US6220335B1 - Casting metal strip - Google Patents

Casting metal strip Download PDF

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Publication number
US6220335B1
US6220335B1 US09/553,636 US55363600A US6220335B1 US 6220335 B1 US6220335 B1 US 6220335B1 US 55363600 A US55363600 A US 55363600A US 6220335 B1 US6220335 B1 US 6220335B1
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Prior art keywords
trough
molten metal
nozzle
floor
flow
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Expired - Lifetime
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US09/553,636
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William John Folder
Paul Cassar
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Castrip LLC
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BHP Steel JLA Pty Ltd
IHI Corp
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Priority to AUPO4342 priority Critical
Priority to AUPO4342A priority patent/AUPO434296A0/en
Priority to US08/992,456 priority patent/US6070647A/en
Application filed by BHP Steel JLA Pty Ltd, IHI Corp filed Critical BHP Steel JLA Pty Ltd
Priority to US09/553,636 priority patent/US6220335B1/en
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Publication of US6220335B1 publication Critical patent/US6220335B1/en
Assigned to CASTRIP, LLC reassignment CASTRIP, LLC ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: BHP STEEL (JLA) PTY LTD, BROKEN HILL PROPRIETARY COMPANY LIMITED, THE, ISHIKAWAJIMA-HARIMA HEAVY INDUSTRIES LIMITED
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22DCASTING OF METALS; CASTING OF OTHER SUBSTANCES BY THE SAME PROCESSES OR DEVICES
    • B22D11/00Continuous casting of metals, i.e. casting in indefinite lengths
    • B22D11/06Continuous casting of metals, i.e. casting in indefinite lengths into moulds with travelling walls, e.g. with rolls, plates, belts, caterpillars
    • B22D11/0637Accessories therefor
    • B22D11/064Accessories therefor for supplying molten metal
    • B22D11/0642Nozzles

Abstract

Twin roll casting method and apparatus in which molten metal is introduced between a pair of chilled rolls (16) via an elongate delivery nozzle (19) to form a casting pool (68) above the nip (69) between the rolls (16). Rolls (16) are rotated to cast a solidified strip (20) delivered downwardly from the nip (69). Delivery nozzle (19) comprises upwardly opening trough having side walls (62), a floor (63) and bottom outlet openings (64). A pair of upright flow barrier walls (84) stand up from floor (63) to define an internal trough channel (85) to receive the incoming flow of molten metal (65). Barrier walls (84) prevent direct flow of the incoming metal to the outlet openings (64).

Description

This is a continuation application of Ser. No. 08/992,456, filed Dec. 17, 1997, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,070,647.

BACKGROUND TO THE INVENTION

This invention relates to the casting of metal strip. It has particular but not exclusive application to the casting of ferrous metal strip.

It is known to cast metal strip by continuous casting in a twin roll caster. Molten metal is introduced between a pair of contra-rotated horizontal casting rolls which are cooled so that metal shells solidify on the moving roll surfaces and are brought together at the nip between them to produce a solidified strip product delivered downwardly from the nip between the rolls. The term “nip” is used herein to refer to the general region at which the rolls are closest together. The molten metal may be poured from a ladle into a smaller vessel or a series of smaller vessels from which it flows through a metal delivery nozzle located above the nip so as to direct it into the nip between the rolls, so forming a casting pool of molten metal supported on the casting surfaces of the rolls immediately above the nip. This casting pool may be confined between side plates or dams held in sliding engagement with the ends of the rolls.

Although twin roll casting has been applied with some success to non-ferrous metals which solidify rapidly on cooling, there have been problems in applying the technique to the casting of ferrous metals which have high solidification temperatures and tend to produce defects caused by uneven solidification at the chilled casting surfaces of the rolls. Much attention has therefore been given to the design of metal delivery nozzles aimed at producing a smooth even flow of metal to and within the casting pool. U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,178,205 and 5,238,050 both disclose arrangements in which the delivery nozzle extends below the surface of the casting pool and incorporates means to reduce the kinetic energy of the molten metal flowing downwardly through the nozzle to a slot outlet at the submerged bottom end of the nozzle. In the arrangement disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,178,205 the kinetic energy is reduced by a flow diffuser having a multiplicity of flow passages and a baffle located above the diffuser. Below the diffuser the molten metal moves slowly and evenly out through the outlet slot into the casting pool with minimum disturbance. In the arrangement disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,238,050 streams of molten metal are allowed to fall so as to impinge on a sloping side wall surface of the nozzle at an acute angle of impingement so that the metal adheres to the side wall surface to form a flowing sheet which is directed into an outlet flow passage. Again the aim is to produce a slowly moving even flow from the bottom of the delivery nozzle so as to produce minimum disruption of the casting pool.

Japanese Patent Publication 5-70537 of Nippon Steel Corporation also discloses a delivery nozzle aimed at producing a slow moving even flow of metal into the casting pool. The nozzle is fitted with a porous baffle/diffuser to remove kinetic energy from the downwardly flowing molten metal which then flows into the casting pool through a series of apertures in the side walls of the nozzle. The apertures are angled in such a way as to direct the in-flowing metal along the casting surfaces of the rolls longitudinally of the nip. More specifically, the apertures on one side of the nozzle direct the in-flowing metal longitudinally of the nip in one direction and the apertures on the other side direct the in-flowing metal in the other longitudinal direction with the intention of creating a smooth even flow along the casting surfaces with minimum disturbance of the pool surface.

After an extensive testing program we have determined that a major cause of defects is premature solidification of molten metal in the regions where the pool surface meets the casting surfaces of the rolls, generally known as the “meniscus” or “meniscus regions” of the pool. The molten metal in each of these regions flows towards the adjacent casting surface and if solidification occurs before the metal has made uniform contact with the roll surface it tends to produce irregular initial heat transfer between the roll and the shell with the resultant formation of surface defects, such as depressions, ripple marks, cold shuts or cracks.

Previous attempts to produce a very even flow of molten metal into the pool have to some extent exacerbated the problem of premature solidification by directing the incoming metal away from the regions at which the metal first solidifies to form the shell surfaces which eventually become the outer surfaces of the resulting strip. Accordingly, the temperature of the metal in the surface region of the casting pool between the rolls is significantly lower than that of the incoming metal. If the temperature of the molten metal at the pool surface in the region of the meniscus becomes too low then cracks and “meniscus marks” (marks on the strip caused by the meniscus freezing while the pool level is uneven) are very likely to occur. One way of dealing with this problem has been to employ a high level of superheat in the incoming metal so that it can cool within the casting pool without reaching solidification temperatures before it reaches the casting surfaces of the rolls. In recent times, however, it has been recognised that the problem can be addressed more efficiently by taking steps to ensure that the incoming molten metal is delivered relatively quickly by the nozzle directly into the meniscus regions of the casting pool. This minimises the tendency for premature freezing of the metal before it contacts the casting roll surfaces. It has been found that this is a far more effective way to avoid surface defects than to provide absolutely steady flow in the pool and that a certain degree of fluctuation in the pool surface can be tolerated since the metal does not solidify until it contacts the roll surface. Examples of this approach are to be seen in Japanese Patent Publication No. 64-5650 of Nippon Steel Corporation and the present applicants' Australian Patent Application No. 60773/96.

In order to ensure that the incoming molten metal is delivered relatively quickly into the meniscus regions of the casting pool, it is necessary to employ delivery nozzles with side outlet openings to deliver the metal laterally outwardly from the bottom part of the delivery nozzle toward the casting rolls. Accordingly, the delivery nozzle is required to capture a downwardly falling stream of molten metal and produce steady outward flow of metal through the side outlet openings with as little turbulence and flow fluctuation as possible. This requires that the downward kinetic energy of the incoming stream be absorbed and that essentially non-turbulent conditions be established at the side outlet openings. Moreover, this must be achieved within the very confined space within the bottom of the delivery nozzle without significant restriction of the flow. The previous baffle and diffuser arrangements are not suitable for this purpose but the present invention provides a simple method and means whereby this may be achieved.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

According to the invention there is provided a method of casting metal strip comprising:

introducing molten metal between a pair of chilled casting rolls via an elongate metal delivery nozzle disposed above and extending along the nip between the rolls to form a casting pool of molten metal supported above the nip and confined at the ends of the nip by pool confining end closures, and

rotating the rolls so as to cast a solidified strip delivered downwardly from the nip;

wherein the metal delivery nozzle comprises an upwardly opening elongate trough having a floor and side walls extending longitudinally of the nip to receive the molten metal, the longitudinal side walls of the trough are provided with side outlet openings through which the molten metal is caused to flow from the trough, the floor of the trough is provided with upstanding flow barrier walls adjacent the side outlet openings and molten metal is delivered downwardly into the trough between said flow barrier walls to impinge on the trough floor and flow outwardly against the barrier walls before flowing over those walls to the side outlet openings.

Preferably, the side outlet openings of the nozzle are in the form of longitudinally spaced openings formed in each of the longitudinal side walls of the nozzle.

Preferably further the openings are shaped as elongate slots. The slots may be closely spaced so as to promote substantially continuous curtain jet streams of molten metal into the casting pool from the adjacent slot openings of the delivery nozzle.

The trough of the delivery nozzle may be supplied with molten metal in a series of discrete free falling streams spaced apart longitudinally of the trough or in a free falling continuous curtain stream extending along the trough.

Preferably, the molten metal is supplied to the delivery nozzle in a series of discrete free falling streams spaced apart longitudinally of the trough so as to impinge on the floor of the trough at locations aligned laterally with spaces between the side outlet openings of the nozzle.

Preferably further the upstanding barrier walls are comprised of a pair of laterally spaced walls standing up from the floor of the trough and extending continuously along the trough to define an internal channel to receive the incoming flow of molten metal.

The invention also provides apparatus for casting metal strip, comprising a pair of parallel casting rolls forming a nip between them, an elongate metal delivery nozzle disposed above and extending along the nip between the casting rolls for delivery of molten metal into the nip and a distributor disposed above the delivery nozzle for supply of molten metal to the delivery nozzle, wherein the metal delivery nozzle comprises an upwardly opening elongate trough having a floor and side walls extending longitudinally of the nip to receive molten metal from the distributor, the delivery nozzle is provided with side outlet openings in the longitudinal side walls of the trough for flow of molten metal outwardly from the bottom of the delivery nozzle, the floor of the trough is provided with upstanding barrier walls adjacent the side outlet openings, and the distributor is operable to deliver molten metal downwardly into the trough between said flow barrier walls to impinge on the floor and flow outwardly against the barrier walls.

The invention also provides a delivery nozzle for delivering molten metal to a strip caster, comprising an upwardly opening elongate trough having a floor and side walls extending longitudinally to receive molten metal, the delivery nozzle being provided with side outlet openings in the longitudinal side walls of the trough for flow of molten metal outwardly from the bottom of the delivery nozzle, and the floor of the trough being provided with upstanding barrier walls adjacent the side outlet openings to enable molten metal delivered downwardly into the trough between said flow barrier walls to impinge on the floor and flow outwardly against the barrier walls.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

In order that the invention may be more fully explained one particular method and apparatus will be described in some detail with reference to the accompanying drawings in which:

FIG. 1 illustrates a twin-roll continuous strip caster constructed and operating in accordance with the present invention;

FIG. 2 is a vertical cross-section through important components of the caster illustrated in FIG. 1 including a metal delivery nozzle constructed in accordance with the invention;

FIG. 3 is a further vertical cross-section through important components of the caster taken transverse to the section of FIG. 2;

FIG. 4 is an enlarged transverse cross-section through the metal delivery nozzle and adjacent parts of the casting rolls;

FIG. 5 is a side elevation of a one half segment of the metal delivery nozzle;

FIG. 6 is a plan view of the nozzle segment shown in FIG. 5;

FIG. 7 is a longitudinal cross-section through the delivery nozzle segment;

FIG. 8 is a perspective view of the delivery nozzle segment;

FIG. 9 is an inverted perspective view of the nozzle segment;

FIG. 10 is a transverse cross-section through the delivery nozzle segment on the line 1010 in FIG. 5;

FIG. 11 is a cross-section on the line 1111 in FIG. 7; and

FIG. 12 is a cross-section on the line 1212 in FIG. 7.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

The illustrated caster comprises a main machine frame 11 which stands up from the factory floor 12. Frame 11 supports a casting roll carriage 13 which is horizontally movable between an assembly station 14 and a casting station 15. Carriage 13 carries a pair of parallel casting rolls 16 to which molten metal is supplied during a casting operation from a ladle 17 via a distributor 18 and delivery nozzle 19. Casting rolls 16 are water cooled so that shells solidify on the moving roll surfaces and are brought together at the nip between them to produce a solidified strip product 20 at the nip outlet. This product is fed to a standard coiler 21 and may subsequently be transferred to a second coiler 22. A receptacle 23 is mounted on the machine frame adjacent the casting station and molten metal can be diverted into this receptacle via an overflow spout 24 on the distributor.

Roll carriage 13 comprises a carriage frame 31 mounted by wheels 32 on rails 33 extending along part of the main machine frame 11 whereby roll carriage 13 as a whole is mounted for movement along the rails 33. Carriage frame 31 carries a pair of roll cradles 34 in which the rolls 16 are rotatably mounted. Carriage 13 is movable along the rails 33 by actuation of a double acting hydraulic piston and cylinder unit 39, connected between a drive bracket 40 on the roll carriage and the main machine frame so as to be actuable to move the roll carriage between the assembly station 14 and casting station 15 and vice versa.

Casting rolls 16 are contra rotated through drive shafts 41 from an electric motor and transmission mounted on carriage frame 31. Rolls 16 have copper peripheral walls formed with a series of longitudinally extending and circumferentially spaced water cooling passages supplied with cooling water through the roll ends from water supply ducts in the roll drive shafts 41 which are connected to water supply hoses 42 through rotary glands 43. The rolls may typically be about 500 mm diameter and up to 2 m long in order to produce up to 2 m wide strip product.

Ladle 17 is of entirely conventional construction and is supported via a yoke 45 on an overhead crane whence it can be brought into position from a hot metal receiving station. The ladle is fitted with a stopper rod 46 actuable by a servo cylinder to allow molten metal to flow from the ladle through an outlet nozzle 47 and refractory shroud 48 into distributor 18.

Distributor 18 is formed as a wide dish made of a refractory material such as high alumina castable with a sacrificial lining. One side of the distributor receives molten metal from the ladle and is provided with the aforesaid overflow 24. The other side of the distributor is provided with a series of longitudinally spaced metal outlet openings 52. The lower part of the distributor carries mounting brackets 53 for mounting the distributor onto the roll carriage frame 31 and provided with apertures to receive indexing pegs 54 on the carriage frame so as accurately to locate the distributor.

Delivery nozzle 19 is formed in two identical half segments which are made of a refractory material such as alumina graphite are held end to end to form the complete nozzle. FIGS. 5 to 11 illustrate the construction of the nozzle segments which are supported on the roll carriage frame by a mounting bracket 60, the upper parts of the nozzle segments being formed with outwardly projecting side flanges 55 which locate on that mounting bracket.

Each nozzle half segment is of generally trough formation so that the nozzle 19 defines an upwardly opening inlet trough 61 to receive molten metal flowing downwardly from the openings 52 of the distributor. Trough 61 is formed between nozzle side walls 62 and end walls 70 and may be considered to be transversely partitioned between its ends by the two flat end walls 80 of the nozzle segments which are brought together in the completed nozzle. The bottom of the trough is closed by a horizontal bottom floor 63 which meets the trough side walls 62 at chamfered bottom corners 81. The nozzle is provided at these bottom corners with a series of side outlet openings in the form of longitudinally spaced elongate slots 64 arranged at regular longitudinal spacing along the nozzle. Slots 64 are positioned to provide for egress of molten metal from the trough generally at the level of the trough floor 63.

In accordance with the present invention, a pair of upright flow barrier walls 84 stand up from the floor 63 of nozzle trough 61 adjacent the slots 64. Walls 84 extend continuously throughout the length of trough 61 to define an internal trough channel 85 to receive the incoming flow of molten metal as described below.

The outer ends of the nozzle segments are provided with end formations denoted generally as 87 extending outwardly beyond the nozzle end wall 70 and provided with metal flow passages to direct separate flows of molten metal to the “triple point” regions of the pool ie. those regions of the pool where the two rolls and the side dam plates come together. The purpose of directing hot metal to those regions is to prevent the formation of “skulls” due to premature solidification of metal in these regions, as is more fully described in our Australian Patent Application No. PO2367.

Each end wall formation 87 defines a small open topped reservoir 88 to receive molten metal from the distributor, this reservoir being separated from the main trough of the nozzle by the end wall 70. The upper end 89 of end wall 70 is lower than the upper edges of the trough and the outer parts of the reservoir 88 and can serve as a weir to allow back flow of molten metal into the main nozzle trough from the reservoir 88 if the reservoir is over filled, as will be more fully explained below.

Reservoir 88 is shaped as a shallow dish having a flat floor 91, inclined inner and side faces 92, 93 and a curved upright outer face 94. A pair of triple point pouring passages 95 extend laterally outwardly from this reservoir just above the level of the floor 91 to connect with triple point pouring outlets 96 in the undersides of the nozzle end formations 87, the outlets 96 being angled downwardly and inwardly to deliver molten metal into the triple point regions of the casting pool.

Molten metal falls from the outlet openings 52 of the distributor in a series of free-falling vertical streams 65 into the bottom part of the nozzle trough 61. Molten metal flows from this reservoir out through the slots 64 to form a casting pool 68 supported above the nip 69 between the casting rolls 16. The casting pool is confined at the ends of rolls 16 by a pair of side closure plates 56 which are held against the ends 57 of the rolls. Side closure plates 56 are made of strong refractory material, for example boron nitride. They are mounted in plate holders 82 which are movable by actuation of a pair of hydraulic cylinder units 83 to bring the side plates into engagement with the ends of the casting rolls to form end closures for the casting pool of molten metal.

In the casting operation the flow of metal is controlled to maintain the casting pool at a level such that the lower end of the delivery nozzle 19 is submerged in the casting pool and the two series of horizontally spaced slots 64 of the delivery nozzle are disposed immediately beneath the surface of the casting pool. The molten metal flows through the slots 64 in two laterally outwardly directed jet streams in the general vicinity of the casting pool surface so as to impinge on the cooling surfaces of the rolls in the immediate vicinity of the pool surface. This maximises the temperature of the molten metal delivered to the meniscus regions of the pool and it has been found that this significantly reduces the formation of cracks and meniscus marks on the melting strip surface.

In accordance with the present invention the streams 65 fall into the internal trough channel 85 to impinge on the floor 63 of the trough 61 between the two upstanding flow barrier walls 84. The impinging metal is thus caused to flow outwardly against the barrier walls which prevent direct flow to the slots 64. The kinetic energy of the metal is substantially reduced by secondary impact with barrier walls 84 and the metal is thus initially confined within channel 85, but flows over the walls 84 with generally steady continuous flow conditions to the slots 64. To ensure effective reduction of kinetic energy, it is important that the channel 85 be formed with a flat floor and vertical side walls meeting at sharply defined corners to produce a double impingement effect.

The outlet openings 52 of the distributor are staggered longitudinally of the nozzle with respect to the slots 64 so that the falling streams 65 impinge on the nozzle floor at locations between successive pairs of slots 64. It has been found that the system can be operated to establish a casting pool which rises to a level only just above the bottom of the delivery nozzle so that the casting pool surface is only just above the floor of the nozzle trough and at the same level as the metal within the trough. Under these conditions it is possible to obtain very stable pool conditions and if the outlet slots are angled downwardly to a sufficient degree it is possible to obtain a quiescent pool surface.

It is important to note that slots 64 are provided at the inner ends of the two nozzle sections. This ensures adequate delivery of molten metal to the pool in the vicinity of the central partition in the nozzle and avoids the formation of skulls in this region of the pool.

The triple point pouring reservoirs 88 receive molten metal from the two outermost streams 65 falling from the distributor 18. The alignment of the two outermost holes 52 in the distributor is such that each reservoir 88 receives a single stream impinging on the flat floor 91 immediately outside the sloping side face 92. The impingement of the molten metal on floor 88 causes the metal to fan outwardly across the floor and outwardly through the triple point pouring passages 95 to the outlets 96 which produce downwardly and inwardly inclined jets of hot metal directed across the faces of the side dams and along the edges of the casting rolls toward the nip. Triple point pouring proceeds with only a shallow and wide pool of molten metal within each of the troughs 88, the height of this pool being limited by the height of the upper end 89 of the wall 70. When reservoir 88 is filled molten metal can flow back over the wall end 89 into the main nozzle trough so that the wall end serves as a weir to control the depth of the metal pool in the triple point pouring supply reservoir 88. The depth of the pool is more than sufficient to supply the triple point pouring passages so as to maintain flow at a constant head whereby to achieve a very even flow of hot metal through the triple point pouring passages. This control flow is most important to proper formation of the edge parts of the strip. Excessive flow through the triple point passages can lead to bulging in the edges of the strip whereas to little flow will produce skulls and “snake egg” defects in the strip.

The undersides 98 of the triple point pouring formations 87 are raised above the surface of the casting pool so as to avoid cooling of the pool surface at the triple point region. Moreover, the undersides 98 are outwardly and upwardly inclined. This is desirable in order to prevent an accumulation of slag or other contaminants from jamming beneath the ends of the nozzle. Such jamming can result in blockage of gas and fumes escaping from the casting pool and the risk of explosion.

The illustrated apparatus has been advanced by way of example only and the invention is not limited to the details of that apparatus. In particular it is not essential to the present invention that the nozzle be provided with triple point pouring formations although that is the presently preferred form of nozzle. Although it is preferred that the barrier walls 83 be of uniform height throughout the length of the nozzle it would be possible to have wall sections of reduced height between the slot openings or even to provide discontinuous wall sections along the nozzle. Moreover the flow of the internal trough 85 could be raised or lowered relative to the remainder of the floor 63 of the nozzle. It is to be understood that such variations may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention which extends to every novel feature and combination of features herein disclosed.

Claims (4)

What is claimed is:
1. A delivery nozzle for delivering molten metal to a strip caster, comprising:
a nozzle body defining an upwardly open elongate trough having longitudinally extending side walls and a floor extending between lower parts of the side walls;
two series of longitudinally spaced side outlet openings in the bottom parts of the side walls for flow of molten metal from the bottom of the trough laterally outwardly from the two sides of the nozzle; and
a pair of longitudinally extending, laterally spaced, walls standing up from the floor of the trough and extending continuously along the trough to define an internal channel to receive an incoming flow of molten metal and to serve as barriers over which the molten metal must flow to reach the outlet openings.
2. A delivery nozzle as claimed in claim 1, wherein the side outlet openings are closely spaced elongate slots extending longitudinally of the nozzle.
3. A delivery nozzle as claimed in claim 2, wherein an inner opening of each of said slots is located at a junction of said side walls with the floor of the trough to provide for egress of the molten metal generally at the level of the trough floor.
4. A delivery nozzle as claimed in claim 3, wherein the slots are angled downwardly and outwardly from the trough floor.
US09/553,636 1996-12-23 2000-04-20 Casting metal strip Expired - Lifetime US6220335B1 (en)

Priority Applications (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
AUPO4342 1996-12-23
AUPO4342A AUPO434296A0 (en) 1996-12-23 1996-12-23 Casting metal strip
US08/992,456 US6070647A (en) 1996-12-23 1997-12-17 Casting metal strip
US09/553,636 US6220335B1 (en) 1996-12-23 2000-04-20 Casting metal strip

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US09/553,636 US6220335B1 (en) 1996-12-23 2000-04-20 Casting metal strip

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US08/992,456 Continuation US6070647A (en) 1996-12-23 1997-12-17 Casting metal strip

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JP (1) JP3778679B2 (en)
CN (1) CN1068257C (en)
AT (1) AT205121T (en)
AU (1) AUPO434296A0 (en)
BR (1) BR9706270A (en)
CA (1) CA2224911C (en)
DE (2) DE69706510D1 (en)
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US20080264599A1 (en) * 2007-01-19 2008-10-30 Nucor Corporation Casting delivery nozzle with insert
US20090177272A1 (en) * 2007-12-18 2009-07-09 Abbate Anthony J Self-expanding devices and methods therefor
US20100230070A1 (en) * 2009-03-13 2010-09-16 Nucor Corporation Casting delivery nozzle
US20110132568A1 (en) * 2009-12-04 2011-06-09 Nucor Corporation Casting delivery nozzle
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ITUD20010075A1 (en) * 2001-04-19 2002-10-21 Danieli Off Mecc Device for download liquid steel from a tundish to a crystallizer roller
US7690417B2 (en) 2001-09-14 2010-04-06 Nucor Corporation Thin cast strip with controlled manganese and low oxygen levels and method for making same
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US20050211411A1 (en) * 2004-02-17 2005-09-29 Hisahiko Fukase Method and apparatus for continuously casting steel strip
US20080173424A1 (en) * 2007-01-19 2008-07-24 Nucor Corporation Delivery nozzle with more uniform flow and method of continuous casting by use thereof
US20080264599A1 (en) * 2007-01-19 2008-10-30 Nucor Corporation Casting delivery nozzle with insert
US7926550B2 (en) 2007-01-19 2011-04-19 Nucor Corporation Casting delivery nozzle with insert
US7926549B2 (en) * 2007-01-19 2011-04-19 Nucor Corporation Delivery nozzle with more uniform flow and method of continuous casting by use thereof
US20090177272A1 (en) * 2007-12-18 2009-07-09 Abbate Anthony J Self-expanding devices and methods therefor
WO2009146480A1 (en) * 2008-06-02 2009-12-10 Ihi Corporation Casting delivery nozzle with insert
US20100230070A1 (en) * 2009-03-13 2010-09-16 Nucor Corporation Casting delivery nozzle
US8047264B2 (en) * 2009-03-13 2011-11-01 Nucor Corporation Casting delivery nozzle
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US8225845B2 (en) 2009-12-04 2012-07-24 Nucor Corporation Casting delivery nozzle
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US10099279B2 (en) 2014-12-19 2018-10-16 Nucor Corporation Method of making thin floor plate
US10434567B2 (en) 2014-12-19 2019-10-08 Nucor Corporation System for making thin floor plate

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AT205121T (en) 2001-09-15
EP0850712B1 (en) 2001-09-05
TW458826B (en) 2001-10-11
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DK850712T3 (en)
EP0850712A1 (en) 1998-07-01
CN1186721A (en) 1998-07-08
DE69706510T2 (en) 2002-05-29
AUPO434296A0 (en) 1997-01-23
DK0850712T3 (en) 2001-12-17
PT850712E (en) 2002-02-28
JP3778679B2 (en) 2006-05-24
MY118917A (en) 2005-02-28
CA2224911A1 (en) 1998-06-23
MX9710390A (en) 1998-06-30
NZ329408A (en) 1999-04-29
CN1068257C (en) 2001-07-11
CA2224911C (en) 2006-07-18
US6070647A (en) 2000-06-06
DE69706510D1 (en) 2001-10-11
JPH10180421A (en) 1998-07-07
ID19441A (en) 1998-07-09

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