US685954A - Method of utilizing effects transmitted through natural media. - Google Patents

Method of utilizing effects transmitted through natural media. Download PDF

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US685954A
US685954A US1899062316A US685954A US 685954 A US685954 A US 685954A US 1899062316 A US1899062316 A US 1899062316A US 685954 A US685954 A US 685954A
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L27/00Modulated-carrier systems
    • H04L27/26Systems using multi-frequency codes
    • H04L27/2601Multicarrier modulation systems
    • H04L27/2647Arrangements specific to the receiver

Description

No. 685,954. Patented Nov. 5, l90l.

N. TESLA. METHOD OF UTILIZING EFFECTS TRANSMITTED THROUGH NATURAL MEDIA.

(Application filed Aug. 1, 1899. Renewed May 29, 1901.)

(No Model.) 2 Sheets-Sheet I.

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Patented Nov. 5, I901.

N. TESLA. METHOD OF UTILIZING EFFECTS TRANSMITTED THROUGH NATURAL MEDIA.

(Application filed Aug 1, I899. Renewed May 29, 1901.)

2 Sheets-Sheet 2.

(No Model.

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o ci z NORRS vcrsns co. m-vo'luuwo. WASHINGT UNITED STATES PATENT GEETCE.

' NIKOLA TESLA, OF NEW YORK, N. Y.

METHOD OF UTILIZING EFFECTS TRANSMITTED THROUGH NATURAL MEDIA.

SPEGIFIGATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 685,954, dated November 5, 1901. Application filed August 1,1899. Renewed May 29, 1901. Serial No. 62,318. (No model.)

To (tZZ whom, it may concern.-

Be itknown that l, NIKQLA TESLA, a citizen of the United States, residing at New York city, in the county and State of New York, have invented a new and useful Improvement in Methods of Utilizing Effects Transmitted from aDistance to a Receiving Device Through the Natural Media, of which the following is'a specification, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, which form a part of the same.

The subject of my present invention is an improvement in the art of utilizing effects transmitted from a distance to a receiving device through the natural media; and it consists in a novel method hereinafter described.

vMy invention is particularly useful in connection with methods and apparatus for operating distant receiving devices by means of electrical disturbances produced by proper transmitters and conveyed to such receiving devices through the natural media; but it obviously has a wider range of applicability and may be employed, for example, in the investigation or utilization of terrestrial, solar, or other disturbances produced by natural causes.

Several ways or methods of transmitting electrical disturbances through the natural media and utilizing them to operate distant receivers are now known and have been ap plied with more or less success for accomplishing a variety of useful results. One of these ways consists in producing by a suitable apparatus rays or radiationsthat is, disturbances-Which are propagated in straight lines through space, directing them upon a receiving'or recording apparatus at a distance, and thereby bringing the latter into action. This method is the oldest and best known and has been brought particularly into prominence in recent years through the investigations of Heinrich Hertz. Another method consists in passing a current through a circuit, preferably one inolosing a very large area, inducing thereby in a similar circuit situated at a distance another current and affecting by the same in any convenient way a receiving device. Still another way, which has also been known for many years, is to pass in any suitable manner a current through a portion of the ground, as by connecting to two points of the same, preferably at a consider able distance from each other, the two terminals of a generator and to energize by a part of the current diffused through the earth a distant circuit, which is similarlyarranged and grounded at two points widelyapart and which is made to act upon a sensitive receiver. These various methods have their limitations, one especially, which is common to all, being that the receiving circuit or instrument must be maintained in a definite position with respect to the transmitting apparatus, which often imposes great disadvantages upon the use of the apparatus.

In several applications filed by me and patents granted to me I have disclosed other methods of accomplishing results of this nature which may be briefly described as follows: In one system the potential of a pointor region of the earth is varied byimparting to it intermittent or alternating electrifica tions through one of the terminals of a suitable source of electrical disturbances, which to heighten the effect has its other terminal connected to an insulated body, preferably of large surface and at an elevation. The electrifications communicated to the earth spread in all directions through the same, reaching a distant circuit, which generally has its terminals arranged and connected similarly to those of the transmitting source and operates upon a hi ghl y-sensitive receiver. Another method is based upon the fact that the atmospheric air,which behaves as an excellent insulator to currents generated by ordinary apparatus, becomes a conductor under the influence of currents or impulses of enormously high electromotive force which I have devised means for generating. By such means air strata,which are easily accessible, are rendered available for the production of many desired effects at distances however great. This method, furthermore, allowed advantage to be taken of many of those improvements which are practicable in the ordinary systems of transmission involving the use of a metallic conductor.

Obviously whatever method be employed it is desirable that the disturbances produced by the transmitting apparatus should be as powerful as possible, and by the use of certain forms of hi gh-frequency apparatus which I have devised and which are now well known important practical advantages are in this respect secured. Furthermore,sineein most cases the amount of energy conveyed to the distant circuit is but a minute fraction of the' total energy emanating from the source it is necessary for the attainment of the best results that whatever the character of the re ceiver and the nature of the disturbances as much as possible of the energy conveyed should be made available for the operation of the receiver, and with this object in view I have heretofore, among other means, employed a receiving-circuit of high self-induction andvery small resistance and of a period such as to vibrate in synchronism with the disturbances, whereby a number of separate impulses from the source were made to cooperate, thus magnifying the effect exerted upon and insuring the action of the receiving device. By these means decided advantages have been secured in many instances; but very often the improvement is either not applicable at all, or if so the gain is very slight. Evidently when the source is one producing a continuous pressure or delivering impulses of long duration it is imp *acticable to magnify the effects in this manner, and when, on the other hand, itis one furnishingshort impulses of extreme rapidity of succession the advantage obtained in this way is insignificant, owing to the radiation and the unavoidable frictional waste in the receiving circuit. These losses reduce greatly both the in tensity and the number of the cooperative impulses, and since the initial intensity of each of these is necessarily limited only an insignificant amount of energy is thus made available for a single operation of the receiver. As this amountis consequently dependent on the energy conveyed to the receiver by one single impulse, it is evidently necessary to employ either a very large and costly and therefore objectionable transmitter or else to resort to the equally objectionable use of a receiving device too delicate and too easily deranged. Furthermore, the energy obtained through the cooperation of the impulses is in the form of extremely-rapid vibrations and because of this unsuitable for the operation of ordinary receivers, the more so as this form of energy imposes narrow restrictions in regard to the mode and time of its application to such devices. To overcome these and other limitations and disadvantages that have heretofore existed in such systems of transmission of signals or intelligence and to render possible an investigation of impulses or disturbances propagated through the natural media from any kind of source and their practical utilization for any purpose to which they are applicable, Ihave devised a novel method,which I have described in a pending application tiled June 24, 1899, Serial No. 721,790, and which, broadly stated, consists in effecting during any desired time interval a storage of energy derived from such impulses and utilizing the potential energy so obtained for operating a receiving device.

My present invention is intended for the same general purposes, and it comprises a modified method and apparatus by means of which similar results may be obtained.

The chief feature which distinguishes my present from my former invention just referred to is that the energy stored is not, as in the former instance, obtained from the energy of the disturbances or effects transmitted from a distance, but from an independent source.

Expressed generally, my present method consists in charging a storage device with energy from an independent source controlling the charging of said device by the action of the effects or disturbances transmitted through the natural media and coincidentally using the stored energy for operating a receiving device.

A great variety of disturbances produced either by suitably-constructed transmitters or by natural causes are at present known to be propagated through the natural media, and there are also a variety of means or de vices enabling energy to be stored, and in view of this I wish to say that I consider the utilization of any such disturbances and the employment of any of these means as within the scope of my present invention so long as the use of the general method hereinbefore stated is involved.

The best way of carrying out myinvention which I at present know is to store electrical energy obtained from a suitable electrical generator in a condenser and to control the storage or the application of this energ 1 by means of a sensitive device acted upon by the effects or disturbances, and therebycause the operation of the receiver.

In the practical application of this method I usually proceed as follows: At any point where I desire to investigate or to utilize for any purpose effects or disturbances propagated through the natural media from any kind of source I provide asuitable generator of electricityas, for example, a battery and a condenser-which I connect to the poles of the generator in series with a sensitive device capable of being modified inits electrical resistance or other property by the action of the disturbances emitted from the source. To the terminals of the condenser I connect the receiver which is to be operated in series with another device of suitable construction which performs the function of periodically discharging the condenser through the receiver at and during such intervals of time as may be best suitable for the purpose contemplated. This latter device may merely consist of two stationary electrodes separated by a feeble dielectric layer of minute thickness, but sufficient to greatly reduce or practically interrupt the current in the circuit under normal conditions, or it may comprise terminals one or more of which are movable LII.

and actuated by any suitable force and are adapted to be brought into and out of contact with each other in any convenient manner. The sensitive device maybe any of the many devices of this kind which are known to be aifected by the disturbances, impulses, or effects propagated through the media, and it maybe of such a character that normallythat is, when not acted upon-it entirely prevents the passage of electricity from the generator to the condenser, or it maybe such that it allows a gradual leaking through of the current and a charging of the condenser at a slow rate. In any case it will be seen that if the disturbances, of whatever nature they may be, cause an appreciable diminution in the electrical resistance of the sensitive device the current from the battery will pass more readily into the condenser, which will be charged at a more rapid rate, and consequently each of its discharges through the receiver, periodicallyeffected by the special device before referred to which performs this function, will be stronger than nor- 1nallythat is, when the sensitive device is not acted upon by the disturbances. Evidently, then, if the receiver be so adjusted that it does not respond to the comparatively feeble normal discharges of the condenser, if they should occur, but only to those stronger ones which take place upon the diminution of the resistance of the sensitive device, it will be operated only when this device is acted upon by the disturbances, thus making it possible to investigate and to utilize the latter for any desired purpose.

The general principle underlying my invention and the operation of the various devices used will be clearly understood by reference to the accompanying drawings, in which-- Figure 1 is a diagram illustrating a typical arrangement of apparatus which. may be used in carrying my method into practice, and Figs. 2, 3, 4, and 5 similar diagrams of modified arrangements of apparatus for the same purpose.

In Fig.1, Cis a condenser, to the terminals T and T of which is connected a chargingcircuit including a battery B, a sensitive device a, and a resistance r, all connected in series, as illustrated. The battery should be preferably of very constant electromotive force and of an intensitycarefully determined to secure the best results. The resistance 0*, which may be a frictional or an inductive one, is not absolutely necessary; but it is of advantage to use it in order to facilitate adjustment, and for this purpose it may be made variable in any convenient and preferably continuous manner. Assuming that the disturbances which are to be investigated or utilized for some practical end are rays identical with or resembling those of ordinarylight, the sensitive device a may be a selenium cell properlyprepared, so as to be highly suscegtible to the influence of the rays, the action of which should be intensified by the use of a reflector A, shown in the drawings. It is well known that when cells of this kind are exposed to such rays of greatly-varying intensity they undergo corresponding modifications of their electrical resistance; but in the ways they have been heretofore used they have been of very limited utility. In addition to the circuit including the sensitive device or cell a another circuit is provided, which is likewise connected to the terminals T T of the condenser. This circuit, which may be called the receiving-circuit, includes the receiver R and in series with it a device (Z, before referred to, which performs the duty of periodically discharging the condenser through the receiver. ltwill be noted that, as shown in Fig. 1, the receiving-circuit is in permanent connection with the battery and condenser terminal T, and it should be stated that it is sometimes desirable to entirely insulate the receiving-circuit at all times except the moments when the device 01 operates to discharge the condenser, thus preventing any disturbing influence which might otherwise be caused in this circuit by the battery or the condenser during the period when the receiver should not be acted upon. In such a case two devices, as (2, may be usedone in each connection from the condenser to the receiving-circuitor else one single device of this kind, but of a suitablyniodified construction, so that it will make and break simultaneously and at proper intervals of time both of the connections of this circuit with the condenser T and T.

From the foregoing the operation of the apparatus as illustrated in Fig. 1 will be at once understood. Normally-that is, when it is not influenced by the rays at all or very slightly--the cell Ct being of a comparatively high resistance permits only a relatively feeble current to pass from the battery into the condenser, and hence the latter is charged at too slow a rate to accumulate during the time interval between two succeeding operations of the device d sufficient energy to operate the receiver or, generally speaking, to produce therequired change in the receiving-circuit. This condition is readily secured by a proper selection and adjustment of the various devices described, so that the receiver will remain unresponsive to the feeble discharges of the condenser which may take place when the cell a is acted upon but slightly or not at all by the rays or disturbances; but if new new rays are permitted to fall upon the cell or if the intensity of those already acting upon it be increased by any cause then its resistance will be diminished and the condenser will be charged by the battery at a more rapid rate, enabling sufficient potential energy to be stored in the condenser during the period of inaction of the device (I to operate the receiver or to bring about any desired change in the receiving-circuit when the device (1 acts. If the rays acting upon the cell or sensitive device (6 are varied or intermitted in any arbitrary manner, as when transmitting intelligence in the usual way from a distant station by means of short and long signals, the apparatus may readily be made to record or to enable an operator to read the message, since the receiver, supposing it to be an ordinary magnetic relay, for example, will be operated by each signal from the sending-station a certain number of times having some relation to the duration of each signal. It will be readily seen, however, that if the rays are varied in any other way, as by impressing upon them changes in intensity, the succeeding condenser dis charges will undergo corresponding changes in intensity, which may be indicated or recorded by a suitable receiver and distinguished irrespectively of duration.

With reference to Fig. 1, it may be useful to state that the electrical connections of the various devices illustrated may be made in many different ways. For instance, the sensitive device insteadv of being in series, as shown, may be in a shunt to the condenser, this modification being illustrated in Fig. 3, in which the devices already described are indicated by similar letters to correspond with those of Fig. 1. In this case it will be observed that the condenser which is being charged from the batteryB through the resista-nce 9, preferably inductive and properly related to the capacity of the condenser, will store less energy when the sensitive device a is energized by the rays and its resistance thereby diminished. The adjustment of the various instruments may then be such that the receiver will be operated only when the rays are diminished in intensity or interrupted and entirely prevented from falling upon the sensitive cell, or the sensitive device may be placed, as shown in Fig. a, in a shunt to the resistance r or inserted in any suitable way in the circuit containing the receiverfor example, as illustrated in Fig. 5in both of which figures the various devices are lettered to correspond with those in Fig. 1, so that the figures become self-explanatory. Again,

the several instruments may be connected in the manner of a IVheatstone bridge, as will be hereinafter explained with reference to Fig. 2, or otherwise connected or related; but in each case the sensitive device will have the same duty to perform-that is, to control the en ergy stored and utilized in some suitable way for causing the operation of the receiver in correspondence with the intermittences or variations of the effects or disturbances, and in each instance by a judicious selection of the devices and careful adjustment the advantages of my method may be more or less completely secured. I find it preferable, how ever, to follow the plan which I have illustrated. and described.

It will be observed that the condenser is an importantelement in the combination. Ihave shown that by reason of its unique properties it greatlyadds to the efficacy of this method. It allows the energy accumulated in it to be discharged instantaneously, and therefore in a highly-effective manner. It magnifies in a large degree the current supplied from the battery,and owing to these features it permits energy to be stored and discharged at practically any rate desired, and thereby makes itpossible to obtain in the receiving-circuit very great changes of the current strength by impressing upon the battery-current very small variations. Other means of storage possessing these characteristics to a useful degree may be employed without departing from the broad spirit of my invention; but I prefer to use a condenser, since in these respects it excels any other storage device of which I have knowledge.

In Fig. 2 a modified arrangement of apparatus is illustrated which is particularly adapted for the investigation and utilization of very feeble impulses or disturbances, such as may be used in conveying signals or producing other desired effects at very great distances. In this case the energy stored in the condenser is passed through the primary of a transformer the secondary circuit of which contains the receiver, and in order to render the apparatus still more suitable for use in detecting feeble impulses in addition to the sensitive device which is acted upon by the impulses another such device is included in the secondarycircuit of the transformer. The scheme of connections is in the main that of a lVheatstone bridge the four branches of which are formed by the sensitive device a and resistances L, L, and L, all of which should bepreferably inductive and also adjustable in a continuous manner or at least by very small steps. The condenser O, which is generally made of considerable capacity, is connected to two opposite points of the bridge, while a battery B, in series with a continuously-adjustable non-inductive resist ance r, is connected to the other pair of opposite points, as usual. The four resistances included in the branches of the bridge namely, (6, L, L, and L-are of a suitable size and so proportioned that under normal conditions-that is, when the device a is not influenced at all or only slightly by the disturbancesthere will be no difference of potential or in any case the minimum of the same at the terminals T and T of the condenser. Itis assumed in the present instance that the disturbances to be investigated or utilized are such as will produce a difference of electric potential, however small, between two points or regions in the natural media-as the earth, the water, or the airand in order to apply this potential difference effectively to the sensitive device a the terminals of the same are connected to two plates P and P,which should be of as large a surface as practicable and so located in the media that the largest possible difference of potential will be produced by the disturbances between the terminals of the sensitive device. This device is in the present case one of familiar construction, consisting of an insulating-tube, which is indicated by the heavy lines in the drawings and whichhas its ends closed tightly by two conducting-plugs with reduced extensions, upon which bear two brushes 1) Z), through which the currents are conveyed to the device. The tubular space between the plugs is partially filled with a conducting sensitive powder, as indicated, the proper amount of the same and the size of its grains being determined and adjusted beforehand by experiment. This tube I rotate by clockwork or other means at a uniform and suitable rate of speed, and under these conditionsI find that this device behaves toward disturbances of the kind before assumed in a manner similar to that of a stationary cell of celenium toward rays of light. Its electrical resistance is diminished when it is acted upon by the disturbances and is automatically restored upon the cessation of their influence. It is of advantage to employ round grains of powder in the tube, and in any event it is important that they should be of as uniform size and shape as possible and that provision should be made for maintaining an unchanging and very dry atmosphere in the tube. To the terminals T and T of the condenser C is connected a coil 19, usually consisting of a few turns of a conductorof verysmall resistance, which is the primary of the transformer before referred to, in series with a device d, which effects the discharge of the condenser through the coil 1) at predetermined intervals of time. In the present case this device consists of a cylinder made partly of conducting and partly'of insulating material 6 and 2, respectively, which is rotated at the desired rate of speed by anysuitable means. The conducting part c is in good electrical connection with shaft S and is provided with tapering segments, as f, upon which slides a brush 7a, which should preferably be-capable of longitudinal adjustment along the cylinder. Another brush 1), which is connected to the condenser-terminal T, being arranged to bear upon the shaft S, it will be seen that whenever the brush comes in contact with a conducting-segmentf the circuit including the primary 19 will be completed and the condenser, if energized, discharged through the same. By an adjustment of the speed of rotation of the cylinder and a displacement of the brush 7c along the axis of the same the circuit may be made to open and close in as rapid succession and remain open or closed during such intervals of time as may be desired. In inductive relation to the primary 1) is a secondary coils, usuallyof much thinner wire and of many more turns than the former, to which are connected in a series a receiver R, (illustrated as an ordinary magnetic 1'elay,) a continuously-adjustable non-inductive resistance 9", a battery B of a properly determined and very constant electromotive force,

and finally a sensitive device a of the same or similar construction as a, which is likewise rotated at a uniform speed and which with its brushes 1) l) closes the secondary circuit. The electromotive force of the battery 13 is so graduated by means of the adjustable resistance 0" that the dielectric layers in the sensitive device a are strained very nearly to the point of breaking down and give way upon a slight increase of the electrical pres sure on the terminals of the device. It will of course be understood that the resistance r" is used mainly because of convenience and that it maybe dispensed with, in which case the adjustment may be effected in many other ways, as by determining the proper amount or coarseness of the sensitive powder or by varying the distance apart of the metallic plugs in the ends of the tube. The same may be said of the resistance 1'', which is in series with the battery B and serves to graduate the force of the latter, so that the dielectric layers of the sensitive device a are subjected to a similar strain and maintained in a state of delicate poise. The various instruments being connected and adjusted in the manner described, it will now be readily seen from the foregoing that under normal conditions, the device a being unaffected by the disturbances, or practically so, and there being no or only a veryiusignificant amount of energy stored in the condenser, the periodical closure of the primary circuit of the transformer through the operation of the device d will have no appreciable effect upon the primary coilp, and hence no currents will be generated in the secondary coil .9, at least notsuch as would disturb the state of delicate balance existing in the secondary circuit including the receiver, and therefore the latter will not be actuated by the battery B; but when, owing to the disturbances or impulses-propagated ihrough the media from a distant source,an additional electromotive force, however small, is created between the terminals of the device a the dielectric layers in the same, unable to support the increased strain, give way and allow the current of the battery B to pass through, thus causing a diiference of potential at the terminals T and T of the condenser. A sufficient amount of energy being new stored in this instrument during the time interval between each two succeeding operations of the device d, each closure of the primary circuit by the latter results in the passage of a sudden current impulse through the coil which induces a corre sponding current of relatively high electromotive force in the secondary coil 5. Owing to this the dielectric in the device Ct gives way, and the current of the battery B being allowed to pass the receiver R is operated, but only fora moment, since by the rotation of the devices Ct, a, and d, which may be all driven from the same shaft, the original conditions are restored, assuming, of course, that the electromotive force set up by the disturbances ICO at the terminals of the sensitive device a is only momentary or of a duration not longer than the time of closure of the primary circuit; otherwise the receiver will be actuated a number of times and so long as the influence of the disturbances upon the device a continues. In order to render the discharged energy of the condenser more effective in causing the operation of the receiver, the resistance of the primary circuit should be very small and the secondary coil .9 should have a number of turns many ti mes greater than that of the primary coil 19. It will be noted that since the condenser under the above assumptions is always charged in the same direction the strongest current impulse in the secondary coil, which is induced at the moment when the brush comes in contact with segmentf, is also of unchanging direction, and for the attainment of the best results it is necessary to connect the secondary coil so that the electromotive force of this impulse will be added to that of the battery and will momentarily strengthen the same. However, under certain conditions, which are well understood by those skilled in the art, the devices will operate whichever way the secondary be connected. It is preferable to make the inductive resistances L and L relatively large, as they are in a shunt to the device a and might if made too small impair its sensitivencss. On the other hand, the resistance L should not be too large and should be related to the capacity of the condenser and the number of makes and breaks effected by the device cl in well-known ways. Similar considerations apply, of course, to the circuits including the primary p and secondary .9, respectively.

By carefully observing well-known rules of scientific design and adjustment of the instruments the apparatus may be made extremely sensitive and capable of responding to the feeblest influences, thus making it possible to utilize impulses or disturbances trans mitted from very great distances and too feeble to be detected or utilized in any of the ways heretofore known, and on this account the method here described lends itself to many scientific and practical uses of great value. Obviously the character of the devices and the manner in which they are connected or related may be greatly varied without departing from the spirit of myinvention.

WVhat I claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is

1. The method hereinbefore described of utilizing effects or disturbances transmitted through the natural media, which consists in charging a storage device with energy from an independent source, controlling the charging of said device by the action of the effects or disturbances, and coincidently using the stored energy for operating a receiving device.

2. The method hereinbefore described of utilizing effects or disturbances transmitted ceases from a distant source, which consists in charging the storage device with electrical encrg 7 from an independent source, controlling the charging of said device by the action of the effects or disturbances, and coincidently using the stored electrical energy for operating the receiving device.

The method hereinbefore described of utilizing effects or disturbances transmitted through the natural media, which consists in controlling, by means of such effects or disturbances, the charging of an electrical storage device from an independent source and discharging the stored energy through a receiving-circuit.

4;. The method hereinbefore described of utilizing effects or disturbances transmitted through the natural media, which consists in controlling, by means of such effects or disturbances, the charging of an electrical condenser from an independent source, and discharging the stored energythrough a receiw ing-circuit.

The method hereinbefore described of utilizing effects or disturbances transmitted through the natural media, which consists in effecting a storage during any desired time interval and under control of such effects or disturbances, of energy derived from an independent sourcc, and utilizing the potential energy so obtained for operating a receiving device.

6. The method hereinbefore described of utilizing effects or disturbances transmitted through the natural media, which consists in effecting a storage, during any desired time interval and under the control of such disturbances or effects of electrical energy derived from an independent source, and utilizing the potential energy so obtained for operating a receiving device.

7. The method hereinbefore described of utilizing effects or disturbances transmitted through the natural media, which consists in effecting a storage in a condenser during any desired time interval and under the control of such disturbances or effects, of electrical energy derived from an independent source, and utilizing the potential energy so obtained for operating a receiving device.

8. The method hereinbefore described of utilizing effects or disturbances transmitted through the natural media from a (list-ant source, which consists in storing, during succeeding intervals of time determined by means of such effects or disturbances, electrical energy derived from an independent source, and utilizing the potential energy so accumulated to operate a receiving device.

9. The method hereinbefore described of utilizing effects or disturbances transmitted through the natural media from a distant source, which consists in storing in a condenser during succeeding intervals of time determined by means of such effects or disturbances, electrical energy derived from an independent source, and utilizing the potential energy so accumulated to operate a re ceiving device.

10. The method hereinbefore described of utilizing effects or disturbances transmitted through the natural media from a distant source,which consists in storing, during succeedingintervals of timedetermincd bymeans of such effects or disturbances, electrical energy derived from an independent source, and using, for periods of time predetermined as to succession and duration, the accumulated energy so obtained to operate a receiving device.

11. The method hereinbefore described of utilizing effects or disturbances transmitted through the natural media from a distant source, which consists in storing in a conden'ser during succeeding intervals of time determined by means of such effects or disturbances, electrical energy derived from an independent source, and using, for periods of time predetermined as to succession and duration, the accumulated energy so obtained to operate a receiving device.

12. The method hereinbefore described of utilizing electrical effects or disturbances transmitted through the natural media from a distant source, which consists in effecting by means of such disturbances or efiects a storage in a storage device of electrical energy derived from an independent source for periods of time corresponding in succession and duration to such disturbances or effects, and discharging the electrical energy so accumulated into or through a receiving device at predetermined intervals of time.

13. The method hereinbefore described of utilizing electrical effects or disturbances transmitted from a distant source, which. consists in effecting by means of such disturbances or effects a storage in a condenser of electrical energy derived from an independent source for periods of time corresponding in succession and duration to such disturbances or effects, and discharging the electrical energy so accumulated into or through a receiving device at predetermined intervals of time.

. 14. The method hereinbefore described of utilizing electrical effects or disturbances transmitted from a distant source, which consists in producing, by means of such effects or disturbances, variations of resistance in a circuit including an independent electrical source and a device adapted to be charged with electrical energy therefrom, thereby causing the storage device to be charged with energy from such independent source, and using the potential electrical energy so accumulated to operate a receiving device.

15. The method hereinbefore described of utilizing effects or disturbances transmitted through the natural media from a distant source,which consists in producing, by means of such effects or disturbances, variations of resistance in a circuit including an independent electrical source and a condenser,thereby causing the condenser to be charged with energy from the independentsource, and using the potential electrical energy so accumulated to operate a receiving device.

16. The method hereinbefore described of utilizing effects or disturbances transmitted through the natural media from a distant source, which consists in causing, by means of such effects or disturbances, electrical energy from an independent source to be stored in a storage device, using the electrical energy so accumulated to operate a transformer and employing the secondary currents from such transformer to operate a receiving device.

17. The method hereinbefore described of utilizing effects or disturbances transmitted through the natural media from a distant source, which consists in causing, by means of such effects or disturbances, electrical energy from an independent source to be stored in a condenser, using the electrical energyso accumulated to operate a transformer and employing the secondary currents from such transformer to operate a receiving device.

18. The method hereinbefore described of utilizing effects or disturbances transmitted through the natural media from a distant source, which consists in causing, by means of such disturbances, variations of resistance in a circuit including an independent source of electricity and a storage device and thereby causing the storage device to be charged from such independent source, discharging the energy so accumulated in the storage device through the primary of a transformer at predetermined intervals of time, and operating a receiver by the currents so developed in the secondary of the transformer.

19. The method hereinbefore described of utilizing efiects or disturbances transmitted through the natural media from a distant source, which consists in causing, by means of such disturbances, variations of resistance in a circuit including an independent source of electricity and a condenser and thereby causing the condenser to be charged from such independent source, discharging the energy so accumulated in the condenser through the primary of a transformer at predetermined intervals of time and operating a receivcr by the currents so developed in the secondary of the transformer.

NIKOLA TESLA.

Witnesses:

F. LoWENs'rEIN, E. A. SUNDERLIN.

US685954A 1899-08-01 1899-08-01 Method of utilizing effects transmitted through natural media. Expired - Lifetime US685954A (en)

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US3344703A (en) * 1963-10-04 1967-10-03 Richard D Milton Laser detector
US3436152A (en) * 1965-03-31 1969-04-01 Gulf General Atomic Inc Method and apparatus for measuring the power in a light beam
US3523739A (en) * 1965-12-22 1970-08-11 Berkey Photo Inc Light meter for high powered repetitive light flashes
US20070021140A1 (en) * 2005-07-22 2007-01-25 Keyes Marion A Iv Wireless power transmission systems and methods
US20080285200A1 (en) * 2007-05-15 2008-11-20 Jeffrey Messer System and method for forming and controlling electric arcs
US20090011940A1 (en) * 2007-06-20 2009-01-08 Anthony Francis Issa System and method for using a vacuum core high temperature superconducting resonator
US20090103925A1 (en) * 2005-09-27 2009-04-23 Ortal Alpert Directional Light Transmitter and Receiver
US20090303760A1 (en) * 2007-11-27 2009-12-10 Anthony Francis Issa Resonant transformer systems and methods of use
US20100320362A1 (en) * 2008-01-03 2010-12-23 Ortal Alpert Wireless laser power transmitter
US7967074B2 (en) 2008-07-29 2011-06-28 Baker Hughes Incorporated Electric wireline insert safety valve
US9496921B1 (en) 2015-09-09 2016-11-15 Cpg Technologies Hybrid guided surface wave communication
US9857402B2 (en) 2015-09-08 2018-01-02 CPG Technologies, L.L.C. Measuring and reporting power received from guided surface waves
US9859707B2 (en) 2014-09-11 2018-01-02 Cpg Technologies, Llc Simultaneous multifrequency receive circuits
US9882436B2 (en) 2015-09-09 2018-01-30 Cpg Technologies, Llc Return coupled wireless power transmission
US9882397B2 (en) 2014-09-11 2018-01-30 Cpg Technologies, Llc Guided surface wave transmission of multiple frequencies in a lossy media
US9887587B2 (en) 2014-09-11 2018-02-06 Cpg Technologies, Llc Variable frequency receivers for guided surface wave transmissions
US9887585B2 (en) 2015-09-08 2018-02-06 Cpg Technologies, Llc Changing guided surface wave transmissions to follow load conditions
US9887556B2 (en) 2014-09-11 2018-02-06 Cpg Technologies, Llc Chemically enhanced isolated capacitance
US9887557B2 (en) 2014-09-11 2018-02-06 Cpg Technologies, Llc Hierarchical power distribution
US9885742B2 (en) 2015-09-09 2018-02-06 Cpg Technologies, Llc Detecting unauthorized consumption of electrical energy
US9887558B2 (en) 2015-09-09 2018-02-06 Cpg Technologies, Llc Wired and wireless power distribution coexistence
US9893402B2 (en) 2014-09-11 2018-02-13 Cpg Technologies, Llc Superposition of guided surface waves on lossy media
US9893403B2 (en) 2015-09-11 2018-02-13 Cpg Technologies, Llc Enhanced guided surface waveguide probe
US9899718B2 (en) 2015-09-11 2018-02-20 Cpg Technologies, Llc Global electrical power multiplication
US9912031B2 (en) 2013-03-07 2018-03-06 Cpg Technologies, Llc Excitation and use of guided surface wave modes on lossy media
US9910144B2 (en) 2013-03-07 2018-03-06 Cpg Technologies, Llc Excitation and use of guided surface wave modes on lossy media
US9916485B1 (en) 2015-09-09 2018-03-13 Cpg Technologies, Llc Method of managing objects using an electromagnetic guided surface waves over a terrestrial medium
US9923385B2 (en) 2015-06-02 2018-03-20 Cpg Technologies, Llc Excitation and use of guided surface waves
US9921256B2 (en) 2015-09-08 2018-03-20 Cpg Technologies, Llc Field strength monitoring for optimal performance
US9927477B1 (en) 2015-09-09 2018-03-27 Cpg Technologies, Llc Object identification system and method
US9941566B2 (en) 2014-09-10 2018-04-10 Cpg Technologies, Llc Excitation and use of guided surface wave modes on lossy media
US9960470B2 (en) 2014-09-11 2018-05-01 Cpg Technologies, Llc Site preparation for guided surface wave transmission in a lossy media
US9973037B1 (en) 2015-09-09 2018-05-15 Cpg Technologies, Llc Object identification system and method
US9997040B2 (en) 2015-09-08 2018-06-12 Cpg Technologies, Llc Global emergency and disaster transmission
US10001553B2 (en) 2014-09-11 2018-06-19 Cpg Technologies, Llc Geolocation with guided surface waves
US10027177B2 (en) 2015-09-09 2018-07-17 Cpg Technologies, Llc Load shedding in a guided surface wave power delivery system
US10027131B2 (en) 2015-09-09 2018-07-17 CPG Technologies, Inc. Classification of transmission
US10027116B2 (en) 2014-09-11 2018-07-17 Cpg Technologies, Llc Adaptation of polyphase waveguide probes
US10033198B2 (en) 2014-09-11 2018-07-24 Cpg Technologies, Llc Frequency division multiplexing for wireless power providers
US10031208B2 (en) 2015-09-09 2018-07-24 Cpg Technologies, Llc Object identification system and method
US10033197B2 (en) 2015-09-09 2018-07-24 Cpg Technologies, Llc Object identification system and method
US10062944B2 (en) 2015-09-09 2018-08-28 CPG Technologies, Inc. Guided surface waveguide probes
US10063095B2 (en) 2015-09-09 2018-08-28 CPG Technologies, Inc. Deterring theft in wireless power systems
US10074993B2 (en) 2014-09-11 2018-09-11 Cpg Technologies, Llc Simultaneous transmission and reception of guided surface waves
US10079573B2 (en) 2014-09-11 2018-09-18 Cpg Technologies, Llc Embedding data on a power signal
US10084223B2 (en) 2014-09-11 2018-09-25 Cpg Technologies, Llc Modulated guided surface waves
US10101444B2 (en) 2014-09-11 2018-10-16 Cpg Technologies, Llc Remote surface sensing using guided surface wave modes on lossy media
US10103452B2 (en) 2015-09-10 2018-10-16 Cpg Technologies, Llc Hybrid phased array transmission

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US3344703A (en) * 1963-10-04 1967-10-03 Richard D Milton Laser detector
US3436152A (en) * 1965-03-31 1969-04-01 Gulf General Atomic Inc Method and apparatus for measuring the power in a light beam
US3523739A (en) * 1965-12-22 1970-08-11 Berkey Photo Inc Light meter for high powered repetitive light flashes
US20070021140A1 (en) * 2005-07-22 2007-01-25 Keyes Marion A Iv Wireless power transmission systems and methods
US9705606B2 (en) 2005-09-27 2017-07-11 Wi-Charge, Ltd. Directional light transmitter and receiver
US20090103925A1 (en) * 2005-09-27 2009-04-23 Ortal Alpert Directional Light Transmitter and Receiver
US20080284506A1 (en) * 2007-05-15 2008-11-20 Jeffrey Messer System and method for controlling an electromagnetic field generator
US20080285200A1 (en) * 2007-05-15 2008-11-20 Jeffrey Messer System and method for forming and controlling electric arcs
US7817401B2 (en) 2007-05-15 2010-10-19 Extremely Ingenious Engineering LLC Solid state tesla coil suit
US8098472B2 (en) 2007-05-15 2012-01-17 Extremely Ingenious Engineering, Llc System and method for controlling an electromagnetic field generator
US20090011940A1 (en) * 2007-06-20 2009-01-08 Anthony Francis Issa System and method for using a vacuum core high temperature superconducting resonator
US20090303760A1 (en) * 2007-11-27 2009-12-10 Anthony Francis Issa Resonant transformer systems and methods of use
US7940534B2 (en) 2007-11-27 2011-05-10 Extremely Ingenious Engineering Resonant transformer systems and methods of use
US7960867B2 (en) 2007-11-27 2011-06-14 Extremely Ingenious Engineering Methods and systems for wireless energy and data transmission
US8525097B2 (en) 2008-01-03 2013-09-03 Wi-Charge Ltd. Wireless laser system for power transmission utilizing a gain medium between retroreflectors
US20100320362A1 (en) * 2008-01-03 2010-12-23 Ortal Alpert Wireless laser power transmitter
US7967074B2 (en) 2008-07-29 2011-06-28 Baker Hughes Incorporated Electric wireline insert safety valve
US9910144B2 (en) 2013-03-07 2018-03-06 Cpg Technologies, Llc Excitation and use of guided surface wave modes on lossy media
US9912031B2 (en) 2013-03-07 2018-03-06 Cpg Technologies, Llc Excitation and use of guided surface wave modes on lossy media
US9941566B2 (en) 2014-09-10 2018-04-10 Cpg Technologies, Llc Excitation and use of guided surface wave modes on lossy media
US10074993B2 (en) 2014-09-11 2018-09-11 Cpg Technologies, Llc Simultaneous transmission and reception of guided surface waves
US10027116B2 (en) 2014-09-11 2018-07-17 Cpg Technologies, Llc Adaptation of polyphase waveguide probes
US9882397B2 (en) 2014-09-11 2018-01-30 Cpg Technologies, Llc Guided surface wave transmission of multiple frequencies in a lossy media
US9887587B2 (en) 2014-09-11 2018-02-06 Cpg Technologies, Llc Variable frequency receivers for guided surface wave transmissions
US10001553B2 (en) 2014-09-11 2018-06-19 Cpg Technologies, Llc Geolocation with guided surface waves
US9887556B2 (en) 2014-09-11 2018-02-06 Cpg Technologies, Llc Chemically enhanced isolated capacitance
US9887557B2 (en) 2014-09-11 2018-02-06 Cpg Technologies, Llc Hierarchical power distribution
US10033198B2 (en) 2014-09-11 2018-07-24 Cpg Technologies, Llc Frequency division multiplexing for wireless power providers
US10079573B2 (en) 2014-09-11 2018-09-18 Cpg Technologies, Llc Embedding data on a power signal
US9893402B2 (en) 2014-09-11 2018-02-13 Cpg Technologies, Llc Superposition of guided surface waves on lossy media
US10101444B2 (en) 2014-09-11 2018-10-16 Cpg Technologies, Llc Remote surface sensing using guided surface wave modes on lossy media
US10084223B2 (en) 2014-09-11 2018-09-25 Cpg Technologies, Llc Modulated guided surface waves
US9859707B2 (en) 2014-09-11 2018-01-02 Cpg Technologies, Llc Simultaneous multifrequency receive circuits
US9960470B2 (en) 2014-09-11 2018-05-01 Cpg Technologies, Llc Site preparation for guided surface wave transmission in a lossy media
US9923385B2 (en) 2015-06-02 2018-03-20 Cpg Technologies, Llc Excitation and use of guided surface waves
US9997040B2 (en) 2015-09-08 2018-06-12 Cpg Technologies, Llc Global emergency and disaster transmission
US9921256B2 (en) 2015-09-08 2018-03-20 Cpg Technologies, Llc Field strength monitoring for optimal performance
US9857402B2 (en) 2015-09-08 2018-01-02 CPG Technologies, L.L.C. Measuring and reporting power received from guided surface waves
US9887585B2 (en) 2015-09-08 2018-02-06 Cpg Technologies, Llc Changing guided surface wave transmissions to follow load conditions
US9882436B2 (en) 2015-09-09 2018-01-30 Cpg Technologies, Llc Return coupled wireless power transmission
US9973037B1 (en) 2015-09-09 2018-05-15 Cpg Technologies, Llc Object identification system and method
US9927477B1 (en) 2015-09-09 2018-03-27 Cpg Technologies, Llc Object identification system and method
US9887558B2 (en) 2015-09-09 2018-02-06 Cpg Technologies, Llc Wired and wireless power distribution coexistence
US10027177B2 (en) 2015-09-09 2018-07-17 Cpg Technologies, Llc Load shedding in a guided surface wave power delivery system
US10027131B2 (en) 2015-09-09 2018-07-17 CPG Technologies, Inc. Classification of transmission
US9916485B1 (en) 2015-09-09 2018-03-13 Cpg Technologies, Llc Method of managing objects using an electromagnetic guided surface waves over a terrestrial medium
US9885742B2 (en) 2015-09-09 2018-02-06 Cpg Technologies, Llc Detecting unauthorized consumption of electrical energy
US10031208B2 (en) 2015-09-09 2018-07-24 Cpg Technologies, Llc Object identification system and method
US9882606B2 (en) 2015-09-09 2018-01-30 Cpg Technologies, Llc Hybrid guided surface wave communication
US10062944B2 (en) 2015-09-09 2018-08-28 CPG Technologies, Inc. Guided surface waveguide probes
US10063095B2 (en) 2015-09-09 2018-08-28 CPG Technologies, Inc. Deterring theft in wireless power systems
US9496921B1 (en) 2015-09-09 2016-11-15 Cpg Technologies Hybrid guided surface wave communication
US10033197B2 (en) 2015-09-09 2018-07-24 Cpg Technologies, Llc Object identification system and method
US10103452B2 (en) 2015-09-10 2018-10-16 Cpg Technologies, Llc Hybrid phased array transmission
US9899718B2 (en) 2015-09-11 2018-02-20 Cpg Technologies, Llc Global electrical power multiplication
US9893403B2 (en) 2015-09-11 2018-02-13 Cpg Technologies, Llc Enhanced guided surface waveguide probe

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