Connect public, paid and private patent data with Google Patents Public Datasets

Linear predictive coding implementation of digital watermarks

Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US7730317B2
US7730317B2 US11592079 US59207906A US7730317B2 US 7730317 B2 US7730317 B2 US 7730317B2 US 11592079 US11592079 US 11592079 US 59207906 A US59207906 A US 59207906A US 7730317 B2 US7730317 B2 US 7730317B2
Authority
US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
signal
digital
time
sub
watermark
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Active, expires
Application number
US11592079
Other versions
US20070079131A1 (en )
Inventor
Scott A. Moskowitz
Marc Cooperman
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Wistaria Trading Ltd
Original Assignee
Wistaria Trading Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date
Family has litigation

Links

Images

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N19/00Methods or arrangements for coding, decoding, compressing or decompressing digital video signals
    • H04N19/46Embedding additional information in the video signal during the compression process
    • H04N19/467Embedding additional information in the video signal during the compression process characterised by the embedded information being invisible, e.g. watermarking
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T1/00General purpose image data processing
    • G06T1/0021Image watermarking
    • G06T1/0028Adaptive watermarking, e.g. Human Visual System [HVS]-based watermarking
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T1/00General purpose image data processing
    • G06T1/0021Image watermarking
    • G06T1/005Robust watermarking, e.g. average attack or collusion attack resistant
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L63/00Network architectures or network communication protocols for network security
    • H04L63/12Applying verification of the received information
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N1/00Scanning, transmission or reproduction of documents or the like, e.g. facsimile transmission; Details thereof
    • H04N1/32Circuits or arrangements for control or supervision between transmitter and receiver or between image input and image output device
    • H04N1/32101Display, printing, storage or transmission of additional information, e.g. ID code, date and time or title
    • H04N1/32144Display, printing, storage or transmission of additional information, e.g. ID code, date and time or title embedded in the image data, i.e. enclosed or integrated in the image, e.g. watermark, super-imposed logo or stamp
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N1/00Scanning, transmission or reproduction of documents or the like, e.g. facsimile transmission; Details thereof
    • H04N1/32Circuits or arrangements for control or supervision between transmitter and receiver or between image input and image output device
    • H04N1/32101Display, printing, storage or transmission of additional information, e.g. ID code, date and time or title
    • H04N1/32144Display, printing, storage or transmission of additional information, e.g. ID code, date and time or title embedded in the image data, i.e. enclosed or integrated in the image, e.g. watermark, super-imposed logo or stamp
    • H04N1/32149Methods relating to embedding, encoding, decoding, detection or retrieval operations
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N1/00Scanning, transmission or reproduction of documents or the like, e.g. facsimile transmission; Details thereof
    • H04N1/32Circuits or arrangements for control or supervision between transmitter and receiver or between image input and image output device
    • H04N1/32101Display, printing, storage or transmission of additional information, e.g. ID code, date and time or title
    • H04N1/32144Display, printing, storage or transmission of additional information, e.g. ID code, date and time or title embedded in the image data, i.e. enclosed or integrated in the image, e.g. watermark, super-imposed logo or stamp
    • H04N1/32149Methods relating to embedding, encoding, decoding, detection or retrieval operations
    • H04N1/32154Transform domain methods
    • H04N1/32187Transform domain methods with selective or adaptive application of the additional information, e.g. in selected frequency coefficients
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N1/00Scanning, transmission or reproduction of documents or the like, e.g. facsimile transmission; Details thereof
    • H04N1/32Circuits or arrangements for control or supervision between transmitter and receiver or between image input and image output device
    • H04N1/32101Display, printing, storage or transmission of additional information, e.g. ID code, date and time or title
    • H04N1/32144Display, printing, storage or transmission of additional information, e.g. ID code, date and time or title embedded in the image data, i.e. enclosed or integrated in the image, e.g. watermark, super-imposed logo or stamp
    • H04N1/32149Methods relating to embedding, encoding, decoding, detection or retrieval operations
    • H04N1/32267Methods relating to embedding, encoding, decoding, detection or retrieval operations combined with processing of the image
    • H04N1/32277Compression
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T2201/00General purpose image data processing
    • G06T2201/005Image watermarking
    • G06T2201/0052Embedding of the watermark in the frequency domain
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L2463/00Additional details relating to network architectures or network communication protocols for network security covered by H04L63/00
    • H04L2463/101Additional details relating to network architectures or network communication protocols for network security covered by H04L63/00 applying security measures for digital rights management
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N2201/00Indexing scheme relating to scanning, transmission or reproduction of documents or the like, and to details thereof
    • H04N2201/32Circuits or arrangements for control or supervision between transmitter and receiver or between image input and image output device
    • H04N2201/3201Display, printing, storage or transmission of additional information, e.g. ID code, date and time or title
    • H04N2201/3225Display, printing, storage or transmission of additional information, e.g. ID code, date and time or title of data relating to an image, a page or a document
    • H04N2201/3233Display, printing, storage or transmission of additional information, e.g. ID code, date and time or title of data relating to an image, a page or a document of authentication information, e.g. digital signature, watermark
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N2201/00Indexing scheme relating to scanning, transmission or reproduction of documents or the like, and to details thereof
    • H04N2201/32Circuits or arrangements for control or supervision between transmitter and receiver or between image input and image output device
    • H04N2201/3201Display, printing, storage or transmission of additional information, e.g. ID code, date and time or title
    • H04N2201/3269Display, printing, storage or transmission of additional information, e.g. ID code, date and time or title of machine readable codes or marks, e.g. bar codes or glyphs
    • H04N2201/327Display, printing, storage or transmission of additional information, e.g. ID code, date and time or title of machine readable codes or marks, e.g. bar codes or glyphs which are undetectable to the naked eye, e.g. embedded codes

Abstract

Z-transform calculations may be used to encode (and/or decode) carrier signal independent data (e.g., digital watermarks) to a digital sample stream. Deterministic and non-deterministic components of a digital sample stream signal may be analyzed for the purposes of encoding carrier signal independent data to the digital sample stream. The carrier signal independent data may be encoded in a manner such that it is restricted or concentrated primarily in the non-deterministic signal components of the carrier signal. The signal components can include a discrete series of digital samples and/or a discreet series of carrier frequency sub-bands of the carrier signal. Z-transform calculations may be used to measure a desirability of particular locations and a sample stream in which to encode the carrier signal independent data.

Description

RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application is a continuation of pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/026,234, filed Dec. 30, 2004, which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/456,319, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,853,726, filed Dec. 8, 1999, which is a division of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 08/772,222, filed Dec. 20, 1996, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,078,664. The previously identified patents and/or patent applications are hereby incorporated by reference, in their entireties.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Digital distribution of multimedia content (audio, video, etc.) and the impending convergence of industries that seek to make this goal a reality (computer, telecommunications, media, electric power, etc.) collide with the simplicity of making perfect digital copies. There exists a vacuum in which content creators resist shifts to full digital distribution systems for their digitized works, due to the lack of a means to protect the copyrights of these works. In order to make such copyright protection possible, there must exist a mechanism to differentiate between a master and any of its derivative copies. The advent of digital watermarks makes such differentiation possible. With differentiation, assigning responsibility for copies as they are distributed can assist in the support and protection of underlying copyrights and other “neighboring rights,” as well as, the implementation of secure metering, marketing, and other as yet still undecided applications. Schemes that promote encryption, cryptographic containers, closed systems, and the like attempt to shift control of copyrights from their owners to third parties, requiring escrow of masters and payment for analysis of suspect, pirated copies. A frame-based, master-independent, multi-channel watermark system is disclosed in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 08/489,172 filed on Jun. 7, 1995 and entitled “STEGANOGRAPHIC METHOD AND DEVICE”, U.S. patent application Ser. No. 08/587,944 filed on Jan. 17, 1996 and entitled “METHOD FOR HUMAN-ASSISTED RANDOM KEY GENERATION AND APPLICATION FOR DIGITAL WATERMARK SYSTEM”, and U.S. patent application Ser. No. 08/587,943 filed on Jan. 16, 1996 and entitled “METHOD FOR STEGA-CIPHER PROTECTION OF COMPUTER CODE”. These applications describe methods by which copyright holders can watermark and maintain control over their own content. Any suspect copies carry all necessary copyright or other “rights” information within the digitized signal and possession of an authorized “key” and the software (or even hardware) described in these applications would make determination of ownership or other important issues a simple operation for the rights holder or enforcer.

Optimizing watermark insertion into a given signal is further described in the U.S. patent application Ser. No. 08/677,435 filed on Jul. 2, 1996 and entitled “OPTIMIZATION METHODS FOR THE INSERTION, PROJECTION AND DETECTION OF DIGITAL WATERMARKS IN DIGITIZED DATA”. This application discloses accounting for the wide range of digitally-sampled signals including audio, video, and derivations thereof that may constitute a “multimedia” signal. The optimization techniques described in that application take into account the two components of all digitization systems: error coding and digital filters. The premise is to provide a better framework or definition of the actual “aesthetic” that comprises the signal being reproduced, whether through commercial standards of output (NTSC, CD-quality audio, etc.) or lossless and lossy compression (MPEG-2, Perceptual Audio Coding, AC-3, Linear Adaptive Coding, and the like), so that a watermark may be targeted at precisely the part of the signal comprising such an “aesthetic” in order that it be as robust as possible (i.e., difficult to remove without damaging the perceptual quality of the signal). However the content is stored, the signal still carries the digital watermark. Additionally, transmission media may be characterized as a set of “filters” that may be pre-analyzed to determine the best “areas” of the signal in which watermarks “should” be encoded, to preserve watermarks in derivative copies and ensure maximum destruction of the main, carrier signal when attempts are made to erase or alter the watermarked content.

Optimal planning of digital watermark insertion can be based on the inversion of digital filters to establish or map areas comprising a given content signal's “insertion envelope.” That is, the results of the filter operation are considered in order to “back out” a solution. In the context of this discussion, the phrase “inverting” a filter may mean, alternatively, mathematical inversion, or the normal computation of the filter to observe what its effect would be, were that filter applied at a later time. Planning operations will vary for given digitized content: audio, video, multimedia, etc. Planning will also vary depending on where a given “watermarker” is in the distribution chain and what particular information needs that user has in encoding a given set of information fields into the underlying content. The disclosures described take into account discrete-time signal processing which can be accomplished with Fast Fourier Transforms that are well-known in the art of digital signal processing. Signal characteristics are also deemed important: a specific method for analysis of such characteristics and subsequent digital watermarking is disclosed in further detail in this application. The antecedents of the present invention cover time and frequency domain processing, which can be used to examine signal characteristics and make modifications to the signal. A third way would be to process with z-transforms that can establish signal characteristics in a very precise manner over discrete instances of time. In particular, z-transform calculations can be used to separate the deterministic, or readily predictable, components of a signal from the non-deterministic (unpredictable or random) components. It should be apparent to those skilled in the art that non-deterministic is a subjective term whose interpretation is implicitly affected by processing power, memory, and time restrictions. With unlimited DSP (digital signal processing) power, memory, and time to process, we might theoretically predict every component of a signal. However, practicality imposes limitations. The results of the z-transform calculations will yield an estimator of the signal in the form of a deterministic approximation. The difference between a signal reconstituted from the deterministic estimator and the real signal can be referred to as error, and the error in an estimator can be further analyzed for statistical characteristics. Those skilled in the art will be aware that Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) techniques make use of these properties. So the error can be modeled, but is difficult to reproduce exactly from compressed representations. In essence, this error represents the randomness in a signal which is hard to compress or reproduce, but in fact may contribute significantly to the gestalt perception of the signal.

The more elements of error determined with z-transforms, the better able a party is at determining just what parts of a given carrier signal are deterministic, and thus predictable, and what elements are random. The less predictable the watermark-bearing portion of a signal is and the more it contributes to the perception of the signal, as previously disclosed, the more secure a digital watermark can be made. Z-transform analysis would disclose just which phase components are deterministic and which are random. This is because it is difficult to compress or otherwise remove unpredictable signal components. Error analysis further describes the existence of error function components and would reliably predict what signals or data may later be removed by additional z-transform analysis or other compression techniques. In effect, the error analysis indicates how good an approximation can be made, another way of stating how predictable a signal is, and by implication, how much randomness it contains. Z-transforms are thus a specialized means to optimize watermark insertion and maximize the resulting security of encoded data from attempts at tampering. The results of a Z-transform of input samples could be analyzed to see “exactly” how they approximate the signal, and how much room there is for encoding watermarks in a manner that they will not be removed by compression techniques which preserve a high degree of reproduction quality.

Time is typically described as a single independent variable in signal processing operations but in many cases operations can be generalized to multidimensional or multichannel signals. Analog signals are defined continuously over time, while digital signals are sampled at discrete time intervals to provide a relatively compact function, suitable for storage on a CD, for instance, defined only at regularly demarcated intervals of time. The accrued variables over time provide a discrete-time signal that is an approximation of the actual non-discrete analog signal. This discreteness is the basis of a digital signal. If time is unbounded and the signal comprises all possible values, a continuous-valued signal results. The method for converting a continuous-valued signal into a discrete time value is known as sampling. Sampling requires quantization and quantization implies error. Quantization and sampling are thus an approximation process.

Discreteness is typically established in order to perform digital signal processing. The issue of deterministic versus random signals is based on the ability to mathematically predict output values of a signal function at a specific time given a certain number of previous outputs of the function. These predictions are the basis of functions that can replicate a given signal for reproduction purposes. When such predictions are mathematically too complicated or are not reasonably accurate, statistical techniques may be used to describe the probabalistic characteristics of the signal. In many real world applications, however, determinations of whether a signal, or part of a signal, is indeed random or not is difficult at best. The watermark systems described in earlier disclosures mentioned above have a basis in analyzing signals so that analysis of discrete time frames can be made to insert information into the signal being watermarked. When signal characteristics are measured, a key factor in securely encoding digital watermarks is the ability to encode data into a carrier signal in a way that mimics randomness or pseudo randomness so that unauthorized attempts at erasing the watermark necessarily require damage to the content signal. Any randomness that exists as a part of the signal, however, should be estimated in order that a party seeking to optimally watermark the input signal can determine the best location for watermark information and to make any subsequent analysis to determine the location of said watermarks more difficult. Again, typical implementations of signal processing that use z-transforms seek to describe what parts of the signal are deterministic so that they may be described as a compact, predictable function so that the signal maybe faithfully reproduced. This is the basis for so-called linear predictive coding techniques used for compression. The present invention is concerned with descriptions of the signal to better define just what parts of the signal are random so that digital watermarks may be inserted in a manner that would make them more or less tamperproof without damage to the carrier signal. Additional goals of the system are dynamic analysis of a signal at discrete time intervals so that watermarks may be dynamically adjusted to the needs of users in such instances as on-the-fly encoding of watermarks or distribution via transmission media (telephone, cable, electric powerlines, wireless, etc.)

Signal characteristics, if they can be reasonably defined, are also important clues as to what portion or portions of a given signal comprise the “aesthetically valuable” output signal commonly known as music or video. As such, perceptual coding or linear predictive coding is a means to accurately reproduce a signal, with significant compression, in a manner that perfectly replicates the original signal (lossless compression) or nearly replicates the signal (lossy compression). One tool to make better evaluations of the underlying signal includes the class of linear time-invariant (LTI) systems. As pointed out in Digital Signal Processing (Principles, Algorithms, and Applications), 3rd Ed. (Proakis and Manolakis), (also Practical DSP Modeling, Techniques, and Programming in C by Don Morgan) the z-transform makes possible analysis of a continuous-time signal in the same manner as discrete-time signals because of the relationship between “the convolution of two time domain signals is equivalent to multiplication of their corresponding z-transforms.” It should be clear that characterization and analysis of LTI systems is useful in digital signal processing; meaning DSP can use a z-transform and invert the z-transform to deterministically summarize and recreate a signal's time domain representation. Z-transforms can thus be used as a mathematical way in which to describe a signal's time domain representation where that signal may not be readily processed by means of a Fourier transform. A goal of the present invention is to use such analysis so as to describe optimal locations for watermarks in signals which typically have components both of deterministic and non-deterministic (predictable and unpredictable, respectively) nature. Such insertion would inherently benefit a system seeking to insert digital watermarks, that contain sensitive information such as copyrights, distribution agreements, marketing information, bandwidth rights, more general “neighboring rights,” and the like, in locations in the signal which are not easily accessible to unauthorized parties and which cannot be removed without damaging the signal. Such a technique for determining watermark location will help ensure “pirates” must damage the content in attempts at removal, the price paid without a legitimate “key.”

Some discussion of proposed systems for a frequency-based encoding of “digital watermarks” is necessary to differentiate the antecedents of the present invention which processes signals frame-by-frame and may insert information into frequencies without requiring the resulting watermark to be continuous throughout the entire clip of the signal. U.S. Pat. No. 5,319,735 to Preuss et al. discusses a spread spectrum method that would allow for jamming via overencoding of a “watermarked” frequency range and is severely limited in the amount of data that can be encoded—4.3 8-bit symbols per second. Randomization attacks will not result in audible artifacts in the carrier signal, or degradation of the content as the information signal is subaudible due to frequency masking. Decoding can be broken by a slight change in the playback speed. It is important to note the difference in application between spread spectrum in military field use for protection of real-time radio signals versus encoding information into static audio files. In the protection of real-time communications, spread spectrum has anti-jam features since information is sent over several channels at once, and in order to jam the signal, you have to jam all channels, including your own. In a static audio file, however, an attacker has all the time and processing power in the world to randomize each sub-channel in the signaling band with no penalty to themselves, so the anti-jam features of spread spectrum do not extend to this domain if the encoding is sub-audible. Choosing where to encode in a super-audible range of the frequency, as is possible with the present invention's antecedents, can better be accomplished by computing the z-transforms of the underlying content signal, in order to ascertain the suitability of particular locations in the signal for watermark information.

Instead of putting a single subaudible, digital signature in a sub-band as is further proposed by such entities as NEC, IBM, Digimarc, and MIT Media Lab, the antecedent inventions' improvement is its emphasis on frame-based encoding that can result in the decoding of watermarks from clips of the original full signal (10 seconds, say, of a 3 minute song). With signatures described in MIT's PixelTag or Digimarc/NEC proposals, clipping of the “carrier signal” (presently only based on results from tests on images, not video or audio signals which have time domains), results in clipping of the underlying watermark. Additionally, the present invention improves on previous implementations by providing an alternative computational medium to time/amplitude or frequency/energy domain (Fourier Transform) calculations and providing an additional measure by which to distinguish parts of a signal which are better suited to preserve watermarks through various DSP operations and force damage when attempts at erasure of the watermarks are undertaken. Further, the necessity of archiving or putting in escrow a master copy for comparison with suspect derivative copies would be unnecessary with the present invention and its proposed antecedents. Further, statistical techniques, not mathematical formulas, that are used to determine a “match” of a clip of a carrier signal to the original signal, both uneconomical and unreasonable, would not be necessary to establish ownership or other information about the suspect clip. Even if such techniques or stochastic processes are used, as in an audio spread-spectrum-based watermarking system being proposed by Thorn-EMI's CRL, called ICE, the further inability to decode a text file or other similar file that has been encoded using a watermark system as previously disclosed by above-mentioned U.S. patent applications including “Steganographic Method and Device”, “Method for Human-Assisted Random Key Generation and Application for Digital Watermark System”, “Method for Stega-cipher Protection of Computer Code”, and “Optimal Methods for the insertion, Protection and Detection of Digital Watermarks in Digitized Data”, where all “watermark information” resides in the derivative copy of a carrier signal and its clips (if there has been clipping), would seem archaic and fail to suit the needs of artists, content creators, broadcasters, distributors, and their agents. Indeed, reports are that decoding untampered watermarks with ICE in an audio file experience “statistical” error rates as high as 40%. This is a poor form of “authentication” and fails to establish more clearly “rights” or ownership over a given derivative copy. Human listening tests would appear a better means of authentication versus such “probabalistic determination”. This would be especially true if such systems contain no provision to prevent purely random false-positive results, as is probable, with “spread spectrum” or similar “embedded signaling”—type “watermarks,” or actually, with a better definition, frequency-based, digital signatures.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to a method of using z-transform calculations to encode (and/or decode) independent data (e.g., digital watermark data) to a digital sample stream.

The present invention additionally relates to a method of analyzing deterministic and non-deterministic components of a signal comprised of a digital sample stream. Carrier signal independent data is encoded in the digital sample stream and encoding of the carrier signal independent data is implemented in a manner such that it is restricted to or concentrated primarily in the non-deterministic signal components of the carrier signal. The signal components can include a discrete series of digital samples and/or a discrete series of frequency sub-bands of the carrier signal.

The present invention additionally relates to a method of using z-transform calculations to measure a desirability of particular locations of a sample stream in which to encode carrier signal independent data. The desirability includes a difficulty in predicting a component of the sample stream at a given location which can be measured by the error function.

The component and location may be comprised of information regarding at least one of the following: wave, amplitude, frequency, band energy, and phase energy. The present invention additionally relates to a method of encoding digital watermarks at varying locations in a sample stream with varying envelope parameters.

The present invention additionally relates to a method of using z-transform calculations to determine portions of a signal which may be successfully compressed or eliminated using certain processing techniques, without adverse impact on signal quality.

The present invention additionally relates to a method of encoding a digital watermark into a digital sample stream such that the watermark information is carried entirely in the most non-deterministic portions of the signal.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

The Z-transform is a way of describing the characteristics of a signal. It is an alternative to time/amplitude and frequency/energy domain measures which expresses an estimate of periodic components of a discrete signal. In a digital signal processing environment, a sampling theorem, known specifically as the Nyquist Theorem, proves that band limited signals can be sampled, stored, processed, transmitted, reconstructed, desampled or processed as discrete values. For the theorem to hold, the sampling must be done at a frequency that is twice the frequency of the highest signal frequency one seeks to capture and reproduce. The time and frequency domains are thus implicitly important in developing functions that can accurately replicate a signal. In a third domain, the z-transform enables analysis of the periodic nature of discrete-time signals (and linear time-invariant systems) much as the Laplace transform plays a role in the analysis of continuous-time signals (and linear time-invariant systems). The difference is that the z-transform expresses results on the so-called z-plane, an imaginary mathematical construct which may be thought of as a Cartesian coordinate system with one axis replaced by imaginary numbers (numbers expressed in relation to the square root of −1). This may allow manipulations of signals which are not possible with Fourier Transform analyses (the frequency/energy domain). At the least, the z-transform is an alternative way to represent a signal. The imaginary number axis serves as a representation of the phase of the signal, where the phase oscillates through an ordered, bounded set of values over a potentially infinite series of discrete time values. Phase is the framework for representing the periodic nature of the signal. This third method of describing a discrete-time signal has the property of equating the convolution of two time-domain signals in the result of the multiplication of those signals' corresponding z-transforms. By inverting a z-transform, the time-domain representation of the signal may be approximately or wholly reconstructed.

To better define the z-transform, it is a power series of a discrete-time signal and is mathematically described hence: ##EQU1##

where, x(n) is a discrete-time signal X(z) is a complex plane representation z is a complex variable

Because the z-transform is an infinite power series, a region of convergence (ROC) is the set of all values of z where X(z) has a finite value, in other words, this is where the series has a computable value. Conversely, nonconvergence would mean randomness of the signal.

Where z=0 or z=.infin., the series is unbounded and thus the z-plane cannot be defined. What is required is a closed form expression that can only be described with a region of convergence (ROC) being specified. A coordinate in the imaginary z-plane can be interpreted to convey both amplitude and phase information. Phase is closely related to frequency information. Again, phase can be understood to oscillate at regular periods over infinite discrete time intervals, and is used to express information on the periodic nature of signals. Thus, as an alternative representation of a signal, the z-transform helps describe how a signal changes over time.

Some parameters of the region of convergence (ROC) necessitate the establishment of the duration (finite versus infinite) and whether the ROC is causal, anticasual, or two-sided. Special cases of signals include one that has an infinite duration on the right side, but not the left side; an infinite duration on the left side, but not the right side; and, one that has a finite duration on both the right and left sides—known, respectively, as right-sided, left-sided, and finite-duration two-sided. Additionally, in order to correctly obtain the time domain information of a signal from its z-transform, further analysis is done. When a signal's z-transform is known the signal's sequence must be established to describe the time domain of the signal—a procedure known as inverse z-transform, Cauchy integral theorem is an inversion formula typically used. Properties of the z-transform will now be described so that those skilled in the art are able to understand the range of computations in which z-transforms may be used for watermark related calculations.

Property Time Domain z-Domain ROC Notation x(n) X(z) ROC: r.sub.2<[z]<r.sub.1 x.sub.1 (n) X.sub.1 (z) ROC.sub.1 x.sub.2 (n) X.sub.2 (z) ROC.sub.2 Linearity asub.1 x.sub.1 (n)+a.sub.2 x.sub.2 (n) a.sub.1 X.sub.1 (z)+a.sub.2 X.sub.2 (z) At least the intersection of ROC.sub.1 and ROC.sub.2 Time shifting x(n−k) z.sup.−k X(z) That of X(z), except z=0 if k>0 nd z=.infin. if k>0 Scaling in the z-domain a.sup.n x(n) X(a.sup.−1 z) [a]r.sub.2<[z]<[a]r.sub.1 Time reversal x(−n) X(z.sup.−1) 1/r.sub.1<[z]<1/r.sub.2 Conjugation x*(n) X*(z*) ROC Real Part Re{x(n)} ½{X(z)+X*(z*)} Includes ROC Imaginary Part Im{x(n)} ½{X(z)−X*(z*)} Includes ROC Differential in the nx(n)−z{−z((dX(z)/(dz))} r.sub.2<[z]<r.sub.1 z-domain Convolution (x.sub.1 (n))*(x2(n)) X.sub.1 (z)X.sub.2 (z) At least the intersection of ROC.sub.1 and ROC.sub.2 Correlation rx.sub.1 x.sub.2 (1)=x.sub.1 (1)*x.sub.2 (−1) Rx.sub.1 x.sub.2 (z)=X.sub.1 (z)X.sub.2 (z.sup.−1) At least the intersection of ROC of X.sub.1 (z) and X.sub.2 (z.sup.−1) Initial value theorem If x(n) causal x(0)=lim X(z) Multiplication x.sub.1 (n)x.sub.2 (n) ##EQU2## At least r.sub.11 r.sub.21<[z]<r.sub.1u r.sub.2u Parseval's relation ##EQU3##

Note: “[ ]” denote absolute values; For “Multiplication” and “Parseval's relation” the “.intg.” is for “O.sub.c” a circle in the ROC. From Digital Signal Processing (Principles, Algorithms, and Applications)—3rd Ed. Proakis & Manolakis

The inversion of the z-transform with three methods further described, in Digital Signal Processing (Principles, Algorithms, and Applications)—3rd Ed. Proakis & Manolakis, as 1) Direct evaluation by contour integration 2) Expansion into a series of terms, in the variables z, and z.sup.−1 and 3) Partial-fraction expansion and table lookup. Typically the Cauchy theorem is used for direct evaluation. In determining causality, LTI systems are well-suited in establishing the predictability of time-domain characteristics with pole-zero locations. For applications of digital watermarks as described in the present invention the importance of both alternatively describing a signal and establishing deterministic characteristics of the signal's components is clear to those skilled in the art. Placing watermarks in the “random” parts of a signal, those that are difficult to predict and thereby compress, would enhance the security from attacks by pirates seeking to identify the location of said watermarks or erase them without knowing their specific location. Use of z-transforms to establish a more secure “envelope” for watermark insertion works to the advantage of those seeking to prevent such attacks. Similarly, creation of linear predictive coding filters is an excellent example that benefits from preanalysis of content signals prior to the insertion of watermarks.

This is an extension of the application of optimal filter design for applications for frame-based watermark systems as described in the above-mentioned patent applications entitled “STEGANOGRAPHIC METHOD AND DEVICE”, “METHOD FOR HUMAN-ASSISTED RANDOM KEY GENERATION AND APPLICATION FOR DIGITAL WATERMARK SYSTEM”, and “METHOD FOR STEGA-CIPHER PROTECTION OF COMPUTER CODE”, “OPTIMAL METHODS FOR THE INSERTION, PROTECTION AND DETECTION OF DIGITAL WATERMARKS IN DIGITIZED DATA”. Recursive digital filters are efficient for applications dependent on previous inputs and outputs and current inputs at a given time—a dynamic filter. The z-transform makes possible high performance of time domain digital filtering with implementation of recursive filters where signal characteristics are efficiently identified.

In one embodiment of the present invention, z-transform calculations are performed as an intermediate processing step, prior to the actual encoding of a digital watermark into a sample stream. The Argent.™. digital watermark software, developed by The DICE Company, for example, uses a modular architecture which allows access to the sample stream and related watermark data at various stages of computation, and further allows modules to pass their results on (or back) to other modules. Z-transform calculations can be integrated into this processing architecture either directly in the CODEC module, which is responsible for encoding information to a series of samples, or decoding it from them, or as a FILTER module, which provides other modules with information on how specific types of filters will affect the sample stream. During processing, a series of sample frames are separated into groupings called “windows”. Typically the groupings are comprised of contiguous series of samples, but this need not be the case. Any logical arrangement might be handled. Each sample window comprises a finite duration two-sided signal, a special case for z-transform calculations discussed above.

Each window may then be fed to a z-transform calculator (in a FILTER or CODEC module) which derives phase composition information from the signal using a z-transform algorithm. This information summarizes estimates of any regular phase components of the signal. Note that windows may be dynamically adjusted to be longer or shorter duration, or they may be computed in an overlapping fashion, with information about adjacent windows and their z-transforms being considered with regard to the current transform. Windows might have weightings applied to sample frames in order to emphasize some portions or de-emphasize others. Using these additional modifications may help to smooth discontinuities between window calculations and provide a better average estimate over longer portions of a signal.

The resulting z-transform information could be visualized by placing points of varying brightness or color (which corresponds to an amplitude) on the unit circle in the complex z-plane (the circle centered at z=0.0, 0.0 with radius 1). These points symbolize recurrent signal components at particular phases (where phase is determined by the angle of the line drawn between the point on the perimeter of the circle and its center). A deterministic approximation of the signal could then be reconstructed with all possible times represented by multiplying phase by the number of revolutions about the circle. Positive angle increments move forward in time, while negative increments move backward. The phase components yielded by the z-transform are then used to summarize and reproduce an estimate of the deterministic portion of the signal. Typically one may invert the z-transform calculations to produce this estimate in terms of a series of wave amplitude samples. By calculating the error rate and location of such errors in the estimated signal versus the original, the system can determine exactly where a signal is “most non-deterministic,” which would constitute promising locations within the sample stream to encode watermark information. Note that location could be construed to mean any combination of sample, frequency or phase information.

The process described above is, in principle, an inversion of the type of process used for Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) and is a general example of “filter inversion” for optimal watermark planning. The type calculations are performed in order to determine what parts of the signal will survive the LPC process intact, and are thus good places to place watermarks which are to survive LPC. In LPC, the deterministic portion of a signal is compressed and the non-deterministic portion is either preserved as a whole with lossless compression or stochastically summarized and recreated randomly each time the “signal” is played back.

Claims (20)

1. A system for detecting at least one digital watermark from a content signal, comprising
a) a receiver for receiving a content signal;
b) a processor for processing linear predictive coding calculations to identify signal components of said content signal, said signal components being characterized by at least one of the following groups:
i) a discrete series of digital samples, and
ii) a discrete series of carrier frequency sub-bands of the content signal; and
c) a detector for detecting the at least one digital watermark from the signal components of the content signal.
2. The system of claim 1, wherein the content signal is an analog waveform.
3. The system of claim 1, wherein the signal components are non-contiguous.
4. The system of claim 1, where the content signal may first be decompressed before the processor uses linear predictive coding to identify signal components.
5. The system of claim 1, where the location of at least a portion of the digital watermark is represented by at least one of the following: sample, frequency, phase or combinations thereof.
6. The system of claim 1, wherein the detector detects the digital watermark at one or more locations within the signal components.
7. The system of claim 1, wherein the signal components are identified by the processor using at least one of the following characteristics of the content signal: wave, amplitude, frequency, band energy, and phase energy.
8. The system of claim 1, where the processor's linear predictive coding calculations enable compression of the signal components and at least one of the following: preservation of the signal components or stochastic representation of the signal components.
9. The system of claim 1, where the digital watermark is accessible with a key.
10. A system for detecting a digital watermark from a content signal, comprising
a) a receiver for receiving a content signal;
b) a processor for processing linear predictive coding calculations to identify predictable and unpredictable components of said content signal, said predictable signal components being characterized by at least one of the following group:
i) a discrete series of digital samples, and
ii) a discrete series of carrier frequency sub-bands of the content signal; and
c) extracting the digital watermark from the unpredictable signal components of the content signal.
11. The system of claim 10, wherein the content signal is an analog waveform.
12. The system of claim 10, where the signal components are non-contiguous.
13. The system of claim 10, where the content signal may first be decompressed before using linear predictive coding to identify signal components.
14. The system of claim 10, where the location of at least a portion of the digital watermark is represented by at least one of the following: sample, frequency, phase or combinations thereof.
15. The system of claim 10, wherein the step of extracting comprises: extracting the digital watermark based on one or more locations within said unpredictable signal components.
16. The system of claim 10, wherein the signal components are identified using at least one of the following characteristics of the content signal: wave, amplitude, frequency, band energy, and phase energy.
17. The system of claim 10, where the linear predictive coding calculations enable compression of the predictable signal components and at least one of the following: preservation of the unpredictable signal components or stochastic representation of the unpredictable signal components.
18. A system of using linear predictive coding calculations to measure the desirability of particular locations in a sample stream in which to encode content signal independent data, including a digital watermark, comprising:
a receiver for receiving a sample stream;
a processor for processing linear predictive coding calculations to identify locations in said sample stream which would be desirable for encoding content signal independent data; and
an encoder for encoding said content signal independent data into said identified locations in said sample stream to produce an embedded sample stream.
19. The system of claim 18, where the embedded sample stream is an arbitrarily close approximation of the sample stream.
20. The system of claim 18, where the content signal independent data is accessible with a key.
US11592079 1996-12-20 2006-11-02 Linear predictive coding implementation of digital watermarks Active 2019-02-21 US7730317B2 (en)

Priority Applications (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US08772222 US6078664A (en) 1996-12-20 1996-12-20 Z-transform implementation of digital watermarks
US09456319 US6853726B1 (en) 1996-12-20 1999-12-08 Z-transform implementation of digital watermarks
US11026234 US7152162B2 (en) 1996-12-20 2004-12-30 Z-transform implementation of digital watermarks
US11592079 US7730317B2 (en) 1996-12-20 2006-11-02 Linear predictive coding implementation of digital watermarks

Applications Claiming Priority (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US11592079 US7730317B2 (en) 1996-12-20 2006-11-02 Linear predictive coding implementation of digital watermarks
US12798959 US8225099B2 (en) 1996-12-20 2010-04-14 Linear predictive coding implementation of digital watermarks

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US11026234 Continuation US7152162B2 (en) 1996-12-20 2004-12-30 Z-transform implementation of digital watermarks

Related Child Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US12798959 Continuation US8225099B2 (en) 1996-12-20 2010-04-14 Linear predictive coding implementation of digital watermarks

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20070079131A1 true US20070079131A1 (en) 2007-04-05
US7730317B2 true US7730317B2 (en) 2010-06-01

Family

ID=34681234

Family Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US11592079 Active 2019-02-21 US7730317B2 (en) 1996-12-20 2006-11-02 Linear predictive coding implementation of digital watermarks
US12798959 Expired - Lifetime US8225099B2 (en) 1996-12-20 2010-04-14 Linear predictive coding implementation of digital watermarks

Family Applications After (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US12798959 Expired - Lifetime US8225099B2 (en) 1996-12-20 2010-04-14 Linear predictive coding implementation of digital watermarks

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (2) US7730317B2 (en)

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20090268937A1 (en) * 2005-12-16 2009-10-29 Thomson Licensing Decoding Watermark Information Items of a Watermarked Audio or Video Signal Using Correlation
US7844074B2 (en) 1996-07-02 2010-11-30 Wistaria Trading, Inc. Optimization methods for the insertion, protection, and detection of digital watermarks in digitized data
US7970722B1 (en) 1999-11-08 2011-06-28 Aloft Media, Llc System, method and computer program product for a collaborative decision platform

Families Citing this family (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5613004A (en) 1995-06-07 1997-03-18 The Dice Company Steganographic method and device
US7664263B2 (en) 1998-03-24 2010-02-16 Moskowitz Scott A Method for combining transfer functions with predetermined key creation
US7457962B2 (en) 1996-07-02 2008-11-25 Wistaria Trading, Inc Optimization methods for the insertion, protection, and detection of digital watermarks in digitized data
US7362775B1 (en) 1996-07-02 2008-04-22 Wistaria Trading, Inc. Exchange mechanisms for digital information packages with bandwidth securitization, multichannel digital watermarks, and key management
US5889868A (en) 1996-07-02 1999-03-30 The Dice Company Optimization methods for the insertion, protection, and detection of digital watermarks in digitized data
US7730317B2 (en) 1996-12-20 2010-06-01 Wistaria Trading, Inc. Linear predictive coding implementation of digital watermarks
US6205249B1 (en) 1998-04-02 2001-03-20 Scott A. Moskowitz Multiple transform utilization and applications for secure digital watermarking
US7664264B2 (en) 1999-03-24 2010-02-16 Blue Spike, Inc. Utilizing data reduction in steganographic and cryptographic systems
US7159116B2 (en) 1999-12-07 2007-01-02 Blue Spike, Inc. Systems, methods and devices for trusted transactions
US7475246B1 (en) 1999-08-04 2009-01-06 Blue Spike, Inc. Secure personal content server
US7346472B1 (en) 2000-09-07 2008-03-18 Blue Spike, Inc. Method and device for monitoring and analyzing signals
US7127615B2 (en) 2000-09-20 2006-10-24 Blue Spike, Inc. Security based on subliminal and supraliminal channels for data objects
US7177429B2 (en) 2000-12-07 2007-02-13 Blue Spike, Inc. System and methods for permitting open access to data objects and for securing data within the data objects
US7287275B2 (en) 2002-04-17 2007-10-23 Moskowitz Scott A Methods, systems and devices for packet watermarking and efficient provisioning of bandwidth
US8676822B2 (en) * 2009-02-06 2014-03-18 Disney Enterprises, Inc. System and method for quality assured media file storage
KR101693537B1 (en) * 2010-01-15 2017-01-06 디지맥 코포레이션 Methods and arrangements relating to signal rich art

Citations (265)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3947825A (en) 1973-04-13 1976-03-30 International Business Machines Corporation Abstracting system for index search machine
US3984624A (en) 1974-07-25 1976-10-05 Weston Instruments, Inc. Video system for conveying digital and analog information
US3986624A (en) 1971-02-16 1976-10-19 International Incinerators, Inc. Disposal feeding system including selective container control
US4038596A (en) 1974-07-04 1977-07-26 E M I Limited Method and apparatus for authenticating a record medium consisting of applying two different strength magnetizing fields and monitoring the remanent fields
US4200770A (en) 1977-09-06 1980-04-29 Stanford University Cryptographic apparatus and method
US4218582A (en) 1977-10-06 1980-08-19 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Public key cryptographic apparatus and method
US4339134A (en) 1977-07-05 1982-07-13 Rockwell International Corporation Electronic card game
US4390898A (en) 1981-03-19 1983-06-28 Northern Telecom Limited Scrambling and unscrambling video signals in a pay TV system
US4405829A (en) 1977-12-14 1983-09-20 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Cryptographic communications system and method
US4424414A (en) 1978-05-01 1984-01-03 Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Exponentiation cryptographic apparatus and method
US4528588A (en) 1980-09-26 1985-07-09 Loefberg Bo Method and apparatus for marking the information content of an information carrying signal
US4672605A (en) 1984-03-20 1987-06-09 Applied Spectrum Technologies, Inc. Data and voice communications system
US4748668A (en) 1986-07-09 1988-05-31 Yeda Research And Development Company Limited Method, apparatus and article for identification and signature
US4789928A (en) 1986-02-17 1988-12-06 Flex Japan Inc. Auction information transmission processing
US4827508A (en) 1986-10-14 1989-05-02 Personal Library Software, Inc. Database usage metering and protection system and method
US4876617A (en) 1986-05-06 1989-10-24 Thorn Emi Plc Signal identification
US4896275A (en) 1987-07-10 1990-01-23 Bull Hn Information Systems Inc. Full page graphics image display data reduction
US4908873A (en) 1983-05-13 1990-03-13 Philibert Alex C Document reproduction security system
EP0372601A1 (en) 1988-11-10 1990-06-13 Philips Electronics N.V. Coder for incorporating extra information in a digital audio signal having a predetermined format, decoder for extracting such extra information from a digital signal, device for recording a digital signal on a record carrier, comprising such a coder, and record carrier obtained by means of such a device
US4939515A (en) 1988-09-30 1990-07-03 General Electric Company Digital signal encoding and decoding apparatus
US4969204A (en) 1989-11-29 1990-11-06 Eastman Kodak Company Hybrid residual-based hierarchical storage and display method for high resolution digital images in a multiuse environment
US4972471A (en) 1989-05-15 1990-11-20 Gary Gross Encoding system
US4977594A (en) 1986-10-14 1990-12-11 Electronic Publishing Resources, Inc. Database usage metering and protection system and method
US4979210A (en) 1987-07-08 1990-12-18 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Method and apparatus for protection of signal copy
US4980782A (en) 1985-06-03 1990-12-25 Peter Ginkel Software protection and identification system
US5050213A (en) 1986-10-14 1991-09-17 Electronic Publishing Resources, Inc. Database usage metering and protection system and method
US5077665A (en) 1989-05-25 1991-12-31 Reuters Limited Distributed matching system
US5113437A (en) 1988-10-25 1992-05-12 Thorn Emi Plc Signal identification system
US5136646A (en) 1991-03-08 1992-08-04 Bell Communications Research, Inc. Digital document time-stamping with catenate certificate
US5136647A (en) 1990-08-02 1992-08-04 Bell Communications Research, Inc. Method for secure time-stamping of digital documents
US5136581A (en) 1990-07-02 1992-08-04 At&T Bell Laboratories Arrangement for reserving and allocating a plurality of competing demands for an ordered bus communication network
US5142576A (en) 1989-02-07 1992-08-25 Market Data Corporation System for securely providing restricted video information
US5210820A (en) 1990-05-02 1993-05-11 Broadcast Data Systems Limited Partnership Signal recognition system and method
US5243423A (en) 1991-12-20 1993-09-07 A. C. Nielsen Company Spread spectrum digital data transmission over TV video
US5243515A (en) 1990-10-30 1993-09-07 Lee Wayne M Secure teleprocessing bidding system
EP0565947A1 (en) 1992-04-13 1993-10-20 NOKIA TECHNOLOGY GmbH Procedure for including digital information in an audio signal prior to channel coding
EP0581317A2 (en) 1992-07-31 1994-02-02 Corbis Corporation Method and system for digital image signatures
US5287407A (en) 1990-05-31 1994-02-15 International Business Machines Corporation Computer software protection
US5319735A (en) 1991-12-17 1994-06-07 Bolt Beranek And Newman Inc. Embedded signalling
US5341477A (en) 1989-02-24 1994-08-23 Digital Equipment Corporation Broker for computer network server selection
US5341429A (en) 1992-12-04 1994-08-23 Testdrive Corporation Transformation of ephemeral material
US5363448A (en) 1993-06-30 1994-11-08 United Technologies Automotive, Inc. Pseudorandom number generation and cryptographic authentication
US5365586A (en) 1993-04-09 1994-11-15 Washington University Method and apparatus for fingerprinting magnetic media
US5369707A (en) 1993-01-27 1994-11-29 Tecsec Incorporated Secure network method and apparatus
US5379345A (en) 1993-01-29 1995-01-03 Radio Audit Systems, Inc. Method and apparatus for the processing of encoded data in conjunction with an audio broadcast
US5394324A (en) 1993-12-08 1995-02-28 Xerox Corporation Auction-based control system for energy resource management in a building
US5398285A (en) 1993-12-30 1995-03-14 Motorola, Inc. Method for generating a password using public key cryptography
US5406627A (en) 1990-08-06 1995-04-11 Nec Home Electronics, Ltd. Digital data cryptographic system
US5408505A (en) 1993-04-09 1995-04-18 Washington University Method and apparatus for process control, tension control, and testing of magnetic media
US5412718A (en) 1993-09-13 1995-05-02 Institute Of Systems Science Method for utilizing medium nonuniformities to minimize unauthorized duplication of digital information
EP0651554A1 (en) 1993-10-29 1995-05-03 Eastman Kodak Company Method and apparatus for the addition and removal of digital watermarks in a hierarchical image storage and retrieval system
US5418713A (en) 1993-08-05 1995-05-23 Allen; Richard Apparatus and method for an on demand data delivery system for the preview, selection, retrieval and reproduction at a remote location of previously recorded or programmed materials
US5428606A (en) 1993-06-30 1995-06-27 Moskowitz; Scott A. Digital information commodities exchange
US5450490A (en) 1994-03-31 1995-09-12 The Arbitron Company Apparatus and methods for including codes in audio signals and decoding
US5469536A (en) 1992-02-25 1995-11-21 Imageware Software, Inc. Image editing system including masking capability
US5471533A (en) 1990-01-05 1995-11-28 Symbol Technologies, Inc. Record with encoded data
US5478990A (en) 1993-10-14 1995-12-26 Coleman Environmental Systems, Inc. Method for tracking the production history of food products
US5479210A (en) 1993-06-11 1995-12-26 Quantel, Ltd. Video image processing system having variable data compression
US5487168A (en) 1992-06-15 1996-01-23 International Business Machines Corporation Method and system for global optimization of device allocation
US5493677A (en) 1994-06-08 1996-02-20 Systems Research & Applications Corporation Generation, archiving, and retrieval of digital images with evoked suggestion-set captions and natural language interface
US5497419A (en) 1994-04-19 1996-03-05 Prima Facie, Inc. Method and apparatus for recording sensor data
US5506795A (en) 1992-02-21 1996-04-09 Yamakawa; Takeshi Apparatus and method for generating chaotic signals and chaos device
US5513261A (en) 1993-12-29 1996-04-30 At&T Corp. Key management scheme for use with electronic cards
US5513126A (en) 1993-10-04 1996-04-30 Xerox Corporation Network having selectively accessible recipient prioritized communication channel profiles
US5530759A (en) 1995-02-01 1996-06-25 International Business Machines Corporation Color correct digital watermarking of images
US5530751A (en) 1994-06-30 1996-06-25 Hewlett-Packard Company Embedded hidden identification codes in digital objects
US5530739A (en) 1991-03-20 1996-06-25 Fujitsu Limited Mail center management system
US5548579A (en) 1994-06-23 1996-08-20 International Business Machines Corporation System for effective allocation of network-wide bandwidth
US5568570A (en) 1994-09-30 1996-10-22 Eastman Kodak Company Method and apparatus for reducing quantization artifacts in a hierarchical image storage and retrieval system
US5579124A (en) 1992-11-16 1996-11-26 The Arbitron Company Method and apparatus for encoding/decoding broadcast or recorded segments and monitoring audience exposure thereto
US5581703A (en) 1993-06-29 1996-12-03 International Business Machines Corporation Method and apparatus for reserving system resources to assure quality of service
US5583488A (en) 1995-04-28 1996-12-10 Sala; Nicola R. Proximity alarm system
US5598470A (en) 1994-04-25 1997-01-28 International Business Machines Corporation Method and apparatus for enabling trial period use of software products: Method and apparatus for utilizing a decryption block
US5606609A (en) 1994-09-19 1997-02-25 Scientific-Atlanta Electronic document verification system and method
US5613004A (en) 1995-06-07 1997-03-18 The Dice Company Steganographic method and device
US5625690A (en) 1993-11-15 1997-04-29 Lucent Technologies Inc. Software pay per use system
US5629980A (en) 1994-11-23 1997-05-13 Xerox Corporation System for controlling the distribution and use of digital works
US5633932A (en) 1995-12-19 1997-05-27 Intel Corporation Apparatus and method for preventing disclosure through user-authentication at a printing node
US5634040A (en) 1994-12-19 1997-05-27 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Data communication apparatus and method having concurrent image overlay function
US5636276A (en) 1994-04-18 1997-06-03 Brugger; Rolf Device for the distribution of music information in digital form
US5636292A (en) 1995-05-08 1997-06-03 Digimarc Corporation Steganography methods employing embedded calibration data
US5640569A (en) 1995-04-28 1997-06-17 Sun Microsystems, Inc. Diverse goods arbitration system and method for allocating resources in a distributed computer system
US5646997A (en) 1994-12-14 1997-07-08 Barton; James M. Method and apparatus for embedding authentication information within digital data
US5657461A (en) 1993-10-04 1997-08-12 Xerox Corporation User interface for defining and automatically transmitting data according to preferred communication channels
US5659726A (en) 1995-02-23 1997-08-19 Sandford, Ii; Maxwell T. Data embedding
US5664018A (en) 1996-03-12 1997-09-02 Leighton; Frank Thomson Watermarking process resilient to collusion attacks
US5673316A (en) 1996-03-29 1997-09-30 International Business Machines Corporation Creation and distribution of cryptographic envelope
US5677952A (en) 1993-12-06 1997-10-14 International Business Machines Corporation Method to protect information on a computer storage device
US5680462A (en) 1995-08-07 1997-10-21 Sandia Corporation Information encoder/decoder using chaotic systems
US5689587A (en) 1996-02-09 1997-11-18 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Method and apparatus for data hiding in images
US5696828A (en) 1995-09-22 1997-12-09 United Technologies Automotive, Inc. Random number generating system and process based on chaos
US5719937A (en) 1995-12-06 1998-02-17 Solana Technology Develpment Corporation Multi-media copy management system
US5734752A (en) 1996-09-24 1998-03-31 Xerox Corporation Digital watermarking using stochastic screen patterns
US5737733A (en) 1993-06-30 1998-04-07 Microsoft Corporation Method and system for searching compressed data
US5737416A (en) 1994-04-25 1998-04-07 International Business Machines Corporation Method and apparatus for enabling trial period use of software products: method and apparatus for utilizing a decryption stub
US5740244A (en) 1993-04-09 1998-04-14 Washington University Method and apparatus for improved fingerprinting and authenticating various magnetic media
US5745569A (en) 1996-01-17 1998-04-28 The Dice Company Method for stega-cipher protection of computer code
US5748783A (en) 1995-05-08 1998-05-05 Digimarc Corporation Method and apparatus for robust information coding
US5750852A (en) 1996-12-09 1998-05-12 J.C.Robinson Seed Company Inbred corn line NR 109
US5754697A (en) 1994-12-02 1998-05-19 Fu; Chi-Yung Selective document image data compression technique
US5757923A (en) 1995-09-22 1998-05-26 Ut Automotive Dearborn, Inc. Method of generating secret identification numbers
US5765152A (en) 1995-10-13 1998-06-09 Trustees Of Dartmouth College System and method for managing copyrighted electronic media
US5768396A (en) 1993-04-21 1998-06-16 Yamaha Corporation Online karaoke system with flying start performance
US5774452A (en) 1995-03-14 1998-06-30 Aris Technologies, Inc. Apparatus and method for encoding and decoding information in audio signals
US5790677A (en) 1995-06-29 1998-08-04 Microsoft Corporation System and method for secure electronic commerce transactions
US5799083A (en) 1996-08-26 1998-08-25 Brothers; Harlan Jay Event verification system
US5809139A (en) 1996-09-13 1998-09-15 Vivo Software, Inc. Watermarking method and apparatus for compressed digital video
US5828325A (en) 1996-04-03 1998-10-27 Aris Technologies, Inc. Apparatus and method for encoding and decoding information in analog signals
US5832119A (en) 1993-11-18 1998-11-03 Digimarc Corporation Methods for controlling systems using control signals embedded in empirical data
US5848155A (en) 1996-09-04 1998-12-08 Nec Research Institute, Inc. Spread spectrum watermark for embedded signalling
US5850481A (en) 1993-11-18 1998-12-15 Digimarc Corporation Steganographic system
US5860099A (en) 1993-05-12 1999-01-12 Usar Systems, Inc. Stored program system with protected memory and secure signature extraction
US5859920A (en) 1995-11-30 1999-01-12 Eastman Kodak Company Method for embedding digital information in an image
US5862260A (en) 1993-11-18 1999-01-19 Digimarc Corporation Methods for surveying dissemination of proprietary empirical data
US5870474A (en) 1995-12-04 1999-02-09 Scientific-Atlanta, Inc. Method and apparatus for providing conditional access in connection-oriented, interactive networks with a multiplicity of service providers
US5884033A (en) 1996-05-15 1999-03-16 Spyglass, Inc. Internet filtering system for filtering data transferred over the internet utilizing immediate and deferred filtering actions
US5889868A (en) 1996-07-02 1999-03-30 The Dice Company Optimization methods for the insertion, protection, and detection of digital watermarks in digitized data
US5893067A (en) 1996-05-31 1999-04-06 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Method and apparatus for echo data hiding in audio signals
US5894521A (en) 1994-05-26 1999-04-13 Direct Business Technologies, Inc. System and method for encrypting sensitive information
US5903721A (en) 1997-03-13 1999-05-11 cha|Technologies Services, Inc. Method and system for secure online transaction processing
US5905800A (en) 1996-01-17 1999-05-18 The Dice Company Method and system for digital watermarking
US5905975A (en) 1996-01-04 1999-05-18 Ausubel; Lawrence M. Computer implemented methods and apparatus for auctions
US5915027A (en) 1996-11-05 1999-06-22 Nec Research Institute Digital watermarking
US5918223A (en) 1996-07-22 1999-06-29 Muscle Fish Method and article of manufacture for content-based analysis, storage, retrieval, and segmentation of audio information
US5917915A (en) 1994-06-24 1999-06-29 Sony Corporation Scramble/descramble method and apparatus for data broadcasting
US5920900A (en) 1996-12-30 1999-07-06 Cabletron Systems, Inc. Hash-based translation method and apparatus with multiple level collision resolution
US5923763A (en) 1996-03-21 1999-07-13 Walker Asset Management Limited Partnership Method and apparatus for secure document timestamping
US5930369A (en) 1995-09-28 1999-07-27 Nec Research Institute, Inc. Secure spread spectrum watermarking for multimedia data
US5940134A (en) 1995-12-11 1999-08-17 U.S. Philips Corporation Marking a video and/or audio signal
US5943422A (en) 1996-08-12 1999-08-24 Intertrust Technologies Corp. Steganographic techniques for securely delivering electronic digital rights management control information over insecure communication channels
US5973731A (en) 1994-03-03 1999-10-26 Schwab; Barry H. Secure identification system
US5974141A (en) 1995-03-31 1999-10-26 Mitsubishi Corporation Data management system
US5991426A (en) 1998-12-18 1999-11-23 Signafy, Inc. Field-based watermark insertion and detection
US5999217A (en) 1996-06-06 1999-12-07 Berners-Lee; Charles Peter Apparatus and method for encoding data
US6009176A (en) 1997-02-13 1999-12-28 International Business Machines Corporation How to sign digital streams
US6029126A (en) 1998-06-30 2000-02-22 Microsoft Corporation Scalable audio coder and decoder
US6041316A (en) 1994-07-25 2000-03-21 Lucent Technologies Inc. Method and system for ensuring royalty payments for data delivered over a network
US6044471A (en) 1998-06-04 2000-03-28 Z4 Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for securing software to reduce unauthorized use
US6049838A (en) 1996-07-01 2000-04-11 Sun Microsystems, Inc. Persistent distributed capabilities
US6051029A (en) 1997-10-31 2000-04-18 Entelos, Inc. Method of generating a display for a dynamic simulation model utilizing node and link representations
US6061793A (en) 1996-08-30 2000-05-09 Regents Of The University Of Minnesota Method and apparatus for embedding data, including watermarks, in human perceptible sounds
US6069914A (en) 1996-09-19 2000-05-30 Nec Research Institute, Inc. Watermarking of image data using MPEG/JPEG coefficients
US6078664A (en) 1996-12-20 2000-06-20 Moskowitz; Scott A. Z-transform implementation of digital watermarks
US6081251A (en) 1992-10-07 2000-06-27 Sony Corporation Apparatus and method for managing picture data
US6081597A (en) 1996-08-19 2000-06-27 Ntru Cryptosystems, Inc. Public key cryptosystem method and apparatus
US6088455A (en) 1997-01-07 2000-07-11 Logan; James D. Methods and apparatus for selectively reproducing segments of broadcast programming
US6131162A (en) 1997-06-05 2000-10-10 Hitachi Ltd. Digital data authentication method
US6141754A (en) 1997-11-28 2000-10-31 International Business Machines Corporation Integrated method and system for controlling information access and distribution
US6141753A (en) 1998-02-10 2000-10-31 Fraunhofer Gesellschaft Secure distribution of digital representations
US6154571A (en) 1998-06-24 2000-11-28 Nec Research Institute, Inc. Robust digital watermarking
US6192138B1 (en) 1997-05-08 2001-02-20 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Apparatus and method for embedding/unembedding supplemental information
US6199058B1 (en) 1997-02-28 2001-03-06 Oracle Corporation Report server caching
US6205249B1 (en) 1998-04-02 2001-03-20 Scott A. Moskowitz Multiple transform utilization and applications for secure digital watermarking
US6208745B1 (en) 1997-12-30 2001-03-27 Sarnoff Corporation Method and apparatus for imbedding a watermark into a bitstream representation of a digital image sequence
US6230268B1 (en) 1997-09-12 2001-05-08 International Business Machines Corporation Data control system
US6233684B1 (en) 1997-02-28 2001-05-15 Contenaguard Holdings, Inc. System for controlling the distribution and use of rendered digital works through watermaking
US6233347B1 (en) 1998-05-21 2001-05-15 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology System method, and product for information embedding using an ensemble of non-intersecting embedding generators
US6240121B1 (en) 1997-07-09 2001-05-29 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Apparatus and method for watermark data insertion and apparatus and method for watermark data detection
US6263313B1 (en) 1998-08-13 2001-07-17 International Business Machines Corporation Method and apparatus to create encoded digital content
US6272634B1 (en) 1996-08-30 2001-08-07 Regents Of The University Of Minnesota Digital watermarking to resolve multiple claims of ownership
US6275988B1 (en) 1995-06-30 2001-08-14 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Image transmission apparatus, image transmission system, and communication apparatus
US6278780B1 (en) 1997-10-31 2001-08-21 Nec Corporation Method of and an apparatus for generating internal crypto-keys
US6278791B1 (en) 1998-05-07 2001-08-21 Eastman Kodak Company Lossless recovery of an original image containing embedded data
US6282300B1 (en) 2000-01-21 2001-08-28 Signafy, Inc. Rotation, scale, and translation resilient public watermarking for images using a log-polar fourier transform
US6282650B1 (en) 1999-01-25 2001-08-28 Intel Corporation Secure public digital watermark
US6285775B1 (en) 1998-10-01 2001-09-04 The Trustees Of The University Of Princeton Watermarking scheme for image authentication
US6301663B1 (en) 1997-11-20 2001-10-09 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Copy protection apparatus and information recording medium used in this copy protection apparatus
US6310962B1 (en) 1997-08-20 2001-10-30 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. MPEG2 moving picture encoding/decoding system
US20010043594A1 (en) 1996-05-31 2001-11-22 Hiroaki Ogawa Information processing apparatus, information processing method and identification code
US6330335B1 (en) 1993-11-18 2001-12-11 Digimarc Corporation Audio steganography
US6330672B1 (en) 1997-12-03 2001-12-11 At&T Corp. Method and apparatus for watermarking digital bitstreams
EP0649261B1 (en) 1993-10-18 2002-01-23 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Image data processing and encrypting apparatus
US6345100B1 (en) 1998-10-14 2002-02-05 Liquid Audio, Inc. Robust watermark method and apparatus for digital signals
US6351765B1 (en) 1998-03-09 2002-02-26 Media 100, Inc. Nonlinear video editing system
US20020026343A1 (en) 2000-08-09 2002-02-28 Dennis Duenke Material and labor cost estimatting method and system
US6363483B1 (en) 1994-11-03 2002-03-26 Lucent Technologies Inc. Methods and systems for performing article authentication
US6373892B1 (en) 1994-11-17 2002-04-16 Sega Enterprises, Ltd. Method for compressing and decompressing moving picture information and video signal processing system
US6373960B1 (en) 1998-01-06 2002-04-16 Pixel Tools Corporation Embedding watermarks into compressed video data
US6377625B1 (en) 1999-06-05 2002-04-23 Soft4D Co., Ltd. Method and apparatus for generating steroscopic image using MPEG data
US6381747B1 (en) 1996-04-01 2002-04-30 Macrovision Corp. Method for controlling copy protection in digital video networks
US6381618B1 (en) 1999-06-17 2002-04-30 International Business Machines Corporation Method and apparatus for autosynchronizing distributed versions of documents
US6385329B1 (en) 2000-02-14 2002-05-07 Digimarc Corporation Wavelet domain watermarks
US6405203B1 (en) 1999-04-21 2002-06-11 Research Investment Network, Inc. Method and program product for preventing unauthorized users from using the content of an electronic storage medium
US20020073043A1 (en) 1998-12-12 2002-06-13 Gary Herman Smart electronic receipt system
US6415041B1 (en) 1998-06-01 2002-07-02 Nec Corporation Digital watermark insertion system and digital watermark characteristic table creating device
US6425081B1 (en) 1997-08-20 2002-07-23 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Electronic watermark system electronic information distribution system and image filing apparatus
US20020097873A1 (en) 1997-05-19 2002-07-25 Rade Petrovic Apparatus and method for embedding and extracting information in analog signals using replica modulation
US20020103883A1 (en) 1997-06-19 2002-08-01 Paul Haverstock Web server with unique identification of linked objects
US6430302B2 (en) 1993-11-18 2002-08-06 Digimarc Corporation Steganographically encoding a first image in accordance with a second image
US6430301B1 (en) 2000-08-30 2002-08-06 Verance Corporation Formation and analysis of signals with common and transaction watermarks
US6442283B1 (en) 1999-01-11 2002-08-27 Digimarc Corporation Multimedia data embedding
US6453252B1 (en) 2000-05-15 2002-09-17 Creative Technology Ltd. Process for identifying audio content
US6457058B1 (en) 1998-09-29 2002-09-24 Cisco Technology, Inc. Network switch with hash table look up
US6463468B1 (en) 1999-06-01 2002-10-08 Netzero, Inc. Targeted network video download interface
US20020161741A1 (en) 2001-03-02 2002-10-31 Shazam Entertainment Ltd. Method and apparatus for automatically creating database for use in automated media recognition system
US6523113B1 (en) 1998-06-09 2003-02-18 Apple Computer, Inc. Method and apparatus for copy protection
US6522769B1 (en) 1999-05-19 2003-02-18 Digimarc Corporation Reconfiguring a watermark detector
US6530021B1 (en) 1998-07-20 2003-03-04 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Method and system for preventing unauthorized playback of broadcasted digital data streams
US6532284B2 (en) 2001-02-27 2003-03-11 Morgan Guaranty Trust Company Method and system for optimizing bandwidth cost via caching and other network transmission delaying techniques
US6539475B1 (en) 1998-12-18 2003-03-25 Nec Corporation Method and system for protecting digital data from unauthorized copying
US6557103B1 (en) 1998-04-13 2003-04-29 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Spread spectrum image steganography
US6584125B1 (en) 1997-12-22 2003-06-24 Nec Corporation Coding/decoding apparatus, coding/decoding system and multiplexed bit stream
US20030133702A1 (en) 1999-04-21 2003-07-17 Todd R. Collart System, method and article of manufacturing for authorizing the use of electronic content utilizing a laser-centric medium and a network server
US6606393B1 (en) 1999-12-02 2003-08-12 Verizon Laboratories Inc. Message authentication code using image histograms
US6647424B1 (en) 1998-05-20 2003-11-11 Nortel Networks Limited Method and apparatus for discarding data packets
US6658010B1 (en) 1996-07-25 2003-12-02 Hybrid Networks, Inc. High-speed internet access system
US6668246B1 (en) 1999-03-24 2003-12-23 Intel Corporation Multimedia data delivery and playback system with multi-level content and privacy protection
US6668325B1 (en) 1997-06-09 2003-12-23 Intertrust Technologies Obfuscation techniques for enhancing software security
US6687683B1 (en) 1998-10-16 2004-02-03 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Production protection system dealing with contents that are digital production
US20040028222A1 (en) 2000-07-27 2004-02-12 Sewell Roger Fane Stegotext encoder and decoder
US20040037449A1 (en) 1993-11-18 2004-02-26 Davis Bruce L. Integrating digital watermarks in multimedia content
US20040049695A1 (en) 2002-09-06 2004-03-11 Choi Yang Seo System for providing a real-time attacking connection traceback using a packet watermark insertion technique and method therefor
US20040059918A1 (en) 2000-12-15 2004-03-25 Changsheng Xu Method and system of digital watermarking for compressed audio
US6725372B1 (en) 1999-12-02 2004-04-20 Verizon Laboratories Inc. Digital watermarking
US20040083369A1 (en) 2002-07-26 2004-04-29 Ulfar Erlingsson Systems and methods for transparent configuration authentication of networked devices
US20040093521A1 (en) 2002-07-12 2004-05-13 Ihab Hamadeh Real-time packet traceback and associated packet marking strategies
US20040117664A1 (en) 1998-06-04 2004-06-17 Z4 Technologies, Inc. Apparatus for establishing a connectivity platform for digital rights management
US20040117628A1 (en) 1998-06-04 2004-06-17 Z4 Technologies, Inc. Computer readable storage medium for enhancing license compliance of software/digital content including self-activating/self-authenticating software/digital content
US6754822B1 (en) 1998-04-30 2004-06-22 Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft Zur Forderung Der Angewandten Forshung E.V. Active watermarks and watermark agents
US20040128514A1 (en) 1996-04-25 2004-07-01 Rhoads Geoffrey B. Method for increasing the functionality of a media player/recorder device or an application program
US20040125983A1 (en) 2000-02-14 2004-07-01 Reed Alastair M. Color adaptive watermarking
US6775772B1 (en) 1999-10-12 2004-08-10 International Business Machines Corporation Piggy-backed key exchange protocol for providing secure low-overhead browser connections from a client to a server using a trusted third party
US6784354B1 (en) 2003-03-13 2004-08-31 Microsoft Corporation Generating a music snippet
US6785815B1 (en) 1999-06-08 2004-08-31 Intertrust Technologies Corp. Methods and systems for encoding and protecting data using digital signature and watermarking techniques
US6799277B2 (en) 1998-06-04 2004-09-28 Z4 Technologies, Inc. System and method for monitoring software
US20040225894A1 (en) 1998-06-04 2004-11-11 Z4 Technologies, Inc. Hardware based method for digital rights management including self activating/self authentication software
US6823455B1 (en) 1999-04-08 2004-11-23 Intel Corporation Method for robust watermarking of content
US6834308B1 (en) 2000-02-17 2004-12-21 Audible Magic Corporation Method and apparatus for identifying media content presented on a media playing device
US6842862B2 (en) 1999-06-09 2005-01-11 Cloakware Corporation Tamper resistant software encoding
US20050160271A9 (en) 1998-11-19 2005-07-21 Brundage Trent J. Identification document and related methods
US6931534B1 (en) 1998-11-20 2005-08-16 Telefonaktiebolaget Lm Erricsson (Publ) Method and a device for encryption of images
US20050246554A1 (en) 2004-04-30 2005-11-03 Apple Computer, Inc. System and method for creating tamper-resistant code
US6966002B1 (en) 1999-04-30 2005-11-15 Trymedia Systems, Inc. Methods and apparatus for secure distribution of software
US6977894B1 (en) 1998-05-20 2005-12-20 Nortel Networks Limited Method and apparatus for discarding data packets through the use of descriptors
US6978370B1 (en) 1996-09-03 2005-12-20 Cryptography Research, Inc. Method and system for copy-prevention of digital copyright works
US6983337B2 (en) 2002-12-18 2006-01-03 Intel Corporation Method, system, and program for handling device interrupts
US20060005029A1 (en) 1998-05-28 2006-01-05 Verance Corporation Pre-processed information embedding system
US6986063B2 (en) 1998-06-04 2006-01-10 Z4 Technologies, Inc. Method for monitoring software using encryption including digital signatures/certificates
US20060013395A1 (en) 2004-07-01 2006-01-19 Brundage Trent J Digital watermark key generation
US20060013451A1 (en) 2002-11-01 2006-01-19 Koninklijke Philips Electronics, N.V. Audio data fingerprint searching
US20060041753A1 (en) 2002-09-30 2006-02-23 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Fingerprint extraction
US7020285B1 (en) 1999-07-13 2006-03-28 Microsoft Corporation Stealthy audio watermarking
US7043050B2 (en) 2001-05-02 2006-05-09 Microsoft Corporation Software anti-piracy systems and methods utilizing certificates with digital content
US7046808B1 (en) 2000-03-24 2006-05-16 Verance Corporation Method and apparatus for detecting processing stages applied to a signal
US7051208B2 (en) 2000-03-14 2006-05-23 Microsoft Corporation Technique for producing through watermarking highly tamper-resistant executable code and resulting “watermarked” code so formed
US7050396B1 (en) 2000-11-30 2006-05-23 Cisco Technology, Inc. Method and apparatus for automatically establishing bi-directional differentiated services treatment of flows in a network
US7058570B1 (en) 2000-02-10 2006-06-06 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Computer-implemented method and apparatus for audio data hiding
US7093295B1 (en) 1998-10-15 2006-08-15 Makoto Saito Method and device for protecting digital data by double re-encryption
US7103184B2 (en) 2002-05-09 2006-09-05 Intel Corporation System and method for sign mask encryption and decryption
US7107451B2 (en) 1996-07-02 2006-09-12 Wistaria Trading, Inc. Optimization methods for the insertion, protection, and detection of digital watermarks in digital data
US7150003B2 (en) 2002-11-25 2006-12-12 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Class coalescence for obfuscation of object-oriented software
US7162642B2 (en) 1999-01-06 2007-01-09 Digital Video Express, L.P. Digital content distribution system and method
US7177430B2 (en) 2001-10-31 2007-02-13 Portalplayer, Inc. Digital entroping for digital audio reproductions
US20070083467A1 (en) 2005-10-10 2007-04-12 Apple Computer, Inc. Partial encryption techniques for media data
US7206649B2 (en) 2003-07-15 2007-04-17 Microsoft Corporation Audio watermarking with dual watermarks
US20070127717A1 (en) 2004-05-10 2007-06-07 Juergen Herre Device and Method for Analyzing an Information Signal
US7231524B2 (en) 1999-05-27 2007-06-12 Microsoft Corporation Method for watermarking computer programs
US7233669B2 (en) 2002-01-02 2007-06-19 Sony Corporation Selective encryption to enable multiple decryption keys
US7240210B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2007-07-03 Microsoft Corporation Hash value computer of content of digital signals
US7286451B2 (en) 2002-07-17 2007-10-23 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Copy control using digital speed bumps
US7289643B2 (en) 2000-12-21 2007-10-30 Digimarc Corporation Method, apparatus and programs for generating and utilizing content signatures
US20070253594A1 (en) 2006-04-28 2007-11-01 Vobile, Inc. Method and system for fingerprinting digital video object based on multiresolution, multirate spatial and temporal signatures
EP1354276B1 (en) 2000-11-03 2007-12-12 Audible Magic Corporation Method and apparatus for creating a unique audio signature
US7363278B2 (en) 2001-04-05 2008-04-22 Audible Magic Corporation Copyright detection and protection system and method
US7460994B2 (en) 2001-07-10 2008-12-02 M2Any Gmbh Method and apparatus for producing a fingerprint, and method and apparatus for identifying an audio signal

Family Cites Families (41)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4827275A (en) * 1987-07-16 1989-05-02 Fusinski Richard E Noise rejection antenna system for nonmetallic marine vessels
US5361296A (en) * 1991-11-25 1994-11-01 Zoom Telephonics, Inc. Modem with ring detection/modem processing capability
US7007166B1 (en) * 1994-12-28 2006-02-28 Wistaria Trading, Inc. Method and system for digital watermarking
US7171016B1 (en) 1993-11-18 2007-01-30 Digimarc Corporation Method for monitoring internet dissemination of image, video and/or audio files
US20020009208A1 (en) * 1995-08-09 2002-01-24 Adnan Alattar Authentication of physical and electronic media objects using digital watermarks
US5751811A (en) 1995-08-30 1998-05-12 Magnotti; Joseph C. 32N +D bit key encryption-decryption system using chaos
JP3545110B2 (en) 1995-09-26 2004-07-21 富士通株式会社 Quality control method of communication services
US6067622A (en) 1996-01-02 2000-05-23 Moore; Steven Jerome Software security system using remove function to restrict unauthorized duplicating and installation of an application program
US7664263B2 (en) 1998-03-24 2010-02-16 Moskowitz Scott A Method for combining transfer functions with predetermined key creation
US7362775B1 (en) 1996-07-02 2008-04-22 Wistaria Trading, Inc. Exchange mechanisms for digital information packages with bandwidth securitization, multichannel digital watermarks, and key management
US7457962B2 (en) * 1996-07-02 2008-11-25 Wistaria Trading, Inc Optimization methods for the insertion, protection, and detection of digital watermarks in digitized data
US7913087B2 (en) * 1996-07-02 2011-03-22 Wistaria Trading, Inc. Optimization methods for the insertion, protection, and detection of digital watermarks in digital data
US7095874B2 (en) * 1996-07-02 2006-08-22 Wistaria Trading, Inc. Optimization methods for the insertion, protection, and detection of digital watermarks in digitized data
US7730317B2 (en) 1996-12-20 2010-06-01 Wistaria Trading, Inc. Linear predictive coding implementation of digital watermarks
US5842213A (en) 1997-01-28 1998-11-24 Odom; Paul S. Method for modeling, storing, and transferring data in neutral form
NL1005523C2 (en) 1997-03-13 1998-09-15 Univ Eindhoven Tech A method and communication system for the transmission of information signals in the partially encrypted form.
DE19710967C1 (en) 1997-03-17 1998-10-22 Karl Heinz Koeppen Broadband speaker
US6577472B2 (en) 1997-07-24 2003-06-10 Hitachi, Ltd. Glass substrate for a magnetic disk, a magnetic disk which can be formed with a stable texture
US6611599B2 (en) 1997-09-29 2003-08-26 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. Watermarking of digital object
EP1020077B1 (en) 1997-10-08 2002-08-07 Digimarc Corporation Method and apparatus for a copy-once watermark for video recording
US5949055A (en) 1997-10-23 1999-09-07 Xerox Corporation Automatic geometric image transformations using embedded signals
US6674858B1 (en) * 1997-12-10 2004-01-06 Hitachi, Ltd. Receiving device, recording and reproducing device and receiving/recording-reproducing system for digital broadcast signal
US6385596B1 (en) 1998-02-06 2002-05-07 Liquid Audio, Inc. Secure online music distribution system
US6148333A (en) 1998-05-13 2000-11-14 Mgi Software Corporation Method and system for server access control and tracking
US6957330B1 (en) 1999-03-01 2005-10-18 Storage Technology Corporation Method and system for secure information handling
US7123718B1 (en) 1999-03-24 2006-10-17 Blue Spike, Inc. Utilizing data reduction in stegnographic and cryptographic systems
US7664264B2 (en) 1999-03-24 2010-02-16 Blue Spike, Inc. Utilizing data reduction in steganographic and cryptographic systems
US6865747B1 (en) * 1999-04-01 2005-03-08 Digital Video Express, L.P. High definition media storage structure and playback mechanism
US7159116B2 (en) * 1999-12-07 2007-01-02 Blue Spike, Inc. Systems, methods and devices for trusted transactions
US7475246B1 (en) * 1999-08-04 2009-01-06 Blue Spike, Inc. Secure personal content server
WO2002003385A1 (en) 2000-07-05 2002-01-10 Moskowitz Scott A Copy protection of digital data combining steganographic and cryptographic techniques
US6990453B2 (en) * 2000-07-31 2006-01-24 Landmark Digital Services Llc System and methods for recognizing sound and music signals in high noise and distortion
US20040243540A1 (en) 2000-09-07 2004-12-02 Moskowitz Scott A. Method and device for monitoring and analyzing signals
US7346472B1 (en) 2000-09-07 2008-03-18 Blue Spike, Inc. Method and device for monitoring and analyzing signals
US7127615B2 (en) 2000-09-20 2006-10-24 Blue Spike, Inc. Security based on subliminal and supraliminal channels for data objects
US7177429B2 (en) * 2000-12-07 2007-02-13 Blue Spike, Inc. System and methods for permitting open access to data objects and for securing data within the data objects
US8006262B2 (en) * 2001-06-29 2011-08-23 Rodriguez Arturo A Graphic user interfaces for purchasable and recordable media (PRM) downloads
US6968337B2 (en) 2001-07-10 2005-11-22 Audible Magic Corporation Method and apparatus for identifying an unknown work
US7287275B2 (en) 2002-04-17 2007-10-23 Moskowitz Scott A Methods, systems and devices for packet watermarking and efficient provisioning of bandwidth
US7743001B1 (en) 2005-06-21 2010-06-22 Amazon Technologies, Inc. Method and system for dynamic pricing of web services utilization
JP5156014B2 (en) 2007-06-28 2013-03-06 長太 松本 Ophthalmologic examination apparatus

Patent Citations (298)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3986624A (en) 1971-02-16 1976-10-19 International Incinerators, Inc. Disposal feeding system including selective container control
US3947825A (en) 1973-04-13 1976-03-30 International Business Machines Corporation Abstracting system for index search machine
US4038596A (en) 1974-07-04 1977-07-26 E M I Limited Method and apparatus for authenticating a record medium consisting of applying two different strength magnetizing fields and monitoring the remanent fields
US3984624A (en) 1974-07-25 1976-10-05 Weston Instruments, Inc. Video system for conveying digital and analog information
US4339134A (en) 1977-07-05 1982-07-13 Rockwell International Corporation Electronic card game
US4200770A (en) 1977-09-06 1980-04-29 Stanford University Cryptographic apparatus and method
US4218582A (en) 1977-10-06 1980-08-19 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Public key cryptographic apparatus and method
US4405829A (en) 1977-12-14 1983-09-20 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Cryptographic communications system and method
US4424414A (en) 1978-05-01 1984-01-03 Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Exponentiation cryptographic apparatus and method
US4528588A (en) 1980-09-26 1985-07-09 Loefberg Bo Method and apparatus for marking the information content of an information carrying signal
US4390898A (en) 1981-03-19 1983-06-28 Northern Telecom Limited Scrambling and unscrambling video signals in a pay TV system
US4908873A (en) 1983-05-13 1990-03-13 Philibert Alex C Document reproduction security system
US4672605A (en) 1984-03-20 1987-06-09 Applied Spectrum Technologies, Inc. Data and voice communications system
US4980782A (en) 1985-06-03 1990-12-25 Peter Ginkel Software protection and identification system
US4789928A (en) 1986-02-17 1988-12-06 Flex Japan Inc. Auction information transmission processing
US4876617A (en) 1986-05-06 1989-10-24 Thorn Emi Plc Signal identification
US4748668A (en) 1986-07-09 1988-05-31 Yeda Research And Development Company Limited Method, apparatus and article for identification and signature
US4977594A (en) 1986-10-14 1990-12-11 Electronic Publishing Resources, Inc. Database usage metering and protection system and method
US5410598A (en) 1986-10-14 1995-04-25 Electronic Publishing Resources, Inc. Database usage metering and protection system and method
US5050213A (en) 1986-10-14 1991-09-17 Electronic Publishing Resources, Inc. Database usage metering and protection system and method
US4827508A (en) 1986-10-14 1989-05-02 Personal Library Software, Inc. Database usage metering and protection system and method
US5073925A (en) 1987-07-08 1991-12-17 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Method and apparatus for the protection of signal copy
US4979210A (en) 1987-07-08 1990-12-18 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Method and apparatus for protection of signal copy
US4896275A (en) 1987-07-10 1990-01-23 Bull Hn Information Systems Inc. Full page graphics image display data reduction
US4939515A (en) 1988-09-30 1990-07-03 General Electric Company Digital signal encoding and decoding apparatus
US5113437A (en) 1988-10-25 1992-05-12 Thorn Emi Plc Signal identification system
US5161210A (en) 1988-11-10 1992-11-03 U.S. Philips Corporation Coder for incorporating an auxiliary information signal in a digital audio signal, decoder for recovering such signals from the combined signal, and record carrier having such combined signal recorded thereon
EP0372601A1 (en) 1988-11-10 1990-06-13 Philips Electronics N.V. Coder for incorporating extra information in a digital audio signal having a predetermined format, decoder for extracting such extra information from a digital signal, device for recording a digital signal on a record carrier, comprising such a coder, and record carrier obtained by means of such a device
US5142576A (en) 1989-02-07 1992-08-25 Market Data Corporation System for securely providing restricted video information
US5341477A (en) 1989-02-24 1994-08-23 Digital Equipment Corporation Broker for computer network server selection
US4972471A (en) 1989-05-15 1990-11-20 Gary Gross Encoding system
US5077665A (en) 1989-05-25 1991-12-31 Reuters Limited Distributed matching system
US4969204A (en) 1989-11-29 1990-11-06 Eastman Kodak Company Hybrid residual-based hierarchical storage and display method for high resolution digital images in a multiuse environment
US5471533A (en) 1990-01-05 1995-11-28 Symbol Technologies, Inc. Record with encoded data
US5471533B1 (en) 1990-01-05 2000-04-18 Symbol Technologies Inc Record with encoded data
US5210820A (en) 1990-05-02 1993-05-11 Broadcast Data Systems Limited Partnership Signal recognition system and method
US5287407A (en) 1990-05-31 1994-02-15 International Business Machines Corporation Computer software protection
US5136581A (en) 1990-07-02 1992-08-04 At&T Bell Laboratories Arrangement for reserving and allocating a plurality of competing demands for an ordered bus communication network
US5136647A (en) 1990-08-02 1992-08-04 Bell Communications Research, Inc. Method for secure time-stamping of digital documents
US5406627B1 (en) 1990-08-06 1997-02-04 Nippon Denki Home Electronics System and method for transmitting entertainment information to authorized ones of plural receivers
US5406627A (en) 1990-08-06 1995-04-11 Nec Home Electronics, Ltd. Digital data cryptographic system
US5243515A (en) 1990-10-30 1993-09-07 Lee Wayne M Secure teleprocessing bidding system
US5136646A (en) 1991-03-08 1992-08-04 Bell Communications Research, Inc. Digital document time-stamping with catenate certificate
US5530739A (en) 1991-03-20 1996-06-25 Fujitsu Limited Mail center management system
US5319735A (en) 1991-12-17 1994-06-07 Bolt Beranek And Newman Inc. Embedded signalling
US5243423A (en) 1991-12-20 1993-09-07 A. C. Nielsen Company Spread spectrum digital data transmission over TV video
US5506795A (en) 1992-02-21 1996-04-09 Yamakawa; Takeshi Apparatus and method for generating chaotic signals and chaos device
US5469536A (en) 1992-02-25 1995-11-21 Imageware Software, Inc. Image editing system including masking capability
EP0565947A1 (en) 1992-04-13 1993-10-20 NOKIA TECHNOLOGY GmbH Procedure for including digital information in an audio signal prior to channel coding
US5487168A (en) 1992-06-15 1996-01-23 International Business Machines Corporation Method and system for global optimization of device allocation
EP0581317A2 (en) 1992-07-31 1994-02-02 Corbis Corporation Method and system for digital image signatures
US5930377A (en) 1992-07-31 1999-07-27 Digimarc Corporation Method for image encoding
US5809160A (en) 1992-07-31 1998-09-15 Digimarc Corporation Method for encoding auxiliary data within a source signal
US5721788A (en) 1992-07-31 1998-02-24 Corbis Corporation Method and system for digital image signatures
US6081251A (en) 1992-10-07 2000-06-27 Sony Corporation Apparatus and method for managing picture data
US5579124A (en) 1992-11-16 1996-11-26 The Arbitron Company Method and apparatus for encoding/decoding broadcast or recorded segments and monitoring audience exposure thereto
US5341429A (en) 1992-12-04 1994-08-23 Testdrive Corporation Transformation of ephemeral material
US5369707A (en) 1993-01-27 1994-11-29 Tecsec Incorporated Secure network method and apparatus
US5379345A (en) 1993-01-29 1995-01-03 Radio Audit Systems, Inc. Method and apparatus for the processing of encoded data in conjunction with an audio broadcast
US5365586A (en) 1993-04-09 1994-11-15 Washington University Method and apparatus for fingerprinting magnetic media
US5740244A (en) 1993-04-09 1998-04-14 Washington University Method and apparatus for improved fingerprinting and authenticating various magnetic media
US5408505A (en) 1993-04-09 1995-04-18 Washington University Method and apparatus for process control, tension control, and testing of magnetic media
US5768396A (en) 1993-04-21 1998-06-16 Yamaha Corporation Online karaoke system with flying start performance
US5860099A (en) 1993-05-12 1999-01-12 Usar Systems, Inc. Stored program system with protected memory and secure signature extraction
US5479210A (en) 1993-06-11 1995-12-26 Quantel, Ltd. Video image processing system having variable data compression
US5581703A (en) 1993-06-29 1996-12-03 International Business Machines Corporation Method and apparatus for reserving system resources to assure quality of service
US5737733A (en) 1993-06-30 1998-04-07 Microsoft Corporation Method and system for searching compressed data
US5363448A (en) 1993-06-30 1994-11-08 United Technologies Automotive, Inc. Pseudorandom number generation and cryptographic authentication
US5428606A (en) 1993-06-30 1995-06-27 Moskowitz; Scott A. Digital information commodities exchange
US5418713A (en) 1993-08-05 1995-05-23 Allen; Richard Apparatus and method for an on demand data delivery system for the preview, selection, retrieval and reproduction at a remote location of previously recorded or programmed materials
US5412718A (en) 1993-09-13 1995-05-02 Institute Of Systems Science Method for utilizing medium nonuniformities to minimize unauthorized duplication of digital information
US5657461A (en) 1993-10-04 1997-08-12 Xerox Corporation User interface for defining and automatically transmitting data according to preferred communication channels
US5513126A (en) 1993-10-04 1996-04-30 Xerox Corporation Network having selectively accessible recipient prioritized communication channel profiles
US5478990A (en) 1993-10-14 1995-12-26 Coleman Environmental Systems, Inc. Method for tracking the production history of food products
EP0649261B1 (en) 1993-10-18 2002-01-23 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Image data processing and encrypting apparatus
EP0651554A1 (en) 1993-10-29 1995-05-03 Eastman Kodak Company Method and apparatus for the addition and removal of digital watermarks in a hierarchical image storage and retrieval system
US5625690A (en) 1993-11-15 1997-04-29 Lucent Technologies Inc. Software pay per use system
US20040037449A1 (en) 1993-11-18 2004-02-26 Davis Bruce L. Integrating digital watermarks in multimedia content
US6430302B2 (en) 1993-11-18 2002-08-06 Digimarc Corporation Steganographically encoding a first image in accordance with a second image
US5832119C1 (en) 1993-11-18 2002-03-05 Digimarc Corp Methods for controlling systems using control signals embedded in empirical data
US5862260A (en) 1993-11-18 1999-01-19 Digimarc Corporation Methods for surveying dissemination of proprietary empirical data
US5832119A (en) 1993-11-18 1998-11-03 Digimarc Corporation Methods for controlling systems using control signals embedded in empirical data
US6330335B1 (en) 1993-11-18 2001-12-11 Digimarc Corporation Audio steganography
US5850481A (en) 1993-11-18 1998-12-15 Digimarc Corporation Steganographic system
US5850481C1 (en) 1993-11-18 2002-07-16 Digimarc Corp Steganographic system
US5677952A (en) 1993-12-06 1997-10-14 International Business Machines Corporation Method to protect information on a computer storage device
US5394324A (en) 1993-12-08 1995-02-28 Xerox Corporation Auction-based control system for energy resource management in a building
US5513261A (en) 1993-12-29 1996-04-30 At&T Corp. Key management scheme for use with electronic cards
US5398285A (en) 1993-12-30 1995-03-14 Motorola, Inc. Method for generating a password using public key cryptography
US5973731A (en) 1994-03-03 1999-10-26 Schwab; Barry H. Secure identification system
US5450490A (en) 1994-03-31 1995-09-12 The Arbitron Company Apparatus and methods for including codes in audio signals and decoding
US5636276A (en) 1994-04-18 1997-06-03 Brugger; Rolf Device for the distribution of music information in digital form
US5497419A (en) 1994-04-19 1996-03-05 Prima Facie, Inc. Method and apparatus for recording sensor data
US5598470A (en) 1994-04-25 1997-01-28 International Business Machines Corporation Method and apparatus for enabling trial period use of software products: Method and apparatus for utilizing a decryption block
US5737416A (en) 1994-04-25 1998-04-07 International Business Machines Corporation Method and apparatus for enabling trial period use of software products: method and apparatus for utilizing a decryption stub
US5894521A (en) 1994-05-26 1999-04-13 Direct Business Technologies, Inc. System and method for encrypting sensitive information
US5617119A (en) 1994-06-08 1997-04-01 Systems Research & Applications Corporation Protection of an electronically stored image in a first color space by the alteration of a digital component in a second color space
US5493677A (en) 1994-06-08 1996-02-20 Systems Research & Applications Corporation Generation, archiving, and retrieval of digital images with evoked suggestion-set captions and natural language interface
US5548579A (en) 1994-06-23 1996-08-20 International Business Machines Corporation System for effective allocation of network-wide bandwidth
US5917915A (en) 1994-06-24 1999-06-29 Sony Corporation Scramble/descramble method and apparatus for data broadcasting
US5530751A (en) 1994-06-30 1996-06-25 Hewlett-Packard Company Embedded hidden identification codes in digital objects
US6041316A (en) 1994-07-25 2000-03-21 Lucent Technologies Inc. Method and system for ensuring royalty payments for data delivered over a network
US5606609A (en) 1994-09-19 1997-02-25 Scientific-Atlanta Electronic document verification system and method
US5568570A (en) 1994-09-30 1996-10-22 Eastman Kodak Company Method and apparatus for reducing quantization artifacts in a hierarchical image storage and retrieval system
US6363483B1 (en) 1994-11-03 2002-03-26 Lucent Technologies Inc. Methods and systems for performing article authentication
US6373892B1 (en) 1994-11-17 2002-04-16 Sega Enterprises, Ltd. Method for compressing and decompressing moving picture information and video signal processing system
US5629980A (en) 1994-11-23 1997-05-13 Xerox Corporation System for controlling the distribution and use of digital works
US5754697A (en) 1994-12-02 1998-05-19 Fu; Chi-Yung Selective document image data compression technique
US5646997A (en) 1994-12-14 1997-07-08 Barton; James M. Method and apparatus for embedding authentication information within digital data
US5912972A (en) 1994-12-14 1999-06-15 Sony Corporation Method and apparatus for embedding authentication information within digital data
US5634040A (en) 1994-12-19 1997-05-27 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Data communication apparatus and method having concurrent image overlay function
US5530759A (en) 1995-02-01 1996-06-25 International Business Machines Corporation Color correct digital watermarking of images
US5659726A (en) 1995-02-23 1997-08-19 Sandford, Ii; Maxwell T. Data embedding
US5774452A (en) 1995-03-14 1998-06-30 Aris Technologies, Inc. Apparatus and method for encoding and decoding information in audio signals
US5974141A (en) 1995-03-31 1999-10-26 Mitsubishi Corporation Data management system
US5640569A (en) 1995-04-28 1997-06-17 Sun Microsystems, Inc. Diverse goods arbitration system and method for allocating resources in a distributed computer system
US5583488A (en) 1995-04-28 1996-12-10 Sala; Nicola R. Proximity alarm system
US5636292A (en) 1995-05-08 1997-06-03 Digimarc Corporation Steganography methods employing embedded calibration data
US5748783A (en) 1995-05-08 1998-05-05 Digimarc Corporation Method and apparatus for robust information coding
US5636292C1 (en) 1995-05-08 2002-06-18 Digimarc Corp Steganography methods employing embedded calibration data
US5687236A (en) 1995-06-07 1997-11-11 The Dice Company Steganographic method and device
US5613004A (en) 1995-06-07 1997-03-18 The Dice Company Steganographic method and device
US7568100B1 (en) 1995-06-07 2009-07-28 Wistaria Trading, Inc. Steganographic method and device
US5790677A (en) 1995-06-29 1998-08-04 Microsoft Corporation System and method for secure electronic commerce transactions
US6275988B1 (en) 1995-06-30 2001-08-14 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Image transmission apparatus, image transmission system, and communication apparatus
US5680462A (en) 1995-08-07 1997-10-21 Sandia Corporation Information encoder/decoder using chaotic systems
US5696828A (en) 1995-09-22 1997-12-09 United Technologies Automotive, Inc. Random number generating system and process based on chaos
US5757923A (en) 1995-09-22 1998-05-26 Ut Automotive Dearborn, Inc. Method of generating secret identification numbers
US5930369A (en) 1995-09-28 1999-07-27 Nec Research Institute, Inc. Secure spread spectrum watermarking for multimedia data
US5765152A (en) 1995-10-13 1998-06-09 Trustees Of Dartmouth College System and method for managing copyrighted electronic media
US5859920A (en) 1995-11-30 1999-01-12 Eastman Kodak Company Method for embedding digital information in an image
US5870474A (en) 1995-12-04 1999-02-09 Scientific-Atlanta, Inc. Method and apparatus for providing conditional access in connection-oriented, interactive networks with a multiplicity of service providers
US5719937A (en) 1995-12-06 1998-02-17 Solana Technology Develpment Corporation Multi-media copy management system
US5963909A (en) 1995-12-06 1999-10-05 Solana Technology Development Corporation Multi-media copy management system
US5940134A (en) 1995-12-11 1999-08-17 U.S. Philips Corporation Marking a video and/or audio signal
US5633932A (en) 1995-12-19 1997-05-27 Intel Corporation Apparatus and method for preventing disclosure through user-authentication at a printing node
US5905975A (en) 1996-01-04 1999-05-18 Ausubel; Lawrence M. Computer implemented methods and apparatus for auctions
US5905800A (en) 1996-01-17 1999-05-18 The Dice Company Method and system for digital watermarking
US6598162B1 (en) 1996-01-17 2003-07-22 Scott A. Moskowitz Method for combining transfer functions with predetermined key creation
US5745569A (en) 1996-01-17 1998-04-28 The Dice Company Method for stega-cipher protection of computer code
US5689587A (en) 1996-02-09 1997-11-18 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Method and apparatus for data hiding in images
US5664018A (en) 1996-03-12 1997-09-02 Leighton; Frank Thomson Watermarking process resilient to collusion attacks
US5923763A (en) 1996-03-21 1999-07-13 Walker Asset Management Limited Partnership Method and apparatus for secure document timestamping
US5673316A (en) 1996-03-29 1997-09-30 International Business Machines Corporation Creation and distribution of cryptographic envelope
US6381747B1 (en) 1996-04-01 2002-04-30 Macrovision Corp. Method for controlling copy protection in digital video networks
US5828325A (en) 1996-04-03 1998-10-27 Aris Technologies, Inc. Apparatus and method for encoding and decoding information in analog signals
US20040128514A1 (en) 1996-04-25 2004-07-01 Rhoads Geoffrey B. Method for increasing the functionality of a media player/recorder device or an application program
US5884033A (en) 1996-05-15 1999-03-16 Spyglass, Inc. Internet filtering system for filtering data transferred over the internet utilizing immediate and deferred filtering actions
US20010043594A1 (en) 1996-05-31 2001-11-22 Hiroaki Ogawa Information processing apparatus, information processing method and identification code
US5893067A (en) 1996-05-31 1999-04-06 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Method and apparatus for echo data hiding in audio signals
US5999217A (en) 1996-06-06 1999-12-07 Berners-Lee; Charles Peter Apparatus and method for encoding data
US6049838A (en) 1996-07-01 2000-04-11 Sun Microsystems, Inc. Persistent distributed capabilities
US7107451B2 (en) 1996-07-02 2006-09-12 Wistaria Trading, Inc. Optimization methods for the insertion, protection, and detection of digital watermarks in digital data
US5889868A (en) 1996-07-02 1999-03-30 The Dice Company Optimization methods for the insertion, protection, and detection of digital watermarks in digitized data
US5918223A (en) 1996-07-22 1999-06-29 Muscle Fish Method and article of manufacture for content-based analysis, storage, retrieval, and segmentation of audio information
US6658010B1 (en) 1996-07-25 2003-12-02 Hybrid Networks, Inc. High-speed internet access system
US5943422A (en) 1996-08-12 1999-08-24 Intertrust Technologies Corp. Steganographic techniques for securely delivering electronic digital rights management control information over insecure communication channels
US6081597A (en) 1996-08-19 2000-06-27 Ntru Cryptosystems, Inc. Public key cryptosystem method and apparatus
US5799083A (en) 1996-08-26 1998-08-25 Brothers; Harlan Jay Event verification system
US6272634B1 (en) 1996-08-30 2001-08-07 Regents Of The University Of Minnesota Digital watermarking to resolve multiple claims of ownership
US6061793A (en) 1996-08-30 2000-05-09 Regents Of The University Of Minnesota Method and apparatus for embedding data, including watermarks, in human perceptible sounds
US6978370B1 (en) 1996-09-03 2005-12-20 Cryptography Research, Inc. Method and system for copy-prevention of digital copyright works
US5848155A (en) 1996-09-04 1998-12-08 Nec Research Institute, Inc. Spread spectrum watermark for embedded signalling
US5809139A (en) 1996-09-13 1998-09-15 Vivo Software, Inc. Watermarking method and apparatus for compressed digital video
US6069914A (en) 1996-09-19 2000-05-30 Nec Research Institute, Inc. Watermarking of image data using MPEG/JPEG coefficients
US5734752A (en) 1996-09-24 1998-03-31 Xerox Corporation Digital watermarking using stochastic screen patterns
US5915027A (en) 1996-11-05 1999-06-22 Nec Research Institute Digital watermarking
US5750852A (en) 1996-12-09 1998-05-12 J.C.Robinson Seed Company Inbred corn line NR 109
US6078664A (en) 1996-12-20 2000-06-20 Moskowitz; Scott A. Z-transform implementation of digital watermarks
US5920900A (en) 1996-12-30 1999-07-06 Cabletron Systems, Inc. Hash-based translation method and apparatus with multiple level collision resolution
US6088455A (en) 1997-01-07 2000-07-11 Logan; James D. Methods and apparatus for selectively reproducing segments of broadcast programming
US6009176A (en) 1997-02-13 1999-12-28 International Business Machines Corporation How to sign digital streams
US6233684B1 (en) 1997-02-28 2001-05-15 Contenaguard Holdings, Inc. System for controlling the distribution and use of rendered digital works through watermaking
US6199058B1 (en) 1997-02-28 2001-03-06 Oracle Corporation Report server caching
US5903721A (en) 1997-03-13 1999-05-11 cha|Technologies Services, Inc. Method and system for secure online transaction processing
US6192138B1 (en) 1997-05-08 2001-02-20 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Apparatus and method for embedding/unembedding supplemental information
US20020097873A1 (en) 1997-05-19 2002-07-25 Rade Petrovic Apparatus and method for embedding and extracting information in analog signals using replica modulation
US6131162A (en) 1997-06-05 2000-10-10 Hitachi Ltd. Digital data authentication method
US6668325B1 (en) 1997-06-09 2003-12-23 Intertrust Technologies Obfuscation techniques for enhancing software security
US20020103883A1 (en) 1997-06-19 2002-08-01 Paul Haverstock Web server with unique identification of linked objects
US6240121B1 (en) 1997-07-09 2001-05-29 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Apparatus and method for watermark data insertion and apparatus and method for watermark data detection
US6310962B1 (en) 1997-08-20 2001-10-30 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. MPEG2 moving picture encoding/decoding system
US6425081B1 (en) 1997-08-20 2002-07-23 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Electronic watermark system electronic information distribution system and image filing apparatus
US6230268B1 (en) 1997-09-12 2001-05-08 International Business Machines Corporation Data control system
US6051029A (en) 1997-10-31 2000-04-18 Entelos, Inc. Method of generating a display for a dynamic simulation model utilizing node and link representations
US6278780B1 (en) 1997-10-31 2001-08-21 Nec Corporation Method of and an apparatus for generating internal crypto-keys
US6301663B1 (en) 1997-11-20 2001-10-09 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Copy protection apparatus and information recording medium used in this copy protection apparatus
US6141754A (en) 1997-11-28 2000-10-31 International Business Machines Corporation Integrated method and system for controlling information access and distribution
US6330672B1 (en) 1997-12-03 2001-12-11 At&T Corp. Method and apparatus for watermarking digital bitstreams
US6493457B1 (en) 1997-12-03 2002-12-10 At&T Corp. Electronic watermarking in the compressed domain utilizing perceptual coding
US6584125B1 (en) 1997-12-22 2003-06-24 Nec Corporation Coding/decoding apparatus, coding/decoding system and multiplexed bit stream
US6208745B1 (en) 1997-12-30 2001-03-27 Sarnoff Corporation Method and apparatus for imbedding a watermark into a bitstream representation of a digital image sequence
US6373960B1 (en) 1998-01-06 2002-04-16 Pixel Tools Corporation Embedding watermarks into compressed video data
US6141753A (en) 1998-02-10 2000-10-31 Fraunhofer Gesellschaft Secure distribution of digital representations
US6351765B1 (en) 1998-03-09 2002-02-26 Media 100, Inc. Nonlinear video editing system
US6205249B1 (en) 1998-04-02 2001-03-20 Scott A. Moskowitz Multiple transform utilization and applications for secure digital watermarking
US6557103B1 (en) 1998-04-13 2003-04-29 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Spread spectrum image steganography
US6754822B1 (en) 1998-04-30 2004-06-22 Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft Zur Forderung Der Angewandten Forshung E.V. Active watermarks and watermark agents
US6278791B1 (en) 1998-05-07 2001-08-21 Eastman Kodak Company Lossless recovery of an original image containing embedded data
US6647424B1 (en) 1998-05-20 2003-11-11 Nortel Networks Limited Method and apparatus for discarding data packets
US6977894B1 (en) 1998-05-20 2005-12-20 Nortel Networks Limited Method and apparatus for discarding data packets through the use of descriptors
US6233347B1 (en) 1998-05-21 2001-05-15 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology System method, and product for information embedding using an ensemble of non-intersecting embedding generators
US20060005029A1 (en) 1998-05-28 2006-01-05 Verance Corporation Pre-processed information embedding system
US6415041B1 (en) 1998-06-01 2002-07-02 Nec Corporation Digital watermark insertion system and digital watermark characteristic table creating device
US6795925B2 (en) 1998-06-04 2004-09-21 Z4 Technologies, Inc. Computer readable storage medium for providing repeated contact with software end-user
US6792549B2 (en) 1998-06-04 2004-09-14 Z4 Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for repeated contact of software end-user
US6813717B2 (en) 1998-06-04 2004-11-02 Z4 Technologies, Inc. Method for securing software to reduce unauthorized use
US6446211B1 (en) 1998-06-04 2002-09-03 Z4 Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for monitoring software using encryption
US6986063B2 (en) 1998-06-04 2006-01-10 Z4 Technologies, Inc. Method for monitoring software using encryption including digital signatures/certificates
US6813718B2 (en) 1998-06-04 2004-11-02 Z4 Technologies, Inc. Computer readable storage medium for securing software to reduce unauthorized use
US6785825B2 (en) 1998-06-04 2004-08-31 Z4 Technologies, Inc. Method for securing software to decrease software piracy
US6792548B2 (en) 1998-06-04 2004-09-14 Z4 Technologies, Inc. Method for providing repeated contact with software end-user using authorized administrator
US6484264B1 (en) 1998-06-04 2002-11-19 Z4 Technologies, Inc. Method for providing repeated contact with software end-user using authorized administrator
US6799277B2 (en) 1998-06-04 2004-09-28 Z4 Technologies, Inc. System and method for monitoring software
US6502195B1 (en) 1998-06-04 2002-12-31 Z4 Technologies, Inc. Computer readable storage medium for providing repeated contact with software end-user
US20040117664A1 (en) 1998-06-04 2004-06-17 Z4 Technologies, Inc. Apparatus for establishing a connectivity platform for digital rights management
US6857078B2 (en) 1998-06-04 2005-02-15 Z4 Technologies, Inc. Method for securing software to increase license compliance
US20040225894A1 (en) 1998-06-04 2004-11-11 Z4 Technologies, Inc. Hardware based method for digital rights management including self activating/self authentication software
US6044471A (en) 1998-06-04 2000-03-28 Z4 Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for securing software to reduce unauthorized use
US20040117628A1 (en) 1998-06-04 2004-06-17 Z4 Technologies, Inc. Computer readable storage medium for enhancing license compliance of software/digital content including self-activating/self-authenticating software/digital content
US6523113B1 (en) 1998-06-09 2003-02-18 Apple Computer, Inc. Method and apparatus for copy protection
US20030126445A1 (en) 1998-06-09 2003-07-03 Apple Computer, Inc. Method and apparatus for copy protection
US6154571A (en) 1998-06-24 2000-11-28 Nec Research Institute, Inc. Robust digital watermarking
US6029126A (en) 1998-06-30 2000-02-22 Microsoft Corporation Scalable audio coder and decoder
US6530021B1 (en) 1998-07-20 2003-03-04 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Method and system for preventing unauthorized playback of broadcasted digital data streams
US6389538B1 (en) 1998-08-13 2002-05-14 International Business Machines Corporation System for tracking end-user electronic content usage
US6263313B1 (en) 1998-08-13 2001-07-17 International Business Machines Corporation Method and apparatus to create encoded digital content
US6587837B1 (en) 1998-08-13 2003-07-01 International Business Machines Corporation Method for delivering electronic content from an online store
US6457058B1 (en) 1998-09-29 2002-09-24 Cisco Technology, Inc. Network switch with hash table look up
US6285775B1 (en) 1998-10-01 2001-09-04 The Trustees Of The University Of Princeton Watermarking scheme for image authentication
US6345100B1 (en) 1998-10-14 2002-02-05 Liquid Audio, Inc. Robust watermark method and apparatus for digital signals
US7093295B1 (en) 1998-10-15 2006-08-15 Makoto Saito Method and device for protecting digital data by double re-encryption
US6687683B1 (en) 1998-10-16 2004-02-03 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Production protection system dealing with contents that are digital production
US20050160271A9 (en) 1998-11-19 2005-07-21 Brundage Trent J. Identification document and related methods
US6931534B1 (en) 1998-11-20 2005-08-16 Telefonaktiebolaget Lm Erricsson (Publ) Method and a device for encryption of images
US20020073043A1 (en) 1998-12-12 2002-06-13 Gary Herman Smart electronic receipt system
US5991426A (en) 1998-12-18 1999-11-23 Signafy, Inc. Field-based watermark insertion and detection
US6539475B1 (en) 1998-12-18 2003-03-25 Nec Corporation Method and system for protecting digital data from unauthorized copying
US7162642B2 (en) 1999-01-06 2007-01-09 Digital Video Express, L.P. Digital content distribution system and method
US6442283B1 (en) 1999-01-11 2002-08-27 Digimarc Corporation Multimedia data embedding
US6282650B1 (en) 1999-01-25 2001-08-28 Intel Corporation Secure public digital watermark
US6668246B1 (en) 1999-03-24 2003-12-23 Intel Corporation Multimedia data delivery and playback system with multi-level content and privacy protection
US6823455B1 (en) 1999-04-08 2004-11-23 Intel Corporation Method for robust watermarking of content
US20030133702A1 (en) 1999-04-21 2003-07-17 Todd R. Collart System, method and article of manufacturing for authorizing the use of electronic content utilizing a laser-centric medium and a network server
US6665489B2 (en) 1999-04-21 2003-12-16 Research Investment Network, Inc. System, method and article of manufacturing for authorizing the use of electronic content utilizing a laser-centric medium and a network server
US6405203B1 (en) 1999-04-21 2002-06-11 Research Investment Network, Inc. Method and program product for preventing unauthorized users from using the content of an electronic storage medium
US6966002B1 (en) 1999-04-30 2005-11-15 Trymedia Systems, Inc. Methods and apparatus for secure distribution of software
US6522769B1 (en) 1999-05-19 2003-02-18 Digimarc Corporation Reconfiguring a watermark detector
US7231524B2 (en) 1999-05-27 2007-06-12 Microsoft Corporation Method for watermarking computer programs
US6463468B1 (en) 1999-06-01 2002-10-08 Netzero, Inc. Targeted network video download interface
US6377625B1 (en) 1999-06-05 2002-04-23 Soft4D Co., Ltd. Method and apparatus for generating steroscopic image using MPEG data
US6785815B1 (en) 1999-06-08 2004-08-31 Intertrust Technologies Corp. Methods and systems for encoding and protecting data using digital signature and watermarking techniques
US6842862B2 (en) 1999-06-09 2005-01-11 Cloakware Corporation Tamper resistant software encoding
US6381618B1 (en) 1999-06-17 2002-04-30 International Business Machines Corporation Method and apparatus for autosynchronizing distributed versions of documents
US7266697B2 (en) 1999-07-13 2007-09-04 Microsoft Corporation Stealthy audio watermarking
US7020285B1 (en) 1999-07-13 2006-03-28 Microsoft Corporation Stealthy audio watermarking
US6775772B1 (en) 1999-10-12 2004-08-10 International Business Machines Corporation Piggy-backed key exchange protocol for providing secure low-overhead browser connections from a client to a server using a trusted third party
US6725372B1 (en) 1999-12-02 2004-04-20 Verizon Laboratories Inc. Digital watermarking
US6606393B1 (en) 1999-12-02 2003-08-12 Verizon Laboratories Inc. Message authentication code using image histograms
US6282300B1 (en) 2000-01-21 2001-08-28 Signafy, Inc. Rotation, scale, and translation resilient public watermarking for images using a log-polar fourier transform
US7058570B1 (en) 2000-02-10 2006-06-06 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Computer-implemented method and apparatus for audio data hiding
US20040125983A1 (en) 2000-02-14 2004-07-01 Reed Alastair M. Color adaptive watermarking
US6385329B1 (en) 2000-02-14 2002-05-07 Digimarc Corporation Wavelet domain watermarks
US6834308B1 (en) 2000-02-17 2004-12-21 Audible Magic Corporation Method and apparatus for identifying media content presented on a media playing device
US7051208B2 (en) 2000-03-14 2006-05-23 Microsoft Corporation Technique for producing through watermarking highly tamper-resistant executable code and resulting “watermarked” code so formed
US7046808B1 (en) 2000-03-24 2006-05-16 Verance Corporation Method and apparatus for detecting processing stages applied to a signal
US6453252B1 (en) 2000-05-15 2002-09-17 Creative Technology Ltd. Process for identifying audio content
US20040028222A1 (en) 2000-07-27 2004-02-12 Sewell Roger Fane Stegotext encoder and decoder
US20020026343A1 (en) 2000-08-09 2002-02-28 Dennis Duenke Material and labor cost estimatting method and system
US6430301B1 (en) 2000-08-30 2002-08-06 Verance Corporation Formation and analysis of signals with common and transaction watermarks
EP1354276B1 (en) 2000-11-03 2007-12-12 Audible Magic Corporation Method and apparatus for creating a unique audio signature
US7050396B1 (en) 2000-11-30 2006-05-23 Cisco Technology, Inc. Method and apparatus for automatically establishing bi-directional differentiated services treatment of flows in a network
US20040059918A1 (en) 2000-12-15 2004-03-25 Changsheng Xu Method and system of digital watermarking for compressed audio
US7289643B2 (en) 2000-12-21 2007-10-30 Digimarc Corporation Method, apparatus and programs for generating and utilizing content signatures
US6532284B2 (en) 2001-02-27 2003-03-11 Morgan Guaranty Trust Company Method and system for optimizing bandwidth cost via caching and other network transmission delaying techniques
US20020161741A1 (en) 2001-03-02 2002-10-31 Shazam Entertainment Ltd. Method and apparatus for automatically creating database for use in automated media recognition system
US7363278B2 (en) 2001-04-05 2008-04-22 Audible Magic Corporation Copyright detection and protection system and method
US7240210B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2007-07-03 Microsoft Corporation Hash value computer of content of digital signals
US7043050B2 (en) 2001-05-02 2006-05-09 Microsoft Corporation Software anti-piracy systems and methods utilizing certificates with digital content
US7460994B2 (en) 2001-07-10 2008-12-02 M2Any Gmbh Method and apparatus for producing a fingerprint, and method and apparatus for identifying an audio signal
US7177430B2 (en) 2001-10-31 2007-02-13 Portalplayer, Inc. Digital entroping for digital audio reproductions
US7233669B2 (en) 2002-01-02 2007-06-19 Sony Corporation Selective encryption to enable multiple decryption keys
US7103184B2 (en) 2002-05-09 2006-09-05 Intel Corporation System and method for sign mask encryption and decryption
US20040093521A1 (en) 2002-07-12 2004-05-13 Ihab Hamadeh Real-time packet traceback and associated packet marking strategies
US7286451B2 (en) 2002-07-17 2007-10-23 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Copy control using digital speed bumps
US20040083369A1 (en) 2002-07-26 2004-04-29 Ulfar Erlingsson Systems and methods for transparent configuration authentication of networked devices
US20040049695A1 (en) 2002-09-06 2004-03-11 Choi Yang Seo System for providing a real-time attacking connection traceback using a packet watermark insertion technique and method therefor
US20060041753A1 (en) 2002-09-30 2006-02-23 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Fingerprint extraction
US20060013451A1 (en) 2002-11-01 2006-01-19 Koninklijke Philips Electronics, N.V. Audio data fingerprint searching
US7150003B2 (en) 2002-11-25 2006-12-12 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Class coalescence for obfuscation of object-oriented software
US6983337B2 (en) 2002-12-18 2006-01-03 Intel Corporation Method, system, and program for handling device interrupts
US6784354B1 (en) 2003-03-13 2004-08-31 Microsoft Corporation Generating a music snippet
US7206649B2 (en) 2003-07-15 2007-04-17 Microsoft Corporation Audio watermarking with dual watermarks
US20050246554A1 (en) 2004-04-30 2005-11-03 Apple Computer, Inc. System and method for creating tamper-resistant code
US20070127717A1 (en) 2004-05-10 2007-06-07 Juergen Herre Device and Method for Analyzing an Information Signal
US20060013395A1 (en) 2004-07-01 2006-01-19 Brundage Trent J Digital watermark key generation
US20070083467A1 (en) 2005-10-10 2007-04-12 Apple Computer, Inc. Partial encryption techniques for media data
US20070253594A1 (en) 2006-04-28 2007-11-01 Vobile, Inc. Method and system for fingerprinting digital video object based on multiresolution, multirate spatial and temporal signatures

Non-Patent Citations (97)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
"YouTube Copyright Policy: Video Identification tool-YouTube Help", accessed Jun. 4, 2009, http://www.google.com/support/youtube/bin/answer.py?h1=en&answer=83766, 3 pp.
"YouTube Copyright Policy: Video Identification tool—YouTube Help", accessed Jun. 4, 2009, http://www.google.com/support/youtube/bin/answer.py?h1=en&answer=83766, 3 pp.
Arctic Monkeys (Whatever People Say I Am, That's What I'm Not), Domino Recording Co. Ltd., Pre-Release CD image, 2005, 1 page.
Bender, et al., Techniques for Data Hiding, IBM Systems Journal, vol. 35, Nos. 3 & 4, 1996, pp. 313-336.
Bender, Walter R. et al., Techniques for Data Hiding, SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng., vol. 2420, pp. 164-173, 1995.
Boney, et al., Digital Watermarks for Audio Signals, EVSIPCO, 96, pp. 473-480.
Boney, et al., Digital Watermarks for Audio Signals, Proceedings of the International Conf. on Multimedia Computing and Systems, Jun. 17-23, 1996.Hiroshima, Japan, 0-8186-7436-9196. pp. 473-480.
Brealy, et al., Principles of Corporate Finance, "Appendix A-Using Option Valuation Models", 1984, pp. 448-449.
Caronni, Germano, "Assuring Ownership Rights for Digital Images", published proceeds of reliable IT systems, v15 '95, H.H. Bruggemann and W. Gerhardt-Hackel (Ed) Viewing Publishing Company. Germany 1995.
Cayre, et al., "Kerckhoff's-Based Embedding Security Classes for WOA Data Hiding". IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, vol. 3 No. 1, Mar. 2008, 15 pp.
Copeland, et al., Real Options:A Practioner's Guide, 2001 pp. 106-107, 201-202, 204-208.
Cox, et al., Secure Spread Spectrum Watermarking for Multimedia, NEC Research Institude, Techinal Report 95-10, p. 33.
Cox, I. J., et al. "Secure Spread Spectrum Watermarking for Multimedia," IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 6 No. 12, Dec. 1, 1997, pp. 1673-1686.
Craver, et al., Can Invisible Watermarks Resolve Rightful Ownerships? IBM Research Report, RC 20509 (Jul. 25, 1996) 21 pp.
Crawford, D.W. "Pricing Network Usage:A Market for Bandwith of Market Communication?" presented MIT Workshop on Internet Economics, Mar. 1995, http://www.press.umich.edu/jep/works/SarkAssess.html.on Mar. 12, 2001.
Delaigle, J.-F., et al. "Digital Watermarking," Proceedings of the SPIE, vol. 2659, Feb. 1, 1996, pp. 99-110 (Abstract).
Dept. Of Electrical Engineering, Del Ft University of Technology, Del ft The Netherlands,Cr.C. Langelaar et al.,Copy Protection for Mulitmedia Data based on Labeling Techniques, Jul. 1996, 9 pp.
European Search Report & European Search Opinion, completed Oct. 15, 2007; authorized officer James Hazel (EP 07 11 2420) (9 pages).
F. Hartung, et al., Digital Watermarking of Raw and Compressed Video, SPIE vol. 2952, pp. 205-213.
Fabien A.P. Petitcolas, Ross J. Anderson and Markkus G. Kuhn, "Attacks on Copyright Marking Systems," LNCS, vol. 1525, Apr. 14-17, 1998, pp. 218-238, ISBN: 3-540-65386-4.
Gerzon, Michael et al., A High Rate Buried Data Channel for Audio CD, presentation notes, Audio Engineering Soc. 94th Convention (1993).
Gruhl,Daniel et al.,Echo Hiding. In Proceeding of the Workshop on Information .Hiding. No. 1174 in Lecture Notes in Computer Science,Cambridae.England (May/Jun. 1996).
Hartung, et al. "Multimedia Watermarking Techniques", Proceedings of the IEEE, Special Issue, Identification & Protection of Multimedia Information, pp. 1079-1107 Jul. 1999 vol. 87 No. 7 IEEE.
Jayant, N.S. et al., Digital Coding of Waveforms, Prentice Hall Inc., Englewood Cliff,NJ, pp. 486-509 (1984).
Johnson, et al., Transform Permuted Watermarking for Copyright Protection of Digital Video, IEEE Globecom 1998, Nov. 8-12, 1998, New York New York vol. 2 1998 pp. 684-689 (ISBN 0-7803-4985-7).
Joseph J.K. O'Ruanaidh and Thierry Pun, "Rotation, Scale and Translation Invariant Digital Image Watermarking", pre-publication, Summer 1997, 4 pages.
Joseph J.K. O'Ruanaidh and Thierry Pun, "Rotation, Scale and Translation Invariant Digital Image Watermarking", Submitted to Signal Processing Aug. 21, 1997, 19 pages.
Kahn, D., The Code Breakers, The MacMillan Company, 1969, pp. xIII, 81-83,513,515,522-526,863.
Kini, a. et al., "Trust in Electronic Commerce: Definition and Theoretical Considerations", Proceedings of the 31st Hawaii Int'l Conf on System Sciences (Cat. No. 98TB100216). Jan. 6-9, 1998. pp. 51-61.
Koch, E., et al., Towards Robust and Hidden Image Copyright Labeling, 1995 IEEE Workshop on Nonlinear Signal and Image Processing, Jun. 1995 Neos Marmaras p. 4.
Kocher, et al., "Self Protecting Digital Content", Technical Report from the CRI Content Security Research Initiative, Cryptography Research, Inc. 2002-2003. 14 pages.
Konrad, K. et al., "Trust and Elecronic Commerce-more than a techinal problem," Proceedings of the 18th IEEE Symposium on Reliable Distributed Systems, Oct. 19-22, 1999, pp. 360-365 Lausanne, Switzerland.
Kutter, Martin et al., Digital Signature of Color Images Using Amplitude Modulation, SPIE-E197, vol. 3022; pp. 518-527.
Lemma, et al. "Secure Watermark Embedding through Partial Encryption", International WorkShop on Digital Watermarking ("IWDW" 2006), Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science.2006, (to appear) 13 pages.
Low, S.H., "Equilibrium Allocation and Pricing of Variable Resources Among User-Suppliers", 1988. http://www.citesear.nj.nec.com/366503.html.
Menezes, Alfred J., Handbook of Applied Crypography, CRC Press, p. 46, 1997.
Menezes, Alfred J., Handbook of Applied Cryptography, CRC Press, p. 175, 1997.
Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th Ed., Merriam Webster, Inc., p. 207.
Moskowitz, "What is Acceptable Quality in the Application of Digital Watermarking: Trade-offs of Security, Robustness and Quality", IEEE Computer Society Proceedings of ITCC 2002, Apr. 10, 2002, pp. 80-84.
Moskowitz, Bandwith as Currency, IEEE Multimedia, Jan.-Mar. 2003, pp. 14-21.
Moskowitz, Multimedia Security Technologies for Digital Rights Management, 2006, Academic Press, "Introduction-Digital Rights Management" pp. 3-22.
Namgoong, H., "An Integrated Approach to Legacy Data for Multimedia Applications", Proceedings of the 23rd EUROMICRO Conference, vol., Issue 1-4, Sep. 1997, pp. 387-391.
Oasis (Dig Out Your Soul), Big brother Recordings Ltd., Promotion CD image, 2009, 1 page.
Oomen,A.W.J. et al., A Variable Bit Rate Buried Data Channel for Compact Disc. J.Audio Eng.Sc. vol. 43,No. 1/2,pp. 23-28 (1995).
O'Ruanaidh, et al. Watermarking Digital Images for Copyright Protection, IEEE Proceedings, vol. 143, No. 4, Aug. 1996, pp. 250-256.
PCT International Search Report, completed Apr. 4, 1997; authorized officer Bernarr Earl Gregory (PCT/US97/00651) (1 page).
PCT International Search Report, completed Jan. 26, 2001; authorized officer Gilberto Barron (PCT/US00/21189) (3 pages).
PCT International Search Report, completed Jul. 12, 1999; authorized officer R. Hubeau (PCT/US99/07262) (3 pages).
PCT International Search Report, completed Jul. 20, 2001; authorized officer A. Sigolo (PCT/US00/18411) (5 pages).
PCT International Search Report, completed Jun. 11, 1996; authorized officer Salvatore Cangialosi (PCT/US96/10257) (4 pages).
PCT International Search Report, completed Jun. 30, 2000; authorized officer Paul E. Callahan (PCT/US00/06522) (7 pages).
PCT International Search Report, completed Mar. 20, 2001; authorized officer P. Corcoran (PCT/US00/33126) (6 pages).
PCT International Search Report, completed May 6, 1997; authorized officer Salvatore Cangialosi (PCT/US97/00652) (3 pages).
PCT International Search Report, completed Oct. 23, 1997; authorized officer David Cain (PCT/US97/11455) (1 page).
PCT International Search Report, completed Sep. 13, 1995; authorized officer Huy D. Vu (PCT/US95/08159) (2 pages).
PCT International Search Report, date of mailing Mar. 15, 2001; authorized officer Marja Brouwers (PCT/US00/18411) (5 pages).
Pohlmann, Ken C., Principles of Digital Audio, 2nd Ed., 1991, pp. 1-9,19-25,30-33;41-48,54-57,86-107,375-387.
Pohlmann, Ken C., Principles of Digital Audio, 3rd Ed., 1995, pp. 32-37, 40-48,138,147-149,332,333,364, 499-501,508-509,564-571.
PortalPlayer, PP502 digital media management system-on-chip, May 1, 2003, 4 pp.
Press, et al., Numerical Recipes In C, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1988, pp. 398-417.
Puate, Joan et al., Using Fractal Compression Scheme to Embed a Digital Signature into an Image, SPIE-96 Proceedings, vol. 2915, Mar. 1997, pp. 108-118.
Radiohead ("Hail to the Thief"), EMI Music Group-Capitol, Pre-Release CD image, 2003, 1 page.
Radiohead ("Hail to the Thief"), EMI Music Group—Capitol, Pre-Release CD image, 2003, 1 page.
Rivest, et al., "Pay Word and Micromint: Two Simple Micropayment Schemes, "MIT Laboratory for Computer Science, Cambridge, MA, May 7, 1996 pp. 1-18.
Rivest, R. "Chaffing and Winnowing: Confidentiality without Encryption", MIT Lab for Computer Science, http://people.csail.mit.edu/rivest/Chaffing.txt, Apr. 24, 1998, 9 pp.
Ross Anderson, "Stretching the Limits of Steganography," LNCS, vol. 1174, May/Jun. 1996, 10 pages, ISBN: 3-540-61996-8.
Sarkar, M. "An Assessment of Pricing Mechanisms for the Internet-A Regulatory Imperative", presented MIT Workshop on Internet Economics, Mar. 1995 http://www.press.umich.edu/jep/works/SarkAssess.html on Mar. 12, 2001.
Schneider, M., et al. "Robust Content Based Digital Signature for Image Authentication," Proceedings of the International Conference on Image Processing (IC. Lausanne). Sep. 16-19, 1996, pp. 227-230, IEEE ISBN.
Schneier, Bruce, Applied Cryptography, 1st Ed., pp. 67-68, 1994.
Schneiër, Bruce, Applied Cryptography, 2nd Ed., John Wiley & Sons, pp. 9-10, 1996.
Schneier, Bruce, Applied Cryptography, John Wiley & Sons, inc. , New York,1994, pp. 68,69,387-392,1-57,273-275,321-324.
Schunter, M. et al., "A Status Report on the SEMPER framework for Secure Electronic Commerce", Computer Networks and ISDN Systems, Sep. 30, 1998, pp. 1501-1510, vol. 30, No. 16-18, NI, North Holland.
Sirbu, M. et al., "Net Bill: An Internet Commerce System Optimized for Network Delivered Services", Digest of Papers of the Computer Society Computer Conference (Spring), Mar. 5, 1995, pp. 20-25, vol. CONF40.
Sklar,Bernard, Digital Communications, pp. 601-603 (1988).
Smith, et al. Modulation and Information Hiding in Images, Springer Verlag, 1st Int'l Workshop, Cambridge, UK, May 30-Jun. 1, 1996, pp. 207-227.
Staind (The Singles 1996-2006), Warner Music-Atlantic, Pre-Release CD image, 2006, 1 page.
Staind (The Singles 1996-2006), Warner Music—Atlantic, Pre-Release CD image, 2006, 1 page.
Steinauer D. D., et al., "Trust and Traceability in Electronic Commerce", Standard View, Sep. 1997, pp. 118-124, vol. 5 No. 3, ACM, USA.
Supplementary European Search Report, completed Jun. 27, 2002; authorized officer M. Schoeyer (EP 00 91 9398) (1 page).
Supplementary European Search Report, completed Mar. 5, 2004; authorized officer J. Hazel (EP 96 91 9405) (1 page).
Swanson, Mitchell D., et al. Robust Data Hiding for Images, 7th IEEE Digital Signal Processing Workshop, Leon, Norway. Sep. 1-4, 1996, pp. 37-40.
Swanson, Mitchell D.,et al., Transparent Robust Image Watermarking, Proc. of the 1996 IEEE Int'l Conf. on Image Processing, vol. 111, 1996 , pp. 211-214.
ten Kate, W. et al., "Digital Audio Carrying Extra Information", IEEE, CH 2847-2/90/0000-1097, (1990).
Ten Kate,W. et al., A New Surround-Stereo-Surround Coding Techniques, J. Audio Eng.Soc., vol. 40,No. 5,pp. 376-383 (1992).
Tirkel,A.Z., A Two-Dimensional Digital Watermark, DICTA '95, Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane, Dec. 5-8, 1995, pp. 7.
Tirkel,A.Z., Image Watermarking-A Spread Spectrum Application, ISSSTA '96, Sep. 1996, Mainz, German, p. 6.
Tomsich, et al., "Towards a secure and de-centralized digital watermarking infrastructure for the protection of Intellectual Property", in Electronic Commerce and WebTechnologies, Proceedings (ECWEB 2000) 10 pages.
Van Schyandel, et al., Towards a Robust Digital Watermark, Second Asain Image Processing Conference, Dec. 6-8, 1995,Singapore, vol. 2,pp. 504-508.
van Schyndel, et al. A digital Watermark, IEEE Int'l Computer Processing Conference Austin,TX, Nov. 13-16, 1994, pp. 86-90.
VeriDisc, "The search for a Rational Solution to Digital Rights Management (DRM)", http://64.244.235.240/news/whitepaper/docs/veridisc-white-paper.pdf, 2001, 15 pp.
VeriDisc, "The search for a Rational Solution to Digital Rights Management (DRM)", http://64.244.235.240/news/whitepaper/docs/veridisc—white—paper.pdf, 2001, 15 pp.
Wayback Machine, dated Aug. 26, 2007, http://web.archive.org/web/20070826151732/http://www.screenplaysmag.com/tabid/96/articleType/ArticleView/articleId/495/Defaultaspx/.
Wayback Machine, dated Jan. 17, 1999, http://web.archive.org/web/19990117020420/http://www.netzero.com/, accessed on Feb. 19, 2008.
Wong, Ping Wah. "A Public Key Watermark for Image Verification and Authentication," IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, vol. 1, Oct. 4-7, 1998, pp. 455-459.
Zhao, Jian et al., Embedding Robust Labels into Images for Copyright Protection, (xp 000571976), pp. 242-251, 1995.
Zhao, Jian et al., Embedding Robust Labels into Images for Copyright Protection, Proceeding of the Know Right '95 Conference, pp. 242-251.
Zhao, Jian. "A WWW Service to Embed and Prove Digital Copyright Watermarks", Proc. of the european conf. on Mulitmedia Applications, Services & Techniques Louvain-La-Nevve Belgium May 1996.

Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US7844074B2 (en) 1996-07-02 2010-11-30 Wistaria Trading, Inc. Optimization methods for the insertion, protection, and detection of digital watermarks in digitized data
US7970722B1 (en) 1999-11-08 2011-06-28 Aloft Media, Llc System, method and computer program product for a collaborative decision platform
US8005777B1 (en) 1999-11-08 2011-08-23 Aloft Media, Llc System, method and computer program product for a collaborative decision platform
US8160988B1 (en) 1999-11-08 2012-04-17 Aloft Media, Llc System, method and computer program product for a collaborative decision platform
US20090268937A1 (en) * 2005-12-16 2009-10-29 Thomson Licensing Decoding Watermark Information Items of a Watermarked Audio or Video Signal Using Correlation
US8041073B2 (en) * 2005-12-16 2011-10-18 Thomson Licensing Decoding watermark information items of a watermarked audio or video signal using correlation

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
US20100202607A1 (en) 2010-08-12 application
US8225099B2 (en) 2012-07-17 grant
US20070079131A1 (en) 2007-04-05 application

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Cheng et al. Robust optimum detection of transform domain multiplicative watermarks
Cvejic Digital Audio Watermarking Techniques and Technologies: Applications and Benchmarks: Applications and Benchmarks
Barni et al. Watermarking systems engineering: enabling digital assets security and other applications
Petitcolas et al. Attacks on copyright marking systems
US6208735B1 (en) Secure spread spectrum watermarking for multimedia data
Chen et al. An information-theoretic approach to the design of robust digital watermarking systems
US6891958B2 (en) Asymmetric spread-spectrum watermarking systems and methods of use
US6226387B1 (en) Method and apparatus for scene-based video watermarking
Furon et al. An asymmetric watermarking method
Bianchi et al. Composite signal representation for fast and storage-efficient processing of encrypted signals
Chen et al. Dither modulation: a new approach to digital watermarking and information embedding
US7369677B2 (en) System reactions to the detection of embedded watermarks in a digital host content
US6456726B1 (en) Methods and apparatus for multi-layer data hiding
US7206649B2 (en) Audio watermarking with dual watermarks
US6359998B1 (en) Method and apparatus for wavelet-based digital watermarking
US20050021539A1 (en) Methods and systems for digital rights management of protected content
US6738744B2 (en) Watermark detection via cardinality-scaled correlation
US20040059918A1 (en) Method and system of digital watermarking for compressed audio
US6778678B1 (en) High-capacity digital image watermarking based on waveform modulation of image components
US7693297B2 (en) Watermark embedding and detecting methods, systems, devices and components
US6493457B1 (en) Electronic watermarking in the compressed domain utilizing perceptual coding
Hernández et al. Performance analysis of a 2-D-multipulse amplitude modulation scheme for data hiding and watermarking of still images
Xiang et al. Histogram-based audio watermarking against time-scale modification and cropping attacks
US5613004A (en) Steganographic method and device
Sun et al. A robust and secure media signature scheme for JPEG images

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: WISTARIA TRADING, INC., FLORIDA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:MOSKOWITZ, SCOTT A.;COOPERMAN, MARC S.;REEL/FRAME:018643/0443;SIGNING DATES FROM 20061026 TO 20061102

Owner name: WISTARIA TRADING, INC.,FLORIDA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:MOSKOWITZ, SCOTT A.;COOPERMAN, MARC S.;SIGNING DATES FROM 20061026 TO 20061102;REEL/FRAME:018643/0443

CC Certificate of correction
FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 4

AS Assignment

Owner name: WISTARIA TRADING LTD, BERMUDA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:WISTARIA TRADING, INC.;REEL/FRAME:036387/0177

Effective date: 20150814

FEPP

Free format text: MAINTENANCE FEE REMINDER MAILED (ORIGINAL EVENT CODE: REM.)