US734416A - Breech mechanism for ordnance. - Google Patents

Breech mechanism for ordnance. Download PDF

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US734416A
US734416A US11740602A US1902117406A US734416A US 734416 A US734416 A US 734416A US 11740602 A US11740602 A US 11740602A US 1902117406 A US1902117406 A US 1902117406A US 734416 A US734416 A US 734416A
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Prior art keywords
lever
gun
pin
pawl
breech
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US11740602A
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Carl Holmstroem
Arthur Edward Mascall
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Carl Holmstroem
Arthur Edward Mascall
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41AFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS COMMON TO BOTH SMALLARMS AND ORDNANCE, e.g. CANNONS; MOUNTINGS FOR SMALLARMS OR ORDNANCE
    • F41A3/00Breech mechanisms, e.g. locks
    • F41A3/02Block action, i.e. the main breech opening movement being transverse to the barrel axis
    • F41A3/04Block action, i.e. the main breech opening movement being transverse to the barrel axis with pivoting breech-block
    • F41A3/08Block action, i.e. the main breech opening movement being transverse to the barrel axis with pivoting breech-block carrying a rotably mounted obturating plug of the screw-thread or the interrupted-thread type

Description

No. 734,416. PATENTBD JULY 21, 1903. C. HOLMSTRM @L A. E. MASOALL. B11115011 MEGHANISM POR ORDNANCE.
APPLIGATION FILED JULY 28. 1002.
4 SHEETS-SHEET 1.
N0 MODEL.
.LdnnunuPL No. 734,415. PATENTED JULY 2l 1903, C. HOLMSTRM 6L A. E MASCALL. BRBBGH MECHANISM FR ORDNANGE.
APPLIOATON FILED JULY 28, 1902.
4 SHEETS-SHEET 2- No MODE@ No. 734,416. PATENTBD JULY 2l, 1903. C. HOLMSTRM c A. E. MASGALL.
BREBGH MECHANISM FOR ORDNANCB.
APPLICATION FILED JULY 2H. 1902.
4 SHEETS-SHEET 3 No. 734,416. PATENTED JULY 21, 1903. C. HOLMSTRM 6L A. E. MASGALL. BREECH MECHANISM PDR ORDNANCB.
APPLICATION FILED JULY 28.1902.
4 SHEETS-SHEET 4.
N0 MODEL.
Zad-? @0666/ Nrrrn STATES vatcnted July 21, 1903.
ATENT BREECH NlECHANlSiVl FOR ORDNANC..
SPECIFXCATION forming part of Letters :Patent No. 734,416, dated July 21, 1903.
Application filed July 28,1902.
I (LIZ wiz/0111, znmy concern,.-
lle it known that we, CARL llomfls'lRoM7 engineer, a subject. of the King of Sweden and Nor Yay, S. M. T., and An'rnnn EDWARD Mas- CALL, engineer, a subject oi' the King of Great llritain, H. M. 'l., hoth residing at Parkhead llorge, Rolling` Mills and Steel \Vorks, Glasgow, Scotland have 'invented certain new and useful Improvements in llreech Mechanism xo for()rdnanee,oi' whieh the following is a specilication.
Our invention relai-es to improvements in the breech mechanism ol' ordnance using Iixed ammunition ,and has lor its object toconstruet very ei'licient and simple mechanism which :z5 said plug or block being mounted on a swinging carrier hinged io one side ol the gunhreeeh and moved hy a suitable hand-lever arrangement.
An important :leature ol' our invention is 3o the combination of a loosely-pivoted arm or lever (which we term a coeking and. tiring lever) with other parts of the mechanism in such a manner that il' the gun is properly discharged and .reeoils the cooking and tiring lever will, by reason of its inertia during the recoil or the shock ol discharge, cause the mechanism to be placed in such a position that the breech block can be unscrewed; hut if there has heen a long lire or hang lire the 4o said cooking and tiring level' does not have the aforesaid effect and the ln'ecch-hlock cannot be unscrewed unl il t hesaid leverhas heen adjusted by hand.
ln order that our said invention may he clearly understood and readily carried into practice, we will describe the saine more fully with reference to the accompanying drawings,
in whieh- A Figure l is a rear end elevation olf a gun 5o with our improved breech mechanism applied thereto. Fig. 2 is a plan slmwin'g the breech Serial No.1l'7,406 (No model.)
closed, and liig. I3 a plan showing the lnfeech open. Fig. 4t is a longitudinal section taken approximately on the line l l of Fig. l. Fig. 5 is a central horizontal section showing the position oi the cooking and tiring lever and its pawl when the tiring-pin has heen released to lire the gun. lfig. l is a plan showing the position oi the cooking and tiring lever when it has been actuated 1o lire the gun but the gun has failed to be discharged owing to a hang lire or long'lire. Fig. 7 is a detail crosssection taken on the line L 2 of Fig. (l. Figs. 8 and .l are vertical sections taken approxi mately on the line El il olf Fig. 2 and showing, respectively, the position of the tiring-pin after and heiore the block is locked in the breech. Fig. l0 is a detail plan of the rear portion ol' the liring-pin and parts immediately connected therewith in the position shown in'lfig. fl,
A is the wall ot' the gun; ll, the hreechhloek; (l, the swinging carrier; D, the handlever, and lt the toothed gearing, through which the movements of the haml-lever impart an angular movement to the block to lock and unlock the same.
l the tiring-pin, and (i is the cooking and Iii-ing lever.
Extending forward l'rom an eccentric recess i' in the rear end of the block is a chamber b', wherein we place the tiring-pin, which is fitted to slide longitudinally in said chamber. '.lhe firing-pin we prefer to use is hollow or tubular and has a steel point or nose lf3 at its lorward end. lt contains the mainspringlf, by which it is driven 'forward to tire the gun. At the rear end ot' the tiring-pin there is a socket Ir, against which the rear end of the said spring pressed against a guide-piece f', which is secure `l to the carrier hy the pin (lolf the handlever l), passing through a hearing X en the guide-piece, said guide-piece serving to snpport the aforesaid cocking and tiring ,lever G. The liring-pin is :lormed with akey or feather if, which enters a groove in the block and servos to permit the -li ri 11g-pin to slide witho ut turning: The said tiring-pin is also formed with a lug or projection (1, arranged to engage with the nose g/X ol? a pawl g. This paw] is pivoted at y to the aioresahl cooking and if" ahuts and keeps said socket" tiring lever G and has a tailpiece g2, which is acted on by a spring g3, that tends to keep said pawl in engagement with the lug or projection b of the lfiring-pin. The said pawl has a projection gXx, which is so situated relatively to a projection c on the guide-piece c that when the cooking and tiring lever G is actuated to cause the pawl to draw back the firing-pin the pawl will be disengaged to liberate the tiring-pin as the latter completes its rearward movement, Fi 5, and will thereby permit it to ily forward under the action of its spring to 'fi re the gun. ltwillthus be seen that the firing-pin is not cocked until the mment ol' tiring the gun. On the aforesaid guide-piece there is a hook-shaped piece c2, with which the lug or shoulder b of the firingpin engages as the block is angularly displaced in its unlockingmovement. "lhe said lug or shoulder is inclined on its forward surface, as clearly seen in Fiji'. il), so that as said angular movement ol:n the block takes place this inclined surface oli the lug or shoulder will slide on the hook-shaped piece, whereby the irii'lg-pin will be further retracted to an extent sufficient 1o relieve the nose of the pawl from the pressure ofthe firing-pin under the action of its spring until the block is again screwed into its locked position. 'lhe pawl will then reengage with the said lug or projection on the firing-pin and be ready to disengage said firing-pin when the pawl is released, as above. described, to tire the gun.
'lhe aforesaid cooking and iring lever (1l is pivot-ed to the carrier at C' adjacent to the hinge oi said carrier, and said lever extends transversclyae ross th e breech between flanges ci* c on the guide-piece c of the swinging carrier, the Free end of said lever lying contigu-v ous to the Iiring-rod ll, which is carried by the gun-cradle and is of the ordinary wellknown construction. \Vhen the gun is lired and recoils, the position of the said cot-king and :firing lever G, by reason of its inertia, is so changed relativi'sly to the gun that the pawl o can en gage with the tiring-pin, as represented in Fig. 2. 'lhen as the gun completes its return or runningout movement said lever strikes the end of the said firingrod ll, carried by the cradle, and is caused to move outward, thereby slightly retracting the firing-pin, llig. L), to bring its nose In within the front face of the block, so that the latter can be turned about its axis (when the breech is to be opened) without impediment from the nose of the vfiring-pin.
'lhe hand-lever l) for operating the breechblock. is mounted on a vertical `1 ivot-pin d and is provided with a spring-catch comprising a two-armed lever d d2, hinged to the haml-hxver atl/X. (')nearm-viz., thearm d'- lies partly in a groove d in the handle of said lever, so that it can be pressed inwardly against the resistance of a springd bygrasping said handle to operate the mechanism. 'lhe other :trium-viz., the arm (l2-serves as a latch which under the action of said spring d* enters a notch c Ain the guidc-pie e when the breech is closed and which must be disengaged Jfrom vsaid notch by grasping the handle, asaforesaid, in order to turn the lever to open the breech. The cocking and liring lever (l also has a notch or shoulder y", which is 'formed on a curved portion y thereof. lVhen the said lever G has been actuated to fire the gun, it lies in such a position that if there is a long lire or hang fire the latch o" the arm l) lies above the aforesaid shoulder g, (see Figs. f3 and 7,) so that the said handlever l) cannot be actuated by reason of the inability of the latch to move. lli', however, there is no hang fire and the gun recoils, the said cocking and firing lever (l will assume (owing to its inertia) such a position that the aforesaid shoulder lies ont of the path ot' the latch, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. '7, and as a consequence the hand-lever ll) will be capable ol being actuated, because the said latchv will be disengaged :l'rom said shoulder. \Vhen the latch is thus disengaged and the handle of the lever l) is grasped, the said. latch projects onto the curved exterior of the said shoulder g of the cooking and firing lever and travels along such curved portion during the actuation of the said lever. This position ofi the latch therefore prevents the movement of thc cooking and firingleverwhilethe brecch-blmak is being turned or swung about the hinge of the carrier.
Any suitable extractor may be employed; but we prefer to pivot the same .near the h inge of the carrier, the said extractor having a short arm which is arranged to be struck by thc carrier to actuate the extractor just before the full opening of the breech.
The work i ng o'l the mechanism is as follows: rlhe gun having been charged and the breech closed and locked, the parts lie in the position represented in Figs. l, 2, and +L. ()n pulling the liring-rod ortho cooking and firing lever (i (which operation. has the ellcct ol cocking and ,releasing` the liring-pin l?, as already dcscribed) the gun is fired and recoils without, however, immediately (')vercoming the inertia of the cooking and liring level' G, which lever therefore has its position changed relatively to the other reeoiling parts-1'. c., it will occupy a position approximately that represented in Fig. i. Consequently the pawl r/ is able to rengage with the firing-pin F, and as the gun returns to its 'firing position the said pawl moves the firing-pin backward into the position represented in Fig. 2 1'. e., with. the nose b2 lying within the breech-block and the clocking and 'ringlever will have assumed a position in which the shoulder y is out of the path. olil the latch of the lever l). lly grasping the handle of the lever l) the latch will therefore be free to move and will permit the said lever to be turned in the direction necessary for unlocking the block. 'llie block having been unlocked, the carrier vwill swing open by the further movement of the said hand-lever, and the breech be thereby opened and the empty eartridge-case ejected. ln the event, however, of the cartridge fait ing to be fired when the firing-pin isreleased and llies forward to strike the detonator the gun will of course not recoil, and as a consequence the position assumed by the cockingand liringlcver(-lr,afterhavingbcen pulled, will not be changed relatively to the other parts of the mechanism, but will remain substantially in the position represented in Fig. 5. '.lherefore the slnnihlerg will not permit the latch to come out ol engagenn'mt with the notch f" when the handle ol.' the lever l) is grasped, so that it will. not be possible to thereby actuate the mechanism to open the breech. '.lhe recocking and release of the liring-pin can, however, be etiiected by pushing forwardly the coeking and liring level' G and again pulling it or the firing-rod. For enabling the said lever to be thus pushed forwardly the adjacent end of the iring rod is furnished with a spriiig-controlled plunger or extension 71., whose spring is a light one, to enable it to readily permit the said plunger to move to a limited extent. If the cartridge still :fails to be fired, then after awaiting the prescribed time limit for a hang tire the breech can be opened by moving the coc-king and firing le ver into a position to bring the said shoulder y" out of the path of the latch, whereby the lever D is liberated and can be actuated to open the breech, as aforesaid.
-What we claim, and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the linited States, is-
l. In gun-breech mechanism, the combination with a rotary block, a swinging carrier lor same and means for actuating the block and the carrier; of a swinging iinn'tia-controlled coeking and lring lever extending transversely aerosst-he rear face of the block, a pawl on said lever, a tiring-pin with which said pawl is adapted to engage when the gun recoils and means'l'or preventingthe breechactuating hand-lever from being operated until said pawl engages with said liring-pin substantially as described.
In gun-breech mechanism the combination with a rotary block, a swinging carrier l'or same and means vfor actuating the block and the carrier; of a swinging inertia-controlled eocking and liring lever extending transversely across the rear face of the block, a spring-pawl on said lever, a firing-pin with which said pawl is adapted to engage by the relative movement between said lever and said `iiringpin due to the inertia of the lever when the gun recoils and a latch on the lneechactuating hand-lever controlled by said cocking and liring lever substantially as described., Y
23. In gun-breech mechanism, the combination with a rotary block, a swinging carrier for same and means for actuating the block and the carrier, ol a swinging inertia-controlled cocking and firing lever extending transversely across the rear face of the block and pivote-d to the carrier at the end adjacent to the carrierhinge, a springpawl on said lever, a liringpin with which said pawl is adapted to engage when the gun recoils, means 'lor causing said lever to retract the nose of the liring-pin intothe'fiaee ofthe block as the gun assumes its forward position after liring and a latch on the breecli-aetuating hand-lever et'mtrolhal bysaid cocking and fir ing lever substantially as described.
fl. In gun-breech mechanism,theeombination with a rotary block, a swinging carrier for same and means for actuating thel bleek and the carrier; of a swinging inertiacon trolled tiring and cooking lever pivoted to the carrier near its hinge, a spring-pawl on said lever, a firing-pin with which said pawl. is adapted to engage when. the gun reeoils, means for causing the vlever to retract the nose of the liring-pin into the face of the block as the gun assumes its forward position after liring, means for actuating said lever to 'lire the gun and a latch on the breech-actuating hand-lever controlled by said cocking and li ring lever substantially as described.
ln gun-breech mechanism, the combination with a rotary block, a swinging carrier for same and means for actuating the 'block and the carrier; of a swinging inertia-controlled tiring and rocking lever pivoted to the carrier near its hinge, a spring-pawl on said lever, a liring-pin with which said pawl .is adapted to engage when the gun recoils, a resilient device for causing the lever to retract the nose ol the tiring-pin into the .l'ace of the block as the gun assumes its li'orward position after tiring, and means ,for actuating said lever to lire the gun, substantially as described.
ln gun-breech mechanism, the eombination with a rotary block, a swinging carrier `for saine and means for actuating the block and the carrier', of a swinging inertia-controlled liring and cockiiig h'iverpivoted to the carrier near its hinge, a spring-pawl on said lever, a tiring-pin, a lug on said tiringepin for the pawl to engage when the gun reeoils, a resilient device for causing the lever to re tract the nose of the liring-pin into the 'face of the block, a projection on the pawl, a projection on the carrier with which said projection of the pawl engages to release the latter when the Swinging lever is actuated tolire the gun, and means for actuatin said lever substantially as described.
7. ln gun-breech mechan ism, the combina tion with a rotary block, a swinging ca rriea` for same and means 'fo actuating the block and the carrier, of a swinging inertia-coin trolledliring and cocking lever pivoted to the carrier near its hinge, a spring-pawl on said. lever, a firing-pin, a lug on said tiring-1an :for the pawl to engage with whenv the gun recoils, a trigger-rod for actuating the swinging lever to :lire the gun, a light spring at the end of said rod adjacent to the swinging lever and normally tending` to canse the said lever torea tract the nose of the iiring-pin vinto the face IIO of the block, a projection on the pawl, a projection on the carrier with which said projection olf the pawl engages to .release the latter when the swinging lever is actuated to lire the gun, substantially as described.
S. In gun-breeeh mechanism, the combina tion with a rotary block and means for actuating the same to open and close the breech, of a swinging inertia-controlled cooking and firing lever, a pawl on said lever, a firing-pin adapted to be engaged by said paWl when the gun reooils, means for actuating said swinging inertia-controlled lever, a latch on the breech-actuating hand-lever controlled by said cooking and firing lever and means 4for relieving the pressure of the firing-pin on the pawl until the block `is augularly shifted in being looked to the breech 'for the purpose specified.
9. In gun-breech mechanism, the combination with a rotary block and means for actuating the same to open and close the breech, of a swinging inertia-controlled cooking and iiring lever, a pawl on said lever, a tiring-pin having a lug adapted to be engaged by said pawl when the gun recoils, means for actuating said swinging lever, and a fixed hookshaped piece mounted on a piece that does not move with the block and with. which the aforesaid lug is adapted to en gage as the block is angularly displaced .in the unlocking and opening of the breech for relieving the pressure ot' the firing-pin on the pawl substantially as and for the purpose specified.
10. In gun-breech mechanism, the combination with a rotary block, a swinging carrier for same and means for actuating the blockand the carrier, of a swinging inertia-controlled cooking and .tiring lever, a pawl on said lever, a firing-pin with. which said pawl is adapted to engage when. the gun reeoils, a hand-lever and gearing' fo r turning the block and swn ging the carrier, a latch on said hand lever and means for preventing said latch from being operated unless the swinging inertia-controlled lever has shifted relatively to the block substantially as and l'or the pur pose specified.
ll. In gun-breech mechanism, the combination with a rotary block, a Swingin carrier for same, and means for actuating the block and the carrier, of a swinging inertia-oontrolled eocking and firing lever, a pawl on said lever, a firing-pin with which said pawl is adapted to engage when the gun recoils, a haml-lever and gearing A['or turning the bloi-,k and swinging the carrier, a latch on said handlever, and a curved shoulder on said swinging lever which shoulder in accordance with its position relatively to said latch operates to lock or release the same substantially as and for the purpose specified.
In testimony whereof. We have hereunto set our hands, in presence of two subscribing witnesses, this 14th day oli' .in lhy, 1002.
CARL IIOLINIS'ITROlVI. ARTHUR EDWVARD MASCALL.
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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2484053A (en) * 1946-11-06 1949-10-11 Isaac F Rosenkrantz Breech loading mortar

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2484053A (en) * 1946-11-06 1949-10-11 Isaac F Rosenkrantz Breech loading mortar

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