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Control strategy for an internal combustion engine in a hybrid vehicle

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US6421599B1
US6421599B1 US09682240 US68224001A US6421599B1 US 6421599 B1 US6421599 B1 US 6421599B1 US 09682240 US09682240 US 09682240 US 68224001 A US68224001 A US 68224001A US 6421599 B1 US6421599 B1 US 6421599B1
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engine
operating
power
condition
vehicle
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US09682240
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Allan J. Lippa
Diana D. Brehob
Jialin Yang
Lifeng Xu
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Ford Global Technologies LLC
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Ford Global Technologies LLC
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W20/00Control systems specially adapted for hybrid vehicles
    • B60W20/10Controlling the power contribution of each of the prime movers to meet required power demand
    • B60W20/15Control strategies specially adapted for achieving a particular effect
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60HARRANGEMENTS OR ADAPTATIONS OF HEATING, COOLING, VENTILATING, OR OTHER AIR-TREATING DEVICES SPECIALLY FOR PASSENGER OR GOODS SPACES OF VEHICLES
    • B60H1/00Heating, cooling or ventilating devices
    • B60H1/32Cooling devices
    • B60H1/3204Cooling devices using compression
    • B60H1/3205Control means therefor
    • B60H1/3208Vehicle drive related control of the compressor drive means, e.g. for fuel saving purposes
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS, IN VEHICLES
    • B60K6/00Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00
    • B60K6/08Prime-movers comprising combustion engines and mechanical or fluid energy storing means
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS, IN VEHICLES
    • B60K6/00Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00
    • B60K6/08Prime-movers comprising combustion engines and mechanical or fluid energy storing means
    • B60K6/10Prime-movers comprising combustion engines and mechanical or fluid energy storing means by means of a chargeable mechanical accumulator, e.g. flywheel
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS, IN VEHICLES
    • B60K6/00Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00
    • B60K6/08Prime-movers comprising combustion engines and mechanical or fluid energy storing means
    • B60K6/10Prime-movers comprising combustion engines and mechanical or fluid energy storing means by means of a chargeable mechanical accumulator, e.g. flywheel
    • B60K6/105Prime-movers comprising combustion engines and mechanical or fluid energy storing means by means of a chargeable mechanical accumulator, e.g. flywheel the accumulator being a flywheel
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS, IN VEHICLES
    • B60K6/00Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00
    • B60K6/08Prime-movers comprising combustion engines and mechanical or fluid energy storing means
    • B60K6/12Prime-movers comprising combustion engines and mechanical or fluid energy storing means by means of a chargeable fluidic accumulator
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS, IN VEHICLES
    • B60K6/00Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00
    • B60K6/20Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00 the prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines, e.g. HEVs
    • B60K6/42Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00 the prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines, e.g. HEVs characterised by the architecture of the hybrid electric vehicle
    • B60K6/44Series-parallel type
    • B60K6/445Differential gearing distribution type
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W10/00Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function
    • B60W10/04Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function including control of propulsion units
    • B60W10/06Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function including control of propulsion units including control of combustion engines
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W10/00Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function
    • B60W10/30Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function including control of auxiliary equipment, e.g. air-conditioning compressors or oil pumps
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02DCONTROLLING COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F02D41/00Electrical control of supply of combustible mixture or its constituents
    • F02D41/02Circuit arrangements for generating control signals
    • F02D41/021Introducing corrections for particular conditions exterior to the engine
    • F02D41/0235Introducing corrections for particular conditions exterior to the engine in relation with the state of the exhaust gas treating apparatus
    • F02D41/027Introducing corrections for particular conditions exterior to the engine in relation with the state of the exhaust gas treating apparatus to purge or regenerate the exhaust gas treating apparatus
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02DCONTROLLING COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F02D41/00Electrical control of supply of combustible mixture or its constituents
    • F02D41/02Circuit arrangements for generating control signals
    • F02D41/04Introducing corrections for particular operating conditions
    • F02D41/08Introducing corrections for particular operating conditions for idling
    • F02D41/083Introducing corrections for particular operating conditions for idling taking into account engine load variation, e.g. air-conditionning
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LELECTRIC EQUIPMENT OR PROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES, IN GENERAL
    • B60L2240/00Control parameters of input or output; Target parameters
    • B60L2240/40Drive Train control parameters
    • B60L2240/44Drive Train control parameters related to combustion engines
    • B60L2240/445Temperature
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W20/00Control systems specially adapted for hybrid vehicles
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W2510/00Input parameters relating to a particular sub-units
    • B60W2510/06Combustion engines, Gas turbines
    • B60W2510/0671Engine manifold pressure
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W2510/00Input parameters relating to a particular sub-units
    • B60W2510/06Combustion engines, Gas turbines
    • B60W2510/068Engine exhaust temperature
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W2710/00Output or target parameters relating to a particular sub-units
    • B60W2710/06Combustion engines, Gas turbines
    • B60W2710/0616Position of fuel or air injector
    • B60W2710/0622Air-fuel ratio
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60YINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO ASPECTS CROSS-CUTTING VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY
    • B60Y2300/00Purposes or special features of road vehicle drive control systems
    • B60Y2300/47Engine emissions
    • B60Y2300/476Regeneration of particle filters
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N2570/00Exhaust treating apparatus eliminating, absorbing or adsorbing specific elements or compounds
    • F01N2570/04Sulfur or sulfur oxides
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N2570/00Exhaust treating apparatus eliminating, absorbing or adsorbing specific elements or compounds
    • F01N2570/14Nitrogen oxides
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N2610/00Adding substances to exhaust gases
    • F01N2610/02Adding substances to exhaust gases the substance being ammonia or urea
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N2610/00Adding substances to exhaust gases
    • F01N2610/03Adding substances to exhaust gases the substance being hydrocarbons, e.g. engine fuel
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N3/00Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust
    • F01N3/02Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for cooling, or for removing solid constituents of, exhaust
    • F01N3/021Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for cooling, or for removing solid constituents of, exhaust by means of filters
    • F01N3/023Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for cooling, or for removing solid constituents of, exhaust by means of filters using means for regenerating the filters, e.g. by burning trapped particles
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02DCONTROLLING COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F02D2250/00Engine control related to specific problems or objectives
    • F02D2250/18Control of the engine output torque
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
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    • Y02T10/10Internal combustion engine [ICE] based vehicles
    • Y02T10/20Exhaust after-treatment
    • Y02T10/22Three way catalyst technology, i.e. oxidation or reduction at stoichiometric equivalence ratio
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
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    • Y02T10/6204Hybrid vehicles using ICE and mechanical energy storage, e.g. flywheel
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
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    • Y02T10/62Hybrid vehicles
    • Y02T10/6208Hybrid vehicles using ICE and fluidic energy storage, e.g. pressure accumulator
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
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    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/62Hybrid vehicles
    • Y02T10/6213Hybrid vehicles using ICE and electric energy storage, i.e. battery, capacitor
    • Y02T10/623Hybrid vehicles using ICE and electric energy storage, i.e. battery, capacitor of the series-parallel type
    • Y02T10/6239Differential gearing distribution type

Abstract

A system and method is disclosed for operating an internal combustion engine disposed in a hybrid vehicle, in which engine operation is selected to provide secondary vehicular functions, such as cabin heating, cabin cooling, and exhaust aftertreatment of exhaust components.

Description

BACKGROUND OF INVENTION

The invention relates to a system and method to operate an internal combustion engine to facilitate the operation of secondary devices, such as emission aftertreatment devices, which depend on the operating condition of the engine to which they are coupled. In the present invention, the internal combustion engine is part of a hybrid vehicle system.

The primary function of an automobile is to transport passengers and cargo. There are, however, secondary vehicular functions including cooling the vehicle cabin, heating the vehicle cabin, and exhaust aftertreatment functions to lower the emission of regulated gaseous components from the vehicle which are performed as well. In a conventional vehicle, the operating condition of the engine must be selected to provide the torque demanded by the operator. The secondary functions are typically attended to by operating the engine at a condition which provides the desired power but may be less than a desirable operating condition from the standpoint of providing the best function of the engine dependent auxiliary device, i.e., the device which provides the secondary function. Several examples of the problems encountered in providing secondary functions in conventional vehicles follow.

If the temperature in a vehicle cabin increases above a set point of an air-conditioner thermostat, engine power is increased to provide power to drive the air conditioning compressor, while maintaining desired power at the wheels, i.e., the primary function. Increasing the power level of the engine is inefficient at many operating conditions. Clearly, it would not be satisfactory to the operator of the vehicle to delay air conditioning until the engine happened to be at a desirable condition to facilitate efficient employment of the air conditioner. Thus, in a conventional vehicle, the engine power is raised and a large fuel penalty may result.

A diesel engine equipped with a diesel particulate filter requires periodic regeneration of the filter to avoid complete occlusion of the filter. There are engine operating conditions which could cause the carbonaceous material collected in the filter to spontaneously ignite and oxidize. However, the filter must be regenerated at the time that it has become full, regardless of the current engine operating condition. Prior art approaches include electrically heating the particulate filter to the auto ignition temperature of the particulate matter, providing a burner in the exhaust system to ignite the particulate matter, operating the engine at a retarded injection timing or with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to cause the exhaust temperature to rise, and others. However, all prior art methods penalize fuel efficiency and many of them do not guarantee regeneration success over all possible operating scenarios.

A further example of a problem in operating a secondary device occurs in diesel-equipped conventional vehicles in which cabin heating is notably slow. Measures may be undertaken to promote cabin warm up. However, these measures negatively impact fuel economy and are insufficient to provide the desired cabin comfort to the operator. Thus, heating of the cabin may be delayed until an engine operating condition is accessed which can satisfy both the primary function, i.e., power at the driving wheels, and the secondary function, heating the cabin.

Yet another example of a challenge in providing a secondary function in a vehicle is in managing lean NOx traps (LNTs) for exhaust aftertreatment of homogeneous charge (fuel and air premixed) and stratified charge (fuel and air separated) lean burn engine exhaust. LNTs collect NOx during lean operation o f the engine and subsequently release and react the NOx during a period of rich operation. One of the difficulties encountered in conventional vehicles utilizing an LNT is in maintaining smooth torque in making transitions between lean and rich operation to purge the LNT of NOx.

The inventors of the present invention have recognized a method to operate a hybrid vehicle system, i.e., one with an internal combustion engine and another machine which may provide motive force to the wheels, in such a manner to satisfy or attend to demands of engine dependent auxiliary devices to better provide secondary functions, such as emission control, cabin heating, and cabin cooling.

SUMMARY OF INVENTION

A hybrid vehicle system including at least two machines capable of being coupled to and capable of providing motive force to the vehicle's driving wheels is provided. One of the machines is an internal combustion engine. The system includes one or more engine dependent auxiliary devices which are coupled to the internal combustion engine. An engine controller determines whether a current engine operating condition satisfies an engine dependent auxiliary device and if the engine dependent auxiliary device is not satisfied, the engine controller determines a desired engine operating condition to satisfy the engine dependent auxiliary device. The engine dependent auxiliary device may be a lean NOx trap, a lean NOx catalyst, a particulate filter, a fuel vapor purge system, a compressor of an air conditioning unit, and a heat exchanger for transferring heat to a cabin of the vehicle.

A method to manage an internal combustion engine within a hybrid vehicle system is disclosed. The vehicle system includes at least two machines capable of being coupled to and capable of providing motive force to the vehicle's driving wheels; one of which is an internal combustion engine. In the method, whether the current engine operating condition satisfies the needs of an engine dependent auxiliary device is determined. If the engine dependent auxiliary device is not satisfied, a desired engine operating condition, which satisfies the engine dependent auxiliary device, is determined and the engine is caused to attain the desired engine operating condition.

An advantage of the present invention is that by operating the engine at its most efficient operating condition while providing a secondary function, such as cabin cooling, the fuel penalty exacted by providing that secondary function is minimized. This is possible because the internal combustion engine, which is installed in a hybrid vehicle system, need not be constrained to develop torque which matches the power demanded by the driver.

A further advantage of the present invention is that torque fluctuations of the engine to provide transitions, for the purposes of a secondary device, may be made without affecting torque at the driving wheels. The process of making transitions is greatly simplified because engine torque need not be constant; the second machine of the hybrid system may absorb excess torque or provide makeup torque desired at the driving wheels. Furthermore, transitions may take place in a more fuel efficient manner than provided in prior art. Examples are transitions between lean and rich conditions to purge a LNT, transitions to and from an operating condition which causes auto ignition of a diesel particulate filter, and transitions between stratified lean and stratified homogeneous operation in a stratified charge engine.

Still a further advantage of the present invention is that secondary functions can be provided upon demand rather than having to postpone providing the function or inadequately providing the function. Examples include heating the cabin of a vehicle equipped with a diesel engine and regenerating a diesel particulate filter, both of which may suffer significant delay in prior art methods.

Yet a further advantage of the present invention is that it may be possible to attend to two secondary devices simultaneously. As an example, vapor purge and LNT purge might be concurrently provided by accessing an engine operating condition which satisfies both.

Other advantages, as well as objects and features of the present invention, will become apparent from the following detailed description of the preferred embodiments when taken in connection with the accompanying drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a schematic representation of an example hybrid vehicle configuration showing ancillary components which may provide secondary functions onboard the vehicle;

FIG. 2 is a flowchart showing the method disclosed herein according to an aspect of the present invention; and

FIG. 3 is a flowchart showing the method disclosed herein according to an aspect of the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

An example of a hybrid vehicle system is shown in FIG. 1. The hybrid vehicle has an engine 10 and electric motor 28, both of which can provide motive force to driving wheels 32. Power split device 20 is coupled to electric motor 28, generator 22, and engine output shaft 34 of engine 10. Power split device 20 may cause the output of engine 10 to be delivered to output shaft 36 or to generator 22. Output shaft 36 is coupled to the driving wheels 32 via gear set 30. Output shaft 36 may be supplied power by engine 10, electric motor 28, or a combination of the two. Generator 22 is connected to battery 26 via an inverter 24. Power generated by engine 10, which is in excess of that needed at the driving wheels 32, can be supplied to generator 22, which ultimately stores energy in battery 26. Energy can be extracted from battery 26 through inverter 24 and provided to motor 28.

The hybrid system of FIG. 1, commonly referred to as an electric hybrid, is provided as one example configuration of a hybrid-powered vehicle. Other configurations utilizing an electric motor as the secondary machine are known to those skilled in the art, sometimes referred to as serial and parallel arrangements. Another alternative is for the motor and generator functions to be performed by the same electrical machine. Other types of machines, such as flywheels and hydraulic motors, are known alternatives to an electric motor. The present invention is applicable to hybrid vehicle systems in which one of the machines is an internal combustion engine.

Continuing with FIG. 1, internal combustion engine 10 is provided fresh air from the atmosphere through throttle valve 48 and intake manifold 12 and discharges exhaust gases through exhaust manifold 14 and exhaust aftertreatment device 16.

Engine 10 may be provided with one or more exhaust aftertreatment devices, shown as a single exhaust aftertreatment device 16 in FIG. 1. Exhaust aftertreatment device 16 may be a catalyst which is provided stoichiometric exhaust products for conversion of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Or, the exhaust aftertreatment device may be a lean NOx catalyst (LNC), which is provided lean exhaust products, i.e., those containing air in excess of the amount that would be required to completely oxidize the fuel. A LNC requires a reductant to cause the reduction of NOx. Presently known reductants are unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust stream, fuel, hydrocarbons other than fuel and an ammonia solution. If the LNC uses a reductant other than unburned hydrocarbons or fuel, a reductant reservoir 54 and an injector 52 are provided onboard the vehicle. LNCs are susceptible to sulfur contamination. Periodic desulfurization of the LNC helps to retain high conversion efficiency in the LNC. This is accomplished by providing a high temperature in the LNC in a reducing atmosphere. Alternatively, exhaust aftertreatment device 16 may be a lean NOx trap (LNT), i.e., one with enhanced NOx storage capability. A LNT typically operates cyclically in which NOx is stored at lean operating conditions and subsequently purged at slightly rich operating conditions. NOx is reacted during the purge portion of the cycle. Or, exhaust aftertreatment device 16 may be a particulate filter, which collects particles discharged from engine 10. As a particulate filter becomes clogged after hours of operation, a need arises to regenerate the filter. Regeneration may occur by auto ignition of the particulate matter, which ensues in the presence of sufficient oxygen and high enough temperature. Alternatively, engine 10 may be stoichiometrically fueled. Stoichiometry refers to a ratio of fuel and air supplied to engine 10. If the reaction were complete, the products are carbon dioxide, water, and nitrogen only. If engine 10 were a stoichiometric engine, exhaust aftertreatment device 16 may be a three-way catalyst, which is known to provide high conversion efficiencies for carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and NOx. Also, exhaust aftertreatment device 16 may be an oxidation catalyst. It is known to those skilled in the art that the vehicle may contain a multiplicity of aftertreatment devices and may be arranged in a variety of configurations. Element 16 of FIG. 1 refers to any combination of aftertreatment devices, i.e., in any number of each, any order, and disposed in multiple paths. For example, if engine 10 is a diesel engine, both a diesel particulate filter and a lean NOx trap may be serially arranged in an exhaust duct. If engine 10 is a V engine, that is one containing two banks of cylinders, each bank of cylinders may lead to a close coupled catalyst. Downstream of the catalysts the exhaust ducts may be connected and another catalyst. These catalysts may be oxidation catalysts or three-way catalysts.

It is known to those skilled in the art, that the effectiveness of exhaust aftertreatment devices 16 such as three way catalysts, lean NOx catalysts, lean NOx traps, and oxidation catalysts is low at low temperature. To provide the highest possible conversion efficiency of these devices, it is useful to bring them to operating temperature as soon as possible after starting or restarting the engine. The present invention addresses this issue, as discussed below.

Again referring to FIG. 1, the coolant of engine 10 is delivered to an air-to-water heat exchanger 42 through coolant lines 40. The air side of heat exchanger 44 communicates warmed air into the vehicle cabin 46.

Engine 10 of FIG. 1 may receive fuel vapors from a fuel vapor purge system, elements 62, 64, and 66 in FIG. 1. Due to temperature changes to which the vehicle is subjected, fuel vapors are released from fuel stored in fuel tank 60. Fuel tank 60 communicates with a carbon canister 62. Periodically, fuel vapors collected in carbon canister 62 may need to be purged. To do so, valves 64 and 66 are opened to allow fresh air to be admitted into carbon canister 62 to strip off absorbed fuel vapors. Fuel vapors and air are inducted into engine 10 under the influence of a depressed pressure downstream of throttle valve 48, which is caused by partial closure of throttle valve 48.

Referring still to FIG. 1, an air-conditioning compressor 50 is driven off engine output shaft 34. The associated condenser and heat exchanger to achieve temperature reduction in the vehicle cabin is well known and not shown.

In FIG. 1, electronic control unit (ECU) 80 has a microprocessor 70, called a central processing unit (CPU), in communication with memory management unit (MMU) 68. MMU 68 controls the movement of data among the various computer readable storage media and communicates data to and from CPU 70. The computer readable storage media preferably include volatile and nonvolatile storage in read-only memory (ROM) 78, random-access memory (RAM) 76, and keep-alive memory (KAM) 74, for example. KAM 74 may be used to store various operating variables while CPU 70 is powered down. The computer-readable storage media may be implemented using any of a number of known memory devices such as PROMs (programmable read-only memory), EPROMs (electrically PROM), EEPROMS (electrically erasable PROM), flash memory, or any other electric, magnetic, optical, or combination memory devices capable of storing data, some of which represent executable instructions, used by CPU 70 in controlling the engine or vehicle into which the engine is mounted. The computer-readable storage media may also include floppy disks, CD-ROMs, hard disks, and the like. CPU 70 communicates with various sensors 82 and actuators 84 via an input/output (I/O) interface 72. Some ECU 80 architectures do not contain MMU 68. If no MMU 68 is employed, CPU 70 manages data and connects directly to ROM 78, RAM 76, and KAM 74. Of course, the present invention could utilize more than one CPU 70 to provide engine/vehicle control and ECU 80 may contain multiple ROM 78, RAM 76, and KAM 74 coupled to MMU 68 or CPU 70 depending upon the particular application.

Continuing with FIG. 1, I/O interface 72 of ECU 80 communicates with sensors 82 and actuators 84 or electronic drivers. Sensors 82 may be sensing: temperature (ambient, coolant, oil, cabin, exhaust, as eg.), exhaust stoichiometry, inlet air pressure, inlet airflow rate, exhaust gas component concentrations, throttle valve 48 position, position of vapor purge throttles 64 and 66, liquid tanks levels, and others. Actuators 84 may be: a throttle valve controller, a position of an exhaust gas recirculation valve (not shown), a reductant injector 52 driver, an air-conditioning compressor 34 clutch, a power split device 20, valves controlling cabin climate (not shown), and others. The connections between the sensors 82 and actuators 84 to ECU 80 are not explicitly shown in FIG. 1.

Prior to discussing the flowchart in FIG. 2 in detail, engine conditions satisfying engine dependent auxiliary devices are discussed.

A first type of engine dependent auxiliary devices (EDADs) are satisfied, typically, by high power engine operating conditions. Thus, if these types of devices are not satisfied, it is typically because the current engine operating condition is low power. For example, cabin heating performance of a diesel-equipped vehicle is hampered by engine 10 operating condition being at too low a power level. Another example is removing sulfur from a LNC in which a high LNC temperature for a period of time is needed.

A second type of EDADs is satisfied, typically, by low power engine operating conditions. For example, a vapor purge system relies on a pressure depression in the intake line to cause the flow of gases through carbon canister 62. The pressure depression occurs at throttled conditions, which are lower power conditions. Thus, if the current engine operating condition does not support vapor purge, it is likely to be due to engine 10 operating at high power.

There is a third type of EDADs which have multiple engine operating conditions at which they are satisfied. For example, it has been found that a LNC which uses a reductant, such as ammonia-containing urea, has much higher NOx conversion efficiency in the 140-250° C. temperature range if reductant has previously been stored within the catalyst under specific conditions. A first condition leading to the effective storage of reductant is that NOx concentration of the exhaust gases entering the LNC be less than about 25 ppm, which occurs at a low power engine operating condition. A second condition at which reductant can be effectively stored is when the LNC is at a temperature greater than about 300° C. which occurs at a high power engine operating condition. Thus, the third type of EDADs have both a high power and a low power operating condition appropriate for satisfying the EDAD.

Finally, there is a type of EDAD which requires temporary transitions to an alternate operating condition to satisfy their demands. An example is a diesel particulate filter which must be periodically regenerated. A high power condition may be required to cause a sufficiently high temperature in the exhaust system to cause auto ignition of the particulate matter. After auto ignition of the particulate matter the engine operating condition may be returned to its previous condition. This situation may be handled by considering the EDAD to exhibit behavior of the first type of EDADs followed by the EDAD exhibiting behavior of the second type of EDADs or vice versa, depending on the EDAD.

In FIG. 2, a flowchart of a preferred embodiment of the present invention is shown. The process starts in block 100 and continues in block 102, in which engine 10 and the secondary machine are controlled based on the normal operating strategy, which is separate from the present invention. An example of a normal operating strategy is shown in U.S. Pat. No. 6,196,344, which is incorporated by reference herein. Block 104 is executed, periodically, to determine if engine dependent auxiliary devices are satisfied. EDADs may be a fuel vapor purge system (62, 64, and 66 of FIG. 1), an exhaust aftertreatment device 16 or devices, air conditioning system (34), and cabin heating system (40, 42, and 44). If EDADs are satisfied, the secondary function may be provided and control is returned to block 102 for continued normal operation. If the EDAD is satisfied by the current operating condition, control passes to block 116, which will be discussed in detail below. If an EDAD is not satisfied, control is passed to block 106 in which a desired engine operating condition to satisfy the EDAD is computed. Control is then passed to block 108 in which it is determined whether the current operation power, Pcurr, is greater than the power of the desired engine operating condition, Pdes. If the Pdes is greater than Pcurr, control passes to block 110, in which it is determined whether the energy storage device has sufficient capacity to store the power in excess of what is required at the driving wheels 32. These tend to be EDADs of the first type that fall along this branch (block 110) of the flowchart. Normally, the battery 26 or other energy storage device can absorb the excess energy. However, there may be situations in which the energy storage device is at capacity and cannot absorb more energy. If the energy storage device cannot store additional energy, accessing the desired operating condition that satisfies the EDAD must be delayed. This is accomplished by passing control to 104. The series of steps discussed above may be performed many times until the operating condition desired by the EDAD can be accessed. If, however, Pcurr were found to be greater than Pdes in block 108, control passes to block 112 in which it is determined whether the power in excess of Pcurr to provide Pdes can be made up by the secondary machine. (The second type of EDADs tends to fall into block 112 of FIG. 2.) Typically, the secondary machine has sufficient capacity to makeup power required at the driving wheels 32. Rarely occurring counter examples are situations in which the amount of energy stored in the energy storage device is nearly depleted and thus cannot supply the secondary machine and when the demanded power by the operator is at a peak level, i.e., beyond the capacity of the secondary machine to provide. If the rare case of a negative result in 112, control returns to block 104. Blocks 104, 106, 108 and 112 are looped multiple times until a positive result in block 112 is returned. A positive result in either block 110 or 112 causes control to pass to block 114 in which the desired operating condition is accessed. Depending on which branch the flowchart came through to arrive at 114, either excess power is developed in engine 10, with excess power being stored as energy in the energy storage device, or makeup power is supplied by the secondary machine. Control passes to block 116 in which an operating condition of engine 10 is accessed so that the secondary function can be accomplished. In block 118, it is determined whether the EDAD has completed its operation and continues to loop while it is not complete. When block 118 returns a positive result, control returns to block 102, i.e., normal operation.

A situation may arise in which a secondary function is demanded during a condition in which engine 10 is not operating. Clearly, exhaust aftertreatment devices need not be serviced as they are not processing exhaust products when engine 10 is deactivated. However, cabin heating or cooling needs may arise. Or, carbon canister 62 may need to be purged. In these cases, engine 10 is reactivated (in block 114 of FIG. 2) to provide a desired engine operating condition to satisfy the engine dependent auxiliary device.

An opportunity for providing reductant to a LNC during a period when engine 10 is not operating may be exploited. As mentioned above, it has been found that a LNC reduces NOx at higher efficiency if it has previously been supplied reductant when the gases in the LNC have NOx concentration less than about 25 ppm. Referring to FIG. 3, the routine is begun in block 100 and continues to normal operation, block 102. In block 142, it is determined whether the engine is firing. If affirmative, control returns to block 102. If block 142 returns a negative result, control passes to block 144, in which it is determined whether the LNC requires reductant to be added. If a negative result, control returns via block 102. If a positive result is returned in block 144, control proceeds to block 146, in which engine 10 is caused to motor, under power supplied by electric motor 28. By motoring engine 10, fresh air is drawn into engine 10 and discharged into the exhaust system through exhaust aftertreatment device 16. Control passes to block 148, in which a desired amount of reductant is supplied to the exhaust stream. As the exhaust flow is fresh air, it contains a negligible concentration of NOx, much less than a 25 ppm threshold. Control passes next to block 102, normal engine operation. If the normal strategy would have engine 10 inactive, engine 10 would return to its previous inactive state. In this way, reductant can be supplied to the LNC to store reductant within it, which preconditions the LNC to enable it to more effectively reduce NOx when the engine is reactivated at a later time.

As mentioned above, a common issue in exhaust aftertreatment devices 16 is in attaining a temperature which provides high conversion efficiency rapidly after engine starting. The present invention provides for this need. Similarly to cabin heating, the typical situation is that it would be preferred to operate the engine at high power. However, the driver demand shortly after starting is often low power. A hybrid vehicle offers the opportunity of operating the engine at high power to bring exhaust aftertreatment devices 16 quickly to operating temperature because excess energy developed by the engine can be stored in a secondary machine.

While several modes for carrying out the invention have been described in detail, those familiar with the art to which this invention relates will recognize alternative designs and embodiments for practicing the invention. Thus, the above-described embodiments are intended to be illustrative of the invention, which may be modified within the scope of the following claims.

Claims (36)

What is claimed is:
1. A vehicle system comprising:
at least two machines capable of being coupled to driving wheels of the vehicle, one of said machines being an internal combustion engine;
at least one particulate filter coupled to said engine; and
an engine controller operably connected to said machines to determine when said particulate filter should be attended to and to determine whether a current engine operating condition is within an acceptable engine operating range which satisfies said particulate filter.
2. The system of claim 1 wherein said acceptable operating condition range provides a temperature in said particulate filter to exceed an ignition temperature of particulate matter filtered in said particulate filter.
3. A vehicle system comprising:
at least two machines capable of being coupled to driving wheels of the vehicle, one of said machines being an internal combustion engine;
an air conditioning system coupled to said engine; and
an engine controller operably connected to said machines to determine when said air conditioning system should be attended to and to determine whether a current engine operating condition is a high efficiency engine operating condition.
4. The system of claim 3, further comprising the step of commanding the engine to attain said high efficiency engine operating condition.
5. A vehicle system comprising:
at least two machines capable of being coupled to driving wheels of the vehicle, one of said machines being an internal combustion engine;
a fuel vapor purge system coupled to said engine; and
an engine controller operably connected to said machines to determine when said fuel vapor purge system should be attended to and to determine whether a current engine operating condition is within an acceptable engine operating range which satisfies fuel vapor purge system.
6. The system of claim 5 wherein said acceptable operating condition range is an operating condition range providing a manifold vacuum greater than 5 kPa.
7. A vehicle system comprising:
at least two machines capable of being coupled to driving wheels of the vehicle, one of said machines being an internal combustion engine;
a cabin heating system coupled to said engine; and
an engine controller operably connected to said machines to determine when said cabin heating system should be attended to and to determine whether a current engine operating condition is within an acceptable engine operating range which satisfies said cabin heating system.
8. The system of claim 7 wherein said engine has a water jacket and engine coolant, said engine coolant circulates through said water jacket to cool said engine, further comprising an air to liquid heat exchanger through which engine coolant is circulated through the liquid side of said heat exchanger and through which cabin air is circulated through the air side of said heat exchanger to cause a temperature rise in said cabin air.
9. The system of claim 8, said acceptable engine operating range causes a rapid temperature increase in said engine coolant to cause said temperature rise in said cabin air.
10. A computer readable storage medium having stored data representing instructions executable by a computer to control a vehicle system, the vehicle system comprises at least two machines capable of being coupled to driving wheels of the vehicle, one of the machines being an internal combustion engine, and an air conditioning compressor coupled to the engine, comprising:
instructions for determining a demand for activating the air conditioning compressor;
instructions for determining a high thermal efficiency engine operating condition for providing high thermal efficiency of the engine in response to said demand; and
instructions for commanding said engine to attain said high thermal efficiency engine operating condition when said air conditioning compressor should be activated.
11. The medium of claim 10, further comprising instructions to activate said air conditioning compressor.
12. The medium of claim 10, further comprising:
instructions for determining a desired power at the driving wheels requested by an operator of the vehicle;
instructions for causing the secondary machine to absorb a difference between said engine provided power at said high thermal efficiency operating condition and said desired power when said engine provided power is greater than said desired power; and
instructions for causing the secondary machine to supply a difference between said engine provided power at said high thermal efficiency operating condition and said desired power when said engine provided power is less than said desired power.
13. A computer readable storage medium having stored data representing instructions executable by a computer to control a vehicle system, the vehicle system comprises at least two machines capable of being coupled to driving wheels of the vehicle, one of the machines being an internal combustion engine with a water jacket through which an engine coolant is circulated, and a vehicle cabin heating system, the vehicle cabin heating system comprising an air to liquid heat exchanger with engine coolant circulated through the liquid side of the heat exchanger, comprising:
instructions for determining a demand for cabin heating; and
instructions for determining a high power engine operating condition which simultaneously provides high thermal efficiency of the engine and rapidly raises the temperature of the engine coolant in response to said demand.
14. The medium of claim 13, further comprising:
instructions for determining a temperature of the engine coolant;
instructions for commanding the engine to attain said high power engine operating condition when the temperature of the engine coolant is below a predetermined temperature.
15. The medium of claim 13, further comprising instructions for commanding the engine to attain said high power engine operating condition.
16. The medium of claim 15, further comprising:
instructions for determining a desired power at the driving wheels requested by an operator of the vehicle;
instructions for causing the secondary machine to absorb a difference between said engine provided power at said high power operating condition and said desired power.
17. A vehicle system comprising:
at least two machines capable of being coupled to driving wheels of the vehicle, one of said machines being an internal combustion engine;
at least one lean NOx catalyst coupled to said engine for reducing NOx when the engine air/fuel ratio is lean of stoichiometry; and
an engine controller operably connected to said machines to determine when said lean NOx catalyst should be attended to and to determine whether a current engine operating condition is within an acceptable engine operating range which satisfies said lean NOx catalyst.
18. The system of claim 17 wherein said engine controller determines a desired engine operating condition which satisfies said lean NOx catalyst and commands said engine to attain said desired engine operating condition when said current engine operating condition is not within said acceptable engine operating range.
19. The system of claim 17 wherein said acceptable engine operating range provides a NOx concentration in an exhaust gas stream discharged from the engine less than a predetermined NOx concentration.
20. The system of claim 19 wherein said predetermined NOx concentration is 25 ppm.
21. The system of claim 17 wherein said acceptable engine operating range provides a temperature of said catalyst greater than a predetermined temperature.
22. The system of claim 21 wherein said predetermined temperature is 300 degrees Celsius.
23. The system of claim 17, further comprising an injector coupled to said engine for supplying a reductant into an exhaust stream of said engine upstream of said catalyst.
24. The system of claim 23 wherein said engine controller is coupled to said injector and commands said injector to supply reductant in the event that said current operating condition is within said acceptable operating range or substantially at said desired operating condition.
25. The system of claim 17 further comprising an energy reservoir coupled to said secondary machine, wherein said secondary machine is one of said machines other than said internal combustion engine.
26. The system of claim 25 wherein said secondary machine may remove energy stored in said energy reservoir.
27. The system of claim 25 wherein said secondary machine may generate energy which may be stored in said energy reservoir.
28. The system of claim 27 wherein said energy reservoir may comprise a battery, a flywheel, a hydraulic fluid reservoir, a thermal reservoir, a spring, or a capacitor.
29. A method to control a vehicle system having a primary machine, which is an internal combustion engine, at least one secondary machine and a lean NOx catalyst coupled to the engine and receiving an exhaust stream from the engine, said machines are capable of being coupled to driving wheels of the vehicle, comprising the steps of:
determining that the lean NOx catalyst should be attended to;
determining a desired engine operating condition that satisfies the lean NOx catalyst; and
commanding the engine to attain said desired engine operating condition.
30. The method according to claim 29 wherein said desired engine operating condition is with the engine not firing and the engine has an injector capable of providing a reductant to an exhaust stream of the engine, further comprising the step of injecting reductant into said exhaust stream when said engine is not firing.
31. The method according to claim 29, said desired engine operating condition occurs when an exhaust stream discharged from the engine has less than 50 ppm NOx concentration, said engine has an injector capable of supplying reductant to said exhaust stream, further comprising the step of injecting reductant into said exhaust stream when said desired operating condition occurs.
32. The method according to claim 29, said desired engine operating condition occurs when a temperature of said exhaust stream discharged from the engine is greater than 300 degrees Celsius.
33. The method according to claim 29, further comprising the step of injecting reductant into said exhaust stream when said desired engine operating condition occurs.
34. The method of claim 29 further comprising the steps of:
determining a desired power at the driving wheels desired by an operator of the vehicle;
determining an engine provided power at the driving wheels based on said engine desired operating condition;
causing the secondary machine to absorb a difference between said engine provided power and said desired power when said engine provided power is greater than said desired power; and
causing the secondary machine to supply a difference between said desired power and said engine provided power when said engine provided power is less than said desired power.
35. The method according to claim 34 further comprising the steps of:
determining a maximum power at the driving wheels that the secondary machine may provide; and
postponing said commanding step when a sum of said maximum power and said engine provided power are less than said desired power.
36. The method according to claim 34 further comprising the steps of:
determining a maximum absorption power that the secondary machine may absorb; and
postponing said commanding step when a difference of said engine provided power and said desired power exceeds said maximum absorption power.
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