Connect public, paid and private patent data with Google Patents Public Datasets

Thermal actuator and an optical waveguide switch including the same

Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US6985650B2
US6985650B2 US10772564 US77256404A US6985650B2 US 6985650 B2 US6985650 B2 US 6985650B2 US 10772564 US10772564 US 10772564 US 77256404 A US77256404 A US 77256404A US 6985650 B2 US6985650 B2 US 6985650B2
Authority
US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
beam
array
segment
plurality
thermal
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Fee Related, expires
Application number
US10772564
Other versions
US20050031252A1 (en )
Inventor
Jun Ma
Joel A. Kubby
Kristine A. German
Peter M. Gulvin
Pinyen Lin
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Xerox Corp
Original Assignee
Xerox Corp
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B81MICROSTRUCTURAL TECHNOLOGY
    • B81BMICROSTRUCTURAL DEVICES OR SYSTEMS, e.g. MICROMECHANICAL DEVICES
    • B81B3/00Devices comprising flexible or deformable elements, e.g. comprising elastic tongues or membranes
    • B81B3/0018Structures acting upon the moving or flexible element for transforming energy into mechanical movement or vice versa, i.e. actuators, sensors, generators
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/24Coupling light guides
    • G02B6/26Optical coupling means
    • G02B6/35Optical coupling means having switching means
    • G02B6/3564Mechanical details of the actuation mechanism associated with the moving element or mounting mechanism details
    • G02B6/3568Mechanical details of the actuation mechanism associated with the moving element or mounting mechanism details characterised by the actuating force
    • G02B6/3576Temperature or heat actuation
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/24Coupling light guides
    • G02B6/26Optical coupling means
    • G02B6/35Optical coupling means having switching means
    • G02B6/3564Mechanical details of the actuation mechanism associated with the moving element or mounting mechanism details
    • G02B6/3566Mechanical details of the actuation mechanism associated with the moving element or mounting mechanism details involving bending a beam, e.g. with cantilever
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/24Coupling light guides
    • G02B6/26Optical coupling means
    • G02B6/35Optical coupling means having switching means
    • G02B6/3564Mechanical details of the actuation mechanism associated with the moving element or mounting mechanism details
    • G02B6/3584Mechanical details of the actuation mechanism associated with the moving element or mounting mechanism details constructional details of an associated actuator having a MEMS construction, i.e. constructed using semiconductor technology such as etching

Abstract

A thermal actuator comprises a substantially straight beam. The beam has a beam length and a beam mid-point. The beam comprises a plurality of beam segments. Each beam segment has a beam segment width, the beam thus forming a corresponding plurality of beam segment widths. The beam segment widths vary along the beam length based on a predetermined pattern. As the beam is heated by an included heating means, the beam buckles. The buckling of the beam, in turn, causes the beam mid-point to translate or move in a predetermined direction. The beam mid-point movement, in turn, operates an included optical waveguide switch. The heating means comprises any of Joule heating, eddy current heating, conduction heating, convection heating and radiation heating.

Description

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION

This is a continuation-in-part of its commonly-assigned “parent” prior application Ser. No. 10/634,941, filed 5 Aug. 2003, now pending, by Joel A. Kubby et al., the same inventors as in the present application, entitled “A thermal actuator and an optical waveguide switch including the same”, the disclosure of which prior application is hereby incorporated by reference verbatim, with the same effect as though such disclosure were fully and completely set forth herein.

This application is related to the commonly-assigned application Ser. No. 10/772,693, filed on the same date as the present application, now pending, by Joel A. Kubby et al., the same inventors as in the present application, entitled “A thermal actuator with offset beam segment neutral axes and an optical waveguide switch including the same”.

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE OF OTHER PATENTS, PATENT APPLICATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS

The disclosures of the, following thirteen (13) U.S. patents are hereby incorporated by reference, verbatim, and with the same effect as though the same disclosures were fully and completely set forth herein:

Joel Kubby, U.S. Pat. No. 5,706,041, “Thermal ink-jet printhead with a suspended heating element in each ejector,” issued Jan. 6, 1998;

Joel Kubby, U.S. Pat. No. 5,851,412, “Thermal ink-jet printhead with a suspended heating element in each ejector,” issued Dec. 22, 1998;

Joel Kubby et al., U.S. Pat. No. 6,362,512, “Microelectromechanical structures defined from silicon on insulator wafers,” issued Mar. 26, 2002;

Joel Kubby et al., U.S. Pat. No. 6,379,989, “Process for manufacture of microoptomechanical structures,” issued Apr. 30, 2002;

Phillip D. Floyd et al., U.S. Pat. No. 6,002,507, “Method and apparatus for an integrated laser beam scanner,” issued Dec. 14, 1999;

Phillip D. Floyd et al., U.S. Pat. No. 6,014,240, “Method and apparatus for an integrated laser beam scanner using a carrier substrate,” issued Jan. 11, 2000;

Robert L. Wood et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,909,078, “Thermal arched beam microelectromechanical actuators,” issued Jun. 1, 1999;

Vijayakumar R. Dhuler et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,994,816, “Thermal arched beam microelectromechanical devices and associated fabrication methods,” issued Nov. 30, 1999;

Vijayakumar R. Dhuler et al., U.S. Pat. No. 6,023,121, “Thermal arched beam microelectromechanical structure,” issued Feb. 8, 2000;

Vijayakumar R. Dhuler et al., U.S. Pat. No. 6,114,794, “Thermal arched beam microelectromechanical valve,” issued Sep. 5, 2000;

Vijayakumar R. Dhuler et al., U.S. Pat. No. 6,255,757, “Microactuators including a metal layer on distal portions of an arched beam,” issued Jul. 3, 2001;

Vijayakumar R. Dhuler et al., U.S. Pat. No. 6,324,748, “Method of fabricating a microelectro mechanical structure having an arched beam,” issued Dec. 4, 2001; and

Edward A. Hill et al., U.S. Pat. No. 6,360,539, “Microelectromechanical actuators including driven arched beams for mechanical advantage,” issued Mar. 26, 2002.

The disclosures of the following four (4) U.S. patent applications are hereby incorporated by reference, verbatim, and with the same effect as though the same disclosures were fully and completely set forth herein:

Joel Kubby, U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/683,533, “Systems and methods for thermal isolation of a silicon structure,” filed Jan. 16, 2002, now U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 20030134445, published Jul. 17, 2003;

Joel Kubby, U.S. Pat. Application No. 60/456,086, “MxN Cantilever Beam Optical-Waveguide Switch,” filed Mar. 19, 2003;

Joel Kubby et al., U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/986,395, “Monolithic reconfigurable optical multiplexer systems and methods,” filed Nov. 8, 2001, now U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 20030086641, published May 8, 2003; and

Joel Kubby et al., U.S. Pat. Application No. 60/456,063, “MEMS Optical Latching Switch,” filed Mar. 19, 2003.

The disclosures of the following three (3) publications are hereby incorporated by reference, verbatim, and with the same effect as though the same disclosures were fully and completely set forth herein:

Yogesh B. Gianchandani and Khalil Najafi, “Bent-Beam Strain Sensors,” Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, Vol. 5, No.1, March 1996, pages 52–58;

Long Que, Jae-Sung Park and Yogesh B. Gianchandani, “Bent-Beam Electrothermal Actuators,” Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, Vol. 10, No. 2, June 2001, pages 247–254; and

John M. Maloney, Don L. DeVoe and David S. Schreiber, “Analysis and Design of Electrothermal Actuators Fabricated from Single Crystal Silicon,” Proceedings ASME International Mechanical Engineering Conference and Exposition, Orlando, Fla., pages 233–240, 2000.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

This application relates generally to thermal actuators and more particularly to a thermal actuator that is suitable for use in an optical waveguide switch.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The traditional thermal actuator, the “V-beam” actuator, is widely used in microelectromechanical or “MEMS” structures. Such actuators are described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,909,078 to Robert L. Wood et al.; and in the U.S. Patents to Vijayakumar R. Dhuler et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,994,816, No. 6,023,121, No. 6,114,794, No. 6,255,757 and No. 6,324,748; and in U.S. Pat. No. 6,360,539 to Edward A. Hill et al., all of the foregoing patents being incorporated by reference herein; and in the publication of Long Que, Jae-Sung Park and Yogesh B. Gianchandani, “Bent-Beam Electrothermal Actuators”; and in the publication of John M. Maloney, Don L. DeVoe and David S. Schreiber, “Analysis and Design of Electrothermal Actuators Fabricated from Single Crystal Silicon,” both of which publications are incorporated by reference herein.

However, these actuators are sensitive to residual stresses, especially the stress introduced by doping during fabrication of the actuator.

Indeed, the bent-beam geometry used in these actuators has been used in bent-beam strain sensors to measure residual stress as described in the publication of Yogesh B. Gianchandani and Khalil Najafi, “Bent-Beam Strain Sensors,” which publication is incorporated by reference herein.

The residual stress in the V-beam actuator acts to deflect the V-beams away from their originally-designed target locations since the beam angle gives rise to a transverse force. Moreover, when such a V-beam actuator is used in an optical waveguide switch, this residual stress results in waveguide misalignment. The amount of optical loss caused by this waveguide misalignment is substantial. As a result, currently the V-beam actuator is generally unacceptable for use in an optical waveguide switch.

Thus, there is a need for an actuator that is acceptable for use in an optical waveguide switch.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

In a first aspect of the invention, a thermal actuator comprises a substrate having a surface; a first support and a second support disposed on the surface and extending orthogonally therefrom; a beam extending between the first support and the second support, the beam having a first side, a second side, a beam length and a beam mid-point, the beam being substantially straight along the first side; the beam comprised of a plurality of beam segments, each beam segment of the plurality of beam segments having a beam segment width orthogonal to the beam length, the beam thus forming a corresponding plurality of beam segment widths; wherein the plurality of beam segment widths corresponding to the beam vary along the beam length based on a predetermined pattern; so that a heating of the beam causes a beam buckling and the beam mid-point to translate in a predetermined direction generally normal to and outward from the second side.

In a second aspect of the invention, a thermal actuator comprises a substrate having a surface; a first support and a second support disposed on the surface and extending orthogonally therefrom; a plurality of beams extending in parallel between the first support and the second support, thus forming a beam array; each beam of the beam array having a first side, a second side, a beam length and a beam mid-point, each beam being substantially straight along its first side; each beam of the beam array comprised of a plurality of beam segments, each beam segment of the plurality of beam segments having a beam segment width orthogonal to the beam length, each beam thus forming a corresponding plurality of beam segment widths; wherein the plurality of beam segment widths corresponding to each beam vary along the beam length based on a predetermined pattern; an included coupling beam extending orthogonally across the beam array to couple each beam of the beam array substantially at the corresponding beam mid-point; so that a heating of the beam array causes a beam array buckling and the coupling beam to translate in a predetermined direction generally normal to and outward from the second sides of the array beams.

In a third aspect of the invention, a thermal actuator comprises a substrate having a surface; a first support and a second support disposed on the surface and extending orthogonally therefrom; a beam extending between the first support and the second support, the beam having a first side, a second side, a beam length and a beam mid-point, the beam being substantially straight along the second side; the beam comprised of a plurality of beam segments, each beam segment of the plurality of beam segments being having a beam segment width orthogonal to the beam length, the beam thus forming a corresponding plurality of beam segment widths; wherein the plurality of beam segment widths corresponding to the beam vary along the beam length based on a predetermined pattern; so that a heating of the beam causes a beam buckling and the beam mid-point to translate in a predetermined direction generally normal to and outward from the second side.

In a fourth aspect of the invention, a thermal actuator comprises a substrate having a surface; a first support and a second support disposed on the surface and extending orthogonally therefrom; a plurality of beams extending in parallel between the first support and the second support, thus forming a beam array; each beam of the beam array having a first side, a second side, a beam length and a beam mid-point, each beam being substantially straight along its second side; each beam of the beam array comprised of a plurality of beam segments, each beam segment of the plurality of beam segments having a beam segment width orthogonal to the beam length, each beam thus forming a corresponding plurality of beam segment widths; wherein the plurality of beam segment widths corresponding to each beam vary along the beam length based on a predetermined pattern; an included coupling beam extending orthogonally across the beam array to couple each beam of the beam array substantially at the corresponding beam mid-point; so that a heating of the beam array causes a beam array buckling and the coupling beam to translate in a predetermined direction generally normal to and outward from the second sides of the array beams.

In a fifth aspect of the invention, a thermal actuator comprises a substrate having a surface; a first support and a second support disposed on the surface and extending orthogonally therefrom; a beam extending between the first support and the second support, the beam having a first side, a second side, a beam length and a beam mid-point, the beam being substantially straight along the first side; the beam comprised of a plurality of beam segments, each beam segment of the plurality of beam segments having a beam segment average width orthogonal to the beam length, the beam thus forming a corresponding plurality of beam segment average widths; wherein the plurality of beam segment average widths corresponding to the beam vary along the beam length based on a predetermined pattern; so that a heating of the beam causes a beam buckling and the beam mid-point to translate in a predetermined direction generally normal to and outward from the second side.

In a sixth aspect of the invention, a thermal actuator comprises a substrate having a surface; a first support and a second support disposed on the surface and extending orthogonally therefrom; a plurality of beams extending in parallel between the first support and the second support, thus forming a beam array; each beam of the beam array having a first side, a second side, a beam length and a beam mid-point, each beam being substantially straight along its first side; each beam of the beam array comprised of a plurality of beam segments, each beam segment of the plurality of beam segments having a beam segment average width orthogonal to the beam length, each beam thus forming a corresponding plurality of beam segment average widths; wherein the plurality of beam segment average widths corresponding to each beam vary along the beam length based on a predetermined pattern; an included coupling beam extending orthogonally across the beam array to couple each beam of the beam array substantially at the corresponding beam mid-point; so that a heating of the beam array causes a beam array buckling and the coupling beam to translate in a predetermined direction generally normal to and outward from the second sides of the array beams.

In a seventh aspect of the invention, an optical waveguide switch comprises a thermal actuator, the thermal actuator comprising a substrate having a surface; a first support and a second support disposed on the surface and extending orthogonally therefrom; a beam extending between the first support and the second support, the beam having a first side, a second side, a beam length and a beam mid-point, the beam being substantially straight along the first side; the beam comprised of a plurality of beam segments, each beam segment of the plurality of beam segments having a beam segment width orthogonal to the beam length, the beam thus forming a corresponding plurality of beam segment widths; wherein the plurality of beam segment widths corresponding to the beam vary along the beam length based on a predetermined pattern; so that a heating of the beam causes a beam buckling and the beam mid-point to translate in a predetermined direction generally normal to and outward from the second side.

In an eighth aspect of the invention, an optical waveguide switch comprises a thermal actuator, the thermal actuator comprising a substrate having a surface; a first support and a second support disposed on the surface and extending orthogonally therefrom; a plurality of beams extending in parallel between the first support and the second support, thus forming a beam array; each beam of the beam array having a first side, a second side, a beam length and a beam mid-point, each beam being substantially straight along its first side; each beam of the beam array comprised of a plurality of beam segments, each beam segment of the plurality of beam segments having a beam segment width orthogonal to the beam length, each beam thus forming a corresponding plurality of beam segment widths; wherein the plurality of beam segment widths corresponding to each beam vary along the beam length based on a predetermined pattern; an included coupling beam extending orthogonally across the beam array to couple each beam of the beam array substantially at the corresponding beam mid-point; so that a heating of the beam array causes a beam array buckling and the coupling beam to translate in a predetermined direction generally normal to and outward from the second sides of the array beams.

In a ninth aspect of the invention, an optical waveguide switch comprises a thermal actuator, the thermal actuator comprising a substrate having a surface; a first support and a second support disposed on the surface and extending orthogonally therefrom; a beam extending between the first support and the second support, the beam having a first side, a second side, a beam length and a beam mid-point, the beam being substantially straight along the second side; the beam comprised of a plurality of beam segments, each beam segment of the plurality of beam segments being having a beam segment width orthogonal to the beam length, the beam thus forming a corresponding plurality of beam segment widths; wherein the plurality of beam segment widths corresponding to the beam vary along the beam length based on a predetermined pattern; so that a heating of the beam causes a beam buckling and the beam mid-point to translate in a predetermined direction generally normal to and outward from the second side.

In a tenth aspect of the invention, an optical waveguide switch comprises a thermal actuator, the thermal actuator comprising a substrate having a surface; a first support and a second support disposed on the surface and extending orthogonally therefrom; a plurality of beams extending in parallel between the first support and the second support, thus forming a beam array; each beam of the beam array having a first side, a second side, a beam length and a beam mid-point, each beam being substantially straight along its second side; each beam of the beam array comprised of a plurality of beam segments, each beam segment of the plurality of beam segments having a beam segment width orthogonal to the beam length, each beam thus forming a corresponding plurality of beam segment widths; wherein the plurality of beam segment widths corresponding to each beam vary along the beam length based on a predetermined pattern; an included coupling beam extending orthogonally across the beam array to couple each beam of the beam array substantially at the corresponding beam mid-point; so that a heating of the beam array causes a beam array buckling and the coupling beam to translate in a predetermined direction generally normal to and outward from the second sides of the array beams.

In an eleventh aspect of the invention, an optical waveguide switch comprises a thermal actuator, the thermal actuator comprising a substrate having a surface; a first support and a second support disposed on the surface and extending orthogonally therefrom; a beam extending between the first support and the second support, the beam having a first side, a second side, a beam length and a beam mid-point, the beam being substantially straight along the first side; the beam comprised of a plurality of beam segments, each beam segment of the plurality of beam segments having a beam segment average width orthogonal to the beam length, the beam thus forming a corresponding plurality of beam segment average widths; wherein the plurality of beam segment average widths corresponding to the beam vary along the beam length based on a predetermined pattern; so that a heating of the beam causes a beam buckling and the beam mid-point to translate in a predetermined direction generally normal to and outward from the second side.

In a twelfth aspect of the invention, an optical waveguide switch comprises a thermal actuator, the thermal actuator comprising a substrate having a surface; a first support and a second support disposed on the surface and extending orthogonally therefrom; a plurality of beams extending in parallel between the first support and the second support, thus forming a beam array; each beam of the beam array having a first side, a second side, a beam length and a beam mid-point, each beam being substantially straight along its first side; each beam of the beam array comprised of a plurality of beam segments, each beam segment of the plurality of beam segments having a beam segment average width orthogonal to the beam length, each beam thus forming a corresponding plurality of beam segment average widths; wherein the plurality of beam segment average widths corresponding to each beam vary along the beam length based on a predetermined pattern; an included coupling beam extending orthogonally across the beam array to couple each beam of the beam array substantially at the corresponding beam mid-point; so that a heating of the beam array causes a beam array buckling and the coupling beam to translate in a predetermined direction generally normal to and outward from the second sides of the array beams.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SEVERAL VIEWS OF THE DRAWING

FIG. 1 is a block diagram of an optical waveguide switch 100 a comprising a first embodiment 200 of a thermal actuator.

FIG. 2 is a block diagram of an optical waveguide switch 100 b comprising a second embodiment 300 of thermal actuator.

FIG. 3 is a block diagram of an optical waveguide switch 100 c comprising a third embodiment 400 of a thermal actuator.

FIGS. 4–6 depict the first embodiment 200 of the thermal actuator as follows:

FIG. 4 is an elevated top-down “birds-eye” view of the thermal actuator 200, including a first reference line 5 and a second reference line 6.

FIG. 5 is a first “cut-away” side or profile view of the thermal actuator 200 along the FIG. 4 first reference line 5.

FIG. 6 is a second “cut-away” side or profile view of the thermal actuator 200 along the FIG. 4 second reference line 6.

FIGS. 7–9 depict the second embodiment 300 of the thermal actuator as follows:

FIG. 7 is an elevated top-down “birds-eye” view of the thermal actuator 300, including a first reference line 8 and a second reference line 9.

FIG. 8 is a first “cut-away” side or profile view of the thermal actuator 300 along the FIG. 7 first reference line 8.

FIG. 9 is a second “cut-away” side or profile view of the thermal actuator 300 along the FIG. 7 second reference line 9.

FIGS. 10–12 depict the third embodiment 400 of the thermal actuator as follows:

FIG. 10 is an elevated top-down “birds-eye” view of the thermal actuator 400, including a first reference line 11 and a second reference line 12.

FIG. 11 is a first “cut-away” side or profile view of the thermal actuator 400 along the FIG. 10 first reference line 11.

FIG. 12 is a second “cut-away” side or profile view of the thermal actuator 400 along the FIG. 10 second reference line 12.

FIG. 13 is a block diagram of an optical waveguide switch 100 d comprising a fourth embodiment 500 of a thermal actuator.

FIG. 14 is a block diagram of an optical waveguide switch 100 e comprising a fifth embodiment 600 of thermal actuator.

FIG. 15 is a block diagram of an optical waveguide switch 100 f comprising a sixth embodiment 700 of a thermal actuator.

FIG. 16 is a block diagram of an optical waveguide switch 100 g comprising a seventh embodiment 800 of a thermal actuator.

FIG. 17 is a block diagram of an optical waveguide switch 100 h comprising an eighth embodiment 900 of thermal actuator.

FIG. 18 is a block diagram of an optical waveguide switch 100 i comprising a ninth embodiment 1000 of a thermal actuator.

FIG. 19 is an elevated top-down “birds-eye” view of the fourth embodiment 500 of the thermal actuator, including reference lines 2024.

FIG. 20 is a “cut-away” side or profile view of the thermal actuator 500 along the reference line 20.

FIG. 21 is a “cut-away” side or profile view of the thermal actuator 500 along the reference line 21.

FIG. 22 is a “cut-away” side or profile view of the thermal actuator 500 along the reference line 22.

FIG. 23 is a “cut-away” side or profile view of the thermal actuator 500 along the reference line 23.

FIG. 24 is a “cut-away” side or profile view of the thermal actuator 500 along the reference line 24.

FIG. 25 is an elevated top-down “birds-eye” view of the fifth embodiment 600 of the thermal actuator, including reference lines 2630.

FIG. 26 is a “cut-away” side or profile view of the thermal actuator 600 along the reference line 26.

FIG. 27 is a “cut-away” side or profile view of the thermal actuator 600 along the reference line 27.

FIG. 28 is a “cut-away” side or profile view of the thermal actuator 600 along the reference line 28.

FIG. 29 is a “cut-away” side or profile view of the thermal actuator 600 along the reference line 29.

FIG. 30 is a “cut-away” side or profile view of the thermal actuator 600 along the reference line 30.

FIG. 31 is an elevated top-down “birds-eye” view of the sixth embodiment 700 of the thermal actuator, including reference lines 3236.

FIG. 32 is a “cut-away” side or profile view of the thermal actuator 700 along the reference line 32.

FIG. 33 is a “cut-away” side or profile view of the thermal actuator 700 along the reference line 33.

FIG. 34 is a “cut-away” side or profile view of the thermal actuator 700 along the reference line 34.

FIG. 35 is a “cut-away” side or profile view of the thermal actuator 700 along the reference line 35.

FIG. 36 is a “cut-away” side or profile view of the thermal actuator 700 along the reference line 36.

FIG. 37 is an elevated top-down “birds-eye” view of the seventh embodiment 800 of the thermal actuator, including reference lines 3842.

FIG. 38 is a “cut-away” side or profile view of the thermal actuator 800 along the reference line 38.

FIG. 39 is a “cut-away” side or profile view of the thermal actuator 800 along the reference line 39.

FIG. 40 is a “cut-away” side or profile view of the thermal actuator 800 along the reference line 40.

FIG. 41 is a “cut-away” side or profile view of the thermal actuator 800 along the reference line 41.

FIG. 42 is a “cut-away” side or profile view of the thermal actuator 800 along the reference line 42.

FIG. 43 is an elevated top-down “birds-eye” view of then eighth embodiment 900 of the thermal actuator, including reference lines 4448.

FIG. 44 is a “cut-away” side or profile view of the thermal actuator 900 along the reference line 44.

FIG. 45 is a “cut-away” side or profile view of the thermal actuator 900 along the reference line 45.

FIG. 46 is a “cut-away” side or profile view of the thermal actuator 900 along the reference line 46.

FIG. 47 is a “cut-away” side or profile view of the thermal actuator 900 along the reference line 47.

FIG. 48 is a “cut-away” side or profile view of the thermal actuator 900 along the reference line 48.

FIG. 49 is an elevated top-down “birds-eye” view of the ninth embodiment 1000 of the thermal actuator 1000, including reference lines 5054.

FIG. 50 is a “cut-away” side or profile view of the thermal actuator 1000 along the reference line 50.

FIG. 51 is a “cut-away” side or profile view of the thermal actuator 1000 along the reference line 51.

FIG. 52 is a “cut-away” side or profile view of the thermal actuator 1000 along the reference line 52.

FIG. 53 is a “cut-away” side or profile view of the thermal actuator 1000 along the reference line 53.

FIG. 54 is a “cut-away” side or profile view of the thermal actuator 1000 along the reference line 54.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

Referring now to the optical waveguide switches 100 a, 100 b, 100 c and their corresponding thermal actuators 200, 300, 400 described below in connection with FIGS. 1–12, in brief, a thermal actuator 200, 300 or 400 comprises a plurality of substantially straight and parallel beams arranged to form a beam array. The mid-point of each beam is attached or coupled to an orthogonal coupling beam. Each array beam has a beam heating parameter with a corresponding beam heating parameter value. The beam heating parameter values vary across the beam array based on a predetermined pattern. As the beams are heated by an included heating means, the distribution of beam temperatures in the beam array becomes asymmetric, thus causing the beam array to buckle. The buckling of the beams in the beam array, in turn, causes the attached coupling beam to translate or move in a predetermined direction. The coupling beam movement, in turn, operates an included optical waveguide switch 100 a, 100 b or 100 c. The beams in the beam array are heated by any of Joule heating, eddy current heating, conduction heating, convection heating and radiation heating.

Referring now to the optical waveguide switches 100 d and 100 f and their corresponding thermal actuators 500 and 700 described below in connection with FIGS. 13, 15, 1924 and 3136, in brief, a thermal actuator 500 or 700 comprises a substantially straight beam 510 or 710. The beam has a beam length 518 or 718 and a beam mid-point 519 or 719. The beam comprises a plurality of beam segments 520, 522, 524 or 720, 722, 724 with corresponding beam segment widths 525, 526, 527 or 725, 726, 727. The beam segment widths vary along the beam length based on a predetermined pattern. As the beam is heated by an included heating means, the beam buckles. The buckling of the beam, in turn, causes the beam mid-point to translate or move in a predetermined direction 548 or 748. The beam mid-point movement, in turn, operates an included optical waveguide switch 100 d or 100 f. The heating means comprises any of Joule heating, eddy current heating, conduction heating, convection heating and radiation heating.

Referring now to the optical waveguide switches 100 e and 100 g and their corresponding thermal actuators 600 and 800 described below in connection with FIGS. 14, 16, 2530 and 3742, in brief, a thermal actuator 600 or 800 comprises a plurality of beams 610 a, 610 b, 610 c or 810 a, 810 b, 810 c, each beam substantially similar to the beam 510 or 710 described above, the plurality of beams arranged to form a beam array 613 or 813. The mid-point of each beam is attached or coupled to an orthogonal coupling beam 614 or 814. As the plurality of beams are heated by an included heating means, the beam array buckles. The buckling of the beams in the beam array, in turn, causes the attached coupling beam to more in a predetermined direction 648 or 848. The coupling beam movement, in turn, operates an included optical waveguide switch 100 e or 100 g. The heating means comprises any of Joule heating, eddy current heating, conduction heating, convection heating and radiation heating.

Referring now to the optical waveguide switch 100 h and its corresponding thermal actuator 900 described below in connection with FIGS. 17 and 4348, in brief, a thermal actuator 900 comprises a substantially straight beam 910. The beam has a beam length 918 and a beam mid-point 919. The beam comprises a plurality of beam segments 920, 921, 922, 923, 924 with beam segment lengths. Each beam segment has a beam segment average width, thus forming a corresponding plurality of beam segment average widths 925, 931, 926, 933, 927. The beam segment average widths vary along the beam length based on a predetermined pattern. As the beam is heated by an included heating means, the beam buckles. The buckling of the beam, in turn, causes the beam mid-point to translate or move in a predetermined direction 948. The beam mid-point movement, in turn, operates an included optical waveguide switch 100 h. The heating means comprises any of Joule heating, eddy current heating, conduction heating, convection heating and radiation heating.

Referring now to the optical waveguide switch 100 i and its corresponding thermal actuator 1000 described below in connection with FIGS. 18 and 4954, in brief, a thermal actuator 1000 comprises a plurality of beams 1010 a, 1010 b, 1010 c, the plurality of beams arranged to form a beam array 1009. Each beam comprises a plurality of beam segments 1020, 1021, 1022, 1023, 1024. Each beam segment has a beam segment average width, the plurality of beams thus forming a corresponding plurality of beam segment average widths 1025 a, 1031 a, 1026 a, 1033 a, 1027 a; 1025 b, 1031 b, 1026 b, 1033 b, 1027 b; 1025 c, 1031 c, 1026 c, 1033 c, 1027 c. The plurality of beam segment average widths corresponding to each beam vary along the beam length based on a predetermined pattern. The mid-point 1019 of each beam is attached or coupled to an orthogonal coupling beam 1005. As the plurality of beams are heated by an included heating means, the beam array buckles. The buckling of the beams in the beam array, in turn, causes the attached coupling beam to more in a predetermined direction 1048. The coupling beam movement, in turn, operates an included optical waveguide switch 100 i. The heating means comprises any of Joule heating, eddy current heating, conduction heating, convection heating and radiation heating.

Referring now to FIG. 1, there is shown a block diagram of an optical waveguide switch 100 a comprising a first embodiment 200 of a thermal actuator. The thermal actuator 200 is described in greater detail in connection with FIGS. 4–6 below.

Referring now to FIG. 2, there is shown a block diagram of an optical waveguide switch 100 b comprising a second embodiment 300 of thermal actuator. The thermal actuator 300 is described in greater detail in connection with FIGS. 7–9 below.

Referring now to FIG. 3, there is shown a block diagram of an optical waveguide switch 100 c comprising a third embodiment 400 of a thermal actuator. The thermal actuator 400 is described in greater detail in connection with FIGS. 10–12 below.

Examples of optical waveguide switches that incorporate thermal actuators have been described in the application of Joel Kubby, U.S. Pat. Application No. 60/456,086, filed Mar. 19, 2003; and in the applications of Joel Kubby et al., U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/986,395, filed Nov. 8, 2001, now U.S. patent application Publication No. 20030086641, published May 8, 2003; and U.S. Pat. Application No. 60/456,063, filed Mar. 19, 2003, all of the foregoing patent applications being incorporated by reference herein.

FIGS. 4–6 depict the thermal actuator 200 in greater detail.

Referring now to FIG. 4, there is shown an elevated top-down “birds-eye” view of the thermal actuator 200, including a first reference line 5 and a second reference line 6. As shown, the thermal actuator 200 comprises a substrate 202 having a surface 204; a first support 206 and a second support 208 disposed on the surface and extending orthogonally therefrom, a plurality of beams 212 a212 d extending in parallel between the first support and the second support, thus forming a beam array 214, each beam being agonic and substantially straight; each beam of the beam array having a beam width 226 with a corresponding beam width value, the beams in the beam array having beam width values that vary based on a predetermined pattern; and an included coupling beam 220 extending orthogonally across the beam array to couple each array beam substantially at its mid-point.

The predetermined pattern is characterized in that, across the beam array 214 from one side 250 of the beam array to the opposite side 252 of the beam array, successive beam width values do not decrease and at least sometimes increase.

Each pair 222 of adjacent beams in the beam array 214 has a beam spacing 224 with a corresponding beam spacing value, with all such pairs of adjacent beams in the beam array having substantially the same beam spacing value.

As shown in FIG. 4, with cross-reference to FIGS. 5–6, in one embodiment, the thermal actuator 200 includes a heater layer 228 disposed on the surface facing the plurality of beams and arranged to heat the plurality of beams. The heater layer is coupled to a heater layer input 238 and a heater layer output 240 and arranged to cause or form a heating of the plurality of beams.

The heater layer 228 can be thermally isolated from the substrate as described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,706,041 and No. 5,851,412 to Joel Kubby, both of which patents are incorporated by reference herein.

Further, in one embodiment, each beam of the plurality of beams is arranged to be heated by a beam heater current 246 supplied by an included beam input 242 and beam output 244, thus resulting in a heating of the plurality of beams.

The plurality of beams can be thermally isolated from the substrate as described in the application of Joel Kubby, U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/683,533, filed Jan. 16, 2002, now U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 20030134445, published Jul. 17, 2003, which patent application is incorporated by reference herein.

As shown, the plurality of beams is arranged so that the heating of the plurality of beams causes a beam buckling and the coupling beam to translate in a predetermined direction 248. In one embodiment, the heating of the plurality of beams is supplied by the heater layer 228. In another embodiment, the heating of the plurality of beams is supplied by the beam heater current 246. In still another embodiment, the heating of the plurality of beams is supplied by a combination of the heater layer 228 and the beam heater current 246.

Referring generally to FIGS. 4–6, in one embodiment, each beam of the plurality of beams is fabricated of a low-conductivity material of either monocrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon.

In one embodiment, each beam of the plurality of beams is fabricated in a device layer 230 of a silicon-on-insulator wafer 232.

A method for fabricating the plurality of beams in a device layer of a silicon-on-insulator wafer is described in the U.S. Patents to Phillip D. Floyd et al., U.S. Pat. No. 6,002,507 and No. 6,014,240; and in the U.S. Patents to Joel Kubby et al., U.S. Pat. No. 6,362,512 and No. 6,379,989, all of the foregoing patents being incorporated by reference herein.

In one embodiment, the first support 206 and second support 208 are fabricated in a buried oxide layer 234 of a silicon-on-insulator wafer 232.

FIGS. 7–9 depict the thermal actuator 300 in greater detail.

Referring now to FIG. 7, there is shown an elevated top-down “birds-eye” view of the thermal actuator 300, including a first reference line 8 and a second reference line 9. As shown, the thermal actuator 300 comprises a substrate 302 having a surface 304; a first support 306 and a second support 308 disposed on the surface and extending orthogonally therefrom, a plurality of beams extending in parallel between the first support and the second support, thus forming a beam array 314, each beam being agonic and substantially straight; each pair 322 of adjacent beams in the beam array defining a beam spacing with a corresponding beam spacing value, the pairs of adjacent beams in the beam array having beam spacing values that vary based on a predetermined pattern; and an included coupling beam 320 extending orthogonally across the beam array to couple each array beam substantially at its mid-point.

The predetermined pattern is characterized in that, across the beam array 314 from one side 350 of the beam array to the opposite side 352 of the beam array, successive beam spacing values do not decrease and at least sometimes increase.

Each beam of the beam array 314 has a beam width 326 with a corresponding beam width value, with all beams of the beam array having substantially the same beam width value.

As shown in FIG. 7, with cross-reference to FIGS. 8–9, in one embodiment, the thermal actuator 300 includes a heater layer 328 disposed on the surface facing the plurality of beams and arranged to heat the plurality of beams. The heater layer is coupled to a heater layer input 338 and a heater layer output 340, and is arranged to cause or form a heating of the plurality of beams.

Further, in one embodiment, each beam of the plurality of beams is arranged to be heated by a beam heater current 346 supplied by an included beam input 342 and beam output 344, thus resulting in a heating of the plurality of beams.

As shown, the plurality of beams is arranged so that the heating of the plurality of beams causes a beam buckling and the coupling beam to translate in a predetermined direction 348. In one embodiment, the heating of the plurality of beams is supplied by the heater layer 328. In another embodiment, the heating of the plurality of beams is supplied by the beam heater current 346. In still another embodiment, the heating of the plurality of beams is supplied by a combination of the heater layer 328 and the beam heater current 346.

Referring generally to FIGS. 7–9, in one embodiment, each beam of the plurality of beams is fabricated of a low-conductivity material of either monocrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon.

In one embodiment, each beam of the plurality of beams is fabricated in a device layer 330 of a silicon-on-insulator wafer 332.

In one embodiment, the first support 306 and the second support 308 are fabricated in a buried oxide layer 334 of a silicon-on-insulator wafer 332.

FIGS. 10–12 depict the thermal actuator 400 in greater detail.

Referring now to FIG. 10, there is shown an elevated top-down “birds-eye” view of the thermal actuator 400, including a first reference line 11 and a second reference line 12. As shown, the thermal actuator 400 comprises a substrate 402 having a surface 404; a first support 406 and a second support 408 disposed on the surface and extending orthogonally therefrom, a plurality of beams 412 a412 e extending in parallel between the first support and the second support, thus forming a beam array 414, each beam being agonic and substantially straight; each beam of the beam array having a beam resistance 436 with a corresponding beam resistance value, the beams in the beam array having beam resistance values that vary based on a predetermined pattern; and an included coupling beam 420 extending orthogonally across the beam array to couple each array beam substantially at its mid-point.

The predetermined pattern is characterized in that, across the beam array 414 from one side 450 of the beam array to the opposite side 452 of the beam array, successive beam resistance values do not increase and at least sometimes decrease.

Each beam of the beam array 414 has a beam width 426 with a corresponding beam width value, with all beams of the beam array having substantially the same beam width value.

Each pair 422 of adjacent beams in the beam array 414 defines a beam spacing 424 with a corresponding beam spacing value, with all such pairs of adjacent beams in the beam array having substantially the same beam spacing value.

As shown in FIG. 10, with cross-reference to FIGS. 11–12, in one embodiment, each beam of the plurality of beams is arranged to be heated by a beam heater current 446 supplied by an included beam input 442 and beam output 444, thus causing or forming a heating of the plurality of beams.

As shown, the plurality of beams is arranged so that the heating of the plurality of beams causes a beam buckling and the coupling beam to translate in a predetermined direction 448.

Referring generally to FIGS. 10–12, in one embodiment, the thermal actuator 400 comprises a microelectromechanical or “MEMS” structure that is fabricated by any of surface and bulk micromachining.

In one embodiment, each beam of the plurality of beams is fabricated of a low-conductivity material of either monocrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon.

In one embodiment, each beam of the plurality of beams is fabricated in a device layer 430 of a silicon-on-insulator wafer 432.

In one embodiment, the first support 406 and the second support 408 are fabricated in a buried oxide layer 434 of a silicon-on-insulator wafer 432.

Referring again to FIGS. 4–6, there is described below a further aspect of the thermal actuator 200.

In FIGS. 4–6 there is shown the thermal actuator 200 comprising a substrate 202 having a surface 204; a first support 206 and a second support 208 disposed on the surface and extending orthogonally therefrom, a plurality of beams 212 a212 d extending in parallel between the first support and the second support, thus forming a beam array 214, each beam being agonic and substantially straight; each beam of the beam array having a beam heating parameter 254 with a corresponding beam heating parameter value, the beams in the beam array having beam heating parameter values that vary based on a predetermined pattern; and an included coupling beam 220 extending orthogonally across the beam array to couple each array beam substantially at its mid-point.

An example of a beam heating parameter 254 is the beam width 226. The beam width w will effect the heat flow ∂Q/∂t through the beam under a temperature gradient ∂T/∂x as determined by Fourier's law of heat conduction in one dimension;
Q/∂t=λ(T)A∂T/∂x;

where the beam cross-section area A is given by the product of the beam width w and the beam thickness t;
A=(w)(t);

and λ(T) is the temperature-dependent thermal conductivity of the beam. The beam width w will also effect the heat capacity of the beam, and thus the temperature of the beam as a function of time for a given heat input Q as given in one dimension by the heat equation;
ρC∂T/∂t−λ(T)∂T 2 /∂x 2 =Q+h(t ext −T)

where ρ is the density of the beam, C is the heat capacity of the beam, h is the convective heat transfer coefficient, and Text is the external temperature. For a given beam thickness t, a wider beam width w will increase the heat capacity of the beam, and thus decrease the temperature the beam will reach after a certain amount of time for a given heat input Q.

A further example of a beam heating parameter 254 is the beam spacing 224. Heat can be transferred between beams by conduction, convection and radiation. The smaller the beam spacing, the greater the heat transfer between beams. Heat lost by one beam can be transferred to a nearby beam, and vice-versa. Heat can also be lost from beams by conduction, convection and radiation to the surrounding environment. The larger the beam spacing, the greater the heat loss from a beam to the surrounding environment.

A final example of a beam heating parameter 254 is the beam electrical resistance R. The beam resistance R will effect the amount of heat Q generated by a current I flowing through a beam with a resistance R for a time t by;
Q=I2Rt

as given by Joule's law.

Each beam of the beam array 214 is characterized by an average beam temperature 236 a236 d, the average beam temperatures of the array beams thus forming an average beam temperature distribution 256. Further, there is provided heating means to heat each beam of the plurality of beams, thus causing or forming a heating of the plurality of beams. The heating means includes any of direct current Joule heating, by passing a beam heater current such as, for example, the beam current 246 through each beam, and indirect heating by conduction, convection or radiation from a heater layer such as, for example, the heater layer 228 disposed on the substrate, by passing a heater current through the heater layer. Further, in embodiments using a heater layer, the heater layer can be thermally isolated from the substrate as described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,706,041 and No. 5,851,412 to Joel Kubby, and in U.S. Pat. No. 6,362,512 to Joel Kubby et al., all of which patents are incorporated by reference herein.

The predetermined pattern is characterized in that, across the beam array 214 from one side 250 of the beam array to the opposite side 252 of the beam array, successive beam heating parameter values are arranged so that the beam temperature distribution becomes asymmetric based on the heating of the plurality of beams.

As shown, the plurality of beams is arranged so that the heating of the plurality of beams causes a beam buckling and the coupling beam 220 to translate in a predetermined direction 248.

Further heating of the plurality of the beams causes further expansion of the beams, thus causing the coupling beam to further translate in the predetermined direction 248.

In one embodiment, the heating of the plurality of beams comprises any of Joule heating, eddy current heating, conduction heating, convection heating and radiation heating.

Referring again to FIGS. 7–9, there is described below a further aspect of the thermal actuator 300.

In FIGS. 7–9 there is shown the thermal actuator 300 comprising a substrate 302 having a surface 304; a first support 306 and a second support 308 disposed on the surface and extending orthogonally therefrom, a plurality of beams 312 a312 e extending in parallel between the first support and the second support, thus forming a beam array 314, each beam being agonic and substantially straight; each beam of the beam array having a beam heating parameter 354 with a corresponding beam heating parameter value, the beams in the beam array having beam heating parameter values that vary based on a predetermined pattern; and an included coupling beam 320 extending orthogonally across the beam array to couple each array beam substantially at its mid-point.

Each beam of the beam array 314 is characterized by an average beam temperature, the average beam temperatures of the array beams thus forming an average beam temperature distribution. Further, there is provided heating means to heat each beam of the plurality of beams, thus causing or forming a heating of the plurality of beams. The heating means includes any of direct current Joule heating, by passing a beam heater current such as, for example, the beam current 346 through each beam, and indirect heating by conduction, convection or radiation from a heater layer such as, for example, the heater layer 328 disposed on the substrate, by passing a heater current through the heater layer. Further, in embodiments using a heater layer, the heater layer can be thermally isolated from the substrate as described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,706,041 and No. 5,851,412 to Joel Kubby, and in U.S. Pat. No. 6,362,512 to Joel Kubby et al., all of which patents are incorporated by reference herein.

The predetermined pattern is characterized in that, across the beam array 314 from one side 350 of the beam array to the opposite side 352 of the beam array, successive beam heating parameter values are arranged so that the beam temperature distribution becomes asymmetric based on the heating of the plurality of beams.

As shown, the plurality of beams is arranged so that the heating of the plurality of beams causes a beam buckling and the coupling beam 320 to translate in a predetermined direction 348.

In one embodiment, the heating of the plurality of beams comprises any of Joule heating, eddy current heating, conduction heating, convection heating and radiation heating.

Referring again to FIGS. 10–12, there is described below a further aspect of the thermal actuator 400.

In FIGS. 10–12 there is shown the thermal actuator 400 comprising a substrate 402 having a surface 404; a first support 406 and a second support 408 disposed on the surface and extending orthogonally therefrom, a plurality of beams 412 a412 e extending in parallel between the first support and the second support, thus forming a beam array 414, each beam being agonic and substantially straight; each beam of the beam array having a beam heating parameter 454 with a corresponding beam heating parameter value, the beams in the beam array having beam heating parameter values that vary based on a predetermined pattern; and an included coupling beam 420 extending orthogonally across the beam array to couple each array beam substantially at its mid-point.

Each beam of the beam array 414 is characterized by an average beam temperature, the average beam temperatures of the array beams thus forming an average beam temperature distribution. Further, there is provided heating means to heat each beam of the plurality of beams, thus causing or forming a heating of the plurality of beams. The heating means includes any of direct current Joule heating, by passing a beam heater current such as, for example, the beam current 446 through each beam, and indirect heating by conduction, convection or radiation from a heater layer such as, for example, the heater layer 428 disposed on the substrate, by passing a heater current through the heater layer. Further, in embodiments using a heater layer, the heater layer can be thermally isolated from the substrate as described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,706,041 and No. 5,851,412 to Joel Kubby, and in U.S. Pat. No. 6,362,512 to Joel Kubby et al., all of which patents are incorporated by reference herein.

The predetermined pattern is characterized in that, across the beam array 414 from one side 450 of the beam array to the opposite side 452 of the beam array, successive beam heating parameter values are arranged so that the beam temperature distribution becomes asymmetric based on the heating of the plurality of beams.

As shown, the plurality of beams is arranged so that the heating of the plurality of beams causes a beam buckling and the coupling beam 420 to translate in a predetermined direction 448.

In one embodiment, the heating of the plurality of beams comprises any of Joule heating, eddy current heating, conduction heating, convection heating and radiation heating.

Referring now to FIG. 13, there is shown a block diagram of an optical waveguide switch 100 d comprising a fourth embodiment 500 of a thermal actuator. The thermal actuator 500 is described in greater detail in connection with FIGS. 19–24 below.

Referring now to FIG. 14, there is shown a block diagram of an optical waveguide switch 100 e comprising a fifth embodiment 600 of a thermal actuator. The thermal actuator 600 is described in greater detail in connection with FIGS. 25–30 below.

Referring now to FIG. 15, there is shown a block diagram of an optical waveguide switch 100 f comprising a sixth embodiment 700 of a thermal actuator. The thermal actuator 700 is described in greater detail in connection with FIGS. 31–36 below.

Referring now to FIG. 16, there is shown a block diagram of an optical waveguide switch 100 g comprising a seventh embodiment 800 of a thermal actuator. The thermal actuator 800 is described in greater detail in connection with FIGS. 37–42 below.

Referring now to FIG. 17, there is shown a block diagram of an optical waveguide switch 100 h comprising an eighth embodiment 900 of a thermal actuator. The thermal actuator 900 is described in greater detail in connection with FIGS. 43–48 below.

Referring now to FIG. 18, there is shown a block diagram of an optical waveguide switch 100 i comprising a ninth embodiment 1000 of a thermal actuator. The thermal actuator 1000 is described in greater detail in connection with FIGS. 49–54 below.

FIGS. 19–24 depict the thermal actuator 500 in greater detail.

Referring now to FIG. 19, there is shown an elevated top-down “birds-eye” view of the thermal actuator 500, including five (5) reference lines numbered 2024.

As shown in FIGS. 19–24, the thermal actuator 500 comprises a substrate 502 having a surface 504; a first support 506 and a second support 508 disposed on the surface 504 and extending orthogonally therefrom; a beam 510 extending between the first support 506 and the second support 508, the beam 510 having a first side 511, a second side 512, a beam length 518 and a beam mid-point 519, the beam 510 being substantially straight along the first side 511; the beam comprised of a plurality of beam segments 520, 522, 524, each beam segment of the plurality of beam segments having a beam segment width 525, 526, 527 orthogonal to the beam length 518, the beam 510 thus forming a corresponding plurality of beam segment widths; wherein the plurality of beam segment widths 525, 526, 527 corresponding to the beam 510 vary along the beam length 518 based on a predetermined pattern; so that a heating of the beam 510 causes a beam buckling and the beam mid-point 519 to translate in a predetermined direction 548 generally normal to and outward from the second side 512.

As shown in FIG. 19, in one embodiment, the predetermined pattern is characterized in that, along the beam length 518 from the first support 506 to the beam mid-point 519, beam segment widths 525, 526 corresponding to successive beam segments 520, 522 do not decrease and at least sometimes increase, and along the beam length 518 from the beam mid-point 519 to the second support 508, beam segment widths 526, 527 corresponding to successive beam segments 522, 524 do not increase and at least sometimes decrease.

In one embodiment, the heating of the beam 510 is provided by an included heater layer 528 disposed on the surface 504, the heater layer coupled to a heater layer input 538 and a heater layer output 540.

In another embodiment, the heating of the beam 510 is provided by a beam heater current 546 supplied by an included beam input 542 and beam output 544.

In one embodiment, the beam is fabricated of a low-conductivity material of either monocrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon.

In another embodiment, the beam is fabricated in a device layer of a silicon-on-insulator wafer.

As shown in FIG. 19, in one embodiment, the beam 510 comprises exactly three (3) beam segments 520, 522, 524.

In another embodiment, the beam 510 comprises a plurality (n) of beam segments, where n does not equal 3. In this embodiment, for example, n equals 2, 4, 5, 12, 15, 32, 82, 109, 188, 519, 1003, etc.

As shown in FIG. 19, in one embodiment, the beam 510 comprises exclusively beam segments 520, 522, 524 having substantially parallel sides.

As further shown in FIG. 19, in one embodiment, the beam 510 comprises exactly two (2) beam segments 520, 524 that are substantially equal with respect to their corresponding beam segment lengths and beam segment widths 525, 527.

FIGS. 25–30 depict the thermal actuator 600 in greater detail.

Referring now to FIG. 25, there is shown an elevated top-down “birds-eye” view of the thermal actuator 600, including five (5) reference lines numbered 2630.

As shown in FIGS. 25–30, the thermal actuator 600 comprises a substrate 602 having a surface 604; a first support 606 and a second support 608 disposed on the surface 604 and extending orthogonally therefrom; a plurality of beams 610 a, 610 b, 610 c extending in parallel between the first support 606 and the second support 608, thus forming a beam array 613; each beam 610 a, 610 b, 610 c of the beam array 613 having a first side 611 a, 611 b, 611 c, a second side 612 a, 612 b, 612 c, a beam length 618 and a beam mid-point 619, each beam being substantially straight along its first side 611 a, 611 b, 611 c; each beam 610 a, 610 b, 610 c of the beam array 613 comprised of a plurality of beam segments 620, 622, 624, each beam segment of the plurality of beam segments having a beam segment width 625 a, 626 a, 627 a; 625 b, 626 b, 627 b; 625 c, 626 c, 627 c orthogonal to the beam length 618, each beam thus forming a corresponding plurality of beam segment widths; wherein the plurality of beam segment widths 625 a, 626 a, 627 a; 625 b, 626 b, 627 b; 625 c, 626 c, 627 c corresponding to each beam 610 a, 610 b, 610 c vary along the beam length 618 based on a predetermined pattern; an included coupling beam 614 extending orthogonally across the beam array 613 to couple each beam 610 a, 610 b, 610 c of the beam array 613 substantially at the corresponding beam mid-point 619; so that a heating of the beam array causes a beam array buckling and the coupling beam 614 to translate in a predetermined direction 648 generally normal to and outward from the second sides 612 a, 612 b, 612 c of the array beams 610 a, 610 b, 610 c.

In one embodiment, the predetermined pattern is characterized in that, along the beam length 618 from the first support 606 to the beam mid-point 619, beam segment widths 625 a, 626 a, 627 a; 625 b, 626 b, 627 b corresponding to successive beam segments 620, 622 do not decrease and at least sometimes increase, and along the beam length 618 from the beam mid-point 619 to the second support 608, beam segment widths 625 b, 626 b, 627 b; 625 c, 626 c, 627 c corresponding to successive beam segments 622, 624 do not increase and at least sometimes decrease.

In one embodiment, the heating of the beam array is provided by an included heater layer 628 disposed on the surface 604, the heater layer coupled to a heater layer input 638 and a heater layer output 640.

In another embodiment, each beam of the beam array is heated by a beam heater current 646 a, 646 b, 646 c supplied by an included beam input 642 and beam output 644, thus forming the heating of the beam array.

In one embodiment, each beam of the beam array is fabricated of a low-conductivity material of either monocrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon.

In another embodiment, each beam of the beam array is fabricated in a device layer of a silicon-on-insulator wafer.

As shown in FIG. 25, in one embodiment, each beam 610 a, 610 b, 610 c of the beam array 613 comprises exactly three (3) beam segments 620, 622, 624.

In another embodiment, each beam of the beam array 613 comprises a plurality (n) of beam segments, where n does not equal 3. In this embodiment, for example, n equals 2, 4, 5, 12, 15, 32, 82, 109, 188, 519, 1003, etc.

As shown in FIG. 25, in one embodiment, the beam array 613 comprises exactly three (3) beams.

In another embodiment, the beam array 613 comprises a plurality (n) of beams, where n does not equal 3. In this embodiment, for example, n equals 2, 4, 5, 12, 15, 32, 82, 109, 188, 519, 1003, etc.

FIGS. 31–36 depict the thermal actuator 700 in greater detail.

Referring now to FIG. 31, there is shown an elevated top-down “birds-eye” view of the thermal actuator 700, including five (5) reference lines numbered 3236.

As shown in FIGS. 31–36, the thermal actuator 700 comprises a substrate 702 having a surface 704; a first support 706 and a second support 708 disposed on the surface 704 and extending orthogonally therefrom; a beam 710 extending between the first support 706 and the second support 708, the beam 710 having a first side 711, a second side 712, a beam length 718 and a beam mid-point 719, the beam 710 being substantially straight along the second side 712; the beam comprised of a plurality of beam segments 720, 722, 724, each beam segment of the plurality of beam segments being having a beam segment width 725, 726, 727 orthogonal to the beam length 718, the beam 710 thus forming a corresponding plurality of beam segment widths; wherein the plurality of beam segment widths 725, 726, 727 corresponding to the beam 710 vary along the beam length 718 based on a predetermined pattern; so that a heating of the beam 710 causes a beam buckling and the beam mid-point 719 to translate in a predetermined direction 748 generally normal to and outward from the second side 712.

As shown in FIG. 31, in one embodiment, the predetermined pattern is characterized in that, along the beam length 718 from the first support 706 to the beam mid-point 719, beam segment widths 725, 726 corresponding to successive beam segments 720, 722 do not increase and at least sometimes decrease, and along the beam length 718 from the beam mid-point 719 to the second support 708, beam segment widths 726, 727 corresponding to successive beam segments 722, 724 do not decrease and at least sometimes increase.

In one embodiment, the heating of the beam 710 is provided by an included heater layer 728 disposed on the surface 704, the heater layer coupled to a heater layer input 738 and a heater layer output 740.

In another embodiment, the heating of the beam 710 is provided by a beam heater current 746 supplied by an included beam input 742 and beam output 744.

In one embodiment, the beam is fabricated of a low-conductivity material of either monocrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon.

In another embodiment, the beam is fabricated in a device layer of a silicon-on-insulator wafer.

As shown in FIG. 31, in one embodiment, the beam 710 comprises exactly three (3) beam segments 720, 722, 724.

In another embodiment, the beam 710 comprises a plurality (n) of beam segments, where n does not equal 3. In this embodiment, for example, n equals 2, 4, 5, 12, 15, 32, 82, 109, 188, 519, 1003, etc.

As shown, in one embodiment, the beam 710 comprises exclusively beam segments 720, 722, 724 having substantially parallel sides.

As shown, in one embodiment, the beam 710 comprises exactly two (2) beam segments 720, 724 that are substantially equal with respect to their corresponding beam segment lengths and beam segment widths 725, 727.

FIGS. 37–42 depict the thermal actuator 800 in greater detail.

Referring now to FIG. 37, there is shown an elevated top-down “birds-eye” view of the thermal actuator 800, including five (5) reference lines numbered 3842.

As shown in FIGS. 37–42, the thermal actuator 800 comprises a substrate 802 having a surface 804; a first support 806 and a second support 808 disposed on the surface 804 and extending orthogonally therefrom; a plurality of beams 810 a, 810 b, 810 c extending in parallel between the first support 806 and the second support 808, thus forming a beam array 813; each beam 810 a, 810 b, 810 c of the beam array 813 having a first side 811 a, 811 b, 811 c, a second side 812 a, 812 b, 812 c, a beam length 818 and a beam mid-point 819, each beam being substantially straight along its second side 812 a, 812 b, 812 c; each beam 810 a, 810 b, 810 c of the beam array 813 comprised of a plurality of beam segments 820, 822, 824, each beam segment of the plurality of beam segments having a beam segment width 825 a, 826 a, 827 a; 825 b, 826 b, 827 b; 825 c, 826 c, 827 c orthogonal to the beam length 818, each beam thus forming a corresponding plurality of beam segment widths; wherein the plurality of beam segment widths 825 a, 826 a, 827 a; 825 b, 826 b, 827 b; 825 c, 826 c, 827 c corresponding to each beam 810 a, 810 b, 810 c vary along the beam length 818 based on a predetermined pattern; an included coupling beam 814 extending orthogonally across the beam array 813 to couple each beam 810 a, 810 b, 810 c of the beam array 813 substantially at the corresponding beam mid-point 819; so that a heating of the beam array causes a beam array buckling and the coupling beam 814 to translate in a predetermined direction 848 generally normal to and outward from the second sides 812 a, 812 b, 812 c of the array beams 810 a, 810 b, 810 c.

As shown in FIG. 37, in one embodiment, the predetermined pattern is characterized in that, along the beam length 818 from the first support 806 to the beam mid-point 819, beam segment widths 825 a, 826 a, 827 a; 825 b, 826 b, 827 b corresponding to successive beam segments 820, 822 do not increase and at least sometimes decrease, and along the beam length 818 from the beam mid-point 819 to the second support 808, beam segment widths 825 b, 826 b, 827 b; 825 c, 826 c, 827 c corresponding to successive beam segments 822, 824 do not decrease and at least sometimes increase.

In one embodiment, the heating of the beam array is provided by an included heater layer 828 disposed on the surface 804, the heater layer coupled to a heater layer input 838 and a heater layer output 840.

In another embodiment, each beam of the beam array is heated by a beam heater current 846 a, 846 b, 846 c supplied by an included beam input 842 and beam output 844, thus forming the heating of the beam array.

In one embodiment, each beam of the beam array is fabricated of a low-conductivity material of either monocrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon.

In another embodiment, each beam of the beam array is fabricated in a device layer of a silicon-on-insulator wafer.

As shown in FIG. 37, in one embodiment, each beam 810 a, 810 b, 810 c of the beam array 813 comprises exactly three (3) beam segments 820, 822, 824.

In another embodiment, each beam of the beam array 813 comprises a plurality (n) of beam segments, where n does not equal 3. In this embodiment, for example, n equals 2, 4, 5, 12, 15, 32, 82, 109, 188, 519, 1003, etc.

As shown in FIG. 37, in one embodiment, the beam array 813 comprises exactly three (3) beams.

In another embodiment, the beam array 813 comprises a plurality (n) of beams, where n does not equal 3. In this embodiment, for example, n equals 2, 4, 5, 12, 15, 32, 82, 109, 188, 519, 1003, etc.

FIGS. 43–48 depict the thermal actuator 900 in greater detail.

Referring now to FIG. 43, there is shown an elevated top-down “birds-eye” view of the thermal actuator 900, including five (5) reference lines numbered 4448.

As shown in FIGS. 43–48, the thermal actuator 900 comprises a substrate 902 having a surface 904; a first support 906 and a second support 908 disposed on the surface 904 and extending orthogonally therefrom; a beam 910 extending between the first support 906 and the second support 908, the beam 910 having a first side 911, a second side 912, a beam length 918 and a beam mid-point 919, the beam 910 being substantially straight along the first side 911; the beam comprised of a plurality of beam segments 920, 921, 922, 923, 924, each beam segment of the plurality of beam segments having a beam segment average width 925, 931, 926, 933, 927 orthogonal to the beam length 918, the beam 910 thus forming a corresponding plurality of beam segment average widths; wherein the plurality of beam segment average widths 925, 931, 926, 933, 927 corresponding to the beam 910 vary along the beam length 918 based on a predetermined pattern; so that a heating of the beam 910 causes a beam buckling and the beam mid-point 919 to translate in a predetermined direction 948 generally normal to and outward from the second side 912.

As shown in FIG. 43, in one embodiment, the predetermined pattern is characterized in that, along the beam length 918 from the first support 906 to the beam mid-point 919, beam segment average widths 925, 931, 926 corresponding to successive beam segments 920, 921, 922 do not decrease and at least sometimes increase, and along the beam length 918 from the beam mid-point 919 to the second support 908, beam segment average widths 926, 933, 927 corresponding to successive beam segments 922, 923, 924 do not increase and at least sometimes decrease.

Still referring to FIG. 43, it will be understood that the predetermined pattern of beam segment average widths 925, 931, 926, 933, 927 depicted therein corresponds to a first beam moment 956 and a second beam moment 958, as shown.

In one embodiment, the heating of the beam 910 is provided by an included heater layer 928 disposed on the surface 904, the heater layer coupled to a heater layer input 938 and a heater layer output 940.

In another embodiment, the heating of the beam 910 is provided by a beam heater current 946 supplied by an included beam input 942 and beam output 944.

In one embodiment, the beam is fabricated of a low-conductivity material of either monocrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon.

In another embodiment, the beam is fabricated in a device layer of a silicon-on-insulator wafer.

As shown in FIG. 43, in one embodiment, the beam 910 comprises exactly five (5) beam segments 920, 921, 922, 923, 924.

In another embodiment, the beam 910 comprises a plurality (n) of beam segments, where n does not equal 5. In this embodiment, for example, n equals 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 15, 32, 82, 109, 188, 519, 1003, etc.

As shown, in one embodiment, the beam 910 comprises exactly three (3) beam segments 920, 922, 924 having substantially parallel sides.

As shown, in one embodiment, the beam 910 comprises exactly two (2) beam segments 920, 924 that are substantially equal with respect to their corresponding beam segment lengths and beam segment widths 925, 927.

FIGS. 49–54 depict the thermal actuator 1000 in greater detail.

Referring now to FIG. 49, there is shown an elevated top-down “birds-eye” view of the thermal actuator 1000, including five (5) reference lines numbered 5054.

As shown in FIGS. 49–54, the thermal actuator 1000 comprises a substrate 1002 having a surface 1004; a first support 1006 and a second support 1008 disposed on the surface 1004 and extending orthogonally therefrom; a plurality of beams 1010 a, 1010 b, 1010 c extending in parallel between the first support 1006 and the second support 1008, thus forming a beam array 1009; each beam 1010 a, 1010 b, 1010 c of the beam array 1009 having a first side 1011 a, 1011 b, 1011 c, a second side 1012 a, 1012 b, 1012 c, a beam length 1018 and a beam mid-point 1019, each beam being substantially straight along its first side 1011 a, 1011 b, 1011 c; each beam 1010 a, 1010 b, 1010 c of the beam array 1009 comprised of a plurality of beam segments 1020, 1021, 1022, 1023, 1024, each beam segment of the plurality of beam segments having a beam segment average width 1025 a, 1031 a, 1026 a, 1033 a, 1027 a; 1025 b, 1031 b, 1026 b, 1033 b, 1027 b; 1025 c, 1031 c, 1026 c, 1033 c, 1027 c orthogonal to the beam length 1018, each beam thus forming a corresponding plurality of beam segment average widths; wherein the plurality of beam segment average widths 1025 a, 1031 a, 1026 a, 1033 a, 1027 a; 1025 b, 1031 b, 1026 b, 1033 b, 1027 b; 1025 c, 1031 c, 1026 c, 1033 c, 1027 c corresponding to each beam 1010 a, 1010 b, 1010 c vary along the beam length 1018 based on a predetermined pattern; an included coupling beam 1005 extending orthogonally across the beam array 1009 to couple each beam 1010 a, 1010 b, 1010 c of the beam array 1009 substantially at the corresponding beam mid-point 1019; so that a heating of the beam array causes a beam array buckling and the coupling beam 1014 to translate in a predetermined direction 1048 generally normal to and outward from the second sides 1012 a, 1012 b, 1012 c of the array beams 1010 a, 1010 b, 1010 c.

As shown in FIG. 49, in one embodiment, the predetermined pattern is characterized in that, along the beam length 1018 from the first support 1006 to the beam mid-point 1019, beam segment average widths 1025 a, 1031 a, 1026 a; 1025 b, 1031 b, 1026 b; 1025 c, 1031 c, 1026 c corresponding to successive beam segments 1020, 1021, 1022 do not decrease and at least sometimes increase, and along the beam length 1018 from the beam mid-point 1019 to the second support 1008, beam segment widths 1026 a, 1033 a, 1027 a; 1026 b, 1033 b, 1027 b; 1026 c, 1033 c, 1027 c corresponding to successive beam segments 1022, 1023, 1024 do not increase and at least sometimes decrease.

Still referring to FIG. 49, it will be understood that the predetermined pattern of beam segment average widths 1025 a, 1031 a, 1026 a, 1033 a, 1027 a; 1025 b, 1031 b, 1026 b, 1033 b, 1027 b; 1025 c, 1031 c, 1026 c, 1033 c, 1027 c depicted therein corresponds to a plurality of first beam moments 1056 a, 1056 b, 1056 c and second beam moments 1058 a, 1058 b, 1058 c, as shown.

In one embodiment, the heating of the beam array 1009 is provided by an included heater layer 1028 disposed on the surface 1004, the heater layer coupled to a heater layer input 1038 and a heater layer output 1040.

In another embodiment, each beam of the beam array 1009 is heated by a beam heater current 1046 a, 1046 b, 1046 c supplied by an included beam input 1042 and beam output 1044, thus forming the heating of the beam array.

In one embodiment, each beam of the beam array is fabricated of a low-conductivity material of either monocrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon.

In another embodiment, each beam of the beam array is fabricated in a device layer of a silicon-on-insulator wafer.

As shown in FIG. 49, in one embodiment, beam 1010 a, 1010 b, 1010 c of the beam array 1009 comprises exactly five (5) beam segments 1020, 1021, 1022, 1023, 1024.

In another embodiment, each beam of the beam array 1009 comprises a plurality (n) of beam segments, where n does not equal 5. In this embodiment, for example, n equals 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 15, 32, 82, 109, 188, 519, 1003, etc.

As shown in FIG. 49, in one embodiment, the beam array 1009 comprises exactly three (3) beams.

In another embodiment, the beam array 1009 comprises a plurality (n) of beams, where n does not equal 3. In this embodiment, for example, n equals 2, 4, 5, 12, 15, 32, 82, 109, 188, 519, 1003, etc.

The table below lists the drawing element reference numbers together with their corresponding written description:

Number: Description:
 100a optical waveguide switch comprising the thermal
actuator 200
 100b optical waveguide switch comprising the thermal
actuator 300
 100c optical waveguide switch comprising the thermal
actuator 400
 100d optical waveguide switch comprising the thermal
actuator 500
 100e optical waveguide switch comprising the thermal
actuator 600
 100f optical waveguide switch comprising the thermal
actuator 700
 100g optical waveguide switch comprising the thermal
actuator 800
 100h optical waveguide switch comprising the thermal
actuator 900
 100i optical waveguide switch comprising the thermal
actuator 1000
 200 first embodiment of a thermal
actuator
 202 substrate
 204 surface of the substrate 202
 206 first support
 208 second support
 210 support spacing
 212a–212d plurality of beams
 214 beam array
 216 first beam of the beam array 214
 218 last beam of the beam array 214
 220 coupling beam
 222 pair of adjacent beams in the beam array 214
 224 beam spacing
 226 beam width
 228 heater layer
 230 device layer
 232 silicon-on-insulator wafer
 234 buried oxide layer
 236 beam temperature
 238 heater layer input
 240 heater layer output
 242 beam input
 244 beam output
 246 beam heater current
 248 predetermined direction
 250 one side of the beam array 214
 252 opposite side of the beam array 214
 254 beam heating parameter
 256 beam temperature distribution of the beam array 214
 300 second embodiment of a thermal actuator
 302 substrate
 304 surface of the substrate 302
 306 first support
 308 second support
 310 support spacing
 312a–312e plurality of beams
 314 beam array
 316 first beam of the beam array 314
 318 last beam of the beam array 314
 320 coupling beam
 322 pair of adjacent beams in the beam array 314
 324 beam spacing
 326 beam width
 328 heater layer
 330 device layer
 332 silicon-on-insulator wafer
 334 buried oxide layer
 336 beam resistance
 338 heater layer input
 340 heater layer output
 342 beam input
 344 beam output
 346 beam heater current
 348 predetermined direction
 350 one side of the beam array 314
 352 opposite side of the beam array 314
 354 beam heating parameter
 400 third embodiment of a thermal actuator
 402 substrate
 404 surface of the substrate 402
 406 first support
 408 second support
 410 support spacing
 412a–412e plurality of beams
 414 beam array
 416 first beam of the beam array 414
 418 last beam of the beam array 414
 420 coupling beam
 422 pair of adjacent beams in the beam array 414
 424 beam spacing
 426 beam width
 428 heater layer
 430 device layer
 432 silicon-on-insulator wafer
 434 buried oxide layer
 436 beam resistance
 438 heater layer input
 440 heater layer output
 442 beam input
 444 beam output
 446 beam heater current
 448 predetermined direction
 450 one side of the beam array 414
 452 opposite side of the beam array 414
 454 beam heating parameter
 500 fourth embodiment of a thermal actuator
 502 substrate
 504 surface
 506 first support
 508 second support
 510 beam
 511 first beam side
 512 second beam side
 515 first beam segment neutral axis
 516 second beam segment neutral axis
 517 third beam segment neutral axis
 518 beam length
 519 beam mid-point
 520 first beam segment
 522 second beam segment
 524 third beam segment
 525 first beam segment width
 526 second beam segment width
 527 third beam segment width
 528 heater layer
 530 device layer
 532 handle wafer
 534 buried oxide layer
 538 substrate heater electrical input
 540 substrate heater electrical output
 542 beam heater electrical input
 544 beam heater electrical output
 546 beam heater current
 548 predetermined direction
 554 offset between first beam segment neutral axis 515 and
second beam segment neutral axis 516
 556 first beam moment
 557 offset between second beam segment neutral axis 516 and
third beam segment neutral axis 517
 558 second beam moment
 600 fifth embodiment of a thermal actuator
 602 substrate
 604 surface
 606 first support
 608 second support
 610a–610c plurality of beams
 611a–611c first beam side
 612a–612c second beam side
 613 beam array
 614 coupling beam
 615a–615c first beam segment neutral axis
 616a–616c second beam segment neutral axis
 617a–617c third beam segment neutral axis
 618 beam length
 619 beam mid-point
 620 first beam segment
 622 second beam segment
 624 third beam segment
 625a–625c first beam segment width
 626a–626c second beam segment width
 627a–627c third beam segment width
 628 heater layer
 630 device layer
 632 handle wafer
 634 buried oxide layer
 638 substrate heater electrical input
 640 substrate heater electrical output
 642 beam heater electrical input
 644 beam heater electrical output
 646a–646c beam heater current
 648 predetermined direction
 654a–654c offset between first beam segment neutral axis 615a–615c
and second beam segment neutral axis 616a–616c
 656a–656c first beam moment
 657a–657c offset between second beam segment neutral axis 616a–
616c and third beam segment neutral axis 617a–617c
 658a–658c second beam moment
 700 sixth embodiment of a thermal actuator
 702 substrate
 704 surface
 706 first support
 708 second support
 710 beam
 711 first beam side
 712 second beam side
 715 first beam segment neutral axis
 716 second beam segment neutral axis
 717 third beam segment neutral axis
 718 beam length
 719 beam mid-point
 720 first beam segment
 722 second beam segment
 724 third beam segment
 725 first beam segment width
 726 second beam segment width
 727 third beam segment width
 728 heater layer
 730 device layer
 732 handle wafer
 734 buried oxide layer
 738 substrate heater electrical input
 740 substrate heater electrical output
 742 beam heater electrical input
 744 beam heater electrical output
 746 beam heater current
 748 predetermined direction
 754 offset between first beam segment neutral axis 715 and
second beam segment neutral axis 716
 756 first beam moment
 757 offset between second beam segment neutral axis 716 and
third beam segment neutral axis 717
 758 second beam moment
 800 seventh embodiment of a thermal actuator
 802 substrate
 804 surface
 806 first support
 808 second support
 810a–810c plurality of beams
 811a–811c first beam side
 812a–812c second beam side
 813 beam array
 814 coupling beam
 815a–815c first beam segment neutral axis
 816a–816c second beam segment neutral axis
 817a–817c third beam segment neutral axis
 818 beam length
 819 beam mid-point
 820 first beam segment
 822 second beam segment
 824 third beam segment
 825a–825c first beam segment width
 826a–826c second beam segment width
 827a–827c third beam segment width
 828 heater layer
 830 device layer
 832 handle wafer
 834 buried oxide layer
 838 substrate heater electrical input
 840 substrate heater electrical output
 842 beam heater electrical input
 844 beam heater electrical output
 846a–846c beam heater current
 848 predetermined direction
 854a–854c offset between first beam segment neutral axis 815a–815c
and second beam segment neutral axis 816a–816c
 856a–856c first beam moment
 857a–857c offset between second beam segment neutral axis 816a–
816c and third beam segment neutral axis 817a–817c
 858a–858c second beam moment
 900 eighth embodiment of a thermal actuator
 902 substrate
 904 surface
 906 first support
 908 second support
 910 beam
 911 first beam side
 912 second beam side
 913 first beam segment neutral axis
 914 second beam segment neutral axis
 915 third beam segment neutral axis
 916 fourth beam segment neutral axis
 917 fifth beam segment neutral axis
 918 beam length
 919 beam mid-point
 920 first beam segment
 921 second beam segment
 922 third beam segment
 923 fourth beam segment
 924 fifth beam segment
 925 first beam segment average width
 926 third beam segment average width
 927 fifth beam segment average width
 928 heater layer
 930 device layer
 931 second beam segment average width
 932 substrate
 933 fourth beam segment average width
 934 buried oxide layer
 938 substrate heater electrical input
 940 substrate heater electrical output
 942 beam heater electrical input
 944 beam heater electrical output
 946 beam heater current
 948 predetermined direction
 954 offset between first beam segment neutral axis 913 and
third beam segment neutral axis 915
 956 first beam moment
 957 offset between third beam segment neutral axis 915 and
fifth beam segment neutral axis 917
 958 second beam moment
1000 ninth embodiment of a thermal actuator
1002 substrate
1004 surface
1005 coupling beam
1006 first support
1008 second support
1009 beam array
1010a–1010c plurality of beams
1011a–1011c first beam side
1012a–1012c second beam side
1013a–1013c first beam segment neutral axis
1014a–1014c second beam segment neutral axis
1015a–1015c third beam segment neutral axis
1016a–1016c fourth beam segment neutral axis
1017a–1017c fifth beam segment neutral axis
1018 beam length
1019 beam mid-point
1020 first beam segment
1021 second beam segment
1022 third beam segment
1023 fourth beam segment
1024 fifth beam segment
1025a–1025c first beam segment average width
1026a–1026c third beam segment average width
1027a–1027c fifth beam segment average width
1028 heater layer
1030 device layer
1031a–1031c second beam segment average width
1032 substrate
1033a–1033c fourth beam segment average width
1034 buried oxide layer
1038 substrate heater electrical input
1040 substrate heater electrical output
1042 beam heater electrical input
1044 beam heater electrical output
1046a–1046c beam heater current
1048 predetermined direction
1054a–1054c offset between first beam segment neutral axis 1013a–
1013c and third beam segment neutral axis 1015a–1015c
1056a–1056c first beam moment
1057a–1057c offset between third beam segment neutral axis 1015a–
1015c and fifth beam segment neutral axis 1017a–1017c
1058a–1058c second beam moment

While various embodiments of a thermal actuator and an optical waveguide switch including the same, in accordance with the present invention, have been described hereinabove, the scope of the invention is defined by the following claims.

Claims (120)

1. A thermal actuator (500) comprising:
a substrate having a surface;
a first support and a second support disposed on the surface and extending orthogonally therefrom;
a beam (510) extending between the first support and the second support, the beam having a first side (511), a second side (512), a beam length (518) and a beam mid-point (519), the beam being substantially straight along the first side (511);
the beam comprised of a plurality of beam segments (520, 522, 524), each beam segment of the plurality of beam segments having a beam segment width (525, 526, 527) orthogonal to the beam length, the beam thus forming a corresponding plurality of beam segment widths;
wherein the plurality of beam segment widths corresponding to the beam vary along the beam length based on a predetermined pattern;
so that a heating of the beam causes a beam buckling and the beam mid-point to translate in a predetermined direction (548) generally normal to and outward from the second side;
wherein the predetermined pattern is characterized in that, along the beam length from the first support to the beam mid-point, beam segment widths corresponding to successive beam segments do not decrease and at least sometimes increase, and along the beam length from the beam mid-point to the second support, beam segment widths corresponding to successive beam segments do not increase and at least sometimes decrease.
2. The thermal actuator of claim 1, the heating of the beam provided by an included heater layer disposed on the surface, the heater layer coupled to a heater layer input and a heater layer output.
3. The thermal actuator of claim 1, the heating of the beam provided by a beam heater current supplied by an included beam input and beam output.
4. The thermal actuator of claim 1, wherein the beam is fabricated of a low-conductivity material of either monocrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon.
5. The thermal actuator of claim 1, wherein the beam is fabricated in a device layer of a silicon-an-insulator wafer.
6. The thermal actuator of claim 1, wherein the beam comprises exactly three (3) beam segments.
7. The thermal actuator of claim 1, wherein the beam comprises a plurality (n) of beam segments, where n does not equal 3.
8. The thermal actuator of claim 1, wherein the beam comprises exclusively beam segments having substantially parallel sides.
9. The thermal actuator of claim 1, wherein the beam comprises exactly two (2) beam segments that are substantially equal with respect to their corresponding beam segment lengths and beam segment widths.
10. A thermal actuator (600) comprising:
a substrate having a surface;
a first support and a second support disposed on the surface and extending orthogonally therefrom;
a plurality of beams (610 a, 610 b, 610 c) extending in parallel between the first support and the second support, thus forming a beam array (613);
each beam of the beam array having a first side (611 a, 611 b, 611 c), a second side (612 a, 612 b, 612 c), a beam length (618) and a beam mid-point (619), each beam being substantially straight along its first side (611 a, 611 b, 611 c);
each beam of the beam array comprised of a plurality of beam segments (620, 622, 624), each beam segment of the plurality of beam segments having a beam segment width (625 a, 626 a, 627 a, 625 b, 626 b, 627 b, 625 c, 627 c, 627 c) orthogonal to the beam length, each beam thus forming a corresponding plurality of beam segment widths;
wherein the plurality of beam segment widths corresponding to each beam vary along the beam length based on a predetermined pattern;
an included coupling beam (614) extending orthogonally across the beam array to couple each beam of the beam array substantially at the corresponding beam mid-point;
so that a heating of the beam array causes a beam array buckling and the coupling beam to translate in a predetermined direction (648) generally normal to and outward from the second sides of the array beams;
wherein the predetermined pattern is characterized in that, along the beam length from the first support to the beam mid-point beam segment widths corresponding to successive beam segments do not decrease and at least sometimes increase, and along the beam length from the beam mid-point to the second support, beam segment widths corresponding to successive beam segments do not increase and at least sometimes decrease.
11. The thermal actuator of claim 10, the heating of the beam array provided by an included heater layer disposed on the surface, the heater layer coupled to a heater layer input and a heater layer output.
12. The thermal actuator of claim 10, wherein each beam of the beam array is heated by a beam heater current supplied by an included beam input and beam output, thus forming the heating of the beam array.
13. The thermal actuator of claim 10, wherein each beam of the beam array is fabricated of a low-conductivity material of either monocrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon.
14. The thermal actuator of claim 10, wherein each beam of the beam array is fabricated in a device layer of a silicon-on-insulator wafer.
15. The thermal actuator of claim 10, wherein each beam of the beam array comprises exactly three (3) beam segments.
16. The thermal actuator of claim 10, wherein each beam of the beam array comprises a plurality (n) of beam segments, where n does not equal 3.
17. The thermal actuator of claim 10, wherein the beam array comprises exactly three (3) beams.
18. The thermal actuator of claim 10, wherein the beam array comprises a plurality (n) of beams, where n does not equal 3.
19. The thermal actuator (600) of claim 10, wherein the coupling beam (614) intersects only a portion of one beam segment (622) in each beam of the plurality of beams (610 a, 610 b, 610 c) comprising the beam array (613).
20. The thermal actuator (600) of claim 19, wherein the beam array (613) comprises exactly three (3) beams (610 a, 610 b, 610 c) and wherein each beam of said three (3) beams comprises exactly three (3) beam segments (620, 622, 624).
21. A thermal actuator (700) comprising:
a substrate having a surface; a first support and a second support disposed on the surface and extending orthogonally therefrom;
a beam (710) extending between the first support and the second support, the beam having a first side (711), a second side (712), a beam length (718) and a beam mid-point (719), the beam being substantially straight along the second side (712);
the beam comprised of a plurality of beam segments, each beam segment of the plurality of beam segments having a beam segment width (725, 726, 727) orthogonal to the beam length, the beam thus forming a corresponding plurality of beam segment widths;
wherein the plurality of beam segment widths corresponding to the beam vary along the beam length based on a predetermined pattern;
so that a heating of the beam causes a beam buckling and the beam mid-point to translate in a predetermined direction (748) generally normal to and outward from the second side;
wherein the predetermined pattern is characterized in that, along the beam length from the first support to the beam mid-point, beam segment widths corresponding to successive beam segments do not increase and at least sometimes decrease, and along the beam length from the beam mid-point to the second support, beam segment widths corresponding to successive beam segments do not decrease and at least sometimes increase.
22. The thermal actuator of claim 21, the heating of the beam provided by an included heater layer disposed on the surface, the heater layer coupled to a heater layer input and a heater layer output.
23. The thermal actuator of claim 21, the heating of the beam provided by a beam heater current supplied by an included beam input and beam output.
24. The thermal actuator of claim 21, wherein the beam is fabricated of a low-conductivity material of either monocrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon.
25. The thermal actuator of claim 21, wherein the beam is fabricated in a device layer of a silicon-on-insulator wafer.
26. The thermal actuator of claim 21, wherein the beam comprises exactly three (3) beam segments.
27. The thermal actuator of claim 21, wherein the beam comprises a plurality (n) of beam segments, where n does not equal 3.
28. The thermal actuator of claim 21, wherein the beam comprises exclusively beam segments having substantially parallel sides.
29. The thermal actuator of claim 21, wherein the beam comprises exactly two (2) beam segments that are substantially equal with respect to their corresponding beam segment lengths and beam segment widths.
30. A thermal actuator (800) comprising:
a substrate having a surface; a first support and a second support disposed on the surface and extending orthogonally therefrom;
a plurality of beams (810 a, (810 b, 810 c) extending in parallel between the first support and the second support, thus forming a beam array (813);
each beam of the beam array having a first side (811 a, 811 b, 811 c), a second side (812 a, 812 b, 812 c), a beam length (818) and a beam mid-point (819), each beam being substantially straight along its second side (812 a, 812 b, 812 c);
each beam of the beam array comprised of a plurality of beam segments (820, 822, 824), each beam segment of the plurality of beam segments having a beam segment width (825 a, 826 a, 827 a, 825 b, 826 b, 827 b, 825 c, 826 c, 827 c) orthogonal to the beam length, each beam thus forming a corresponding plurality of beam segment widths;
wherein the plurality of beam segment widths corresponding to each beam vary along the beam length based on a predetermined pattern;
an included coupling beam (814) extending orthogonally across the beam array to couple each beam of the beam array substantially at the corresponding beam mid-point;
so that a heating of the beam array causes a beam array buckling and the coupling beam to translate in a predetermined direction (848) generally normal to and outward from the second sides of the array beams;
wherein the predetermined pattern is characterized in that, along the beam length from the first support to the beam mid-point, beam segment widths corresponding to successive beam segments do not increase and at least sometimes decrease, and along the beam length from the beam mid-point to the second support, beam segment widths corresponding to successive beam segments do not decrease and at least sometimes increase.
31. The thermal actuator of claim 30, the heating of the beam array provided by an included heater layer disposed on the surface, the heater layer coupled to a heater layer input and a heater layer output.
32. The thermal actuator of claim 30, wherein each beam of the beam array is heated by a beam heater current supplied by an included beam input and beam output, thus forming the heating of the beam array.
33. The thermal actuator of claim 30, wherein each beam of the beam array is fabricated of a low-conductivity material of either monocrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon.
34. The thermal actuator of claim 30, wherein each beam of the beam array is fabricated in a device layer of a silicon-on-insulator wafer.
35. The thermal actuator of claim 30, wherein each beam of the beam array comprises exactly three (3) beam segments.
36. The thermal actuator of claim 30, wherein each beam of the beam array comprises a plurality (n) of beam segments, where n does not equal 3.
37. The thermal actuator of claim 30, wherein the beam array comprises exactly three (3) beams.
38. The thermal actuator of claim 30, wherein the beam array 813 comprises a plurality (n) of beams, where n does not equal 3.
39. The thermal actuator (800) of claim 30, wherein the coupling beam (814) intersects only a portion of one beam segment (822) in each beam of the plurality of beams (810 a, 810 b, 810 c) comprising the beam array (813).
40. The thermal actuator (800) of claim 39, wherein the beam array (813) comprises exactly three (3) beams (810 a, 810 b, 810 c) and wherein each beam of said three (3) beams comprises exactly three (3) beam segments (820, 822, 824).
41. A thermal actuator (900) comprising:
a substrate having a surface;
a first support and a second support disposed on the surface and extending orthogonally therefrom;
a beam (910) extending between the first support and the second support, the beam having a first side (911), a second side (912), a beam length (918) and a beam mid-point (919), the beam being substantially straight along the first side (911);
the beam comprised of a plurality of beam segments (920, 921, 922, 923, 924), each beam segment of the plurality of beam segments having a beam segment average width (925, 931, 926, 933, 927) orthogonal to the beam length, the beam thus forming a corresponding plurality of beam segment average widths;
wherein the plurality of beam segment average widths corresponding to the beam vary along the beam length based on a predetermined pattern;
so that a heating of the beam causes a beam buckling and the beam mid-point to translate in a predetermined direction (948) generally normal to and outward from the second side;
wherein the predetermined pattern is characterized in that, along the beam length from the first support to the beam mid-point, beam segment average widths corresponding to successive beam segments do not decrease and at least sometimes increase, and along the beam length from the beam mid-point to the second support, beam segment average widths corresponding to successive beam segments do not increase and at least sometimes decrease.
42. The thermal actuator of claim 41, the heating of the beam provided by an included heater layer disposed on the surface, the heater layer coupled to a heater layer input and a heater layer output.
43. The thermal actuator of claim 41, the heating of the beam provided by a beam heater current supplied by an included beam input and beam output.
44. The thermal actuator of claim 41, wherein the beam is fabricated of a low-conductivity material of either monocrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon.
45. The thermal actuator of claim 41, wherein the beam is fabricated in a device layer of a silicon-on-insulator wafer.
46. The thermal actuator of claim 41, wherein the beam comprises exactly five (5) beam segments.
47. The thermal actuator of claim 41, wherein the beam comprises a plurality (n) of beam segments, where n does not equal 5.
48. The thermal actuator of claim 41, wherein the beam comprises exactly three (3) beam segments having substantially parallel sides.
49. The thermal actuator of claim 41, wherein the beam comprises exactly two (2) beam segments that are substantially equal with respect to their corresponding beam segment lengths and beam segment widths.
50. A thermal actuator (1000) comprising:
a substrate having a surface;
a first support and a second support disposed on the surface and extending orthogonally therefrom;
a plurality of beams (1010 a, 1010 b, 1010 c), extending in parallel between the first support and the second support, thus forming a beam array (1009);
each beam of the beam array having a first side (1011 a, 1011 b, 1011 c), a second side (1012 a, 1012 b, 1012 c), a beam length (1018) and a beam mid-point (1019), each beam being substantially straight along its first side (1011 a, 1011 b, 1011 c);
each beam of the beam array comprised of a plurality of beam segments (1020, 1021, 1022, 1023, 1024), each beam segment of the plurality of beam segments having a beam segment average width (1025 a, 1031 a, 1026 a, 1033 a, 1027 a, 1025 b, 1031 b, 1026 b, 1033 b, 1027 b, 1025 c, 1031 c, 1026 c, 1033 c, 1027 c) orthogonal to the beam length, each beam thus forming a corresponding plurality of beam segment average widths;
wherein the plurality of beam segment average widths corresponding to each beam vary along the beam length based on a predetermined pattern;
an included coupling beam (1005) extending orthogonally across the beam array to couple each beam of the beam array substantially at the corresponding beam mid-point;
so that a heating of the beam array causes a beam array buckling and the coupling beam to translate in a predetermined direction (1048) generally normal to and outward from the second sides of the array beams;
wherein the predetermined pattern is characterized in that, along the beam length from the first support to the beam mid-point, beam segment average widths corresponding to successive beam segments do not decrease and at least sometimes increase, and along the beam length from the beam mid-point to the second support, beam segment widths corresponding to successive beam segments do not increase and at least sometimes decrease.
51. The thermal actuator of claim 50, the heating of the beam array provided by an included heater layer disposed on the surface, the heater layer coupled to a heater layer input and a heater layer output.
52. The thermal actuator of claim 50, wherein each beam of the beam array is heated by a beam heater current by an included beam input and beam output, thus forming the heating of the beam array.
53. The thermal actuator of claim 50, wherein each beam of the beam array is fabricated of a low-conductivity material of either monocrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon.
54. The thermal actuator of claim 50, wherein each beam of the beam array is fabricated in a device layer of a silicon-on-insulator wafer.
55. The thermal actuator of claim 50, wherein each beam of the beam array comprises exactly five (5) beam segments.
56. The thermal actuator of claim 50, wherein each beam of the beam array comprises a plurality (n) of beam segments, where n does not equal 5.
57. The thermal actuator of claim 50, wherein the beam array comprises exactly three (3) beams.
58. The thermal actuator of claim 50, wherein the beam array comprises a plurality (n) of beams, where n does not equal 3.
59. The thermal actuator (1000) of claim 50, wherein the coupling beam (1005) intersects only a portion of one beam segment (1022) in each beam of the plurality of beams (1010 a, 1010 b, 1010 c) comprising the beam array (1009).
60. The thermal actuator (1000) of claim 59, wherein the beam array (1009) comprises exactly three (3) beams (1010 a, 1010 b, 1010 c) and wherein each beam of said three (3) beams comprises exactly five (5) beam segments (1020, 1021, 1022, 1023, 1024).
61. An optical waveguide switch (100 d) comprising a thermal actuator (500), the thermal actuator comprising:
a substrate having a surface;
a first support and a second support disposed on the surface and extending orthogonally therefrom;
a beam (510) extending between the first support and the second support, the beam having a first side (511), a second side (512), a beam length (518) and a beam mid-point (519), the beam being substantially straight along the first side (511);
the beam comprised of a plurality of beam segments (520, 522, 524), each beam segment of the plurality of beam segments having a beam segment width (525, 526, 527) orthogonal to the beam length, the beam thus forming a corresponding plurality of beam segment widths;
wherein the plurality of beam segment widths corresponding to the beam vary along the beam length based on a predetermined pattern;
so that a heating of the beam causes a beam buckling and the beam mid-point to translate in a predetermined direction (548) generally normal to and outward from the second side;
wherein the predetermined pattern is characterized in that, along the beam length from the first support to the beam mid-point, beam segment widths corresponding to successive beam segments do not decrease and at least sometimes increase, and along the beam length from the beam mid-point to the second support, beam segment widths corresponding to successive beam segments do not increase and at least sometimes decrease.
62. The optical waveguide switch of claim 61, the heating of the beam provided by an included heater layer disposed on the surface, the heater layer coupled to a heater layer input and a heater layer output.
63. The optical waveguide switch of claim 61, the heating of the beam provided by a beam heater current supplied by an included beam input and beam output.
64. The optical waveguide switch of claim 61, wherein the beam is fabricated of a low-conductivity material of either monocrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon.
65. The optical waveguide switch of claim 61, wherein the beam is fabricated in a device layer of a silicon-on-insulator wafer.
66. The optical waveguide switch of claim 61, wherein the beam comprises a plurality (n) of beam segments, where n does not equal 3.
67. The optical waveguide switch of claim 61, wherein the beam comprises exactly three (3) beam segments.
68. The optical waveguide switch of claim 61, wherein the beam comprises exclusively beam segments having substantially parallel sides.
69. The optical waveguide switch of claim 61, wherein the beam comprises exactly two (2) beam segments that are substantially equal with respect to their corresponding beam segment lengths and beam segment widths.
70. An optical waveguide switch (100 e) comprising a thermal actuator (600), the thermal actuator comprising:
a substrate having a surface;
a first support and a second support disposed on the surface and extending orthogonally therefrom;
a plurality of beams (610 a, 610 b, 610 c) extending in parallel between the first support and the second support, thus forming a beam array (613);
each beam of the beam array having a first side (611 a, 611 b, 611 c), a second side (612 a, 612 b, 612 c), a beam length (618) and a beam mid-point (619), each beam being substantially straight along its first side (611 a, 611 b, 611 c);
each beam of the beam array comprised of a plurality of beam segments (620, 622, 624), each beam segment of the plurality of beam segments having a beam segment width (625 a, 626 a, 627 a, 625 b, 626 b, 627 b, 625 c, 626 c, 627 c) orthogonal to the beam length, each beam thus forming a corresponding plurality of beam segment widths;
wherein the plurality of beam segment widths corresponding to each beam vary along the beam length based on a predetermined pattern;
an included coupling beam (614) extending orthogonally across the beam array to couple each beam of the beam array substantially at the corresponding beam mid-point;
so that a heating of the beam array causes a beam array buckling and the coupling beam to translate in a predetermined direction (648) generally normal to and outward from the second sides of the array beams;
wherein the predetermined pattern is characterized in that, along the beam length from the first support to the beam mid-point, beam segment widths corresponding to successive beam segments do not decrease and at least sometimes increase, and along the beam length from the beam mid-point to the second support, beam segment widths corresponding to successive beam segments do not increase and at least sometimes decrease.
71. The optical waveguide switch of claim 70, the heating of the beam array provided by an included heater layer disposed on the surface, the heater layer coupled to a heater layer input and a heater layer output.
72. The optical waveguide switch of claim 70, wherein each beam of the beam array is heated by a beam heater current supplied by an included beam input and beam output, thus forming the heating of the beam array.
73. The optical waveguide switch of claim 70, wherein each beam of the beam array is fabricated of a low-conductivity maternal of either monocrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon.
74. The optical waveguide switch of claim 70, wherein each beam of the beam array is fabricated in a device layer of a silicon-on-insulator wafer.
75. The optical waveguide switch of claim 70, wherein each beam of the beam array comprises a plurality (n) of beam segments, where n does not equal 3.
76. The optical waveguide switch of claim 70, wherein each beam of the beam array comprises exactly three (3) beam segments.
77. The optical waveguide switch of claim 70, wherein the beam array comprises a plurality (n) of beams, where n does not equal 3.
78. The optical waveguide switch claim 70, wherein the beam array comprises exactly three (3) beams.
79. The optical waveguide switch (100 e) of claim 70, wherein the coupling beam (614) intersects only a portion of one beam segment (622) in each beam of the plurality of beams (610 a, 610 b, 610 c) comprising the beam array (613).
80. The optical waveguide switch (100 e) of claim 79, wherein the beam array (613) comprises exactly three (3) beams (610 a, 610 b, 610 c) and wherein each beam of said three (3) beams comprises exactly three (3) beam segments (620, 622, 624).
81. An optical waveguide switch (100 f) comprising a thermal actuator (700), the thermal actuator comprising:
a substrate having a surface;
a first support and a second support disposed on the surface and extending orthogonally therefrom;
a beam (710) extending between the first support and the second support, the beam having a first side (711), a second side (712), a beam length (718) and a beam mid-point (719), the beam being substantially straight along the second side (712);
the beam comprised of a plurality of beam segments, each beam segment of the plurality of beam segments having a beam segment width (725, 726, 727) orthogonal to the beam length, the beam thus forming a corresponding plurality of beam segment widths;
wherein the plurality of beam segment widths corresponding to the beam vary along the beam length based on a predetermined pattern;
so that a heating of the beam causes a beam buckling and the beam mid-point to translate in a predetermined direction (748) generally normal to and outward from the second sides;
wherein the predetermined pattern is characterized in that, along the beam length from the first support to the beam mid-point, beam segment widths corresponding to successive beam segments do not increase and at least sometimes decrease, and along the beam length from the beam mid-point to the second support, beam segment widths corresponding to successive beam segments do not decrease and at least sometimes increase.
82. The optical waveguide switch of claim 81, the heating of the beam provided by an included heater layer disposed on the surface, the heater layer coupled to a heater layer input and a heater layer output.
83. The optical waveguide switch of claim 81, the heating of the beam provided by a beam heater current supplied by an included beam input and beam output.
84. The optical waveguide switch of claim 81, wherein the beam is fabricated of a low-conductivity material of either monocrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon.
85. The optical waveguide switch of claim 81, wherein the beam is fabricated in a device layer of a silicon-on-insulator wafer.
86. The optical waveguide switch of claim 81, wherein the beam comprises a plurality (n) of beam segments, where n does not equal 3.
87. The optical waveguide switch of claim 81, wherein the beam comprises exactly three (3) beam segments.
88. The optical waveguide switch of claim 81, wherein the beam comprises exclusively beam segments having substantially parallel sides.
89. The thermal actuator of claim 81, wherein the beam comprises exactly two (2) beam segments that are substantially equal with respect to their corresponding beam segment lengths and beam segment widths.
90. An optical waveguide switch (100 g) comprising a thermal actuator (800), the thermal actuator comprising:
a substrate having a surface;
a first support and a second support disposed on the surface and extending orthogonally therefrom;
a plurality of beams (810 a, 810 b, 810 c) extending in parallel between the first support and the second support, thus forming a beam array (813); each beam of the beam array having a first side (811 a, 811 b, 811 c), a second side (812 a, 812 b, 812 c), a beam length (818) and a beam mid-point (819), each beam being substantially straight along its second side (812 a, 812 b, 812 c); each beam of the beam array comprised of a plurality of beam segments (820, 822, 824), each beam segment of the plurality of beam segments having a beam segment width (825 a, 826 a, 827 a, 825 b, 826 b, 827 b, 825 c, 826 c, 827 c) orthogonal to the beam length, each beam thus forming a corresponding plurality of beam segment widths;
wherein the plurality of beam segment widths corresponding to each beam vary along the beam length based on a predetermined pattern;
an included coupling beam (814) extending orthogonally across the beam array to couple each beam of the beam array substantially at the corresponding beam mid-point;
so that a heating of the beam array causes a beam array buckling and the coupling beam to translate in a predetermined direction (848) generally normal to and outward from the second sides of the array beams;
wherein the predetermined pattern is characterized in that, along the beam length from the first support to the beam mid-point, beam segment widths corresponding to successive beam segments do not increase and at least sometimes decrease, and along the beam length from the beam mid-point to the second support beam segment widths corresponding to successive beam segments do not decrease and at least sometimes increase.
91. The optical waveguide switch of claim 90, the heating of the beam array provided by an included heater layer disposed on the surface, the heater layer coupled to a heater layer input and a heater layer output.
92. The optical waveguide switch of claim 90, wherein each beam of the beam array is heated by a beam heater current supplied by an included beam input and beam output, thus forming the heating of the beam array.
93. The optical waveguide switch of claim 90, wherein each beam of the beam array is fabricated of a low-conductivity material of either monocrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon.
94. The optical waveguide switch of claim 90, wherein each beam of the beam array is fabricated in a device layer of a silicon-on-insulator wafer.
95. The optical waveguide switch of claim 90, wherein each beam of the beam array 813 comprises a plurality (n) of beam segments, where n does not equal 3.
96. The optical waveguide switch of claim 90, wherein each beam of the beam array comprises exactly three (3) beam segments.
97. The optical waveguide switch of claim 90, wherein the beam array comprises a plurality (n) of beams, where n does not equal 3.
98. The optical waveguide switch of claim 90, wherein the beam array comprises exactly three (3) beams.
99. The optical waveguide switch (100 g) of claim 90, wherein the coupling beam (814) intersects only a portion of one beam segment (822) in each beam of the plurality of beams (810 a, 810 b, 810 c) comprising the beam array (813).
100. The optical waveguide switch (100 g) of claim 99, wherein the beam array (813) comprises exactly three (3) beams (810 a, 810 b, 810 c) and wherein each beam of said three (3) beams comprises exactly three (3) beam segments (820, 822, 824).
101. An optical waveguide switch (100 h) comprising a thermal actuator (900), the thermal actuator comprising:
a substrate having a surface;
a first support and a second support disposed on the surface and extending orthogonally therefrom;
a beam (910) extending between the first support and the second support, the beam having a first side (911), a second side (912), a beam length (918) and a beam mid-point (919), the beam being substantially straight along the first side (911);
the beam comprised of a plurality of beam segments (920, 921, 922, 923, 924), each beam segment of the plurality of beam segments having a beam segment average width (925, 931, 926, 933, 927) orthogonal to the beam length, the beam thus forming a corresponding plurality of beam segment average widths;
wherein the plurality of beam segment average widths corresponding to the beam vary along the beam length based on a predetermined pattern;
so that a heating of the beam causes a beam buckling and the beam mid-point to translate in a predetermined direction (948) generally normal to and outward from the second side;
wherein the predetermined pattern is characterized in that, along the beam length from the first support to the beam mid-point, beam segment average widths corresponding to successive beam segments do not decrease and at least sometimes increase and along the beam length from the beam mid-point to the second support, beam segment average widths corresponding to successive beam segments do not increase and at least sometimes decrease.
102. The optical waveguide switch of claim 101, the heating of the beam provided by an included heater layer disposed on the surface, the heater layer coupled to a heater layer input and a heater layer output.
103. The optical waveguide switch of claim 101, the heating of the beam provided by a beam heater current supplied by an included beam input and beam output.
104. The optical waveguide switch of claim 101, wherein the beam is fabricated of a low-conductivity material of either monocrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon.
105. The optical waveguide switch of claim 101, wherein the beam is fabricated in a device layer of a silicon-on-insulator wafer.
106. The optical waveguide switch of claim 101, wherein the beam comprises a plurality (n) of beam segments, where n does not equal 5.
107. The optical waveguide switch of claim 101, wherein the beam comprises exactly five (5) beam segments.
108. The optical waveguide switch of claim 101, wherein the beam comprises exactly three (3) beam segments having substantially parallel sides.
109. The optical waveguide switch of claim 101, wherein the beam comprises exactly two (2) beam segments that are substantially equal with respect to their corresponding beam segment lengths and beam segment widths.
110. An optical waveguide switch (100 i) comprising a thermal actuator (1000), the thermal actuator comprising:
a substrate having a surface;
a first support and a second support disposed on the surface and extending orthogonally therefrom;
a plurality of beams (1010 a, 1010 b, 1010 c) extending in parallel between the first support and the second support, thus forming a beam array (1009);
each beam of the beam array having a first side (1011 a, 1011 b, 1011 c), a second side (1012 a, 1012 b, 1012 c), a beam length (1018) and a beam mid-point (1019), each beam being substantially straight along its first side (1011 a, 1011 b, 1011 c);
each beam of the beam array comprised of a plurality of beam segments (1020, 1021, 1022, 1023, 1024), each beam segment of the plurality of beam segments having a beam segment average width (1025 a, 1031 a, 1026 a, 1033 a, 1025 b, 1031 b, 1026 b, 1033 b, 1027 b, 1025 c, 1031 c, 1026 c, 1033 c, 1027 c) orthogonal to the beam length, each beam thus forming a corresponding plurality of beam segment average widths;
wherein the plurality of beam segment average widths corresponding to each beam vary along the beam length based on a predetermined pattern;
an included coupling beam (1005) extending orthogonally across the beam arry to couple each beam of the beam array substantially at the corresponding beam mid-point;
so that a heating of the beam array causes a beam array buckling and the coupling beam to translate in a predetermined direction (1048) generally normal to an outward from the second sides of the array beams;
wherein the predetermined pattern is characterized in that, along the beam length from the first support to the beam mid-point, beam segment average widths corresponding to successive beam segments do not decrease and at least sometimes increase, and along the beam length from the beam mid-point to the second support, beam segment widths corresponding to successive beam segments do not increase and at least sometimes decrease.
111. The optical waveguide switch of claim 110, the heating of the beam array provided by an included heater layer disposed on the surface, the heater layer coupled to a heater layer input and a heater layer output.
112. The optical waveguide switch of claim 110, wherein each beam of the beam array is heated by a beam heater current supplied by an included beam input and beam output, thus forming the heating of the beam array.
113. The optical waveguide switch of claim 110, wherein each beam of the beam array is fabricated of a low-conductivity material of either monocrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon.
114. The optical waveguide switch of claim 110, wherein each beam of the beam array is fabricated in a device layer of a silicon-on-insulator wafer.
115. The optical waveguide switch of claim 110, wherein each beam of the beam array comprises a plurality (n) of beam segments, where n does not equal 5.
116. The optical waveguide switch of claim 110, wherein each beam of the beam array comprises exactly five (5) beam segments.
117. The optical waveguide switch of claim 110, wherein the beam array comprises a plurality (n) of beams, where n does not equal 3.
118. The optical waveguide switch of claim 110, wherein the beam array comprises exactly three (3) beams.
119. The optical waveguide switch (100 i) of claim 110, wherein the coupling beam (1005) intersects only a portion of one beam segment (1022) in each beam of the plurality of beams (1010 a, 1010 b, 1010 c) comprising the beam array (1009).
120. The optical waveguide switch (100 i) of claim 119, wherein the beam array (1009) comprises exactly three (3) beams (1010 a, 1010 b, 1010 c) and wherein each beam of said three (3) beams comprises exactly five (5) beam segments (1020, 1021, 1022, 1023, 1024).
US10772564 2003-08-05 2004-02-05 Thermal actuator and an optical waveguide switch including the same Expired - Fee Related US6985650B2 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US10634941 US6983088B2 (en) 2003-08-05 2003-08-05 Thermal actuator and an optical waveguide switch including the same
US10772564 US6985650B2 (en) 2003-08-05 2004-02-05 Thermal actuator and an optical waveguide switch including the same

Applications Claiming Priority (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US10772564 US6985650B2 (en) 2003-08-05 2004-02-05 Thermal actuator and an optical waveguide switch including the same
JP2004229712A JP4482396B2 (en) 2003-08-05 2004-08-05 Thermal actuator

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20050031252A1 true US20050031252A1 (en) 2005-02-10
US6985650B2 true US6985650B2 (en) 2006-01-10

Family

ID=34381403

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10772564 Expired - Fee Related US6985650B2 (en) 2003-08-05 2004-02-05 Thermal actuator and an optical waveguide switch including the same

Country Status (2)

Country Link
US (1) US6985650B2 (en)
JP (1) JP4482396B2 (en)

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US8232858B1 (en) 2008-02-20 2012-07-31 Sandia Corporation Microelectromechanical (MEM) thermal actuator

Families Citing this family (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2016173905A (en) * 2015-03-16 2016-09-29 アルプス電気株式会社 Ink for temperature fuse, temperature fuse and heater using the same, and method of manufacturing temperature fuse using ink for temperature fuse

Citations (51)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5364497A (en) * 1993-08-04 1994-11-15 Analog Devices, Inc. Method for fabricating microstructures using temporary bridges
US5706041A (en) 1996-03-04 1998-01-06 Xerox Corporation Thermal ink-jet printhead with a suspended heating element in each ejector
US5862003A (en) * 1995-06-23 1999-01-19 Saif; Muhammad T. A. Micromotion amplifier
US5870518A (en) * 1997-08-21 1999-02-09 Mcdonnell Douglas Corporation Microactuator for precisely aligning an optical fiber and an associated fabrication method
US5909078A (en) * 1996-12-16 1999-06-01 Mcnc Thermal arched beam microelectromechanical actuators
US5955817A (en) * 1996-12-16 1999-09-21 Mcnc Thermal arched beam microelectromechanical switching array
US5962949A (en) * 1996-12-16 1999-10-05 Mcnc Microelectromechanical positioning apparatus
US6002507A (en) 1998-12-01 1999-12-14 Xerox Corpoation Method and apparatus for an integrated laser beam scanner
US6014240A (en) 1998-12-01 2000-01-11 Xerox Corporation Method and apparatus for an integrated laser beam scanner using a carrier substrate
US6124663A (en) * 1996-12-16 2000-09-26 The Boeing Company Fiber optic connector having a microelectromechanical positioning apparatus and an associated fabrication method
US6133670A (en) * 1999-06-24 2000-10-17 Sandia Corporation Compact electrostatic comb actuator
US6137206A (en) * 1999-03-23 2000-10-24 Cronos Integrated Microsystems, Inc. Microelectromechanical rotary structures
US6218762B1 (en) * 1999-05-03 2001-04-17 Mcnc Multi-dimensional scalable displacement enabled microelectromechanical actuator structures and arrays
US6236139B1 (en) * 1999-02-26 2001-05-22 Jds Uniphase Inc. Temperature compensated microelectromechanical structures and related methods
US6255757B1 (en) * 1999-09-01 2001-07-03 Jds Uniphase Inc. Microactuators including a metal layer on distal portions of an arched beam
US6262512B1 (en) * 1999-11-08 2001-07-17 Jds Uniphase Inc. Thermally actuated microelectromechanical systems including thermal isolation structures
US6275320B1 (en) * 1999-09-27 2001-08-14 Jds Uniphase, Inc. MEMS variable optical attenuator
US6291922B1 (en) * 1999-08-25 2001-09-18 Jds Uniphase, Inc. Microelectromechanical device having single crystalline components and metallic components
US6303885B1 (en) * 2000-03-03 2001-10-16 Optical Coating Laboratory, Inc. Bi-stable micro switch
US6308631B1 (en) * 2000-07-20 2001-10-30 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Mems vertical to horizontal motion translation device
US6333583B1 (en) * 2000-03-28 2001-12-25 Jds Uniphase Corporation Microelectromechanical systems including thermally actuated beams on heaters that move with the thermally actuated beams
WO2001099098A2 (en) * 2000-06-19 2001-12-27 Brigham Young University Thermomechanical in-plane microactuator
US6351580B1 (en) * 2000-03-27 2002-02-26 Jds Uniphase Corporation Microelectromechanical devices having brake assemblies therein to control movement of optical shutters and other movable elements
US6360539B1 (en) * 2000-04-05 2002-03-26 Jds Uniphase Corporation Microelectromechanical actuators including driven arched beams for mechanical advantage
US6362512B1 (en) 1998-12-23 2002-03-26 Xerox Corporation Microelectromechanical structures defined from silicon on insulator wafers
US6367251B1 (en) * 2000-04-05 2002-04-09 Jds Uniphase Corporation Lockable microelectromechanical actuators using thermoplastic material, and methods of operating same
US6379989B1 (en) 1998-12-23 2002-04-30 Xerox Corporation Process for manufacture of microoptomechanical structures
US6388359B1 (en) * 2000-03-03 2002-05-14 Optical Coating Laboratory, Inc. Method of actuating MEMS switches
US6422011B1 (en) * 2000-10-31 2002-07-23 Microsoft Corporation Thermal out-of-plane buckle-beam actuator
US6428173B1 (en) * 1999-05-03 2002-08-06 Jds Uniphase, Inc. Moveable microelectromechanical mirror structures and associated methods
US20020174891A1 (en) * 1998-09-03 2002-11-28 Maluf Nadim I. Proportional micromechanical valve
US20020190603A1 (en) * 2001-06-11 2002-12-19 Qing Ma Apparatus for adjusting the resonance frequency of a microelectromechanical (MEMS) resonator using tensile/compressive strain and applications therefor
US20030029705A1 (en) * 2001-01-19 2003-02-13 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Bistable actuation techniques, mechanisms, and applications
US20030053231A1 (en) * 2001-09-17 2003-03-20 Mark Missey Thermally actuated microelectromechanical tilt mirror
US20030086641A1 (en) * 2001-11-08 2003-05-08 Xerox Corporation Monolithic reconfigurable optical multiplexer systems and methods
US20030121260A1 (en) * 2001-12-31 2003-07-03 Sinclair Michael J. Unilateral thermal buckle-beam actuator
US20030132822A1 (en) * 2002-01-16 2003-07-17 Ko Jong Soo Micro-electromechanical actuators
US20030134445A1 (en) 2002-01-16 2003-07-17 Kubby Joel A. Systems and methods for thermal isolation of a silicon structure
US20030210115A1 (en) * 2002-05-10 2003-11-13 Xerox Corporation Bistable microelectromechanical system based structures, systems and methods
US6675578B1 (en) * 2000-05-22 2004-01-13 Microsoft Corporation Thermal buckle-beam actuator
US6700299B2 (en) * 2000-08-09 2004-03-02 Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft Zur Forderung Der Angewandten Forschung E.V. Assembly having variable capacitance
US6708492B2 (en) * 2000-10-31 2004-03-23 Microsoft Corporation Resonant thermal out-of-plane buckle-beam actuator
US6747773B2 (en) * 2002-10-31 2004-06-08 Agilent Technologies, Inc. Method and structure for stub tunable resonant cavity for photonic crystals
US6754243B2 (en) * 2000-08-09 2004-06-22 Jds Uniphase Corporation Tunable distributed feedback laser
US6753582B2 (en) * 2002-08-14 2004-06-22 Intel Corporation Buckling beam bi-stable microelectromechanical switch using electro-thermal actuation
US6771158B2 (en) * 2002-08-09 2004-08-03 Industrial Technology Research Institute Micro electromechanical differential actuator
US20040184710A1 (en) * 2003-03-19 2004-09-23 Xerox Corporation MEMS optical latching switch
US20040184760A1 (en) * 2003-03-19 2004-09-23 Xerox Corporation Electrical stimuli of MEMS devices
US20040184720A1 (en) * 2003-03-19 2004-09-23 Xerox Corporation MXN cantilever beam optical waveguide switch
US20040184709A1 (en) * 2003-03-19 2004-09-23 Xerox Corporation MEMS waveguide shuttle optical latching switch
US6853765B1 (en) * 2003-03-31 2005-02-08 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy MEMS optical switch with thermal actuator

Patent Citations (61)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5364497A (en) * 1993-08-04 1994-11-15 Analog Devices, Inc. Method for fabricating microstructures using temporary bridges
US5862003A (en) * 1995-06-23 1999-01-19 Saif; Muhammad T. A. Micromotion amplifier
US5851412A (en) 1996-03-04 1998-12-22 Xerox Corporation Thermal ink-jet printhead with a suspended heating element in each ejector
US5706041A (en) 1996-03-04 1998-01-06 Xerox Corporation Thermal ink-jet printhead with a suspended heating element in each ejector
US6023121A (en) * 1996-12-16 2000-02-08 Mcnc Thermal arched beam microelectromechanical structure
US5962949A (en) * 1996-12-16 1999-10-05 Mcnc Microelectromechanical positioning apparatus
US5909078A (en) * 1996-12-16 1999-06-01 Mcnc Thermal arched beam microelectromechanical actuators
US5955817A (en) * 1996-12-16 1999-09-21 Mcnc Thermal arched beam microelectromechanical switching array
US5994816A (en) * 1996-12-16 1999-11-30 Mcnc Thermal arched beam microelectromechanical devices and associated fabrication methods
US6124663A (en) * 1996-12-16 2000-09-26 The Boeing Company Fiber optic connector having a microelectromechanical positioning apparatus and an associated fabrication method
US6114794A (en) * 1996-12-16 2000-09-05 Cronos Integrated Microsystems, Inc. Thermal arched beam microelectromechanical valve
US6324748B1 (en) * 1996-12-16 2001-12-04 Jds Uniphase Corporation Method of fabricating a microelectro mechanical structure having an arched beam
US5870518A (en) * 1997-08-21 1999-02-09 Mcdonnell Douglas Corporation Microactuator for precisely aligning an optical fiber and an associated fabrication method
US20020174891A1 (en) * 1998-09-03 2002-11-28 Maluf Nadim I. Proportional micromechanical valve
US6002507A (en) 1998-12-01 1999-12-14 Xerox Corpoation Method and apparatus for an integrated laser beam scanner
US6014240A (en) 1998-12-01 2000-01-11 Xerox Corporation Method and apparatus for an integrated laser beam scanner using a carrier substrate
US6379989B1 (en) 1998-12-23 2002-04-30 Xerox Corporation Process for manufacture of microoptomechanical structures
US6362512B1 (en) 1998-12-23 2002-03-26 Xerox Corporation Microelectromechanical structures defined from silicon on insulator wafers
US6236139B1 (en) * 1999-02-26 2001-05-22 Jds Uniphase Inc. Temperature compensated microelectromechanical structures and related methods
US6137206A (en) * 1999-03-23 2000-10-24 Cronos Integrated Microsystems, Inc. Microelectromechanical rotary structures
US6428173B1 (en) * 1999-05-03 2002-08-06 Jds Uniphase, Inc. Moveable microelectromechanical mirror structures and associated methods
US6218762B1 (en) * 1999-05-03 2001-04-17 Mcnc Multi-dimensional scalable displacement enabled microelectromechanical actuator structures and arrays
US6133670A (en) * 1999-06-24 2000-10-17 Sandia Corporation Compact electrostatic comb actuator
US6291922B1 (en) * 1999-08-25 2001-09-18 Jds Uniphase, Inc. Microelectromechanical device having single crystalline components and metallic components
US6386507B2 (en) * 1999-09-01 2002-05-14 Jds Uniphase Corporation Microelectromechanical valves including single crystalline material components
US6255757B1 (en) * 1999-09-01 2001-07-03 Jds Uniphase Inc. Microactuators including a metal layer on distal portions of an arched beam
US6275320B1 (en) * 1999-09-27 2001-08-14 Jds Uniphase, Inc. MEMS variable optical attenuator
US6262512B1 (en) * 1999-11-08 2001-07-17 Jds Uniphase Inc. Thermally actuated microelectromechanical systems including thermal isolation structures
US6388359B1 (en) * 2000-03-03 2002-05-14 Optical Coating Laboratory, Inc. Method of actuating MEMS switches
US6303885B1 (en) * 2000-03-03 2001-10-16 Optical Coating Laboratory, Inc. Bi-stable micro switch
US6351580B1 (en) * 2000-03-27 2002-02-26 Jds Uniphase Corporation Microelectromechanical devices having brake assemblies therein to control movement of optical shutters and other movable elements
US6333583B1 (en) * 2000-03-28 2001-12-25 Jds Uniphase Corporation Microelectromechanical systems including thermally actuated beams on heaters that move with the thermally actuated beams
US6360539B1 (en) * 2000-04-05 2002-03-26 Jds Uniphase Corporation Microelectromechanical actuators including driven arched beams for mechanical advantage
US6367251B1 (en) * 2000-04-05 2002-04-09 Jds Uniphase Corporation Lockable microelectromechanical actuators using thermoplastic material, and methods of operating same
US6675578B1 (en) * 2000-05-22 2004-01-13 Microsoft Corporation Thermal buckle-beam actuator
WO2001099098A2 (en) * 2000-06-19 2001-12-27 Brigham Young University Thermomechanical in-plane microactuator
US6734597B1 (en) * 2000-06-19 2004-05-11 Brigham Young University Thermomechanical in-plane microactuator
US6308631B1 (en) * 2000-07-20 2001-10-30 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Mems vertical to horizontal motion translation device
US6700299B2 (en) * 2000-08-09 2004-03-02 Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft Zur Forderung Der Angewandten Forschung E.V. Assembly having variable capacitance
US6754243B2 (en) * 2000-08-09 2004-06-22 Jds Uniphase Corporation Tunable distributed feedback laser
US6422011B1 (en) * 2000-10-31 2002-07-23 Microsoft Corporation Thermal out-of-plane buckle-beam actuator
US6708492B2 (en) * 2000-10-31 2004-03-23 Microsoft Corporation Resonant thermal out-of-plane buckle-beam actuator
US20030029705A1 (en) * 2001-01-19 2003-02-13 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Bistable actuation techniques, mechanisms, and applications
US20020190603A1 (en) * 2001-06-11 2002-12-19 Qing Ma Apparatus for adjusting the resonance frequency of a microelectromechanical (MEMS) resonator using tensile/compressive strain and applications therefor
US20030053231A1 (en) * 2001-09-17 2003-03-20 Mark Missey Thermally actuated microelectromechanical tilt mirror
US6658179B2 (en) * 2001-11-08 2003-12-02 Xerox Corporation Monolithic reconfigurable optical multiplexer systems and methods
US20030086641A1 (en) * 2001-11-08 2003-05-08 Xerox Corporation Monolithic reconfigurable optical multiplexer systems and methods
US20030121260A1 (en) * 2001-12-31 2003-07-03 Sinclair Michael J. Unilateral thermal buckle-beam actuator
US6804959B2 (en) * 2001-12-31 2004-10-19 Microsoft Corporation Unilateral thermal buckle-beam actuator
US20030134445A1 (en) 2002-01-16 2003-07-17 Kubby Joel A. Systems and methods for thermal isolation of a silicon structure
US20030132822A1 (en) * 2002-01-16 2003-07-17 Ko Jong Soo Micro-electromechanical actuators
US6828887B2 (en) * 2002-05-10 2004-12-07 Jpmorgan Chase Bank Bistable microelectromechanical system based structures, systems and methods
US20030210115A1 (en) * 2002-05-10 2003-11-13 Xerox Corporation Bistable microelectromechanical system based structures, systems and methods
US6771158B2 (en) * 2002-08-09 2004-08-03 Industrial Technology Research Institute Micro electromechanical differential actuator
US6753582B2 (en) * 2002-08-14 2004-06-22 Intel Corporation Buckling beam bi-stable microelectromechanical switch using electro-thermal actuation
US6747773B2 (en) * 2002-10-31 2004-06-08 Agilent Technologies, Inc. Method and structure for stub tunable resonant cavity for photonic crystals
US20040184760A1 (en) * 2003-03-19 2004-09-23 Xerox Corporation Electrical stimuli of MEMS devices
US20040184720A1 (en) * 2003-03-19 2004-09-23 Xerox Corporation MXN cantilever beam optical waveguide switch
US20040184709A1 (en) * 2003-03-19 2004-09-23 Xerox Corporation MEMS waveguide shuttle optical latching switch
US20040184710A1 (en) * 2003-03-19 2004-09-23 Xerox Corporation MEMS optical latching switch
US6853765B1 (en) * 2003-03-31 2005-02-08 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy MEMS optical switch with thermal actuator

Non-Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
John M. Maloney, Don L. DeVoe and David S. Schreiber, "Analysis and Design of Electrothermal Actuators Fabricated from Single Crystal Silicon," Proceedings ASME International Mechanical Engineering Conference and Exposition, Orlando, FL, pp. 233-240, 2000.
Long Que, Jae-Sung Park and Yogesh B. Gianchandani, "Bent-Beam Electrothermal Actuators," Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, vol. 10, No. 2, Jun. 2001, pp. 247-254.
Yogesh B. Gianchandani and Khalil Najafi, "Bent-Beam Strain Sensors," Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, vol. 5, No. 1, Mar. 1996, pp. 52-58.

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US8232858B1 (en) 2008-02-20 2012-07-31 Sandia Corporation Microelectromechanical (MEM) thermal actuator

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
US20050031252A1 (en) 2005-02-10 application
JP2005055914A (en) 2005-03-03 application
JP4482396B2 (en) 2010-06-16 grant

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Shaw et al. On the nucleation and propagation of phase transformation fronts in a NiTi alloy
US5962949A (en) Microelectromechanical positioning apparatus
US4916340A (en) Movement guiding mechanism
US5987200A (en) Device for tuning wavelength response of an optical fiber grating
US5309717A (en) Rapid shape memory effect micro-actuators
US4443059A (en) High energy laser mirror
US6043671A (en) Semiconductor inspection device with guide member for probe needle for probe card and method of controlling the same
US6124663A (en) Fiber optic connector having a microelectromechanical positioning apparatus and an associated fabrication method
US6605955B1 (en) Temperature controlled wafer chuck system with low thermal resistance
US6101210A (en) External cavity laser
US5047637A (en) Atomic probe type microscope apparatus
US20020064192A1 (en) Tunable distributed feedback laser
US5248200A (en) Portable asphalt stress and strain measuring device
US6243527B1 (en) Athermalization techniques for fiber gratings and temperature sensitive components
US20100078424A1 (en) Temperature controlled substrate holder with non-uniform insulation layer for a substrate processing system
US5313333A (en) Method and apparatus for combined active and passive athermalization of an optical assembly
US6771086B2 (en) Semiconductor wafer electrical testing with a mobile chiller plate for rapid and precise test temperature control
US20030169520A1 (en) Mirror assembly with thermal contour control
US6232546B1 (en) Microcavity apparatus and systems for maintaining a microcavity over a macroscale area
US5297868A (en) Measuring thermal conductivity and apparatus therefor
WO2000067268A1 (en) Multi-dimensional scalable displacement enabled microelectromechanical actuator structures and arrays
US6608714B2 (en) Bi-directional, single material thermal actuator
Babus' Haq et al. Thermal performance of a pin-fin assembly
US6360539B1 (en) Microelectromechanical actuators including driven arched beams for mechanical advantage
US6775437B2 (en) Temperature compensated optical waveguide structures

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: XEROX CORPORATION, CONNECTICUT

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:MA, JUN;KUBBY, JOEL A.;GERMAN, KRISTINE A.;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:014968/0967

Effective date: 20040205

AS Assignment

Owner name: JPMORGAN CHASE BANK, AS COLLATERAL AGENT, TEXAS

Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:XEROX CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:015722/0119

Effective date: 20030625

Owner name: JPMORGAN CHASE BANK, AS COLLATERAL AGENT,TEXAS

Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:XEROX CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:015722/0119

Effective date: 20030625

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 4

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 8

FEPP

Free format text: MAINTENANCE FEE REMINDER MAILED (ORIGINAL EVENT CODE: REM.)

LAPS Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees

Free format text: PATENT EXPIRED FOR FAILURE TO PAY MAINTENANCE FEES (ORIGINAL EVENT CODE: EXP.)