US6967543B2 - Microstrip-to-waveguide power combiner for radio frequency power combining - Google Patents

Microstrip-to-waveguide power combiner for radio frequency power combining Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US6967543B2
US6967543B2 US10751574 US75157404A US6967543B2 US 6967543 B2 US6967543 B2 US 6967543B2 US 10751574 US10751574 US 10751574 US 75157404 A US75157404 A US 75157404A US 6967543 B2 US6967543 B2 US 6967543B2
Authority
US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
waveguide
microstrip
transition
power
power combiner
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Fee Related
Application number
US10751574
Other versions
US20040140863A1 (en )
Inventor
Danny F. Ammar
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Reveal Imaging LLC
Original Assignee
Xytrans Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01PWAVEGUIDES; RESONATORS, LINES, OR OTHER DEVICES OF THE WAVEGUIDE TYPE
    • H01P5/00Coupling devices of the waveguide type
    • H01P5/08Coupling devices of the waveguide type for linking dissimilar lines or devices
    • H01P5/10Coupling devices of the waveguide type for linking dissimilar lines or devices for coupling balanced with unbalanced lines or devices
    • H01P5/103Hollow-waveguide/coaxial-line transitions
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01PWAVEGUIDES; RESONATORS, LINES, OR OTHER DEVICES OF THE WAVEGUIDE TYPE
    • H01P5/00Coupling devices of the waveguide type
    • H01P5/08Coupling devices of the waveguide type for linking dissimilar lines or devices
    • H01P5/10Coupling devices of the waveguide type for linking dissimilar lines or devices for coupling balanced with unbalanced lines or devices
    • H01P5/107Hollow-waveguide/strip-line transitions
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01PWAVEGUIDES; RESONATORS, LINES, OR OTHER DEVICES OF THE WAVEGUIDE TYPE
    • H01P5/00Coupling devices of the waveguide type
    • H01P5/12Coupling devices having more than two ports

Abstract

A microstrip-to-waveguide power combiner includes a dielectric substrate and at least two microstrip transmission lines formed thereon in which radio frequency signals are transmitted. The microstrip transmission lines terminate in microstrip launchers or probes at a microstrip-to-waveguide transition. A waveguide opening is positioned at the transition. A waveguide back-short is positioned opposite the waveguide opening at the transition. Isolation vias are formed within the dielectric substrate and around the transition and isolate the transition. A coaxial-to-waveguide power combiner is also disclosed.

Description

RELATED APPLICATION

This application is a continuation of Ser. No. 10/218,669 filed Aug. 14, 2002. Now U.S. Pat. No. 6,707,348 which is based on provisional patent application Ser. No. 60/374,712 filed Apr. 23, 2002, the disclosure of which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to power combining radio frequency signals, and more particularly, this invention relates to a power combining network for combining radio frequency signals using microstrip and waveguide circuits.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Power combining techniques for radio frequency signals, including millimeter wavelength signals, have been accomplished in either a waveguide circuit or in a microstrip circuit. For example, prior art waveguide combining has been accomplished by feeding two or more signals in phase into a waveguide combiner. Although this type of power combining is efficient, the summing network is generally bulky and requires very high precision components. Microstrip power combining circuits have been accomplished by summing signals using a hybrid combiner circuit or a Wilkinson power summer circuit as known to those skilled in the art. This type of power combining circuit is more simple to implement in practice, but generally has higher losses.

FIG. 1 illustrates a typical waveguide combiner 20, widely available in the industry, and traditionally used to combine radio frequency signals from two sources of RF power. The combiner 20 can be formed from different materials as known to those skilled in the art, and generally has two input ports 22 that are bolted or fastened by other techniques to respective waveguide sources. The signals combine and are summed at the output port 24. This combiner 20 provides a reliable method of adding radio frequency energy, but requires careful phase matching of two radio frequency inputs and precisely control over the length of the two waveguide sides 26. The precision requirements for this waveguide and the requirement for a metal coating on the inside surface of the waveguide to achieve low losses results in relatively expensive devices. Also, this waveguide combiner is usually bulky, as illustrated, and occupies a significant amount of space.

FIGS. 2–4 show typical microstrip power combiners formed from microstrip transmission lines. These type of combiners are widely used in the industry for combining radio frequency power in microstrip circuits. There are primarily two types of microstrip combiners, using Wilkinson and hybrid circuits, as shown in the schematic circuit diagrams of FIGS. 2 and 3, respectively. The Wilkinson combiner 30 shown in FIG. 2 is a reflective combiner and includes two inputs 32, an output 34, and the Wilkinson circuit 36 that has a resistor for circuit balance as known to those skilled in the art. The hybrid combiner 40 shown in FIG. 3 is absorptive and includes two inputs 42, an output 44, and load resistor 46, forming a four port hybrid combiner. FIG. 4 illustrates a plan view showing the microstrip transmission lines 48 forming the circuit. In the hybrid combiner 40, the load resistor 46 absorbs any reflected energy because of mismatch. Typically, the three decibel (dB) Wilkinson combiner 30 results in 0.5 dB loss, while the hybrid combiner 40 results in 0.8 dB losses. These combiners provide a reliable method of RF energy summing and can be used in a very small space.

Other examples of various types of combiners and different RF coupling systems are disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,761,654; 4,825,175; 4,870,375; 4,943,809; 5,136,304; 5,214,394; and 5,329,248.

As is also known to those skilled in the art, in a waveguide-to-coaxial line connector, a maximum energy field is in the center of the waveguide. An extension of a center conductor can be located at the point of a maximum energy field and act as an antenna to couple energy from a coaxial line into a waveguide. Coupling from a coaxial line to a waveguide could be achieved by using a loop, which couples two magnetic fields. In a prior art waveguide circuit using stripline or microstrip, the center conductor of a stripline can be extended into a waveguide forming a probe (or launcher). By increasing the width of a center conductor at the end of a probe, bandwidth can be improved. Also, the conductor and substrate of a microstrip circuit, but not a ground plane, can be extended directly into a guide.

In a prior art coaxial line circuit using a microstrip connection, the center conductor of a coaxial line can be pressed against or soldered to a conductor of a microstrip. The outer conductor of a coaxial line can be grounded to a microstrip ground plane. The microstrip substrate thickness could be as little as 0.010 inch for frequencies above 15 GHz, and usually requires decreasing the diameter of the coaxial line. In yet other types of systems, various directional couplers have waveguides that are located side-by-side or parallel to each other, or crossing each other. Stripline and microstrip couplers can have main transmission lines in close proximity to secondary lines. Although these examples can provide some power combining and coupling, they are not useful for combining two or more sources of radio frequency energy in a microstrip-to-waveguide transition with low losses or small “real estate” at an efficient rate at low power loss.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide a microstrip-to-waveguide and a coaxial-to-waveguide power combiners that overcome the disadvantages of the prior art power combiners identified above and has low losses, small “real estate,” and is power efficient.

The present invention is advantageous and power combines radio frequency signals using a combination of microstrip and waveguide circuit techniques that result in very low losses. The combining network is compact and can be used at a low cost. In the present invention, two or more sources of radio frequency energy can be combined in a microstrip-to-waveguide transition resulting in low losses. Also, two or more sources of radio frequency energy in a microstrip-to-waveguide transition are combined and are not as sensitive to phase mismatch between the radio frequency sources as other power combine methods. The power combining is achieved efficiently at a low cost and is implemented in compact spaces. The method and apparatus of the present invention allows radio frequency power combining that can be implemented at any frequency where energy can be transferred over a waveguide.

In accordance with one aspect of the present invention, the microstrip-to-waveguide power combiner includes a dielectric substrate and at least two microstrip transmission lines formed thereon in which amplified radio frequency signals are transmitted. The at least two microstrip transmission lines terminate in microstrip launchers (probes) at a microstrip-to-waveguide transition. A waveguide opening is positioned at the transition. The waveguide back-short is positioned opposite the waveguide opening at the transition. Isolation/ground vias are formed within the dielectric substrate and positioned around the transition to isolate the transition and provide a ground well. The radio frequency signals can be millimeter wavelength radio frequency signals.

In yet another aspect of the present invention, a metallic plate supports the dielectric substrate. A back-short cavity is formed within the metallic plate at the transition to form the waveguide back-short. This back-short cavity has a depth ranging from about 25 to about 60 mils and its overall dimensions are about the size of the waveguide opening. The back-short is positioned for reflecting energy into the waveguide opening.

In yet another aspect of the present invention, each microstrip transmission line has a power amplifier associated therewith and supported by the dielectric substrate. The phase of each power amplifier is adjusted based on the location of microstrip launchers or probes at the transition. The number of microstrip launchers, in one aspect of the invention, can be either two or four and the respective phase of the power amplifiers is 180 degrees apart for two opposed microstrip launchers or 90 degrees apart for four microstrip launchers when positioned at 90 degree angles to each other. The power amplifiers comprise microwave monolithic integrated circuits (MMIC) in one aspect of the invention.

A method aspect of the present invention is also disclosed for power combining radio frequency signals by combining two or more amplified radio frequency signals at a microstrip-to-waveguide transition that is formed from a dielectric substrate having at least two microstrip transmission lines thereon in which radio frequency signals are transmitted. The transition includes a waveguide opening and a waveguide back-short positioned opposite the waveguide opening. Each microstrip transmission line has a microstrip launcher or probe extending into the transition. Isolation vias are formed within the dielectric substrate around the transition and isolate the transition and provide a ground well around the transition.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Other objects, features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from the detailed description of the invention which follows, when considered in light of the accompanying drawings in which:

FIG. 1 is an isometric view of a prior art waveguide combiner.

FIG. 2 is a schematic circuit diagram of a prior art microstrip power combiner as a Wilkinson combiner.

FIG. 3 is a schematic circuit diagram showing a prior art, four-port hybrid power combiner.

FIG. 4 is a plan view of the four-port hybrid power combiner shown in FIG. 3.

FIGS. 4A and 4B are respective side elevation and front views of a coaxial-to-waveguide transition of the general type that could be used as modified by the present invention for power combining.

FIG. 5 is a block diagram of a microstrip-to-waveguide power combiner of the present invention and showing two sources of radio frequency energy.

FIG. 6 is another block diagram of a microstrip-to-waveguide combiner of the present invention and showing four sources of radio frequency energy.

FIG. 7 is a plan view of a power combiner using two sources of radio frequency energy, such as shown in FIG. 5.

FIG. 8A is a fragmentary, side sectional view of the power combiner shown in FIG. 7.

FIG. 8B is an exploded isometric view of a microstrip-to-waveguide transition of the general type that can be used in the present invention.

FIGS. 8C and 8D are respective fragmentary top and side elevation views of a microstrip-to-waveguide transition of the type as shown in FIG. 8B.

FIG. 9 is a fragmentary plan view of a microstrip-to-waveguide power combiner having four sources of radio frequency energy and showing a microstrip-to-waveguide transition and four microstrip launchers.

FIG. 10 is a fragmentary, side sectional view of the microstrip-to-waveguide transition of FIG. 9.

FIG. 11 is a plan view of another microstrip-to-waveguide transition similar to FIG. 9, but showing a configuration where the microstrip launchers are positioned 90 degrees relative to each other.

FIGS. 11A and 11B are respective side elevation and front views of a coaxial-to-waveguide transition and power combiner.

FIG. 12 is a graph illustrating a microstrip-to-waveguide combiner return loss of the present invention as a non-limiting example.

FIG. 13 is another graph illustrating a power combiner sensitivity to radio frequency source phase mismatch, in accordance with one example of the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

The present invention will now be described more fully hereinafter with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which preferred embodiments of the invention are shown. This invention may, however, be embodied in many different forms and should not be construed as limited to the embodiments set forth herein. Rather, these embodiments are provided so that this disclosure will be thorough and complete, and will fully convey the scope of the invention to those skilled in the art. Like numbers refer to like elements throughout.

The present invention is advantageous and power combines radio frequency signals using a combination of microstrip and waveguide or coax and waveguide techniques that result in very low losses. The power combining network of the present invention is extremely compact and can be used at a very low cost. In the present invention, two or more sources of radio frequency energy can be combined in a microstrip-to-waveguide or coax-to-waveguide transitions resulting in extremely low losses. Also, two or more sources of radio frequency energy are combined in microstrip-to-waveguide transition and are not as sensitive to phase mismatch between the radio frequency sources as other methods of power combining. The power combining is achieved efficiently at a low cost and is implemented in compact spaces. The method and apparatus of the present invention allow RF power combining that can be implemented at any frequency where energy can be transferred over a waveguide.

FIGS. 4A and 4B illustrate respective side and front views of a coaxal-to-waveguide transition 49′ of the general type that can be modified and used with the present invention, including a coaxial cable support body 49 a, formed back short 49 b, a single launch probe 49 c and coaxial connector 49 d. Through holes (or screw holes) 49 e provide means for receiving screws or other attachment fasteners (not shown) as known to those skilled in the art. This type of transition is widely used in the industry and has a 0.25 to 0.5 dB loss.

FIG. 5 illustrates a block diagram of a microstrip-to-waveguide power combiner 50 of the present invention showing two sources of radio frequency energy. As illustrated, a microstrip transmission line input 52 enters a high power amplifier 54 that can be formed as a microwave monolithic integrated circuit (MMIC). The signal passes over a microstrip transmission line to a microstrip rat race power divider 56, having a 50 ohm terminating resistor 56 a as a value typically chosen by many skilled in the art as a complement for 50 ohm microstrip transmission lines. A zero degree (0°) phase shift circuit 57 and a 180 degree phase shift circuit 58 are provided in one microstrip transmission line 60 that extends from the power divider 56 to another high power amplifier 62. The other microstrip transmission line 64 extends from the power divider into another high power amplifier 66 to a microstrip-to-waveguide transition 68 of the present invention and into a summed output 70.

FIG. 6 is another block diagram of a microstrip-to-waveguide power combiner 72 similar to FIG. 5, but instead showing four sources of radio frequency energy with respective 90 degree, 180 degree and 270 degree phase shift circuits 74, 76, 78 associated with microstrip transmission lines and high power amplifiers 80 that extend into the microstrip-to-waveguide transition 82 of the present invention. A summed output 84 is illustrated. Power is combined with no additional losses other than normal transition loss, usually resulting in about 0.25 to about 0.3 decibel (dB) loss. The present invention can achieve the same outcome as a waveguide combiner using extremely low losses, but requires no external waveguide combiner. This is advantageous where real estate is an issue.

FIGS. 7 and 8A are respective plan and fragmentary side elevation views of a power amplifier, such as shown in FIG. 5. The power amplifiers 54, 62, 66 are illustrated as preferably formed as microwave monolithic integrated circuits (MMIC) and connected to the respective microstrip transmission lines 60, 64. As illustrated, a dielectric substrate 90 has the at least two microstrip transmission lines 60, 64 formed thereon in which radio frequency signals are transmitted. These microstrip transmission lines 60, 64 terminate in opposed microstrip launchers 92, also referred to as probes, at the microstrip-to-waveguide transition 68 (shown in dashed line). The dielectric substrate 90 can be formed from a ceramic substrate or other similar soft board material, including alumina, as known to those skilled in the art.

A metal base plate 94, such as formed from aluminum or other similar material, supports the dielectric substrate, and may include ground layer 94 a interposed between the dielectric and metal plate. A waveguide back-short 96 is positioned opposite a waveguide opening 98. Both are positioned at the transition 68. The waveguide opening is formed in a waveguide support plate or top metal cover as illustrated at 99 or other structure as known to those skilled in the art. The waveguide opening 98 forms a waveguide launch 98 a. A back-short cavity 100 is formed within the metal plate 94 at the transition to form the waveguide back-short 96. This back-short cavity 100 has a depth ranging from about 25 to about 60 mils and is positioned for reflecting energy into the waveguide opening. The waveguide back-short is dimensioned about the size of the transition in one aspect of the present invention.

FIG. 8A shows the probe or microstrip launcher 92 positioned relative to the microstrip opening 98 and formed waveguide launch 98 a. As illustrated in FIGS. 7 and 9, isolation/ground vias 102 are formed in at least the dielectric substrate 90 and around the transition 68 to isolate the transition and form a well around the transition.

As illustrated, the power amplifiers 54, 62, 66 are formed as MMIC chips or other amplifiers and associated with respective microstrip transmission lines. The power amplifiers have a phase that is adjusted based on the location of microstrip launchers (probes) 92 at the transition 68. For example, in the example of FIGS. 7 and 8 as shown in the schematic circuit diagram of FIG. 5, two microstrip launchers 92 are opposed to each other, i.e., positioned 180 degrees apart, and the power amplifiers are phase adjusted for 180 degrees.

FIG. 8B illustrates an exploded isometric view of a microstrip-to-waveguide transition with a single microstrip transmission line 120 forming a probe 122. This type of transition as modified can be used for the present invention and is illustrated for explanation. Similar elements as in the previously described elements will continue with similar reference numerals for purposes of clarity. The back short 96 is illustrated within the metal base plate 94 and forms a cavity for the air or dielectric material 96 a as part of the “cut-out” opening 90 a within the ceramic or other dielectric material 90. A waveguide opening 98 is formed in the top metal cover 99 and includes screw holes 99 a for receiving screws or other fasteners for fastening the top metal cover, ceramic (or other dielectric material) and base metal plate together in one integral piece. The ground vias 102 are illustrated as formed around the “cut-out” 90 a where the “probe” or microstrip launchers 122 extend thereon. Electronic or MMIC components 122 are shown mounted on the ceramic or other dielectric material and are operable with the microstrip transmission line 120 and other components.

FIGS. 8C and 8D illustrate respective top and side elevation views of a waveguide-to-microstrip transition such as the type shown in FIG. 8D to show greater details of its construction, and showing a 50 ohm microstrip transmission line 120 and the flange holes 94 b formed in the aluminum base plate 94 and the ground layer 94 a supported under the ceramic or other dielectric material 90. In one aspect of the present invention, the dielectric material is formed as a 10 mil alumina 99.9% with k=9.9. The ground vias are shown in a semi-circle, but in the preferred aspect of the present invention such as shown in FIGS. 5–7 and 911, the ground vias circumferentially extend around the back short.

For purposes of description, various dimensions are set forth only as representative capital letters shown in FIGS. 8C and 8D are examples of dimensions.

    • A=0.14
    • B=0.006
    • C=0.010
    • D=0.04
    • E=0.32
    • F=0.075
    • G preferred not to exceed 0.070
    • H=0.080
    • I=0.140
    • J=0.063

Although dimensions can vary, these are only one example of the type of dimensions that could be used for microstrip-to-waveguide transition.

FIGS. 9 and 10 show another example of a power combiner of the present invention, but showing four microstrip launchers having different phase differences as associated with respective power amplifiers (not shown in the figures) in the type of circuit such as shown in FIG. 6. The power combiners shown in FIGS. 9 and 10 have a similar structure using the dielectric substrate and back-short construction, such that similar reference numerals correspond to similar elements. One difference between the different constructions is that four microstrip launchers or probes are used as illustrated in FIGS. 9 and 10.

FIG. 11 is another example showing the microstrip launchers positioned 90 degrees apart from each other such that respective power amplifiers would be phased 90 degrees apart for the four microstrip launchers, as illustrated.

FIGS. 11A and 11B are respective side and front views of a coaxial-to-waveguide 2:1 power combiner with elements similar to those shown in FIGS. 4A and 4B. Two launch probes 49 c are opposed to each other. Otherwise, similar elements are used as before, except modified for power combining as would be suggested by those skilled in the art.

In operation, the back-short 96 has the formed cavity 100 where energy is reflected and exits from its opposite end into a waveguide. The isolation vias 102 help in the reflection of energy. The depth of the back-short, in one aspect, is about 25 to about 60 mils deep, but its depth could be a function of many parameters, including the dielectric constant of the dielectric material 90 (or soft board) and a function of the bandwidth and/or what a designer and one skilled in the art is attempting to achieve. The back-short 96 is typically about the size of the transition 68 and can be on the bottom or on top. If a designer is trying to transmit energy off the bottom, the back-short could be placed on top (basically upside down). If energy is propagated up into a waveguide, then the back-short is placed on the bottom as illustrated.

FIG. 12 is a graph of the predicted (using electromagnetic simulation) return loss for a 2:1 ka-band power combiner as set forth above. This graph illustrates that the combiner bandwidth (return loss less than −20 decibels) is well over 30%, which is broad for this frequency.

FIG. 13 illustrates a graph of the power combiner gain and transition loss versus phase mismatch between two radio frequency sources. This graph illustrates that the total transition and power combiner losses is under 0.25 decibels with perfect phasing and degrades to about 0.5 decibel loss with +/−30 degree phase mismatch. The typical microstrip-to-waveguide transition losses, without power combining, are about 0.25 decibels to about 0.5 decibels. Therefore, the power combining can be performed in accordance with the present invention with no additional losses.

Many modifications and other embodiments of the invention will come to the mind of one skilled in the art having the benefit of the teachings presented in the foregoing descriptions and the associated drawings. Therefore, it is to be understood that the invention is not to be limited to the specific embodiments disclosed, and that the modifications and embodiments are intended to be included within the scope of the dependent claims.

Claims (8)

1. A microstrip-to-waveguide power combiner comprising:
a dielectric substrate;
at least two microstrip transmission lines formed thereon in which amplified radio frequency signals are transmitted and terminating in microstrip launchers at a microstrip-to-waveguide transition;
a waveguide structure positioned at the microstrip-to-waveguide transition such that said RF signals can transition from the transmission lines to the waveguide structure, wherein the waveguide structure is configured to power combine the RF signals with no significant additional losses beyond a loss inherent in said waveguide structure in the transition from the microstrip lines to the waveguide structure, said waveguide structure comprising a waveguide opening positioned at the transition and a waveguide back-short positioned opposite the waveguide opening at the transition;
a metallic plate on which the dielectric substrate is supported, and a back-short cavity formed within the metallic plate at the transition to form the waveguide back-short; and
isolation/ground vias formed within the dielectric substrate and around the transition that isolates the transition.
2. A microstrip-to-waveguide power combiner according to claim 1, wherein the radio frequency signals comprise microwave or millimeter wavelength signals.
3. A microstrip-to-waveguide power combiner according to claim 1, wherein the back-short cavity has a depth ranging from about 25 to about 60 mils.
4. A microstrip-to-waveguide power combiner according to claim 1, wherein the waveguide back-short is positioned for reflecting energy into the waveguide opening.
5. A microstrip-to-waveguide power combiner according to claim 1, wherein each microstrip transmission line includes a power amplifier associated therewith and supported by said dielectric substrate.
6. A microstrip-to-waveguide power combiner according to claim 5, wherein the phase of power amplifiers is adjusted based on the location of microstrip launchers at the transition.
7. A microstrip-to-waveguide power combiner according to claim 6, wherein the number of microstrip launchers is either two or four and the respective phase of said power amplifiers is 180 degrees or 90 degrees apart dependent on their location around the microstripto-waveguide transition.
8. A microstrip-to-waveguide power combiner according to claim 5, wherein the power amplifiers comprise microwave monolithic integrated circuits (MMIC).
US10751574 2002-04-23 2004-01-05 Microstrip-to-waveguide power combiner for radio frequency power combining Expired - Fee Related US6967543B2 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US37471202 true 2002-04-23 2002-04-23
US10218669 US6707348B2 (en) 2002-04-23 2002-08-14 Microstrip-to-waveguide power combiner for radio frequency power combining
US10751574 US6967543B2 (en) 2002-04-23 2004-01-05 Microstrip-to-waveguide power combiner for radio frequency power combining

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US10751574 US6967543B2 (en) 2002-04-23 2004-01-05 Microstrip-to-waveguide power combiner for radio frequency power combining

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10218669 Continuation US6707348B2 (en) 2002-04-23 2002-08-14 Microstrip-to-waveguide power combiner for radio frequency power combining

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20040140863A1 true US20040140863A1 (en) 2004-07-22
US6967543B2 true US6967543B2 (en) 2005-11-22

Family

ID=29218433

Family Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10218669 Active US6707348B2 (en) 2002-04-23 2002-08-14 Microstrip-to-waveguide power combiner for radio frequency power combining
US10751574 Expired - Fee Related US6967543B2 (en) 2002-04-23 2004-01-05 Microstrip-to-waveguide power combiner for radio frequency power combining

Family Applications Before (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10218669 Active US6707348B2 (en) 2002-04-23 2002-08-14 Microstrip-to-waveguide power combiner for radio frequency power combining

Country Status (2)

Country Link
US (2) US6707348B2 (en)
WO (1) WO2003092115A1 (en)

Cited By (21)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20060097819A1 (en) * 2004-04-29 2006-05-11 Dominique Lo Hine Tong Contact-free element of transition between a waveguide and a microstrip line
US7248129B2 (en) 2004-05-19 2007-07-24 Xytrans, Inc. Microstrip directional coupler
US20070216493A1 (en) * 2006-03-14 2007-09-20 Northrop Grumman Corporation Transmission line to waveguide transition
WO2007146535A2 (en) * 2006-06-12 2007-12-21 Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation High speed digital-to-analog converter
KR100790760B1 (en) 2005-12-08 2008-01-03 한국전자통신연구원 Band signalling transmitter using multiplex waveguide structures
US7456789B1 (en) 2005-04-08 2008-11-25 Raytheon Company Integrated subarray structure
US7511664B1 (en) * 2005-04-08 2009-03-31 Raytheon Company Subassembly for an active electronically scanned array
US20090085808A1 (en) * 2007-09-28 2009-04-02 Walsh Matthew R Microwave communication package
US20090322421A1 (en) * 2008-06-26 2009-12-31 Infineon Technologies Ag Power efficient transmitter with high dynamic range
US20100225410A1 (en) * 2009-03-09 2010-09-09 Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America, Inc. Waveguide to microstrip transition
US20110050356A1 (en) * 2009-09-03 2011-03-03 Fujitsu Limited Waveguide converter and manufacturing method for the same
US8068048B1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2011-11-29 Saulius Janusas Wireless microwave interferer for destructing, disabling, or jamming a trigger of an improvised explosive device
US20120188030A1 (en) * 2009-11-30 2012-07-26 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. Waveguide conversion device
US20120256707A1 (en) * 2011-02-21 2012-10-11 Siklu Communication ltd. Systems and methods for millimeter-wave laminate structures
US8502622B2 (en) 2007-12-26 2013-08-06 L-3 Communications Integrated Systems L.P. Apparatus and methods for phase tuning adjustment of signals
US20130278349A1 (en) * 2011-02-21 2013-10-24 Siklu Communication ltd. Enhancing operation of laminate waveguide structures using an electrically conductive fence
US20140022742A1 (en) * 2012-07-18 2014-01-23 Zte (Usa) Inc. Compact low loss transition with an integrated coupler
US20140125425A1 (en) * 2012-11-08 2014-05-08 Zte (Usa) Inc. Compact microstrip to waveguide dual coupler transition
US20150179589A1 (en) * 2013-12-25 2015-06-25 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Semiconductor package and semiconductor module
US20160141740A1 (en) * 2013-06-18 2016-05-19 Japan Radio Co., Ltd. Two-port triplate-line/waveguide converter
WO2018038707A1 (en) * 2016-08-23 2018-03-01 Intel Corporation Inverted microstrip transmission lines for qubits

Families Citing this family (24)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6707348B2 (en) * 2002-04-23 2004-03-16 Xytrans, Inc. Microstrip-to-waveguide power combiner for radio frequency power combining
US6917256B2 (en) * 2002-08-20 2005-07-12 Motorola, Inc. Low loss waveguide launch
US7042307B2 (en) * 2003-09-10 2006-05-09 Merrimac Industries, Inc. Coupler resource module
US7297875B2 (en) * 2004-04-27 2007-11-20 Merrimac Industries, Inc. Fusion bonded assembly with attached leads
US7038624B2 (en) 2004-06-16 2006-05-02 Delphi Technologies, Inc. Patch antenna with parasitically enhanced perimeter
EP1820236B1 (en) * 2004-11-30 2009-04-01 Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson (publ) A transmission arrangement
JP2006279306A (en) * 2005-03-28 2006-10-12 Tdk Corp Waveguide unit
US7463109B2 (en) * 2005-04-18 2008-12-09 Furuno Electric Company Ltd. Apparatus and method for waveguide to microstrip transition having a reduced scale backshort
EP1744395A1 (en) * 2005-07-12 2007-01-17 Siemens S.p.A. Microwave power combiners/splitters on high-loss dielectric substrates
GB2433515B (en) * 2005-12-22 2011-05-04 Kao Corp Polishing composition for hard disk substrate
DE102006053389B4 (en) * 2006-11-10 2011-09-15 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universität Hannover Waveguide device for transmitting electromagnetic waves with a waveguide and a waveguide disposed in the planar conductor
US7782156B2 (en) 2007-09-11 2010-08-24 Viasat, Inc. Low-loss interface
WO2009068071A1 (en) * 2007-11-30 2009-06-04 Telefonaktiebolaget Lm Ericsson (Publ) A microstrip to waveguide transition arrangement
US8212631B2 (en) 2008-03-13 2012-07-03 Viasat, Inc. Multi-level power amplification system
DE102008026579B4 (en) * 2008-06-03 2010-03-18 Universität Ulm Angled transition from microstrip line to rectangular waveguide
JP2010056920A (en) * 2008-08-28 2010-03-11 Mitsubishi Electric Corp Waveguide microstrip line converter
US8791772B2 (en) 2010-09-07 2014-07-29 Mks Instruments, Inc. LCL high power combiner
US9888568B2 (en) 2012-02-08 2018-02-06 Crane Electronics, Inc. Multilayer electronics assembly and method for embedding electrical circuit components within a three dimensional module
US9257735B2 (en) * 2013-03-22 2016-02-09 Peraso Technologies Inc. Reconfigurable waveguide interface assembly for transmit and receive orientations
US9230726B1 (en) 2015-02-20 2016-01-05 Crane Electronics, Inc. Transformer-based power converters with 3D printed microchannel heat sink
US9641144B2 (en) 2015-06-03 2017-05-02 Space Systems/Loral, Llc Solid state traveling wave amplifier for space applications
WO2017100964A1 (en) * 2015-12-14 2017-06-22 徐海军 Radio frequency power supply for laser
WO2017100963A1 (en) * 2015-12-14 2017-06-22 徐海军 Radio frequency power supply for laser
WO2018063238A1 (en) * 2016-09-29 2018-04-05 Intel Corporation Angle mount mm-wave semiconductor package

Citations (24)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4291278A (en) * 1980-05-12 1981-09-22 General Electric Company Planar microwave integrated circuit power combiner
EP0249310A1 (en) 1986-06-10 1987-12-16 Canadian Marconi Company Waveguide to stripline transition
US4761654A (en) 1985-06-25 1988-08-02 Communications Satellite Corporation Electromagnetically coupled microstrip antennas having feeding patches capacitively coupled to feedlines
US4825175A (en) 1985-10-03 1989-04-25 Hughes Aircraft Company Broadband, high isolation radial line power divider/combiner
US4870375A (en) 1987-11-27 1989-09-26 General Electric Company Disconnectable microstrip to stripline transition
US4943809A (en) 1985-06-25 1990-07-24 Communications Satellite Corporation Electromagnetically coupled microstrip antennas having feeding patches capacitively coupled to feedlines
EP0458226A2 (en) 1990-05-22 1991-11-27 CSELT Centro Studi e Laboratori Telecomunicazioni S.p.A. Orthomode transducer between a circular waveguide and a coaxial cable
US5136304A (en) 1989-07-14 1992-08-04 The Boeing Company Electronically tunable phased array element
US5202648A (en) 1991-12-09 1993-04-13 The Boeing Company Hermetic waveguide-to-microstrip transition module
US5214394A (en) 1991-04-15 1993-05-25 Rockwell International Corporation High efficiency bi-directional spatial power combiner amplifier
EP0599316A1 (en) 1992-11-26 1994-06-01 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Waveguide-microstripline transformer
US5329248A (en) 1991-12-11 1994-07-12 Loral Aerospace Corp. Power divider/combiner having wide-angle microwave lenses
US5376901A (en) 1993-05-28 1994-12-27 Trw Inc. Hermetically sealed millimeter waveguide launch transition feedthrough
US5724049A (en) 1994-05-23 1998-03-03 Hughes Electronics End launched microstrip or stripline to waveguide transition with cavity backed slot fed by offset microstrip line usable in a missile
WO1999016148A1 (en) 1997-09-24 1999-04-01 Robert Bosch Gmbh Microwave flat antenna
US5912598A (en) 1997-07-01 1999-06-15 Trw Inc. Waveguide-to-microstrip transition for mmwave and MMIC applications
US5939939A (en) * 1998-02-27 1999-08-17 Motorola, Inc. Power combiner with harmonic selectivity
US6040739A (en) 1998-09-02 2000-03-21 Trw Inc. Waveguide to microstrip backshort with external spring compression
WO2000038272A1 (en) 1998-12-22 2000-06-29 Telefonaktiebolaget Lm Ericsson (Publ) A broadband microstrip-waveguide junction
US6104247A (en) * 1998-05-23 2000-08-15 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Power amplifier for mobile communication system
US6509809B1 (en) 1999-05-27 2003-01-21 Hrl Laboratories, Llc Method and apparatus for coupling strip transmission line to waveguide transmission line
US6549106B2 (en) 2001-09-06 2003-04-15 Cascade Microtech, Inc. Waveguide with adjustable backshort
US6580335B1 (en) * 1998-12-24 2003-06-17 Kabushiki Kaisha Toyota Chuo Kenkyusho Waveguide-transmission line transition having a slit and a matching element
US6707348B2 (en) * 2002-04-23 2004-03-16 Xytrans, Inc. Microstrip-to-waveguide power combiner for radio frequency power combining

Patent Citations (24)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4291278A (en) * 1980-05-12 1981-09-22 General Electric Company Planar microwave integrated circuit power combiner
US4761654A (en) 1985-06-25 1988-08-02 Communications Satellite Corporation Electromagnetically coupled microstrip antennas having feeding patches capacitively coupled to feedlines
US4943809A (en) 1985-06-25 1990-07-24 Communications Satellite Corporation Electromagnetically coupled microstrip antennas having feeding patches capacitively coupled to feedlines
US4825175A (en) 1985-10-03 1989-04-25 Hughes Aircraft Company Broadband, high isolation radial line power divider/combiner
EP0249310A1 (en) 1986-06-10 1987-12-16 Canadian Marconi Company Waveguide to stripline transition
US4870375A (en) 1987-11-27 1989-09-26 General Electric Company Disconnectable microstrip to stripline transition
US5136304A (en) 1989-07-14 1992-08-04 The Boeing Company Electronically tunable phased array element
EP0458226A2 (en) 1990-05-22 1991-11-27 CSELT Centro Studi e Laboratori Telecomunicazioni S.p.A. Orthomode transducer between a circular waveguide and a coaxial cable
US5214394A (en) 1991-04-15 1993-05-25 Rockwell International Corporation High efficiency bi-directional spatial power combiner amplifier
US5202648A (en) 1991-12-09 1993-04-13 The Boeing Company Hermetic waveguide-to-microstrip transition module
US5329248A (en) 1991-12-11 1994-07-12 Loral Aerospace Corp. Power divider/combiner having wide-angle microwave lenses
EP0599316A1 (en) 1992-11-26 1994-06-01 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Waveguide-microstripline transformer
US5376901A (en) 1993-05-28 1994-12-27 Trw Inc. Hermetically sealed millimeter waveguide launch transition feedthrough
US5724049A (en) 1994-05-23 1998-03-03 Hughes Electronics End launched microstrip or stripline to waveguide transition with cavity backed slot fed by offset microstrip line usable in a missile
US5912598A (en) 1997-07-01 1999-06-15 Trw Inc. Waveguide-to-microstrip transition for mmwave and MMIC applications
WO1999016148A1 (en) 1997-09-24 1999-04-01 Robert Bosch Gmbh Microwave flat antenna
US5939939A (en) * 1998-02-27 1999-08-17 Motorola, Inc. Power combiner with harmonic selectivity
US6104247A (en) * 1998-05-23 2000-08-15 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Power amplifier for mobile communication system
US6040739A (en) 1998-09-02 2000-03-21 Trw Inc. Waveguide to microstrip backshort with external spring compression
WO2000038272A1 (en) 1998-12-22 2000-06-29 Telefonaktiebolaget Lm Ericsson (Publ) A broadband microstrip-waveguide junction
US6580335B1 (en) * 1998-12-24 2003-06-17 Kabushiki Kaisha Toyota Chuo Kenkyusho Waveguide-transmission line transition having a slit and a matching element
US6509809B1 (en) 1999-05-27 2003-01-21 Hrl Laboratories, Llc Method and apparatus for coupling strip transmission line to waveguide transmission line
US6549106B2 (en) 2001-09-06 2003-04-15 Cascade Microtech, Inc. Waveguide with adjustable backshort
US6707348B2 (en) * 2002-04-23 2004-03-16 Xytrans, Inc. Microstrip-to-waveguide power combiner for radio frequency power combining

Cited By (33)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US7746191B2 (en) * 2004-04-29 2010-06-29 Thomson Licensing Waveguide to microstrip line transition having a conductive footprint for providing a contact free element
US20060097819A1 (en) * 2004-04-29 2006-05-11 Dominique Lo Hine Tong Contact-free element of transition between a waveguide and a microstrip line
US7248129B2 (en) 2004-05-19 2007-07-24 Xytrans, Inc. Microstrip directional coupler
US7456789B1 (en) 2005-04-08 2008-11-25 Raytheon Company Integrated subarray structure
US7511664B1 (en) * 2005-04-08 2009-03-31 Raytheon Company Subassembly for an active electronically scanned array
KR100790760B1 (en) 2005-12-08 2008-01-03 한국전자통신연구원 Band signalling transmitter using multiplex waveguide structures
US20070216493A1 (en) * 2006-03-14 2007-09-20 Northrop Grumman Corporation Transmission line to waveguide transition
US7420436B2 (en) 2006-03-14 2008-09-02 Northrop Grumman Corporation Transmission line to waveguide transition having a widened transmission with a window at the widened end
WO2007146535A2 (en) * 2006-06-12 2007-12-21 Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation High speed digital-to-analog converter
WO2007146535A3 (en) * 2006-06-12 2008-05-08 Wisconsin Alumni Res Found High speed digital-to-analog converter
US8068048B1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2011-11-29 Saulius Janusas Wireless microwave interferer for destructing, disabling, or jamming a trigger of an improvised explosive device
US7855685B2 (en) * 2007-09-28 2010-12-21 Delphi Technologies, Inc. Microwave communication package
US20090085808A1 (en) * 2007-09-28 2009-04-02 Walsh Matthew R Microwave communication package
US8502622B2 (en) 2007-12-26 2013-08-06 L-3 Communications Integrated Systems L.P. Apparatus and methods for phase tuning adjustment of signals
US20090322421A1 (en) * 2008-06-26 2009-12-31 Infineon Technologies Ag Power efficient transmitter with high dynamic range
US8095092B2 (en) * 2008-06-26 2012-01-10 Infineon Technologies Ag Power efficient transmitter with high dynamic range
US20100225410A1 (en) * 2009-03-09 2010-09-09 Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America, Inc. Waveguide to microstrip transition
US8089327B2 (en) * 2009-03-09 2012-01-03 Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America, Inc. Waveguide to plural microstrip transition
US20110050356A1 (en) * 2009-09-03 2011-03-03 Fujitsu Limited Waveguide converter and manufacturing method for the same
US20120188030A1 (en) * 2009-11-30 2012-07-26 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. Waveguide conversion device
US20120256707A1 (en) * 2011-02-21 2012-10-11 Siklu Communication ltd. Systems and methods for millimeter-wave laminate structures
US20130278349A1 (en) * 2011-02-21 2013-10-24 Siklu Communication ltd. Enhancing operation of laminate waveguide structures using an electrically conductive fence
US9496593B2 (en) * 2011-02-21 2016-11-15 Siklu Communication ltd. Enhancing operation of laminate waveguide structures using an electrically conductive fence
US9270005B2 (en) * 2011-02-21 2016-02-23 Siklu Communication ltd. Laminate structures having a hole surrounding a probe for propagating millimeter waves
US20140022742A1 (en) * 2012-07-18 2014-01-23 Zte (Usa) Inc. Compact low loss transition with an integrated coupler
US9538658B2 (en) * 2012-07-18 2017-01-03 Zte (Usa) Inc. Compact low loss transition with an integrated coupler
US20140125425A1 (en) * 2012-11-08 2014-05-08 Zte (Usa) Inc. Compact microstrip to waveguide dual coupler transition
US9325050B2 (en) * 2012-11-08 2016-04-26 Zte (Usa) Inc. Compact microstrip to waveguide dual coupler transition with a transition probe and first and second coupler probes
US20160141740A1 (en) * 2013-06-18 2016-05-19 Japan Radio Co., Ltd. Two-port triplate-line/waveguide converter
US10003117B2 (en) * 2013-06-18 2018-06-19 Japan Radio Co., Ltd. Two-port triplate-line/waveguide converter having two probes with tips extending in different directions
US20150179589A1 (en) * 2013-12-25 2015-06-25 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Semiconductor package and semiconductor module
US9536843B2 (en) * 2013-12-25 2017-01-03 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Semiconductor package and semiconductor module
WO2018038707A1 (en) * 2016-08-23 2018-03-01 Intel Corporation Inverted microstrip transmission lines for qubits

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
US20030197572A1 (en) 2003-10-23 application
WO2003092115A1 (en) 2003-11-06 application
US20040140863A1 (en) 2004-07-22 application
US6707348B2 (en) 2004-03-16 grant

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US3516024A (en) Interdigitated strip line coupler
US4636753A (en) General technique for the integration of MIC/MMIC'S with waveguides
Ho et al. Broad-band uniplanar hybrid-ring and branch-line couplers
US5455545A (en) Compact low-loss microwave balun
US5539420A (en) Multilayered, planar antenna with annular feed slot, passive resonator and spurious wave traps
US4745377A (en) Microstrip to dielectric waveguide transition
US5517203A (en) Dielectric resonator filter with coupling ring and antenna system formed therefrom
US5949382A (en) Dielectric flare notch radiator with separate transmit and receive ports
US6104343A (en) Array antenna having multiple independently steered beams
US4689631A (en) Space amplifier
US7728772B2 (en) Phased array systems and phased array front-end devices
US6246377B1 (en) Antenna comprising two separate wideband notch regions on one coplanar substrate
US7030712B2 (en) Radio frequency (RF) circuit board topology
Cohn et al. History of microwave passive components with particular attention to directional couplers
US5801598A (en) High-power RF load
US6292153B1 (en) Antenna comprising two wideband notch regions on one coplanar substrate
US5198786A (en) Waveguide transition circuit
US6100841A (en) Radio frequency receiving circuit
USH956H (en) Waveguide fed spiral antenna
US4812782A (en) Non-reactive radial line power divider/combiner with integral mode filters
US4893126A (en) Integrated millimeter-wave transceiver
US4837529A (en) Millimeter wave microstrip to coaxial line side-launch transition
US4453142A (en) Microstrip to waveguide transition
US7812686B2 (en) Adjustable low-loss interface
US20040150554A1 (en) Low profile active electronically scanned antenna (AESA) for Ka-band radar systems

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: REVEAL IMAGING, LLC, MASSACHUSETTS

Free format text: TRANSFER FORM;ASSIGNORS:XYTRANS, INC.;CROSSHILL GEORGETOWN CAPITAL, LP;REEL/FRAME:021849/0932

Effective date: 20081007

AS Assignment

Owner name: BBH CAPITAL PARTNERS III, L.P., NEW YORK

Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:REVEAL IMAGING, LLC;REEL/FRAME:022052/0517

Effective date: 20081211

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 4

REMI Maintenance fee reminder mailed
LAPS Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees
FP Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee

Effective date: 20131122