US7160532B2 - Carbon nanotube array and method for forming same - Google Patents

Carbon nanotube array and method for forming same Download PDF

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US7160532B2
US7160532B2 US10/412,524 US41252403A US7160532B2 US 7160532 B2 US7160532 B2 US 7160532B2 US 41252403 A US41252403 A US 41252403A US 7160532 B2 US7160532 B2 US 7160532B2
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carbon nanotube
nanotube array
metal substrate
forming
method
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US20040184981A1 (en
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Liang Liu
Shoushan Fan
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Tsinghua University
Hon Hai Precision Industry Co Ltd
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Tsinghua University
Hon Hai Precision Industry Co Ltd
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B82NANOTECHNOLOGY
    • B82YSPECIFIC USES OR APPLICATIONS OF NANOSTRUCTURES; MEASUREMENT OR ANALYSIS OF NANOSTRUCTURES; MANUFACTURE OR TREATMENT OF NANOSTRUCTURES
    • B82Y30/00Nanotechnology for materials or surface science, e.g. nanocomposites
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B82NANOTECHNOLOGY
    • B82YSPECIFIC USES OR APPLICATIONS OF NANOSTRUCTURES; MEASUREMENT OR ANALYSIS OF NANOSTRUCTURES; MANUFACTURE OR TREATMENT OF NANOSTRUCTURES
    • B82Y40/00Manufacture or treatment of nanostructures
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C01BNON-METALLIC ELEMENTS; COMPOUNDS THEREOF; METALLOIDS OR COMPOUNDS THEREOF NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASS C01C
    • C01B32/00Carbon; Compounds thereof
    • C01B32/15Nano-sized carbon materials
    • C01B32/158Carbon nanotubes
    • C01B32/16Preparation
    • C01B32/162Preparation characterised by catalysts
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D01NATURAL OR MAN-MADE THREADS OR FIBRES; SPINNING
    • D01FCHEMICAL FEATURES IN THE MANUFACTURE OF ARTIFICIAL FILAMENTS, THREADS, FIBRES, BRISTLES OR RIBBONS; APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF CARBON FILAMENTS
    • D01F9/00Artificial filaments or the like of other substances; Manufacture thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture of carbon filaments
    • D01F9/08Artificial filaments or the like of other substances; Manufacture thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture of carbon filaments of inorganic material
    • D01F9/12Carbon filaments; Apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture thereof
    • D01F9/127Carbon filaments; Apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture thereof by thermal decomposition of hydrocarbon gases or vapours or other carbon-containing compounds in the form of gas or vapour, e.g. carbon monoxide, alcohols
    • D01F9/1271Alkanes or cycloalkanes
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C01BNON-METALLIC ELEMENTS; COMPOUNDS THEREOF; METALLOIDS OR COMPOUNDS THEREOF NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASS C01C
    • C01B2202/00Structure or properties of carbon nanotubes
    • C01B2202/08Aligned nanotubes
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S977/00Nanotechnology
    • Y10S977/70Nanostructure
    • Y10S977/734Fullerenes, i.e. graphene-based structures, such as nanohorns, nanococoons, nanoscrolls or fullerene-like structures, e.g. WS2 or MoS2 chalcogenide nanotubes, planar C3N4, etc.
    • Y10S977/742Carbon nanotubes, CNTs
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S977/00Nanotechnology
    • Y10S977/84Manufacture, treatment, or detection of nanostructure
    • Y10S977/842Manufacture, treatment, or detection of nanostructure for carbon nanotubes or fullerenes
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S977/00Nanotechnology
    • Y10S977/84Manufacture, treatment, or detection of nanostructure
    • Y10S977/842Manufacture, treatment, or detection of nanostructure for carbon nanotubes or fullerenes
    • Y10S977/843Gas phase catalytic growth, i.e. chemical vapor deposition

Abstract

A method for forming a carbon nanotube array using a metal substrate includes the following steps: providing a metal substrate (11); oxidizing the metal substrate to form an oxidized layer (21) thereon; depositing a catalyst layer (31) on the oxidized layer; introducing a carbon source gas; and thus forming a carbon nanotube array (61) extending from the metal substrate. Generally, any metallic material can be used as the metal substrate. Various carbon nanotube arrays formed using various metal substrates can be incorporated into a wide variety of high power electronic device applications such as field emission devices (FEDs), electron guns, and so on. Carbon nanotubes formed using any of a variety of metal substrates are well aligned, and uniformly extend in a direction substantially perpendicular to the metal substrate.

Description

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention

The present invention relates to carbon nanotube arrays and methods for forming them, and more particularly to carbon nanotube arrays formed on metal substrates and methods for forming said carbon nanotube arrays. This application relates to a contemporaneously filed application having the same title, the same applicant and the same assignee with the instant application.

2. Description of Prior Art

Carbon nanotubes are very small tube-shaped structures each having the molecular structure of a graphite sheet rolled into a tube. Carbon nanotubes produced by arc discharge between graphite rods were first discovered and reported in an article by Sumio Iijima entitled “Helical Microtubules of Graphitic Carbon” (Nature, Vol. 354, Nov. 7, 1991, pp. 56–58). Carbon nanotubes have excellent mechanical properties such as a high Young's modulus, a high elastic modulus, and low density. Carbon nanotubes also have excellent electrical, electromechanical and absorption properties. Carbon nanotubes display metallic properties or semiconductor properties according to different ways in which the graphite sheet is rolled. Due to these and other properties, it has been suggested that carbon nanotubes can play an important role in fields such as microscopic electronics, materials science, biology and chemistry.

The chemical vapor deposition method is known in the art as being conducive to growing carbon nanotube arrays with well aligned carbon nanotubes. In the chemical vapor deposition method, a carbon source gas is thermally decomposed at a predetermined temperature in the presence of a transition metal that acts as a catalyst, thereby forming a carbon nanotube array.

When a carbon nanotube array is used as an electrode in a field emission display, electron gun or other high power electronic device, the substrate on which the carbon nanotube array is formed must have good conductivity and the ability to carry high current loads. Thus, a metal substrate is best for such applications.

However, carbon nanotube arrays are generally formed on nonmetallic substrates such as silicon, silicon oxide or glass. This is because metal substrates generally impair high-density formation of pure, straight carbon nanotubes. In particular, a metal substrate is liable to react with the nanotube catalyst to form an alloy thereof, which renders the catalyst inactive. In addition, when the metal substrate itself is the catalyst, it is prone to decompose the carbon source gas to form amorphous carbon. Amorphous carbon inhibits formation of carbon nanotubes of the desired quality. In summary, it is difficult to optimally form carbon nanotubes using metal substrates.

A carbon nanotube assembly and method for producing the same are disclosed in China patent application CN1241813A. The assembly comprises a metal substrate and a coating of carbon nanotubes deposited thereon. The method includes the following steps: (1) separating formed single wall carbon nanotubes by chemical cutting technology; (2) dispersing the separated carbon nanotubes in water uniformly to form a water-soluble gel, and allowing the water-soluble gel to settle for an extended period; (3) selecting a band of the water-soluble gel which contains carbon nanotubes having a desired uniform length; (3) diluting the selected band of water-soluble gel with deionized water; and (4) coating the selected carbon nanotubes on a clean metal substrate to form carbon nanotubes standing upright on the metal substrate. However, this method does not provide original formation of carbon nanotubes directly on the metal substrate. In addition, when said water-soluble gel is allowed to settle, the time required is unduly long: typically around one month. These difficulties greatly limit industrial applications of the carbon nanotube assembly and method.

A method for producing a carbon nanotube array on an aluminum (Al) substrate was reported in an article by Ch. Emmenegger et al. entitled “Carbon nanotube synthesized on metallic substrate” (Applied Surface Science, Vol. 162–163, 2000, pp. 452–456). The method comprises the following steps: (1) coating iron nitrate (Fe(NO3)3) on an aluminum substrate; (2) annealing the substrate with the Fe(NO3)3 film to form nano-sized particles of ferric oxide (Fe2O3); and (3) introducing a mixture of carbon source gas and protective gas until a carbon nanotube array extends from the substrate.

However, the metallic material used as the substrate in the above-described method by Ch. Emmenegger et al. is limited to just several metals such as aluminum and nickel (Ni). This limitation is necessary to prevent the metal substrate from adversely affecting formation of the carbon nanotubes by reacting with the catalyst or by decomposing the carbon source gas to form amorphous carbon. Accordingly, the method is generally limited to applications in which aluminum and nickel electronic devices can be utilized.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

In view of the above-described drawbacks, an object of the present invention is to provide a method for forming a carbon nanotube array using a metal substrate wherein the metal substrate may be any one of a wide variety of metallic materials.

Another object of the present invention is to provide a carbon nanotube array formed using a metal substrate, wherein the metal substrate can be used as an electrode in a high power electronic device.

In order to achieve the objects set out above, a preferred method of the present invention for forming a carbon nanotube array using a metal substrate comprises the following steps: providing a metal substrate; oxidizing the metal substrate to form an oxidized layer on a surface of the metal substrate; depositing a catalyst layer on the oxidized layer; introducing a carbon source gas; and thus forming a carbon nanotube array extending from the treated substrate. Generally, any metallic material can be used as the metal substrate. Various carbon nanotube arrays formed using various metal substrates can be incorporated into a wide variety of high power electronic device applications such as field emission devices (FEDs), electron guns, and so on. Carbon nanotubes formed using any of a variety of metal substrates are well aligned, and uniformly extend in a direction substantially perpendicular to the metal substrate.

Other objects, advantages and novel features of the present invention will become more apparent from the following detailed description when taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a flowchart of a preferred method for forming a carbon nanotube array using a metal substrate according to the present invention;

FIG. 2 is a schematic view of a metal substrate used in the preferred method of the present invention;

FIG. 3 is a schematic view of the substrate of FIG. 2 with an oxidized layer thereon;

FIG. 4 is a schematic view of the treated substrate of FIG. 3 with a metal catalyst layer formed on the oxidized layer;

FIG. 5 is a schematic view of the treated substrate of FIG. 4 after annealing, wherein the catalyst layer has become oxidized catalyst particles; and

FIG. 6 is a schematic view of a carbon nanotube array formed on the treated substrate of FIG. 5.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS OF THE INVENTION

A preferred method for forming a carbon nanotube array using a metal substrate according to the present invention will be described with reference to the flowchart of FIG. 1.

Referring also to FIGS. 2–6, a metal substrate 11 is first provided (step 10). The substrate 11 can be a metal plate or a metal electrode formed on a base. If a base is used, it can be glass, silicon, quartz or another suitable material having a smooth surface. The metal electrode can be formed on the base by plating or sputtering. The selected metal plate or metal electrode is polished to obtain a smooth surface thereon. The metal substrate 11 can be nickel (Ni), steel, tantalum (Ta), silver (Ag) or another suitable metallic material.

In principle, there is no particular limitation on selection of the metal plate material or the metal electrode material. Any metallic material used in the semiconductor industry can be used as the metal substrate 11. However, there are four criteria that must be satisfied when selecting the metal plate material or metal electrode material: (1) the metal plate material or metal electrode material does not melt at temperatures below chemical vapor deposition (CVD) temperatures; (2) the metal electrode material does not melt with its accompanying base at temperatures below CVD temperatures; (3) in the temperature range from room temperature to CVD temperature, a coefficient of thermal expansion of the metal electrode material is compatible with that of its base; (4) during formation of carbon nanotubes, the metal plate material or metal electrode material does not expand or break if it absorbs hydrogen. In the preferred method, steel is used as the metal substrate 11.

The metal substrate 11 is oxidized in air at 500° C. to form an oxidized layer 21 on a surface thereof (step 20). The oxidized layer has a thickness of several tens of nanometers. Then a metal catalyst layer 31 is deposited on the surface of the oxidized layer 21 by electron beam evaporation, thermal evaporation or sputtering (step 30). The catalyst layer 31 has a thickness in the range from one nanometer to ten nanometers. The catalyst layer 31 can be iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), or any suitable combination alloy thereof.

The treated metal substrate 11 is annealed in air at 300° C. for several hours, thereby oxidizing the catalyst layer and forming catalyst particles 31′.

A carbon source gas is then introduced for a while(step 40). The carbon source gas can be acetylene, ethylene, or any suitable chemical compound which contains carbon. In the preferred method, ethylene is used as the carbon source gas. Then the carbon nanotube array 51 is formed and extended from the treated substrate 11 (step 50). Following the formation of carbon nanotubes a by-product of the nanotube formation such as hydrogen gas is produced and reduces the oxidized layer 21 of the metal substrate 11. Therefore, the carbon nanotube array 61 is formed directly on the metal substrate 11.

It will be apparent to those who having skill in the field of the present invention that the oxidized layer 21 formed on the metal substrate 11 prevents the metal substrate 11 from reacting with the catalyst, and prevents the metal substrate 11 from decomposing the carbon source gas to form amorphous carbon. Furthermore, the oxidized layer 21 maintains the conditions for forming carbon nanotubes as used in conventional CVD methods. Thus, generally, any metallic material can be used as the metal substrate 11. Various carbon nanotube arrays 51 formed on various metal substrates 11 can be used in a wide variety of high power electronic device applications such as field emission devices (FEDs), electron guns, and so on.

It is understood that the invention may be embodied in other forms without departing from the spirit thereof. Thus, the present examples and embodiments are to be considered in all respects as illustrative and not restrictive, and the invention is not to be limited to the details given herein.

Claims (13)

1. A method for forming a carbon nanotube array, comprising the following steps:
providing a metal substrate;
oxidizing the substrate to form an oxidized layer on a surface of the substrate;
depositing a catalyst layer on the oxidized layer; and
introducing a carbon source gas;
whereby the carbon nanotube array formed extends from the metal substrate.
2. The method for forming a carbon nanotube array as described in claim 1, wherein the substrate is a metal plate, or a metal electrode formed on a base.
3. The method for forming a carbon nanotube array as described in claim 2, wherein a material of the metal substrate is selected from the group consisting of nickel, tantalum, silver and steel.
4. The method for forming a carbon nanotube array as described in claim 3, wherein the material of the metal substrate is steel.
5. The method for forming a carbon nanotube array as described in claim 1, wherein the substrate is oxidized in air at approximately 500° C.
6. The method for forming a carbon nanotube array as described in claim 1, further comprising the following step before oxidizing the substrate: polishing the substrate to obtain a smooth surface thereon.
7. The method for forming a carbon nanotube array as described in claim 1, wherein the catalyst layer comprises material selected from the group consisting of iron, cobalt, nickel and any suitable combination alloy thereof.
8. The method for forming a carbon nanotube array as described in claim 7, wherein the catalyst layer comprises iron, and has a thickness in a range of 1˜10 nanometers.
9. The method for forming a carbon nanotube array as described in claim 1, further comprising the following step after depositing the catalyst layer: annealing the substrate with the catalyst layer deposited thereon, said annealing being performed in the air at a temperature of 300° C. for several hours.
10. The method for forming a carbon nanotube array as described in claim 1, wherein the carbon source gas is selected from the group consisting of acetylene, ethylene and any suitable chemical compound which contains carbon.
11. The method for producing a carbon nanotube array as described in claim 10, wherein the carbon source gas is ethylene.
12. A carbon nanotube array subassembly comprising:
a metal substrate; and
a carbon nanotube array formed thereon;
wherein a material of the metal substrate is selected from the group consisting of tantalum, nickel, silver and steel, the metal substrate having an upper face, the upper face being oxidized to form an oxidized layer thereon.
13. A carbon nanotube array subassembly comprising:
a non-metallic base provided with a metallic upper face;
said upper face being oxidized to form an oxidized layer thereon;
a catalyst layer applied on said oxidized layer; and
a carbon nanotube array growing on said catalyst layer.
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