US7337098B2  Diffraction condition simulation device, diffraction measurement system, and crystal analysis system  Google Patents
Diffraction condition simulation device, diffraction measurement system, and crystal analysis system Download PDFInfo
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 US7337098B2 US7337098B2 US10/109,688 US10968802A US7337098B2 US 7337098 B2 US7337098 B2 US 7337098B2 US 10968802 A US10968802 A US 10968802A US 7337098 B2 US7337098 B2 US 7337098B2
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 G01—MEASURING; TESTING
 G01N—INVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
 G01N23/00—Investigating or analysing materials by the use of wave or particle radiation not covered by groups G01N3/00 – G01N17/00, G01N21/00 or G01N22/00
 G01N23/20—Investigating or analysing materials by the use of wave or particle radiation not covered by groups G01N3/00 – G01N17/00, G01N21/00 or G01N22/00 by using diffraction of the radiation by the materials, e.g. for investigating crystal structure; by using scattering of the radiation by the materials, e.g. for investigating noncrystalline materials; by using reflection of the radiation by the materials
Abstract
Description
This application is a continuationinpart of Ser. No. 09/312,053 filed May 17, 1999 now abandoned.
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to a diffraction condition simulation device, a diffraction measurement system, and a crystal analysis system. More particularly, the present invention relates to a novel diffraction condition simulation device, a diffraction measurement system, and a crystal analysis system which are useful for structure analysis and structure evaluation of a crystal sample such as a wafer for a semiconductor or a thin film deposited on the wafer.
2. Description of the Related Art
In crystal structure analysis developed as an analysis of atomic structure, X rays, or particle beams such as neutron beams or electron beams are applied to a crystal sample with an unknown structure, and then, using the diffraction phenomenon of rays scattered by the crystalsample, the lattice type of the crystal sample or the atomic arrangement in the lattice are clarified. In this crystal structure analysis, for example, X rays are used for the analysis of the electron density of the crystal sample, neutron beams are used for the analysis of the atomic nuclei position of the crystal sample, and electron beams are used for the analysis of the electric potential of the crystal sample.
For such crystal structure analysis, diffraction condition simulation described below is frequently carried out. First, a reciprocal lattice intrinsic to a crystal is calculated on the basis of crystal information such as known lattice constants. Then, using this reciprocal lattice simulation, incident angles and outgoing angles of X ray or particle beams, or ω angles, χ angles, and φ angles as orientation angles of the crystal which satisfy Bragg scattering conditions, or intensity information are obtained.
However, in conventional simulation devices for carrying out such diffraction condition simulation, although a section of the limiting sphere containing reciprocal lattice points which express the Bragg reflection caused by a crystal sample is shown, the displayed section of the limiting sphere cannot be rotated freely and continuously in accordance with a crystal orientation. Thus, it has been impossible to display a desired reciprocal lattice quickly and easily.
Further, in general, there are innumerable diffraction conditions which cause one Bragg reflection, by rotating along a reciprocal lattice vector of a crystal, and the orientation angles, i.e., ω angle, χ angle, φ angle, of the crystal are determined for each of the innumerable diffraction conditions. However, the conventional device is limited to a reflection condition where the x angle of the crystal sample at a minimum, or to the symmetric reflection condition where the incident angle is the same as the outgoing angle, so that the orientation angles of the crystal obtained for one Bragg diffraction condition have been extremely limited.
Moreover, diffraction information obtained from simulation display of a conventional simulation device has been insufficient for the crystal structure analysis. For example, the intensity of the Bragg reflection cannot be obtained, nor can the Bragg reflection be displayed with any distinction between a reflection with the intensity of more than 0 (here, called a general reflection) and a forbidden reflection with the intensity which is theoretically 0, making it difficult to distinguish between the general reflection and the forbidden reflection.
Since the conventional simulation device has a lot of restrictions as to the display of reciprocal lattices or diffraction information as described above, it is earnestly desired to realize a device capable of carrying out improved diffraction condition simulation.
Here, the limiting sphere is, as exemplified in
In an example shown in
Incidentally, the foregoing χ angle and the φ angle of the crystal sample are, as exemplified in
This invention has been made in view of the foregoing circumstances, and an object thereof is to provide a novel diffraction condition simulation device, a diffraction measurement system, and a crystal analysis system which overcome the problems of the prior art and are capable of quickly and easily calculating and displaying a desired Bragg reflection satisfying various diffraction conditions necessary for structure analysis and characterization of a crystal structure.
The forgoing and other objects, features and advantages of the present invention will be apparent from the following more particular description of preferred embodiments of the invention, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:
In the following, the diffraction condition simulation device of this invention will be described in detail along the rough flow of the simulation operation shown in
Flow of Preparation of Crystal Sample Data [
First, crystal sample data intrinsic to a crystal sample are prepared [step 5•1]. The crystal data are calculated, for example, as illustrated in the flow diagram exemplified in
More specifically, as exemplified in
Furthermore, from an existing crystal information database (this crystal information database is, for example, previously stored in storage means) in which crystal information about various crystals constitutes a database, the crystal information about the crystal constituting the crystal sample is retrieved [step 6•1].
In this retrieval, if the desired crystal information does not exist in the existing crystal information data base [step 6•3 No], a crystal information database of the necessary crystal is newly prepared [step 6•4].
Then, by using the inputted sample information [step 6•1] and either the crystal information retrieved from the existing crystal information database [step 6•3 Yes] or the crystal information from the newly prepared crystal information database [step 6•4], the crystal sample data such as the coordinates and the structure factors to all the reciprocal lattice points in the limiting sphere of the crystal sample are calculated [step 6•5]. That is, the orientation of the crystal sample is determined by the sample information, and the crystal sample data of the crystal sample in this orientation are obtained with the crystal information.
The calculation of the coordinates and the structure factors to the reciprocal lattice points carried out here is well known, the coordinates are obtained by using, for example, a wellknown UB matrix, and the structure factors are obtained from the space group, the lattice constants, the atomic position, and the temperature factor.
Flow of Display of Diffraction Plane [
Next, based on the coordinates of all the reciprocal lattice points in the crystal sample data calculated by the foregoing flow of the crystal sample data preparation, as exemplified in
More specifically (see
Further, this limiting sphere section 2 is calculated on the basis of the crystal sample 1 rotated correspondingly to the moving direction of the pointer on the computer screen [step 7.2•1]. In this case, more specifically, when the pointer is moved, the crystal sample 1 is rotated along the Xaxis and the Φaxis (see
Hence, for example, if the movement of the pointer is stopped when the desired reciprocal lattice point 3 appears on the screen, the diffraction plane including the reciprocal lattice point 3 can be displayed [step 7•3].
As described above, in the diffraction condition simulation device of this invention, the limiting sphere section 2, together with the diffraction plane including the reciprocal lattice points 3, (hereinafter, it is assumed that the diffraction plane is placed in the limiting sphere section) is rotatably displayed in accordance with the rotation of the crystal sample, and the reciprocal lattice of the crystal sample 1 can be rotated along the movement of the pointer, and further, the foregoing display is always made during the rotation. Therefore, the diffraction plane containing a desired reciprocal lattice point 3 can be quickly and easily displayed.
Incidentally, the movement of the pointer is generally operated by external operating means such as a mouse or an arrow key of a keyboard. It is preferable that rotation display by the pointer is made effective in only a case where, for example, on the computer screen exemplified in
The rotation of the reciprocal lattice of the crystal sample 1 may be carried out through, for example, a χ angle slide selecting means 41 and a φ angle slide selecting means 42 displayed on the computer screen exemplified in
These slide selecting means 41 and 42 are slidable by devices such as the pointer or right and left arrow keys of the keyboard, and an arbitrary numerical value of the χ angle and the φ angle of the crystal sample 1 can be selected by the slide. Thus, the χ angle and the φ angle are continuously changed correspondingly to the slide of the pointer or arrow key, and the reciprocal lattice is continuously rotated. Of course, similarly to the rotation display by the pointer, the reciprocal lattice points 3 are also always displayed, and the diffraction plane containing the desired reciprocal lattice point 3 can be quickly and easily displayed together with the limiting sphere section 2 [step 7•3].
In the example shown in
As the rotation of the reciprocal lattice occurs by the movement of the pointer, the numerical values of the χ angle and the φ angle accompanied by the rotation can be displayed on the χ angle numerical value display portion 51 and the φ angle numerical value display portion 52, respectively.
By such numerical value display of each angle, it is possible to know easily in what orientation of the crystal sample 1 the diffraction plane containing the desired reciprocal lattice point 3 is displayed.
Further, numerical values of the χ angle and the φ angle may be inputted by a keyboard or tenkey, and for example, such numerical values can be directly inputted into the χ angle numerical value display portion 51 and the φ angle numerical value display portion 52, respectively [step 7•2•3]. Then, in accordance with the inputted numerical values, the reciprocal lattice point 3 in the diffraction plane is changed [step 7•3].
In addition, it is desirable that each of the reciprocal lattice points 3 in the diffraction plane is displayed so that the difference in magnitude of the structure factor is expressed on the basis of the structure factor previously calculated as crystal sample data. For example, such a difference may be displayed by changing the color of each of the reciprocal lattice points 3 according to the magnitude of the structure factor.
When any one of the reciprocal lattice points 3 displayed in the diffraction plane is chosen arbitrarily, the structure factor by selecting a “F order” button located just above the display portion 62 and the Miller indices hkl of the reciprocal lattice point 3 chosen are displayed in a structure factor display 61 provided on the computer screen as shown in
All the reciprocal lattice points 3 included in the crystal sample 1 may be arranged and displayed in order of the structure factor. In this case, for example, as shown in
Moreover, for example, when any one of the Miller indices hkl of the reciprocal lattice point 3 displayed on the reciprocal lattice point permutation display portion 62 is selected and is specified by pressing a set button 64, the diffraction plane containing the reciprocal lattice point 3 of the selected Miller indices hkl can also be displayed.
As described above, according to the present invention, the reciprocal lattice points 3 are displayed such that the structure factor of each is displayed, and/or they are displayed such that the difference in the magnitude of the structure factor appears, and/or they are arranged and displayed in order of the magnitude of the structure factors. Consequently, the intensity of Bragg reflection can be extremely easily estimated for any of the reciprocal lattice points 3.
Flow of Setting Up of Diffraction Condition by Specifying Reciprocal Lattice Point [
In the diffraction condition simulation device of this invention, the diffraction plane containing reciprocal lattice points 3 is displayed on the computer screen as described above, so that each reciprocal lattice point 3 for the crystal sample 1 can be recognized, that is, the Bragg reflection can be recognized and further, a diffraction condition of the Bragg reflection at a reciprocal lattice point 3 can be obtained by specifying the desired reciprocal lattice point 3 among all the reciprocal lattice points 3 displayed.
More specifically, along the flow diagram shown in
When the desired reciprocal lattice point 3 is specified, the χ angle and the χ angle as the other orientation angles, the incident angle of X rays or particle beam (X rays in this embodiment) to the crystal sample 1, and the outgoing angle from the crystal sample 1 are calculated, using the φ angle as the specified orientation angle of the crystal sample 1 [step 8•2]. This calculation is carried out by using a wellknown equation.
Next, it is evaluated whether the ω angle, the φ angle, the χ angle, the incident angle, and the outgoing angle exist in a Blind region 22 where the actual measurement of the Bragg reflection can not be made [step 8•3]. This Blind region 22 is, as exemplified in
In the case where they do not exist in the Blind region 22, the ω angle, the φ angle, the χ angle, the incident angle, and the outgoing angle are directly set as diffraction conditions [step 8•5].
In the case where they exist in the Blind region 22, the angle, the χ angle, and the φ angle are newly calculated in a symmetrical diffraction conditions where the incident angle is equal to the outgoing angle [step 8•4], and these angles are set as the diffraction conditions [step 8•5].
In this way, diffraction conditions of the Bragg reflection to the arbitrarily specified reciprocal lattice point 3 can be obtained. On the computer screen, as shown in
Additionally, the reciprocal lattice points 3 may be arranged and displayed on the reciprocal lattice permutation display portion 62 in the order of the magnitude of diffraction angle 2θ of the Bragg reflection.
Furthermore, for example, it may be designed such that when the reciprocal lattice point 3 or its vicinity is clicked by the right button of a mouse, a structure factor and 2θ angle are displayed in the vicinity of the reciprocal lattice points.
Flow of Acquiring Diffraction Conditions by Change of Incident Angle and Outgoing Angle [
In the diffraction condition simulation device of this invention, further, a diffraction condition can be changed arbitrarily (renewal of diffraction condition), thereby obtaining and displaying the Bragg reflection which satisfies new diffraction condition, that is, the reciprocal lattice point. This renewal of the diffraction condition maybe carried out [step 5•5 Yes] as described below.
Firstly, at least one of the incident angle or the outgoing angle among the diffraction conditions is changed, thereby acquiring a new diffraction condition.
As shown in the flow diagram of
In a case where the outgoing angle is newly inputted [step 9•2], after calculating the incident angle by the outgoing angle inputted [step 9•3], the ω angle, χ angle, φ angle, and outgoing angle are calculated [step 9•4].
Then it is judged whether the obtained ω angle, χ angle, φ angle, incident angle, and outgoing angle exist in the Blind region 22, and if they exist in the Blind region 22, the input of the incident angle or outgoing angle is again carried out [step 9•5 Yes], and if they do not exist in the Blind region 22 [step 9•5 No], the ω angle, χ angle, φ angle, incident angle, or outgoing angle are set as new diffraction conditions [step 9•6].
Here, the incident angle and the outgoing angle can be changed by, for example, as shown in
Selection of a new incident angle and outgoing angle can also be easily and continuously carried out by sliding the incident angle slide selecting means 43 and the outgoing angle slide selecting means 44 which are provided on the computer screen through pointer movement by mouse operation, an arrow key or the like.
Further, angles can be directly inputted in an incident angle numerical value display portion 53 and also in an outgoing angle numerical value display portion 54. These display portion 53 and 54, disposed in the vicinities of the incident angle slide selecting means 43 and the outgoing angle slide selecting means 44, respectively, display the numerical value of the incident angle and the numerical value of the outgoing angle.
Flow of Acquiring Diffraction Conditions by Chance of ω Angle, χ angle, and φ Angle [
Here, instead of changing the incident angle or the outgoing angle as described above, at least one of the ω angle, χ angle, and φ angle which define the diffraction conditions maybe changed, thereby a new diffraction condition is acquired.
As shown in the flow of
The input of these ω angle, χ angle, and φ angle can be made by selection with a slide of the ω angle slide selecting means 45, the χ angle slide selecting means 41, and the φ angle slide selecting means 42, or by the direct input of a numerical value to the ω angle numerical value display portion 55, the χ angle numerical value display portion 51, and the φ angle numerical value display portion 52.
Each of the inputted angles and calculated angles is set as a new diffraction condition.
As described above, each time when the diffraction condition is renewed, the Bragg reflection of the reciprocal lattice point 3 satisfying a new diffraction condition is displayed within the limiting sphere section 2.
Enlargement Display [
Moreover, in the diffraction condition simulation device of this invention, it is preferable that the reciprocal lattice point can be displayed with enlargement.
For example, in this enlargement display [step 5•6 Yes], as exemplified in
In the example shown in
By such enlargement display, the resolution between Bragg reflections locating very close by each other can be improved, thereby improving the quality of display so as to be able to see the profile of reflection and crystal structure evaluation can be made easier.
Inversion display [
In addition, the direction of the incident angle and outgoing angle may be freely inverted. This inversion of the direction can be arbitrarily and easily inverted [step 5•7 Yes] by, for example, pressing a display inversion button 66 provided on the computer screen.
Crystal Orientation Simulation [
Furthermore, when the diffraction conditions are renewed as described above, the ω angle, χ angle,. φ angle, incident angle, and outgoing angle as new diffraction conditions are set for a crystal orientation, and the crystal orientation is drawn on the screen, for example, as shown in
Movement of Goniometer [
In a case where the diffraction condition simulation device of this invention is connected with a diffraction measurement system for measuring the Bragg reflection of X rays or particle beams by a crystal sample, the simulated diffraction conditions where the Bragg reflection occurs, that is, the values of the χ angle and φ angle of the crystal sample, and the incident angle (or ω angle) and outgoing angle (or diffraction angle 2θ) of X rays or particle beams can be transmitted to the diffraction measurement system by pressing a fouraxis angle transmission button 67 displayed on the screen, and actual measurement of the diffraction beam satisfying the diffraction conditions, that is, the Bragg reflection can be measured in the diffraction measurement system.
The diffraction measurement system of this invention includes, for example, a fouraxis goniometer 100 provided with four rotating axes, an Xray source 110 for producing X rays, a detector 120 for detecting diffraction beams, such as an Xray counter, a controlling computer 130 having a CPU 131, a memory 132, and a CRT display (display device) 133 , and a φ rotation driving device 141, a χ rotation driving device 142, an ω rotation driving device 143 and a 2θ rotation driving device 144 for driving the respective rotation axes of the fouraxis goniometer 100. In addition, 101 is an ω rotation support, 102 is a 2θ rotation support, 160 is a input device for input to the controlling computer 130.
Although the structure itself for diffraction measurement is well known, the system has a feature that the simulated diffraction conditions obtained by the diffraction condition simulation device of this invention are used, and the operation and the like are controlled by the controlling computer 130 in accordance with the simulated diffraction conditions. In
More specifically, when the φ, χ, ω and 2θ angles as diffraction conditions obtained by the diffraction condition simulation device of this invention are given to the CPU 131 of the controlling computer 130, the CPU 131 controls each of the φ rotation driving device 141, the χ rotation driving device 142, the ω rotation driving device 143 and the 2θ rotation driving device 144, thereby rotating each axis of the fouraxis goniometer 100 so that each of an actual φ, χ, ω, and 2θ angles becomes equal to the value of its simulated angle (same orientation).
Then, for example, the detector 120 disposed on a detector arm 121 scans a definite space automatically and detects a main reciprocal lattice point, that is, the Bragg reflection, and an Xray intensity calculation circuit 150 measures the value of its intensity on an equatorial plane consisting of incident X rays, a crystal sample, and the detector 120.
In this diffraction measurement system, when the crystal is rotated to satisfy the diffraction conditions, although there are three freedoms of ω, χ, and φ angle, the number of freedoms necessary for setting a diffraction point is two. That is, since one surplus freedom exists, it is possible to make measurements by rotating a specific reflection around its scattering vector, that is, along a normal of a diffracting crystal plane. Thus, multiple reflections and the like can be detected.
As described above, the diffraction measurement system of this invention uses diffraction conditions simulated by the diffraction condition simulation device of this invention, and can actually measure the Bragg reflection satisfying the diffraction conditions. It is needless to say that in an actual measurement, for example, it is possible to measure a region in the vicinity of a Bragg reflection in a meshlike manner. The meshlike measurement itself of the region in the vicinity of a Bragg reflection is well known, and its measurement result is generally called a reciprocal lattice map.
Since it is sufficient if the diffraction simulation device can give simulated diffraction conditions to the diffraction measurement system, more specifically, to the controlling computer 130 of the diffraction measurement system, other than a case where the diffraction simulation device is included as software in the controlling computer 130, it may be included in a separate computer or it may be made as a separate device. The diffraction simulation device made as a separate computer or separate device is connected to the controlling computer 130 of the diffraction measurement system through connecting means or the like, and the simulated diffraction conditions are transmitted to the controlling computer 130.
Further, the system exemplified in
Of course, the crystal analysis system may be provided as a separate body from the diffraction measurement system, and in this case, the Bragg reflection measured by the diffraction measurement system is transmitted to the crystal analysis system through connection means and the like.
Although the diffraction measurement system and the crystal analysis system of this invention are provided with a wellknown fourcircle goniometer, it is needless to say that the goniometer is not limited to the fourcircle type, but a goniometer with five, six, or more axes can be applied to the system, using the diffraction conditions, that is, the φ, χ, ω, and 2θ angles, simulated by the diffraction condition simulation device as basic angles.
Although X rays are used as incident beams in the above embodiment, it is needless to say that excellent simulation of a diffraction phenomenon can be made also for particle beams such as neutral beams or electron beams, similarly to the case of the X rays.
The crystal sample as the object of the diffraction condition simulation device, the diffraction measurement system, and the crystal analysis system of this invention includes any crystallized sample, for which a reciprocal lattice can be expressed.
As described above in detail, by the diffraction condition simulation device of this invention, the diffraction plane containing reciprocal lattice points is displayed in accordance with continuous rotation of the reciprocal lattice, and the structure factor of each of the reciprocal lattice points is also displayed, so that simulation of a desired Bragg reflection can be quickly and easily calculated and displayed. It is also possible to distinguish the diffraction intensity and to differentiate a general reflection from a forbidden reflection, and in addition, it is possible to arbitrarily specify the ω, χ, and φ angles which determine the orientation of a crystal sample, the incident angle and the outgoing angle of X rays or particle beams and to control and set them as diffraction conditions. Accordingly, display of reciprocal lattices expressing various Bragg reflections can be made, and excellent evaluation and analysis of crystal structure can be realized.
Furthermore, by the diffraction measurement system and the crystal analysis system of this invention, it becomes possible, with the use of diffraction conditions obtained by the diffraction condition simulation device of this invention, to extremely easily make actual measurement of a thin film, for example, based on an asymmetrical reflection in which a diffraction vector from the origin to a reciprocal lattice point does not coincide with a sample normal, or based on the grading incidence of X rays or particle beams to the crystal sample surface, and also to analyze the crystal structure of a sample using the obtained result, and so on.
Hereinafter, we explain, with more details, how the device of the invention obtains a Bragg reflection condition.
Firstly, the CPU of the device stores lattice constants and crystal orientations of a crystal constituting the crystal sample in the memory. The lattice constants and crystal orientations are inputted to the CPU by the operator of the device. The device may have a database having lattice constants of various crystal samples as crystal information and may retrieve the lattice constants of the crystal of the desired crystal sample.
Secondly, the CPU performs calculation of a crystal orientation matrix U of the UB matrix by using the crystal orientations of the crystal stored in the above memory. This crystal orientation matrix U represents an orientation of the crystal.
Thirdly, the CPU performs calculation of a crystal lattice matrix B of the UB matrix by using the lattice constants of the crystal stored in the above memory. This crystal lattice matrix B represents a lattice of the crystal and an initial orientation of the crystal.
Finally, the CPU performs calculation of a rotation matrix R, which represents rotation angles of rotation axes of a diffraction measurement device, by using the orientation matrix U and the crystal lattice matrix B calculated as above and also a value of one of the rotation angles designated by the operator. The operator can designate any one of the rotation angles by operating any one of the slide selecting means or inputting a numerical value of the desired rotation angle into the corresponding numerical value display portion on the computer screen, for example. Thus obtained rotation matrix R of rotation angles satisfies a diffraction condition of a Bragg reflection designated by the operator.
Accordingly, when one of the rotation angles is specified by the operator, all the other rotation angles which satisfy a desired Bragg reflection condition can be obtained. In other words, the operator of the device of the invention can obtain any Bragg reflection conditions of any desired Bragg reflection only by designating one rotation angle on the computer screen.
In the above invention, matrix elements constituting the UB matrix and the rotation matrix R, which are calculated by the CPU, vary according to the type of the diffraction measurement device. For example, the matrix elements for the 3circle goniometer differ from those for the 4circle goniometer. Also, even for the same numbered circle goniometer, the matrix elements differ with arrangement or mechanism of the axes. Thus, the UB matrix and the rotation matrix R must be established according to the diffraction measurement device.
ATXE Goniometer
Here, we explain about the UB matrix and the rotation matrix R for the ATXE goniometer which is an inplane diffractometer by this applicant.
As shown in
For this ATXE goniometer, the UB matrix can be expressed as follows:
UB matrix=crystal orientation matrix U×crystal lattice matrix B

 where

 a,b,c,α,β,γ: lattice constants of the crystal,
 a*,b*,c*,α*,β*,γ*: reciprocal lattice constants of the crystal,
 a,b,c: vectors of the lattice constants,
 a*,b*,c*: vectors of the reciprocal lattice constants,
And, the rotation matrix R can be expressed as follows:
R(ω,χ,φ)+Ω(ω)X(χ)Φ(φ)
where

 ω: rotation angle of the crystal sample along Ω axis,
 χ: rotation angle of the crystal sample along X axis, and
 φ: rotation angle of the crystal sample along Φ axis.
With this rotation matrix R, when a value of the rotation angle ω is designated as one of the diffraction conditions of the designated Bragg reflection, values of the rotation angle χ and the rotation angle φ can be calculated by using the designated value of the rotation angle ω with the following equations:

 where
 if χ≧0, then +,
 and
 if χ<0, then −.
Then, the rotation matrix R can be calculated by using the designated value of the rotation angle ω and the calculated values of the rotation angle χ and the rotation angle φ.
In another case, when a value of the rotation angle χ is designated as one of the diffraction conditions of the designated Bragg reflection, values of the rotation angle ω and the rotation angle φ can be calculated by using the designated value of the rotation angle χ with the following equations:

 where
if χ>0, then +,

 and
 if χ<0, then −.
Then, the rotation matrix R can be calculated using the designated value of the rotation angle χ and the calculated values of the rotation angle ω and the rotation angle φ.
In still another case, when a value of the rotation angle φ is designated as one of the diffraction conditions of the designated Bragg reflection, values of the rotation angle χ and the rotation angle ω can be calculated by using the designated value of the rotation angle φ with the following equations:
Then, the rotation matrix R can be calculated by using the designated value of the rotation angle φ and the calculated values of the rotation angle χ and the rotation angle ω.
In the above equations, ω_{0}, χ_{0 }and φ_{0 }can be obtained as follow:

 if the coordinates of a reflection hkl of the crystal sample attached to the Φ shaft are indicated as (x_{0},y_{0},z_{0}), then
Accordingly, the rotation matrix R can be obtained for the designated Bragg reflection as its Bragg reflection condition.
ATXG Goniometer
Here, we explain about the UB matrix and the rotation matrix R for the ATXG goniometer which is another diffractometer by this applicant.
In the ATXG of
For this ATXG goniometer, the UB matrix can be expressed as same as that for ATXE goniometer.
And, the rotation matrix R can be expressed as follows:
R=R _{x}(δ_{x})R _{y}(δ_{y})R _{z}(δ_{z})
where
R_{x}: rotation matrix along the coordinate axis x,
R_{y}: rotation matrix along the coordinate axis y, and
R_{z}: rotation matrix along the coordinate axis z.
With this rotation matrix R, when a value of the rotation angle ω is designated as one of the diffraction conditions of the designated Bragg reflection, values of the rotation angle φ, the rotation angle 2θ and the rotation angle 2θ can be calculated by using the designated value of the rotation angle ω with the following equations:
where

 q_{h}(q_{x},q_{y},q_{z}): reciprocal lattice vectors of the designated diffraction plane h,
 θ_{0}: Bragg angle of the designated diffraction plane h,
 Ans: answer below 1 among ans_{1 }and ans_{2},
where
where

 θ_{0}: Bragg angle of the designated diffraction plane h.
Then, the rotation matrix R can be calculated by using the designated value of the rotation angle ω and the calculated values of the rotation angle φ, the rotation angle 2θ χ and the rotation angle 2θ.
In another case, when a value of the rotation angle 2θ is designated as one of the diffraction conditions of the designated Bragg reflection, values of the rotation angle 2θ χ, the rotation angle φ and the rotation angle ω can be calculated by using the designated value of the rotation angle 2θ with the following equations:
where
 θ_{0}: Bragg angle of the designated diffraction plane h.
φ=cos^{−1}(Ans)
where  q_{h}(q_{x},q_{y},q_{z}): reciprocal lattice vectors of the designated diffraction plane h,
 θ_{0}: Bragg angle of the designated diffraction plane h,
 Ans: answer below 1 among ans′_{1 }and ans′_{2},
ω=cos^{−1}(Ans)
where
 q_{h}(q_{x},q_{y},q_{z}): reciprocal lattice vectors of the designated diffraction plane h,
 θ_{0}: Bragg angle of the designated diffraction plane h,
 Ans: answer below 1 among ans_{1}″ and ans_{2}″.
Then, the rotation matrix R can be calculated by using the designated value of the rotation angle 2θ and the calculated values of the rotation angle 2θ χ, the rotation angle φ and the rotation angle ω.
In still another case, when a value of the rotation angle 2θ χ is designated as one of the diffraction conditions of the designated Bragg reflection, values of the rotation angle 2θ, the rotation angle φ and the rotation angle ω can be calculated by using the designated value of the rotation angle 2θ χ with the following equations:
where
 θ_{0}: Bragg angle of the designated diffraction plane h.
φ=cos^{−1}(Ans)
where  q_{h}(q_{x},q_{y},q_{z}): reciprocal lattice vectors of the designated diffraction plane h,
 θ_{0}:Bragg angle of the designated diffraction plane h,
 Ans: answer below 1 among ans_{1}′″ and ans_{2}′″,
ω=cos^{−1}(Ans)
where
 q_{h}(q_{x},q_{y},q_{z}): reciprocal lattice vectors of the designated diffraction plane h,
 θ_{0}: Bragg angle of the designated diffraction plane h,
 Ans: answer below 1 among ans_{1}″ ″ and ans_{2}″ ″,
Then, the rotation matrix R can be calculated by using the designated value of the rotation angle 2θ χ and the calculated values of the rotation angle 2θ, the rotation angle φ and the rotation angle ω.
In still another case, when a value of the rotation angle φ is designated as one of the diffraction conditions of the designated Bragg reflection, values of the rotation angle ω, the rotation angle 2θχ and the rotation angle 2θ can be calculated by using the designated value of the rotation angle φ with the following equations:
ω=cos^{−1}(Ans)
where
 q_{h}(q_{x},q_{y},q_{z}): reciprocal lattice vectors of the designated diffraction plane h,
 θ_{0}: Bragg angle of the designated diffraction plane h,
 Ans: answer below 1 among ans_{1}″ ′″ and ans_{2}″ ′″,
where
 θ_{0}: Bragg angle of the designated diffraction plane h.
Then, the rotation matrix R can be calculated by using the designated value of the rotation angle φ and the calculated values of the rotation angle ω, the rotation angle 2θχ and the rotation angle 2θ.
Accordingly, the rotation matrix R can be obtained for the designated Bragg reflection as its Bragg reflection condition.
Display of a Diffraction Plane
In addition, the present invention can display a diffraction plane on which the designated Bragg reflection locates and a reciprocal lattice point of the designated Bragg reflection on a display device by multiplying the abovecalculated matrixes R, U and B and using its results.
More specifically, in order to perform such display, the following equation must be calculated:
The multiplication of the matrix R to the matrix U of the UB matrix expresses rotation of the crystal in accordance with the rotation angles expressed in the matrix R. Thus, x*, y* and z* of this equation express a position in the reciprocal space of the crystal rotated in accordance with the rotation matrix R. In other words, x*, y* and z* express a position of the reciprocal lattice point to which the designated Bragg reflection occurs when the crystal is rotated in accordance with the rotation matrix R. Therefore, the diffraction plane on which x*, y* and z* locate is displayed on the display device, and the reciprocal lattice point is displayed at the position of x*, y* and z* within the diffraction plane on the display device.
As described above, any Bragg reflection conditions of any Bragg reflections for any crystal samples desired by an operator of the invention can be obtained and displayed according to the present invention.
Of course, the invention can measure a designated Bragg reflection by using the abovedescribed device. For this measurement, the CPU drives the diffraction measurement device to rotate its rotation axes to have same rotation angles as the rotation matrix R calculated as above and then also drives the diffraction measurement device to measure the designated Bragg reflection.
In conclusion, the diffraction condition simulation device, the diffraction measurement system, and the crystal analysis system of this invention can have great effects on analysis of crystal structures and structure evaluation of single crystals including semiconductor thin films and the others.
This invention should not be limited only to the aforementioned embodiments, and it will be understood by those skilled in the art that other changes in form and details may be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.
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