US710415A - Brick-kiln. - Google Patents

Brick-kiln. Download PDF


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US710415A US4943801A US1901049438A US710415A US 710415 A US710415 A US 710415A US 4943801 A US4943801 A US 4943801A US 1901049438 A US1901049438 A US 1901049438A US 710415 A US710415 A US 710415A
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Luman Blackman
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    • F27B13/00Furnaces with both stationary charge and progression of heating, e.g. of ring type, of type in which segmental kiln moves over stationary charge
    • F27B13/06Details, accessories, or equipment peculiar to furnaces of this type


No. 710,45. I Patented Oct. 7, 1902.
(Application filed Mar. 1, IQQI.)
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SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 710,415, dated October 7, 1902.
Application filed March 1, 1901. Serial No. 49,438. (No model.)
To all whom it may concern: Be it known that I, LUMAN BLAcKMAN,a citizen of the United States, residing at the city of Topeka, inthe county of Shawnee and State of Kansas, have invented new and usefullmprovements in Brick-Kilns, of which the following is a specification.
My invention relates to improvements in brick-kilns in which the heat essential to the burning process is conveyed from a series of furnaces to a central kiln wherein the green brick are piled and the heat diffused therein with the idea of securing its uniform action upon all thebricks in the kiln.
In my. improvement herewith illustrated Iobtain the desired object by a new and novel construction of the kiln, furnaces, and heatconduits, thereby doing away with many costly,cumbersome, and room-taking devices, thereby reducing the cost of general and particular construction and as a result the cost of the product as an article of manufacture. Secondly, the same devices of construction that enable me to economically and uniformly 2 5 distribute the heat produced in the furnaces also insure an equal and uniform reduction of the temperature essential to the final tempering of the brick.
My invention further consists in arranging the furnace-fires approximately at the top of the wall, whereby the heat-flames instead of rising toward the roof of the kiln are immediately diverted to the grated'floor-conduits, and as a result there is practically no more 5 heat at the roof than at the floor-line.
My invention is illustrated by the accompanying drawings, in which Figure 1 is a vertical sectional view taken through the line a I), Fig. 2. Fig. 2 is a par- 40 tial top view with the arched roof of one end of the kiln torn off and a part of the main wall and the roof of the furnace torn away to show a part of the floor-line and to discover the grated opening into the conduits,- the flame-breaking wall, flame and heat conduits, and face of the grates in the furnace. is a vertical sectional View taken through the line 01 c, .Fig. 2, showing the floor-line conduits to chimneys. Fig. 4 is a partial side 5o elevation of the kiln proper, giving the exterior lines of general construction and also at O the fire-bricked opening in the main wall.
Similar letters refer to similar parts throughout the several drawings.
The kiln as a whole maybe of any size, provided the general lines of construction herein shown and described are followed.
As shown in Figs. 1 and 3, the base or foundation of the kiln is set below the groundlevel not only for the purpose of a secure foundation, but also as a means of preventing the active radiation of heat. A secondary purpose is served by bringing the roof of the kiln within the reach of those in charge thereof, thus making it as'a whole convenient for Watching and operating.
In'the construction'given A is the base or foundation line, A the floor-line of the kiln, and A the ground-level. The furnaces B are equidistantly placed along the sides of the kiln, there being one chimney allotted to each furnace, except at the extreme ends where two extra chimneys G and O are provided for the purpose of securing the direction of an additional portion of the heat thereto, or, in other words, insuring its uniform diffusion in the ends and throughout the interior of the kiln. Two of the four extra chimneys C and G are placed in the gable 8o ends of the kiln and are of greater height than the side chimneys. Connecting with the said two end chimneys and running the full length of the floor-line are the grated conduits D, which open into the kiln through the brick-grated openings D. (See Figs. 1, 2, and'3.) Within the floor and directly in front of each of the side chimneys are the conduits D, which open up direct communication to the chimneys through the grated open- 0 ings D.
. The kiln is constructed with heavy side walls, that they may be equal to the strain imposed on them and also be able to contain the various conduits andflame-breaking walls 5 employed in this device and which are hereinaftermore fully described. These conduits and flame-breaking walls are separate from each other, as shown at 0, Fig. 4:, and are formed of fire-brick, being constructed on the lines of durability and for the purpose of enabling the mechanic to easily replace themv when needed.
The roof is composed of a flat brick arch S, held in position by the tie-rods'E and buckstays E. In construction the roof is preferably divided into sections, the division-line being shown at S.
The furnaces are so constructed as to become an integral part of the side walls.
In each of the chimneys are placed the dampers F, they being equal to the perfect control of the current of heat, diverting it to any portion of the kiln required to insure an equalization of the temperature therein.
In the crown of the roof are placed the inspection-ports G, and at the floor-line in the end walls are like ports G G, while close to the'under side of the arch of the roof and at each end thereof are the openings H, the same being auxiliary to the other ports and openings in the kiln, all said openings being utilized in the tempering process. Each gable end of the kiln is penetrated by the large arched openings K, whose sill is on the floorline of said kiln and which are used for the ready admission of the green brick, as well as for the emptying of the kiln of the perfected product.
In Fig. 1 we have a vertical section of the furnace B and of the wall-opening heat-conduit,taken through the line a b, Fig. 2. These furnaces are fitted up with suitable grate-bars, as indicated at L, with doors M, and ash-pit or draft-doors N.
Within the furnaces and close to the top of the combustion-chambers 0 are the heat and flame conduits O O. The conduits O are preferably two in number; but a greater or less number may be used, if desired. The entrance into the interior of the kiln, however, is preferably divided into three separate conduits O O O, the partition-walls between them forming a portion of the flamebreaking walls 0 0, these walls being shown in Figs. 1 and 2 and are formed by the inner conduits 0 being located higher up in the main wall of the kiln proper than the outer furnace-conduits O.
The flame-breaking walls 0' prevent the flame or untempered heat from directly striking the crown of the arched roof, and as all draft-lines lead to the fioor and through the grated parts thereof to the base of the fines and as the said floor-openings to the flues are distributed with the idea of securing an equalized heat-current it must obtain that the desired result is practically accomplished through this arrangement without the heatflame touching the roof of the kiln.
The heat from the furnace is conveyed to the kiln a very short distance and not through a long combustion-chamber. The heat is directed horizontally into the kiln, the draft drawing it gradually downward. These features permit the admission of heat practically as soon as it leaves the furnace, but at the same time prevents injury to the roof or crown or to the bricks by the heat. It will be understood that in order to accomplish these objects it is necessary to locate the furnaces near the roof.
In operation the kiln is filled with brick openly piled, so that every available portion of them be exposed to the action of the heat. The end doors and port-holes are then sealed and fires started in the furnaces. As soon as the heat becomes general and constant and in a measure equalized the temperature at the extreme ends and at the center of the kiln is taken, when the heat of the kiln as a whole is regulated by means of the chimney-dampers. The vitrifying or burning continues until the shrinkage of the brick in the kiln indicates the perfection of the process, whereupon the kiln is emptied.
Having thus described myinvention, what I claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is
The combination with the floor, walls and arched 'roof of a brick-kiln; of a central longitudinal flue in the floor thereof extending the full length of the kiln, a chimney at each end thereof and communicating therewith, a series of transverse, perforated areas of floor between the walls of the kiln and the central fine, a series of separate and independent transversefiues in the floor, one being provided for each area, said flu'es communicat ing with the perforations of their respective floor areas,a chimney for each transverse flue, a damper in each chimney, a series of furnaces adjacent to the top of the kiln, an angular conduit through the wall of the kiln and each furnace whereby said furnaces and kiln are connected, each conduit having a horizontal outlet located approximately at the base of said arched roof, on a line with the roof of its furnace and between the two adjacent transverse perforated floor areas.
In testimony whereof I have affixed my signature in presence of two witnesses.
US4943801A 1901-03-01 1901-03-01 Brick-kiln. Expired - Lifetime US710415A (en)

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