs are rotated by the rack-bars 46 to a point where the rack-bars-46 are prevented from further movement by the stepped ends of their governing rack-bars abutting with the depressed keys, the inner sleeves 57 of the hubs will be held against further movement, because the gears 54 and racks 51 are in mesh; but when the rack-bars 45 bring the spurs 50 into contact with one of the pins 52 the sleeve 61 rotates slightly on the hub or sleeve 57 and arm 59 is moved against the tension of the spring 66, as shown in Fig. 6.
The disks 53 are all constructed on a circle divided into nine sectors, as shown in Fig. 1, and each sector is divided into nine subsectors. The rack-bars 46 are arranged so as to alway bring the first or zero subsector of a disk opposite the finger 67 of a finger-bar 68,
as shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The function 01 the spur 50, then, after the rack 51 has de termined which of the sectors of the disk 53 is to be acted on by the finger-bar, is to determine which of the subscctors of that sector is to be brought into line with the said linger 67 of the linger-bar 68. It will be noticed, however, that this fact is primarily determined by the keys 13 which are depressed.
There is a series of the linger-bars 68, which are arranged to move longitudinally in suitable transverse guide-plates 69, and each linger-bar has at its rear end the linger 67, adapted to contact when the bar is releasedv with that part of the primary calculator-disk 53 which happens to be in line with the linger, whether it be the peripheral edge of the disk or one of the steps or gradients of its recesses. By reference to Fig. 7 it will be seen that there is a linger-bar 68 for each disk 53. The linger-bars are held normally from moving by the master-bar 70 and its controlling mechanism. This master-bar extends transversely through slots 6 8 (see Fig. 6) in the lingerbars 68. The masterbarholds the lingerbars with their fingers just clear of the periphery of the disks 53, and the linger-bars are actuated when released by the springs 71, which are fastened to the linger-bars, as shown at 72, and to some adjacent abut1nent-- as, for instance, a guide-plate 69.
Each finger-bar 68 carries on the under side a horiZontally-arranged rack-plate 73, which is constructed with a series of graduated teeth, which are adaptedv to engage the countingpinions 74 of the carriage 76, and the movement of the finger-lmrs brings the rack-plates into alinement with the pinions of the carriage or brings the requisite number of teeth into such alinement, as presently described. Some of the linger-bars carry a slightly-modilied form of the rack-plates 73 and 73, which are adapted to engage the pinion (see Figs. 6 and 7) of the carriage 76.
The organization of the disks, linger-bars, and rack-plates is best shown in Fig. 7, where the disks appear in section with the lingerbars 68, which have been released to the action of the springs 71, having their lingers 67 in abutment with the disks 53. The movement of the linger-bars is determined by the depth of the recesses in the disks 53, into which the linger-bars enter, and movement is entirely prevented where the lingers 67 abut with the periphery or unrecessed parts of the disks. By reference to Fig. 7 it will be seen that be fore the linger-bars 67 are released the rackplates 73 lie in live perfectly alined series, each series being just a little to one side 01 the path of the carriage-pinions 74 and 175. The teeth of the rack-plates 73, 73, and 7 3 are adapted, as stated, to engage the pinions 74 and 75 of the carriage, and it will be noticed that they are divided at right angles to the finger-bars 68 into nine parts, each part having a progressively-in creasingnumber of teeth, or, in other words, the teeth are of progressivelydecreasing length, so that the number of teeth which engage a given pinion depends on the movement forward or backward of the rackplate. The teeth on the rack-plate are of suecessively-increasing lengths, so that, in effect, one part of the rack-plate may have one tooth, the next two teeth, and so on up to nine to engage with the aforesaid pinions. Each rackplate therefore has the function of nine racks side by side, each with one tooth more than the one adjoining. The rack-plates 73 and 7 3" are in principle like the rack-plates 7 3, but are slightly different in the arrangement and number of their teeth, and this difference will be referred to in describing the arithmetical prin ciple of the machine.
By reference to Fig. 1 it will be seen that the disks 53 are constructed inside the periphery upon nine concentric circles and recede so that the bottom of each recess is determined by one or the other of these circles. The distance between these circles is exactly that of one-ninth of the rack-plates 7 3, so that it will be seen that when the finger 67 of one of the finger-bars 68 abuts with the bottom of a recess which extends to the sixth circle the rack-plate 7 8 has been moved rearward until ithas six teeth in the path of one of the eounting-pinions 7st of the carriage, and so when the calculatorcarriage '76 moves across the machine the pinion 74 will be engaged by the rack-plate 7 3 and turned a distance of six teeth. The action of course takes place in any number of rackplates which may happen to be in the path of the pinions, and the rotation of the pinions will of course depend on the position of the rack-plates. Each finger-bar 68, as above remarked, holds a certain number of teeth on the rack-plate 7 3 in the path of the countingpinion unless no recess is presented by a disk of the finger 67 or unless the finger-bar is held from movement by the check-lever 79. One of these levers lies parallel with each group of finger-bars 68, although in the drawings (see Fig. 7) only one lever 79 is shown. The lever 79 has a dependent arm 80, which is fulcrumed on arod 81, held, as illustrated, in lugs 82 on one of the guide-plates 69; but the rod, or in fact the check-lever, may be supported in any convenient way. Atits forward end the cheek-lever has a laterally-extending catch 83 adapted to engage the notch 84 (see Fig. 6) of the finger-bar 68, and at its rear end and on the under side the check-lever has an inclined or cam face 85. The rear end of the lever is normally pressed down by the spring 86, (see Fig. 7,) which is coiled around the rod 81, with one end fastened to the rod or to an adjacent abutment and with the other end secured to the check-lever 79. This causes the rear end of the check-lever 79 to press against the pin 87 (see Fig. 6) of the adjacent rackbar 46.
in the course of a computation when a di al;
53 is not rotated by the tooth rack-bar 46, as
in the case of a zero in a multiplicai'id, it often happens that a spur 50 will act upon the stationary group of disks This would give an elementary computation not desired and the check-lever 79 prevents this. hen a toothed rack-bar 46 controlling a group of disks is not moved, the eam-face 85 at the end of the lever 79 rests on the pin 87; but if the rack-bar be advanced one tooth the camface 85 slides down the advancing pin until the lever 79 rests with its horizontal or flat face on the pin 87, which action lifts the catch 83 out of engagement with the notch 84 of the finger-bar 68, thereby allowing the finger-bar to move rearward if the disk permits. it will be observed that the periphery of one of the disks 53 and the check-lever 79 serve to normally hold the rack-plate 78 out of the path of one of the counting-pinions 7%. The primary calculator-disks 53, withtheir fingerbars 68, rack-plates 73, and check-levers 79, 1 term the primary calculating mechanism.
The carriage 76, above referred to, can be of any suitable construction, and [have shown it provided with parallel lugs 77 on each side, which lugs embrace and slide on inwardlyprojecting lugs 78 on the main frame 10. From the above description it will be seen that when the carriage has completed its journey across the machine each pinion 7% or 75 thereon has been rotated a distance corresponding to the number of teeth presented to it by the rack-plates. The calculator-carriage 76 is made up of live sections, arranged to add together and produce the complete total of all the rack-plate teeth set by the primary calculater-disks. Of course it will be understood that if the machine is adapted to deal with larger computations as many more sections can be added to the carriage as may be required, and, as illustrated, each section consists, essentially, of the pinions 75 or 7 T, the connected gears 89 or 89, and the mechanism connecting each gear 89 or 89 with the next ascending section for carrying purposes, as will be presently described. The carriage is shown best in Figs. 6 and 7. As shown, the most forward section that is, the one to the left in Fig. 6, having the gear 89 and pinion 7 5represents fractions, and the gear 89 has forty-eight teeth, because the fractions as arranged are expressed in twelfths and a unit is carried at each quarter-turn of the gear, or. in fact, of any gear 89 or 89; The other gears have forty teeth, because each quarter-turn represents a count or addition of ten, and in order that the several sections, counting from left to right in Fig. 6, after thefractions-section express units, tens, hundreds, and thousands. The pinions 74: and 75 are each journaled in an arm 88 of the calculater-carriage 76 and the pinion 75 meshes with the gear 89, which is provided with an elongated hub 90,
he'd by a screw 91, (see Fig. 6,) fitted in a circumferential groove 92 on the tie-bar 93, so that the hub may turn but not slide on the said tie-bar. The tie-bar 93 connects the two sides of the carriage-frame. The hub carries the disk 6 the function of which will be hereinafter described, and each succeed- .ing section of the carriage is provided with a similar disk 91. At the end of the hub 90 and of each succeeding disk-hub in the carriage-section is a clutch comprising the two parts 95 and 96, which have four meeting inclined teeth 97, adapted to carry one every time a quarter-turn is made, as will be presently shown. The clutch member 96 is pressed toward the member 95 by a spiral spring 98, arranged between the member 96 and the hub 99 of the next carriage-section, the spring 98 being arranged, as shown, around the tie-bar 93. Each clutch member 96 is held by a pin 96, fitting in a groove 96" in the tiebar 98, so that the said member may slide but cannot turn. The hub 99 is elongated, as shown in Fig. 6, and carries a disk 91, the hub being held to the shaft or tie-bar 93 by a screw 91 in the same way that the hub 90 is held. The hub 99 carries the radial tooth ratchet-wheel 100, which abuts with the hub 101 of the gear 89, the said hub 101 being held by a screw 102, so as to turn with but not slide on the hub 99. The screw 102 also serves to secure the spring-detent 103, which engages the ratchet-wheel and prevents it from turning back. Extending through each gear 89, parallel with the shaft or tie-bar 93, is a short shaft 104. (see Fig. 7,) which is journaled in the gear and carries at its for Ward end a bent arm 105, which engages the face of and slides on the conical clutch member 96. The rear end of the said shaft 104: terminates in a second curved arm 106, which extends partly around the hub 101 and terminates in the spring-pawl 107, (see Fig. 6,) which engages the ratchet-wheel 100 of the next ascend ing carriage-section. hen a gear 89 is rotated a distance of ten teeththat is, one-quarter of its full revolution-the disk 100, which is coupled to it, as described, will also be turned by reason of the ratchet connection between the two, as pointed out. At the beginning of the movement the teeth 97 of the clutch members 95 and 96 will be in close mesh; but as the rotation progresses the inclined faces of the teeth on the clutch member 97 will slide on the teeth of the opposed member, gradually forcing back the member 96 against the pressure of the spring 98. this movement continuing until the gear 89 has moved a distance of nine teeth. \Vith the rotation of the gear one tooth more the meeting inclined faces of the clutch members 95 and 96 clear each other and the member 96 flies back to its first position, it being then in exactly the same position as when it started, except that its teeth have changed-that is, the
member 95 has advanced a distance of one tooth, showing that the parts have rotated a quarter-revolution. During the rearwiu'dlysliding movement of the clutch member 96 the arm 105, pressed lightly by the spring-pawl 107, gradually descends the inclined or cone face of the clutch member 96, carrying the spring-pawl 107 back a distance of one tooth. and when that point is reached where the teeth 97 of the clutch members pass each other and the member 96 fiiesback the arm 105 is thrown suddenly outward, tilting the pawl-arm 106 and causing the pawl 107 to advance the ratchet-wheel 100 on the next ascending section a distance of one tooth, and this of course carries forward the disk 91, which is carried with the said ratchetwheel a corresponding distance. This operation, it will be seen, is carried on effectively whether the section to which the 1 is being carried is receiving impulse through its counting-pinion or whether it be at rest. The first or forward section of the carriage mechanism operates exactly in the same way as the other sections, with the exception that it requires a rotation of twelve teeth of the gear 89 to turn the mechanism of the first section a quarter-revolution. It will be noticed that the section which computes the figures of smallest value, which in this case are fractions, requires only the clutch to carry upward its calculations to the next higher section. It will be noticed, too, that while the several gears 89 have a rotation governed by their pinions 74: the disks 91 C, which they carry, have the same rotation and also an occasional additional movement equal to one tooth of the gear 89, communicated by the mechanism of the section as just described.
In Fig. 7 the rack-plates 73, 73, and 73" are in position to give the result of one hundred and fifty seven and onehalf multiplied by twenty-lu e and one-third. The answer to this is three thousand nine hundred and ninety. If one were to add the total of the rack-plate teeth shown lying in the path of the countingpinions of the calculator-carriage in the said figure as if they were five columns of figures, he would obtain the desired result.
For purposes of calculation the operation is finished when the carriage has passed the last rack-plate, In other words, the calculation is complete; but it is necessary or at least desirable to use registering mechanism to display the result in the required manner and at the right point. For this purpose the carriage is provided with grad uated disks 94 and 941 instead of with dials. Each disk 91, 9%, &c., is divided into four sectors, and these are again divided into ten graduated steps or abutments 108, each step being on a different concentric line from its neighbor, and in the case of the disk 91 there are twelve of these substeps, because, as already described, this disk refers to the parts indicating fractions and the fractions are expressed in the instance illustrated in twelfths. Obviously the number of steps on the fractional disk would correspond with the denomination of the fractions to be expressed. On the side of each disk 94 94:, &c., are four projecting pins 108, which are arranged at regular distances upon the disk in such a position that when the carriage 76 on its return journey across the machine almost reaches the starting-point the uppermost pin 108 on each disk will strike one of the fiXed arms 109 on the main frame 10, (see Fig. 9,) and the length of the arms is such as to bring the disks all back to Zero position. When a disk has been turned to register Zero, it will not, of course, be moved on the return of the carriage, as its arm 109 will merely touch the pin 108. The steps 108 of the disks are adapted to contact with the bent arms 110, 110, 110 110", and 110, which arms at their upper ends ter minate in split rings 112, having opposed flanges 113, (see Fig. 10.) so that by suitable screws 114: in the said flanges the rings, and consequently the said arms, may be clasped to the sectional shaft 116, 117, 118, 119, and 119 which shaft is parallel with the shaft or tiebar 93 and at such point above the same as to bring the arms 110 110, &c., into the proper relation to the communicating disks above referred to. The sectional shaft is hung in suitable bearings on the side of the frame 10 and is made up, as shown in Figs. 5 and 10, of overlapping and partially-nested hollow sections, so that each section may work ii'idependently of the others, and the several sections are properly spaced by means of collars 115 on the shaft. The several shaft-sections just referred to are each provided with upwardly-extending bent levers 120,120,120, 120, and 120, which are secured to the several sections, as shown best in Fig. 5, which shows the levers secured to collars 120 which are threaded to the several shaft-sections, thus the arm 110 and shaft-section 116, which communicates with the fractional section of the calculating-carriage, connects with the arm 120. The next section of the calculator-carriage communicates, through the arm 110, shaft-section 117,with the lever 120, and so on. Each of these levers 120 is split at its upper end, as shown at 121, and so has a sliding connection, by means of the pin 122, with one of the sliding indicator rack-bars 123, (see Figs. 3, 5, and 9,) there being an indicator rack-bar for each lever. The indicator rack-bars 123 have a limited sliding motion in the guides 12 1, which are supported above the main mechanism of the machine, and the rack-bars have at one end the right end as you face the machine-depending lugs 125, which extend into the path of the stud 126 on the lever 127, which is secured to the shaft 128, (see Fig. 9,) and the latter has also an arm 129, which is adapted to project outward beyond the ma' chine-frame, as shown in the figure just referred to. The function of the arms 127 and 129 will be hereinafter referred to.
The indicator rack-bars 123 are normally pressed to the left, as you face the machine, by springs 130, which are secured to a convenient abutment, as the guide 12% and to the indicator rack-bars, as shown at 131. Each indicator rack-bar is provided with a rack 132, which engages a pinion 133 on one of the shafts 134, which shafts are in parallel relation, as shown in Figs. 3 and 9, and are arranged on the machine-top, each shaft carrying, preferably at its front end, a dial 135 with the several numerals thereon, and the dials are covered by a hood 136, (see Fig. 3,) having slots 137 above the dials, so that one number of a dial will show through its slot and the several numbers which show will indicate the result of a computation, as is usual in machines of this class. At the proper time the arm 127, bearing the stud 126, is allowed to fall back, and the indicator rack-bars 123 will under the action of the springs 130 shoot to the left, carrying with them the several levers 120 120, &c., and consequently throwing inward the bent arms 110 110", &c., the arms moving toward the middle of the machine. This release of the indicator rack-bars does not take place until the calculator-carriage 76 has crossed the machine and is at rest with a stepped part of each graduated disk 91 as, &c., directly in the path of the bent arms 110, 110, and following. The depth of the graduation of the part of each disk against which the arms will thus strike will therefore limit the inward movement of the arms -that is, such movement will be limited by the steps 108, which the arms strike, and the outward movemento f the levers 120, 120, and following will be similarly limited. The indicating rack-bars 123 will thus be stopped at variable points in their travel. As each bar 123 is geared to the dials 135, as already described, the proper number will consequently be displayed by the dial. This operation will be understood by reference to Fig. 9, which shows the variable position of the several communicating or transmitting parts. The carriage has received from the computing mechanism the answer to the calculation of one hundred and fifty-seven and one-half multiplied by twenty-live and onethird, as already explained, and presents the disks 9% 9r, &c., to the arms 110, 110, and following in such a way as to represent the answer 3990. By reference to the drawings it will be seen that one of the arms 110 is in contact with the third step 108 of one of the disks 94;. The arms which communicate with the dials showing the 9s are each in contact with the ninth step of their respective disks, while the communicatingarm connecting with the zero-dial is at the periphery of its disk.
By reference to Figs. and a it will be seen that the indicator rack-bars 123 are close together, so that if desired the ends of the rackbars can be provided with types by means of which a printed record of the calculations can be made. This matter, however, I have not shown in detail, as it is the subject of a subsequent application.
1: have now described the mechanical movements of the various calculating parts of the machine without explaining the arithmetical principles or how the parts are actuated. I will now describe the actuating mechanism.
Power is applied to the machine through a lever 138, (see Figs. 2 and 4,) which has a suitable handle and which is mounted on a stud 139. This lever carries the dependent arm 140, (see Fig. 4,) which may, if desired, be integral with the lever and which at its lower end merges into the segment 141, having teeth 142 on the lower edge thereof. The arm is normally pulled outward by a spring 143, which is attached at one end to the arm 140 and at the other to a pin 144. The teeth 142 of the segment engage the pinion 146, which is journaled on the cam-hub 147, the latter being mounted on the stud 148 on one end of the machine. (See Fi 17.) The cam-hub is provided with the three principal cams 149, 150, and 151, which are fast on the hub and also carries the plate-cam 152.
The cam 151 is adapted to engage the pin 153 on the lever or arm 153, which extends upward at the side of the machine and is keyed to the shaft 154, this shaft extending entirely across the machine and carrying at its opposite end a second arm, 153, like the lirst, except that it has not the pin 153, and the two arms are pivotally connected on their upper ends by the pitman 15.5 with the reduced ends 156 of the master-bar 35, already referred to. The cam acts on the pin 157 (see Fig. 4) of the arm or crank 158, which is, at its lower end, keyed to the shaft 159, which extends transversely through the machine-frame and has at its outer end a similar arm 158, (see Fig. 2,) the two arms 158 being slotted at their upper ends, as shown at 160 in Fig. 4, and connected to the reduced ends of the master-bar 35, so that the movement of the bar is given to it positively by the arm 158. Cam 149 acts on the pin 161 of the arm 162, which at its lower end is keyed to the shaft 163 and this extends transversely through the machine and has at its opposite ends a similar arm 162, the two said arms connecting, by pivotal links 164, to the masterbar 70 of the linger-bars 68. The pinion 146 (see Figs. 3 and 17) carries an arm 165, which turns with it, and on this arm is pivoted the pawl 166, (see Figs. 4 and 17,) which is pressed by a spring 167 into engagement with the single-tooth ratchet-wheel 168. When the lever 138 is pulled down, the pawl 166 is in engagement with the ratchet-wheel, and the hub 147, with its cams 149, 150, and 151, receives the same degree of rotation as the gear or pinion 146. ()n the release of the lever it is pulled back by the spring 143, and
the segment 141 in returning rotatesthe gear 146 in the opposite direction, thus causing the pawl 166 to pass back over the tooth of the ratchet-wheel 168 and drop down over the tooth in the first position. The cams 149, 150, 151, and the segment 168 are keyed to the hub 147 by the key 147, (see F 17,) so that all the said parts turn with the hub. The cam-hub 147 carries also on the under side a segment 168, which is provided on one edge with teeth 169 and on the opposite edge with teeth 170, (see Fig. the first teeth meshing with the pinion 171 and the second with the pinion 172, these pinions being fixed to the inwardly-extemling horizontal shafts carried in the bosses 17 3 and 174 of the machine-frame, the pinion 171 carrying the l )evel-pinion 175, and the pinion 172 carrying the beveled pinion 176, these beveled pinions meshing, respectively, with the bevelgears 177 and 178 on the shaft 179, which is journaled in the two cross pieces or frames 10 on the main frame 10, and the said shaft projects through the said cross-frames and is provided with gears 180, which connect, through the intermediate gears 181, with a train of gears on the front and rear portions of the said cross-frames 11), the train-gearing comprising the relatively large gears 182, 182", and 182 and the intermediate gears 183 and 183*. The gears 182, 182, and 182" mesh with the racks 184-. which are secured to projecting plates 185 of the calculator-carriage 76, (see Fig. 6,) so that when the gears turn in one direction the carriage will be moved rapidly across the machine from right to left as you face the machine, and. when the gears are reversed the carriage will be also reversed.
From the description just above given it will be seen that when the segment 141 moves in one direction the teeth 169 of the segment 168 will engage the pinion 171, and so move the carriage from right to left through the connected gearing, already described; but on the continued movement of the segment 168 the teeth 176 of the segment acting on the pinion 17 2, and through that and the connecting-gear just referred to, will reverse the carriage movement.
The fourth cam 152 of the hub 147 acts on the lover or arm 129 of the shaft 128, which rests normally against the cam. l Vhen the hub 147 is rotated, the cam rotates with it and holds the arm 129 in the position shown in Fig. 2 until the cam clears the end of the arm, when the arm flies up to the position shown in Fig. 9 and remains in this position till the plate-cam 152 in its continued rotation comes round and, contacting again with the arm, forces it gradually to its first position. hen the cam releases the lever or arm 129, it permits the spring 130 to move forward actuated in the following order: After the keys 14L, communicating the numbers to be computed, are pressed the lever 138 is pulled down and the cams on the hub 1 17 are rotated,
as already described. The cam 151 clears the pin 1 3 of the levers or arms 153, which permits the forward motion of the masterbar 35 and the several rack-bars 46, these moving forward to the point where the step ends 4% of the governing rack-bars 12 strike the depressed keys, which prevents their further movement. By the movement of these rackbars the disks 53 are rotated till in each case the first subsector of one of their sectors is before or in alinement with the linger 67 of one of the finger-bars 68. The cam 150 clears the pin 157 of the arms 158, permitting the master-bar 35 of the rack-bars 15 to move forward till their governing rack-bars 13 are prevented from further movement by the keys 14 that control them, and this movement, as already described, through the instrumentality of the spurs 50 and the pins 52, gives the disks 53 a slight additional movement, bringing the particular subsectors of the disks necessary to the calculation, as shown by the keys, opposite the fingers 67 of the appropriate finger-bars 68. By this time the hub 14? has moved sufficiently for the cam 14:9 to clear or free the pin 161 of the arms 162, thus permitting the inward movement of the master-bar 7 O, controlling the finger-bars 68, and this allows the fingers 67 to enter the recess of the disks 53, setting the rack-plates 73 and following in the desired combination. At this time the teeth 169 of the segment 168 reach the point where they engage the pinion 171, thus running the carriage completely across the machine, as previously described. During the movement of the carriage it counts and computes the teeth presented to its counting-pinions 7 1 and 75 in the manner already described and stops in position to allow the arms to register the computation from the carriage-disks 9 1 and 95 to the dials 135 above. The plate-cam 152 now clears the end of the arm 129 and permits the arm to fall back, thus allowing the rack-bars 123 to slide and permitting the tilting of the arms 120 to 120 and 110 to 110, so that the latter arms come into contact with the disks 94 and 91 of the carriage 76. The result is now registered on the dials by means of the mechanism connecting the disks 94: and 9 1 with the dials, as already described, and nothing remains to be done but to return the parts to their original position. The hub 1 17 continues its rotation and the cam 1 19, acting on the pin 161, brings the master-bar 70, and with it the finger-bar 68, back to normal position. Next the cam 150,acting on the pin 157 and arms 158, brings back the master-bar 35 and the rack-bars 45 to normal position. Now the cam 151 enthe pin 153 and brings back, through the arms 153 and pitmen 155, the master-bar 35 to normal position, and this brings with it the rack-bars 16 and with the bars the disks 53, while almost simultaneously with the action of the cam 15] upon the pin 153 the teeth 171 of the segment 168 engage the pinion 172 and start the carriage on its return movement. \Vhen the carriage reaches its first position, the pins 108" of the disks 94; and 9a strike the arms 169, bringing all of the disks into line and in zero position. During these several operations the platecam 152 has contacted with and pressed down and back the lever or arm 129, thus carrying back the indicator rack-bars 123, and this turns their indicators back to zero position. The masterbar 35, besides acting on the rack-bars i2 and 4:6, has also by this time brought back the trip-bar 33, thereby releasing keys through the instrumentality of the spur-.32 and pin or bent arm 31, so as to release the said keys, and the machine is now back in Zero position, ready for its next calculation.
the various mechanical elements being now understood, Ishall next explain the arithmetical principle of the machine. In the ordinary working out of an example in multiplication, the operationis carried out in the wellknown way, as follows:
i first producing all the elementary computal tions or primarycalculationsand then adding i them together and indicating the result. In
The action and sequence of movement 0t" Fig. 1 is shown a diagram of each of the pri mary calculator-disks which go to make up the various groups, as in Fig. 7, the disks comprising 5s" 53 So much of the principle of these disks as is necessary to the understanding of the operation of the machine has been already described. and the construction will now be referred to as a whole. The disks, it will be noticed, are formed upon a peripheral circle inside of which at regular intervals are described nine concentric circles stepped off, as already described. The peripheral circle is divided into nine equal secto s, and each sector into ten subsectors. These disks perform in the machine an office similar to that of multiplying in the human mind and are, in fact, a mechanical multiplication-table. The disks 53 and 53" give the multiplication of the digits 1 to 9 by the digits 1to 9, and these two disks are therefore complementary to each other, the disk 53 giving all the units of the products, and the disks 53- giving the tens of the products. These disks are always paired and in the machine are operated as a mechanical unit. The first subsector of each sector is left full to the peripheral circle. The sector 1 contains the multiplication of all the digits by one. The subsector after the first or Zero subsector of sector 1, it will be seen, is recessed to the first concentric circle, and this represents the product of one multiplied by one, which is one. The second subsector is recessed to the second circle and represents the product of two multiplied by one, which is two. It will be readily seen how the plan obtains throughout the whole of the first sector. The first subsector of the second sector is the startingpoint of that sector and is O. The subsector 1 is recessed to the second circle and represents the product of one multiplied by two, which is two. The next subsector 2 recedes to the fourth circle and represents the product of two multiplied by two, which is four. The third subsector recedes to the sixth circle and represents 6,the product of three multiplied by two. Until the multiplication reaches five multiplied by two the complementary disk 53" is not recessed, but at that point it isrecessed to the first circle, while the disk 53 at the corresponding subsector is not recessed. Thus the two disks at that point represent the product of five multiplied by two, which is ten. It will now be seen how this principle is carried forward through the nine subsectors. The disks 53 53 53 53 give the products of all the digits multiplied successively by all the fractions onesixth, one-third, one-half, two-thirds, and five-sixths in the same manner that the two disks just above mentioned give their prod ucts. While these disks just above mentioned are of the same size and are divided into the same number of sectors as the disks and 53", because there are only live keys on the key-bank controlling them,and tl'icrefore only five products in each ascending imiltiplicatiou, there are in each sector only live active subsectors besides the zero subsectors. As I have arranged the active subsectors they are in the middle of the sector, with two inactive subsectors preceding and two following them. This particular arrangement of the active subsectorsis notarbitrary. 'lhey could, if desired, follow immediately after the Zero subsector in each sector, in which case, of course, thekeys controlling them would have to commence in line with the 1 keys of the other banks instead of in line with the 3 keys of the other banks, as I have placed them.
In illustration of the principle and arrangement of the recesses of the fraction-disks, I will explain the group D. This group is made up of one disk 53 and one disk 53". In referring to the subsectors during this description 1 shall ignore the zero subsector, as its presence and office have already been clearly explained. The two disks acting as a single part give all the products of one to nine nudtiplied by all the fractions, one-sixth to livesixths. The sector 2 of this group gives the product of one multiplied by all the fractions. The answer of one multiplied by one-sixth is one-sixth, and it will be seen thatthe disk 53, which registers the fractions of this groups products, is recessed to the first circle in the first subsector, while at the same point disk 53, which registers the units of this groups products, is not recessed at all. Thus the elementary calculation given by this subsector is one-sixth. The second subsector of the same sector is adapted to give the result 01' one multiplied by one-third and is recessed in 53 to the second circle, and at the same point in 53 is not recessed at all. The elementary calculation given by this subsector is therefore twosixths or one-third. It will be easy to follow the process out through the remaining subsectors of this sector. in sector 2 of this group are the products of two multiplied by all the fractions, one-sixth to five-sixths. At the first subsector it will be seen that 53 is recessed to the second circle, while 53" is not recessed at all. This gives the product of two multiplied by one-sixth,\vhich is one-third. The next subsector is not recessed on 53', but on 53" is recessed to the fourth circle, which gives the result of two multiplied by one-third, which is four-sixths or two-thirds. The third subsector is recessed on 53" to the first circle, but on 53 is not recessed. This gives the result of two multiplied by one-half, which is one. This method, as in the case of the whole-number disks, is carried out consistently through all the seetors. I will now give an example on the largest group 1., which is made up of one each of the disks 53, 53, 53 and 5?), all held
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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2569804A (en) * 1951-10-02 Calculating machine
US2580295A (en) * 1951-12-25 Partial product machine
US2639860A (en) * 1953-05-26 Partial product machine
US2644638A (en) * 1953-07-07 Broido

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2569804A (en) * 1951-10-02 Calculating machine
US2580295A (en) * 1951-12-25 Partial product machine
US2639860A (en) * 1953-05-26 Partial product machine
US2644638A (en) * 1953-07-07 Broido

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