US7440495B1 - FPGA having AC coupling on I/O pins with an effective bypass of the AC coupling - Google Patents

FPGA having AC coupling on I/O pins with an effective bypass of the AC coupling

Info

Publication number
US7440495B1
US7440495B1 US11076648 US7664805A US7440495B1 US 7440495 B1 US7440495 B1 US 7440495B1 US 11076648 US11076648 US 11076648 US 7664805 A US7664805 A US 7664805A US 7440495 B1 US7440495 B1 US 7440495B1
Authority
US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
signal
data
mix
input
circuit
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Active, expires
Application number
US11076648
Inventor
Timothy P. Hagen
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Xilinx Inc
Original Assignee
Xilinx Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L25/00Baseband systems
    • H04L25/02Details ; Arrangements for supplying electrical power along data transmission lines
    • H04L25/0264Arrangements for coupling to transmission lines
    • H04L25/0266Arrangements for providing Galvanic isolation, e.g. by means of magnetic or capacitive coupling
    • H04L25/0268Arrangements for providing Galvanic isolation, e.g. by means of magnetic or capacitive coupling with modulation and subsequent demodulation
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L25/00Baseband systems
    • H04L25/02Details ; Arrangements for supplying electrical power along data transmission lines
    • H04L25/0264Arrangements for coupling to transmission lines
    • H04L25/0292Arrangements specific to the receiver end

Abstract

DC balance is obtained in an integrated circuit (IC) having I/O pins with AC coupling by effectively bypassing the AC coupling. The DC balance is accomplished by mixing in a known, low frequency mix signal or carrier in a circuit external to the IC and then digitally canceling out that mix signal inside the IC fabric. The mixer or modulating circuitry external to the IC can be a simple XOR gate. With the IC being an FPGA, the logic internal to the FPGA can be programmed to form the demultiplexing circuitry to digitally cancel out the mix signal, as well as to provide a carrier signal to the external mixer. To minimize errors due to data signal transitions near the edge of the carrier signal, a cleaner circuit is used to eliminate transitioning bits on either side of a carrier signal edge. With modulation used, synchronization circuitry is likewise included to provide synchronization during startup as well as after long dead times in the data signal.

Description

BACKGROUND

1. Technical Field

The present invention relates to integrated circuits (ICs) with AC coupling on the I/O pins, where DC balance is desired for at least some data signals provided to the I/O pins. More particularly, the present invention relates to providing a bypass to the AC coupling to enable DC balance of an input data signal.

2. Related Art

AC-coupling is desirable for a number of reasons—(1) To change the DC bias level when interconnecting logic families with different switching thresholds; (2) To provide a removable interface that may be shorted to ground without damaging the output drivers; or (3) When combined with differential signaling and transformer coupling, to connect boxes without requiring any DC connection between the two product chassis.

AC coupling is typically accomplished using a high-pass filter placed in series with a transmission line. A series-connected DC-blocking capacitor is a good example of a commonly used high-pass filter. The DC-blocking capacitor strips away all low-frequency content in the signal. If a signal has good DC balance, it is possible to pass it through a suitable high-pass filter without altering the informational content. If the signal is not DC balanced, AC coupling is typically undesirable.

For a signal to be DC balanced, one property of the signal is that it has a substantially equal numbers of ones and zeros. The DC balanced signal will have a median voltage level fixed, typically at zero volts. A DC offset can be created by a significantly unequal number of ones and zeros. The DC offset can also be created with a long dead time in a signal stream allowing charge to build up on the transmission line carrying the signal.

Because only AC signals that have good DC balance are anticipated as input signals, some IC manufacturers have included AC coupling on the I/O pins. One example of an IC with AC coupling capacitors placed in the chips connected to its I/O pins is the Virtex-II PRO X FPGA manufactured by Xilinx, Inc. of San Jose, Calif.

A new problem has therefore been created when devices with integrated AC coupling capacitors on I/O pins are targeted for applications that do not meet DC balance/run length criteria, or for input signals with unknown characteristics. For example, the Virtex-II Pro X FPGA uses Multi-Gigabit Transceivers (MGTs) as high speed over-sampling and/or digitizing engines for input data streams. For some input data streams long dead periods, or completely unknown DC characteristics creating bad DC balance, so some form of DC coupling is needed at the input of the MGTs to provide DC balance correction for error free data to be received. AC coupling is, thus, undesirable for such input data streams.

For applications using ICs with integrated AC coupling capacitors, a method for defeating the AC coupling is thus desirable in order to simulate an interface with DC coupling characteristics. One solution is for manufacturers to provide a switch to bypass the AC coupling capacitor when signals are expected where AC coupling is undesirable. However, if the manufacturer does not provide bypass switches it is desirable to provide an alternative approach to bypass or defeat the AC coupling.

SUMMARY

In accordance with embodiments of the present invention, an effective bypass of AC coupled I/O pins in an IC is used to provide good DC balance, even with an unbalanced or unknown input data signal.

Embodiments of the present invention are accomplished by mixing in a known, low frequency mix signal or carrier in a circuit external to the IC and then digitally canceling out that mix signal inside the IC. In one embodiment, the mixer or modulating circuitry external to the IC is an XOR gate with one input receiving the data signal and another receiving the mix signal from the IC.

With the IC being an FPGA, the logic internal to the FPGA can be programmed or configured to form the demultiplexing circuitry to digitally remove the mix signal. Circuitry internal to the FPGA can likewise be programmed to generate the mix signal and provide it to the external mixer. Because logic of the FPGA is programmable to form the demultiplexer and provide the carrier signal, even without a dedicated bypass of the AC signal on the FPGA I/O pins, an effective bypass is created.

When an input data signal transitions at or near the same time as the carrier signal transition, an error can occur. In one embodiment to compensate for the error a cleaner circuit is included in the IC. The cleaner circuit functions to remove any bits resulting from a transition of the data signal occurring near the edge of the carrier signal. The cleaner circuit functions to eliminate bits on either side of the transition of the carrier signal.

Because mixing is used, in one embodiment, synchronization components are included in the IC. The synchronization circuitry functions to align the carrier provided to the modulator and demodulator. The synchronization process is provided upon startup, and optionally after a significant dead time in the input data signal or after an unusually long sustained data signal.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Further details of the present invention are explained with the help of the attached drawings in which:

FIG. 1 illustrates a system for providing an effective bypass of AC coupling of an integrated circuit (IC) according to embodiments of the present invention;

FIG. 2 provides a timing diagram illustrating operation of the components of FIG. 1;

FIGS. 3-5 illustrate operation of the cleaner circuit of FIG. 1;

FIG. 6 illustrates inputs and outputs from an example of a circuit forming a combined synchronizer, demodulator, and carrier signal generator from the FPGA of FIG. 1; and

FIG. 7 provides a list describing the function of each input and output of the circuit of FIG. 6.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

FIG. 1 illustrates a system for providing an effective bypass of AC coupling on I/O pins of an integrated circuit (IC) according to embodiments of the present invention. The IC used in the system of FIG. 1 is illustrated as a FPGA 2, although other IC types can be used. The FPGA 2 or other components containing programmable logic, such as a complex programmable logic device (CPLD), offer the advantage of logic that is programmable to form the circuitry shown in the FPGA 2 of FIG. 1. As an alternative to an IC with programmable logic, the IC can be an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) having fixed components as shown in the FPGA 2 of FIG. 1.

In addition to the FPGA 2, the system of FIG. 1 includes a mixer card 4 with an exclusive OR (XOR) gate 6 providing a modulator for one I/O port 8 of the FPGA 2. Although not shown, the mixer card 4 can include an XOR gate for each I/O port with AC coupling where an effective bypass of the AC coupling is desired. Although the mixer card 4 is shown with an XOR gate 6 used as a modulator, other modulator circuitry may be used depending on design requirements.

The FPGA 2 shown has internal AC coupling provided by a DC blocking capacitor 10 in series with a trace provided from the I/O port 8. The blocking capacitor 10 is followed by a MGT receiver 12 that receives input signals from the I/O 8 and converts the signal data to provide parallel data to internal parts of the FPGA 2. The output of the MGT 12 is provided through the demodulator 14 to internal parts of the FPGA 2. Although illustrated with a MGT provided on the input, it is understood that a simple I/O buffer or other type transceiver might be used in the IC. Similarly, another type high pass filter than the blocking capacitor 10 can be included for which effective AC bypass can be provided by embodiments of the present invention. An example of FPGA 2 that can be used to implement an embodiment of the invention is the Virtex II Pro X FPGA product from Xilinx, Inc. of San Jose, Calif.

The mix signal generator 15 provides the mix_signal, or carrier, to the mixer card 4, as well as to the demodulator 14. The mix signal can be a clock signal of the FPGA 2, or other signal generated by dividing down the FPGA clock signal. The demodulator 14 in one embodiment includes digital logic to effectively cancel out the transitions of the mix signal from the modulated signal to recreate the data input signal received at the input of modulator 6.

FIG. 2 provides a timing diagram illustrating operation of the components of FIG. 1. The mix_signal is the low frequency mix generated by the mix signal generator 15. It is combined with the data input signal pulse_in using the XOR gate modulator 6. The resulting signal mgt_in from modulator 6 has good enough DC balance and high enough frequency content to be properly received by MGT 12 even in an AC coupled mode. The output of MGT 12 produces the mgt_rdata signal where the combined mix/input signal can be seen converted to a parallel differential signal. Note that although parallel data is shown to illustrate the typical output of a MGT, conversion to parallel is not essential. The mix signal is digitally removed in demodulator 14 and the resulting parallel data output signal dmo_dout contains a digitized version of the input data signal.

The carrier mix signal functions to keep the AC coupling charged and therefore provides good DC balance even when sampling of a signal with bad DC balance, or unknown characteristics. Selection of the mix signal frequency is typically not essential to operation of embodiments of the present invention. To avoid excessive charge up or discharge of the coupling capacitor 10, the mix signal frequency can be selected high enough to prevent a DC offset from charging up the capacitor based on the size of capacitor 10. To avoid errors due to the data signal pulse_in interfering with the mix_signal carrier, the carrier is preferably selected to be significantly lower in frequency than the data signal. Picking a mix signal with a period longer than the maximum active run length of the input data signal pulse_in should provide good results.

If the input data signal pulse_in is completely unknown or could have a period close to the chosen mix signal frequency, there is an end case that would cause errors. If the input data signal closely matches the mix signal for any significant length of time, the mixed signal mgt_in provided to the MGT 12 will have unacceptable DC balance, or disappear altogether in the case of a perfect match. In this case, a mix signal with a random component can be used.

Because of delay introduced by components between the modulator and the demodulator, synchronization is needed for the mix_signal in the demodulator. Synchronization of the mix-signal between the modulator and demodulator is provided at startup, and synchronization can be maintained during operation. Optionally, synchronization can be reestablished during operation, such as after a long dead time in the data signal, or after a long continuous data signal. Synchronization circuitry 16 may be programmed into the FPGA 2 as illustrated, or they can be provided as fixed circuitry internal to an IC chip.

In one embodiment, a cleaner circuit 18 is provided at the output of the demodulator 14 in FIG. 1. The cleaner circuit 18 functions to eliminate sampling error by removing potentially erroneous data bits occurring due to transition of the input data signal around the mix signal edges. The cleaner circuit functions to eliminate bits on either side of the transition of the carrier signal. FIGS. 3-5 illustrate operation of the cleaner circuit 18.

FIG. 3 shows sample points between the mix signal transitions in the modulated input signal. As shown, the actual mix signal transition can occur prior to sampling due to interference when the input data signal transitions just prior to the mix signal transition. The expected mix signal is shown in dashed lines. FIG. 4 shows the data bits generated. With the expected mix signal not occurring, an error pulse is generated as indicated in FIG. 4, showing the difference between the sample data and the expected mix data.

FIG. 5 further shows expected mix data, along with possible error pulses to illustrate operation of the cleaner circuit. If the clean circuit does not detect a single bit error shift, “010” or “101” as shown in FIG. 5, in exactly the right location relative to the mix signal transition, it will not take any action. If enabled, the cleaner circuit 18, thus, cleans only single bits that are aligned exactly on the mix signal edge transitions. The circuit can remove all single bit pulses on either side of the expected mix edge.

The clean circuit operates at the cost of possibly missing some one-bit wide pulses. For example, in error pulse case two, a one-bit wide pulse that lined up exactly with the rising edge of the mix signal may have extended the mix signal. Again, it will not have any effect on wider pulses—it only removes solitary bits. The likelihood of an erroneous cleaning is a function of the mix period since there are four possible cleaned locations for each cycle of the mix signal. If using a 40-bit interface with a mix signal period of 20 word clocks, there is a four in 800 or 0.5% chance of missing a single bit pulse.

FIG. 6 illustrates inputs and outputs from an example of a circuit forming a combined synchronizer 16, demodulator 14, and carrier signal generator 15 from the FPGA of FIG. 1. FIG. 7 then provides a list describing the function of each input or output. The din[39:0] input illustrates a 40 bit parallel MGT output to the demodulator, while dout[39:0] illustrates a 40 bit parallel demodulator output. The clean_enable input enables the cleaner circuit to eliminate errors around the mix signal edges. The output mix_out provides the mix signal carrier, and mix_delay[4:0] is a four bit input for setting the period of the mix signal. A clock input to the circuit is provided by clk, and a circuit enable is provided by the enable input.

In FIG. 6, synchronization is provided using the rxslide_out, sync, and sync_err outputs, and the rst_n input. When the circuit is enabled and a reset signal (rst_n) is provided, the circuit goes through a synchronization cycle and tries to align the mix signal (mix_out) using the synchronization signal (rxslide_out) and its internal comparators. The input data signal is preferably continuously low during the synchronization process. Once the synchronization output (sync) is asserted, the circuit is synchronized and ready to use. It will continuously monitor and track the mix signal edges through a reasonable amount of drift without losing synchronization.

If synchronization is lost, the synchronization error signal (sync_err) is asserted and the circuit drops out of operation and re-acquires synchronization in the new position. For some applications, synchronization errors may be expected. In one embodiment, if the input data signal stream spans more than 32 mix signal periods, a sync error output will be asserted even though the circuit is operating normally.

Although the present invention has been described above with particularity, this was merely to teach one of ordinary skill in the art how to make and use the invention. Many additional modifications will fall within the scope of the invention, as that scope is defined by the following claims.

Claims (18)

1. A system comprising:
an integrated circuit (IC) having an input terminal with AC coupling provided in the IC;
a modulator provided external to the IC, the modulator having a first input for receiving a data signal, a second input for receiving a carrier signal, and having an output connected to the input terminal of the IC for providing a modulated form of the data signal; and
a demodulator provided in the IC, the demodulator having a first input connected to the input terminal of the IC for receiving the modulated data signal, a first output providing the carrier signal connected to the second input of the modulator, and a second output providing a demodulated form of the data signal.
2. The system of claim 1, wherein the IC comprises an FPGA and the demodulator is programmed into logic of the FPGA.
3. The system of claim 1, wherein the input terminal of the IC is connected by a multi-gigabit transceiver to the demodulator.
4. The system of claim 1, wherein the modulator comprises an exclusive OR gate.
5. The system of claim 1, wherein the demodulator comprises a circuit for digitally canceling transitions of the modulated signal that correspond with transitions of the carrier.
6. The system of claim 1 wherein the AC coupling comprises a capacitor connected to the input terminal of the IC.
7. The system of claim 1, wherein the IC comprises a programmable logic device (PLD) and the demodulator is programmed into logic of the PLD.
8. The system of claim 1, further comprising a cleaner circuit connected to receive the demodulated data signal from the second output of the demodulator, the cleaner circuit removing data bits resulting from a signal transition that could have occurred during a transition of the carrier signal.
9. The system of claim 8, wherein the cleaner circuit removes data bits occurring on either side of a transition of the carrier signal.
10. The system of claim 1, further comprising a synchronization circuit, wherein the synchronization circuit resynchronizes the modulator and demodulator upon startup of the system.
11. The system of claim 10, wherein the synchronization circuit resynchronizes after a predetermined amount of time between transitions of the input data signal.
12. A method for providing DC balance to the input terminal of a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) that has AC coupling on the input terminal, the method comprising:
programming the FPGA to provide a demodulator circuit, the demodulator being connected to the input terminal for demodulating a modulated data signal received at the input terminal;
providing a modulation circuit external to the FPGA, the modulating circuit for receiving a data signal and providing the modulating data signal to the input terminal of the FPGA; and
programming the FPGA to provide a carrier signal, the carrier signal being provided to the demodulator circuit and through an output of the FPGA to the modulation circuit.
13. The method of claim 12, further comprising the step of:
programming the FPGA to provide for cleaning the demodulated data signal by removing data bits resulting from a signal transition of the data signal that could have occurred during a transition of the carrier signal.
14. The method of claim 12, further comprising the step of:
synchronizing the modulated data circuit with the modulated data signal.
15. The method of claim 14, further comprising the step of:
resynchronizing the modulated data circuit with the modulated data signal after a predetermined time period where signal transitions do not occur in the data signal.
16. A system comprising:
an integrated circuit (IC) having an input terminal with AC coupling provided in the IC;
a mixing means for mixing a data signal with a mixing signal, the mixing means having an output providing a mixed data signal to the input terminal of the IC;
a mixing signal cancellation means provided in the IC, the mixing signal cancellation means receiving the mixed data signal and canceling the mixing signal from the mixed data signal to provide the data signal to the IC; and
mixing signal generator means provided in the IC, the mixing signal generator means providing the mixing signal to the mixing means.
17. The system of claim 16, wherein the mixing means comprises an XOR gate.
18. The system of claim 16, wherein the IC comprises an FPGA.
US11076648 2005-03-10 2005-03-10 FPGA having AC coupling on I/O pins with an effective bypass of the AC coupling Active 2026-11-24 US7440495B1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US11076648 US7440495B1 (en) 2005-03-10 2005-03-10 FPGA having AC coupling on I/O pins with an effective bypass of the AC coupling

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US11076648 US7440495B1 (en) 2005-03-10 2005-03-10 FPGA having AC coupling on I/O pins with an effective bypass of the AC coupling

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US7440495B1 true US7440495B1 (en) 2008-10-21

Family

ID=39855651

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US11076648 Active 2026-11-24 US7440495B1 (en) 2005-03-10 2005-03-10 FPGA having AC coupling on I/O pins with an effective bypass of the AC coupling

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US7440495B1 (en)

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20080116919A1 (en) * 2006-11-21 2008-05-22 Yu Li Fpga and method and system for configuring and debugging a fpga
CN104699575A (en) * 2013-12-09 2015-06-10 华为技术有限公司 Fpga chip and system fpga
US9935733B1 (en) 2016-09-20 2018-04-03 Xilinx, Inc. Method of and circuit for enabling a communication channel

Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4852123A (en) * 1988-02-05 1989-07-25 Motorola, Inc. Nearly DC IF phase locked transceiver
US5339040A (en) * 1993-07-09 1994-08-16 Rockwell International Coproration AM demodulation receiver using digital signal processor
US6442380B1 (en) * 1999-12-22 2002-08-27 U.S. Philips Corporation Automatic gain control in a zero intermediate frequency radio device
US6856788B2 (en) * 2001-04-20 2005-02-15 Mastek International Wireless IC interconnection method and system
US7280590B1 (en) * 2003-09-11 2007-10-09 Xilinx, Inc. Receiver termination network and application thereof
US20070298729A1 (en) * 2004-08-06 2007-12-27 Kappes Michael S Multi-mode crystal oscillator

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4852123A (en) * 1988-02-05 1989-07-25 Motorola, Inc. Nearly DC IF phase locked transceiver
US5339040A (en) * 1993-07-09 1994-08-16 Rockwell International Coproration AM demodulation receiver using digital signal processor
US6442380B1 (en) * 1999-12-22 2002-08-27 U.S. Philips Corporation Automatic gain control in a zero intermediate frequency radio device
US6856788B2 (en) * 2001-04-20 2005-02-15 Mastek International Wireless IC interconnection method and system
US7280590B1 (en) * 2003-09-11 2007-10-09 Xilinx, Inc. Receiver termination network and application thereof
US20070298729A1 (en) * 2004-08-06 2007-12-27 Kappes Michael S Multi-mode crystal oscillator

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20080116919A1 (en) * 2006-11-21 2008-05-22 Yu Li Fpga and method and system for configuring and debugging a fpga
US7882465B2 (en) * 2006-11-21 2011-02-01 International Business Machines Corporation FPGA and method and system for configuring and debugging a FPGA
CN104699575A (en) * 2013-12-09 2015-06-10 华为技术有限公司 Fpga chip and system fpga
CN104699575B (en) * 2013-12-09 2018-04-20 华为技术有限公司 Fpga chip and system fpga
US9935733B1 (en) 2016-09-20 2018-04-03 Xilinx, Inc. Method of and circuit for enabling a communication channel

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US5587709A (en) High speed serial link for fully duplexed data communication
US6317008B1 (en) Clock recovery using an injection tuned resonant circuit
US5490282A (en) Interface having serializer including oscillator operating at first frequency and deserializer including oscillator operating at second frequency equals half first frequency for minimizing frequency interference
US6249192B1 (en) Clock injection system
US6937683B1 (en) Compact digital timing recovery circuits, devices, systems and processes
US4805198A (en) Clock multiplier/jitter attenuator
US6570407B1 (en) Scannable latch for a dynamic circuit
US7363563B1 (en) Systems and methods for a built in test circuit for asynchronous testing of high-speed transceivers
US7161846B2 (en) Dual-edge triggered multiplexer flip-flop and method
US6686787B2 (en) High-speed fully balanced differential flip-flop with reset
US5233617A (en) Asynchronous latch circuit and register
US4965884A (en) Data alignment method and apparatus
US5050194A (en) High speed asynchronous data interface
US20060227916A1 (en) Data recovery method, data recovery circuit, data transmitting/receiving apparatus and information processing apparatus
US6816991B2 (en) Built-in self-testing for double data rate input/output
US5760612A (en) Inertial delay circuit for eliminating glitches on a signal line
US6335696B1 (en) Parallel-serial conversion circuit
US6374361B1 (en) Skew-insensitive low voltage differential receiver
US20020097682A1 (en) Low frequency loop-back in a high speed optical transceiver
US6389095B1 (en) Divide-by-three circuit
US6175603B1 (en) System for managing signals in different clock domains and a programmable digital filter
Hu et al. A 0.6 mW/Gb/s, 6.4–7.2 Gb/s serial link receiver using local injection-locked ring oscillators in 90 nm CMOS
US5731715A (en) Glitch-free clock enable circuit
US6836169B2 (en) Single ended clock signal generator having a differential output
US5539337A (en) Clock noise filter for integrated circuits

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: XILINX, INC., CALIFORNIA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:HAGEN, TIMOTHY P.;REEL/FRAME:016378/0044

Effective date: 20050308

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 4

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 8