US621195A - Ferdinand graf zeppelin - Google Patents

Ferdinand graf zeppelin Download PDF


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US621195A US621195DA US621195A US 621195 A US621195 A US 621195A US 621195D A US621195D A US 621195DA US 621195 A US621195 A US 621195A
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    • B64D3/00Aircraft adaptations to facilitate towing or being towed


1M0. 621,!95. Patented Mar. I4, I899. FERDINAND GRAF ZEPPELIN.


(Application filed Dec. 29, 1897.

(No Model.) 4 Sheets-Sheet I.

Vgmev (pt/ J y /u vgmoR FEIERUI mum GRHF Zmsu N 'Wmm 0- 62 ,|95. Patented Mar. M, !899.



(Application filed Dec. 29, 1897. (No Model.) 4 Sheets-Sheel 2.


(Application filed Dec. 29, 1897.) (No Model.) 4 Sheets-Sheet 3.

INVENTOR @Rmmmn GRAF ZEPPELIN No. 62!,I95. Patented Mar. l4, I899.



(Application filed Dec. 29, 1897.) (No Model.) 4 Shaats-Sheet 4.

fi m



- Nrrn Srarns OFFICE.



SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 621 ,195, dated March 14, 1899. Application filed December 29, 1897- Serial No, 664,295. (No model.)

To a. whom it may concern.-

lle it known that I, FERDINAND Gear ZEP PELIN, general-lieutenant z. d. general a la suite of His Majesty the King of Wiirtemberg, of Stuttgart, Germany, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in and Relating to Navigable Balloons; and I do hereby declare the following to be a full, clear, and exact description of the invention, such as will enable others skilled in the art to which it appertains to make and use the same.

This invention relates to a navigable balloon which is characterized essentially in that it is provided with a number of motors arranged separately from each other. In this manner it is possible to give the balloon or buoyant part of the apparatus, which receives the gas and is preferably cylindrical with rounded ends, a smaller diameter in proportion to the driving power developed by the motors and to correspondingly reduce the air resistance. A navigable balloon or air craft of this kind can be combined with several other balloons or air crafts in such a manner that the foremost craft contains the drivinggear, while the others serve for the reception of the goods or load to be carried.

In the accompanying drawings, Figure 1 is a side elevation of my improved navigable balloon or air craft. Fig. 2 is a front elevation thereof. Fig. 3 is a longitudinal section showing a part of the said craft drawn to an enlarged scale. Fig. 4 is a transverse section through the craft. .Figs. 5 and 6 show the arrangement of the separate gas bags or envelops in the several compartments of the Figs. 7 and 8 show in side elevation and plan, respectively, the arrangement of an adjustable running-weight which serves for giving the balloon any desired inclination to the horizontal. Fig. 9 shows a modifica tion in which the running-weight is replaced by adjustable towing or trailing ropes. Fig. 10 shows a number of balloons connected together, so as to form a train. Figs. 11 and 12 illustrate the method of coupling the several balloons together.

In order to give the balloon arigid form, it is provided with a framework or skeleton of tubes 7', wire ropes s, and wire gauze or netting (Z, Figs. 1, 3, and 4, over which is stretched an outer shell or casing (Z of silk or similar material. The framework is stiffened inter.- nally by means of partition-Walls a, vertical stays o, Figs. 3 and 4, between which lie circumferential rings a, and diagonal stays 11'. By means of the said partition-walls the 'ba1- loon is divided into separate com partments or chambers, Fig. 3, in which correspondinglyshaped gas bags or envelops are introduced in a folded-together condition, and are then filled with gas. This arrangement permits the use of rigid chambers as gas-spaces without bringing the gas into contact with the atmospheric air in the chambers during fillin g. The filling of the gas bags or envelops takes place without interfering with the cylindrical form of the balloon framework, which is continuously maintained bymeans of the outer casing d and is only continued up to such a degree that the necessary free space is left to permit expansion of the gas when the balloon ascends to great altitudes and when heated. By means of this limited charge of gas, which is, however, to be suificientfor lifting the craft, it is possible to retain the necessary quantity of gas even for journeys of very long duration. The gas bags or envelops are provided with safetyvalves and outlet-valves, (not shown on the drawings,) which in the ordinary course are not used. In order to obviate the necessity of having to let out gas from the main gasbags in long journeys to compensate for the reduction in the weight to be carried due to the consumption of fuel or other material used in driving the craft, which results in spoiling the gas by the introduction of air, I arrange in the several chambers, near the main gas-bags 0, special auxiliary bags,which maybe termed maneuvering bags or containers 1), Figs. 5 and 6, and are of the same diameter as the main gas-bags and of suitable length. In filling these special maneuvering bags or containers 1) are filled with gas before the main gas-bags, with which they are connected, so that they retain their position when the filling of the main gas bags or containers afterward takes place. If now gas be allowed to escape from the maneuvering bags or containers when the reduction in weight renders this necessary, the main gas bags or containers o expand under the action of the upwardly-pressing gas contained therein until,

after the emptying of themaneuverinfag-bags,

, they fill up the whole of the upper part of the chamber. The main gas bags or containers o thus retain their full quantity of gas.

Beneath the balloon or buoyant part of the apparatus runs a gangway Z, rigidly counectcd thereto, from which all parts of the balloon can be reached by means of rope ladders f, as well as two or more cars g, for the reception of the aeronautor controller of the driving-gear, of the fuel or other material used in drivingthe craft, the passengers, and the useful load orcargo. Each driving mechanism drives two air-screws t, Fig. 1, provided on both sides of the buoyant cylinder at about the same height as the center of resistance.

The steering of the balloon to either side is effected by means of two rudders 1 Fig. 1, which are arranged above and beneath at the front or the rear part of the balloon and can be operated by means of suitable steeringgear.

In order to bring the balloon into a horizontal or inclined position, as desired,a weight I) is suspended beneath it by means of pulleybloeks and tackle 7/, Figs. 1, 7, and S. The movable carriage or traveler n, to which the upper pulley-block is secured, rests adjustably on a wire rope secured to the shell or casing of the balloon and can be drawn to and fro between suitable limiting positions by means of an endless wire rope, which runs several times around over two rotatable drums Figs. 7 and 8, arranged at equal distances from the middle of the balloon. To each of the two drums is secured a fusee or snail .2, rotating therewith. The threads of the said fusecs are so calculated that the wire rope b is kept continually stretched between them and the running-weight 1), since it simultaneously winds onto one and unwinds from the other when the position of the weight is altered by moving the traveler supporting it. This arrangement insures that in the horizontal position of the whole balloon as far as relates to the adjustment of the runningweight to compensate for other displacements or redistrilaitions oi wcight-l'or example, change in the position of men-the two wire ropes b shall always remain under a slight tension. In this manner they automatically contribute toward maintaining a horizontal position, for when, for example, the front end of the balloon begins to rise the runningweight in its tendency to remain perpendicularly below the traveler It will exert a pull in the wire rope running to the front fusee. If the balloon is to be maintained in an upwardly-directed position, for example, the front wire rope continuously exerts a pull, this, however, increasing if the point rises still higher. The suspension of the weight is effected by means of pulley-blocks and tackle b in order to enable it to be drawn up when the balloon descends to the ground. If the weight is to be used as a simple runningweight, even while it is partly or entirely drawn up, the fusees can be loosed from connection with the drums and the wire rope b nnhooked from the weight b, so that these ropes and the tackle do not interfere with one anothers action. Instead of a running-weight of this kind two or more towing or trailing ropes 1), arranged at a suitable distance apart, can also be employed, as shown in Fig. 9, which ropes canv be adjusted in the longitudinal direction of the balloon. These towing or trailing ropes, which can be arranged singly or in groups, are secured to an endless cable, by means of which they can be adjusted in one or the other direction. In traveling in the air the towing or trailing ropes as soon as they no longer trail on the earth are tied or connected together at their lower ends in any suitable manner, so as to enable the towing'or trailing ropes to automatically maintain the vehicle in the required position.

In order to permit greater loads to be carried, one or more similarly-built load-carrying balloons, but without driving-gear, can be suspended to the balloon provided with driving-gear, as shown in Fig. 10. All crafts are connected together in such a manner that they form a connected train. The connection of the single balloons is effected by means of couplings 0, Figs. 11 and 12, which are movable in all directions. The space between each two balloons is closed by means of an extensible cover 0, which lies over the cylindrical shells of the two adjacent balloons, so that the wind cannot obtain a hold in the in' termediate space. I

The compensation for the difference in specific gravity of the balloons of a train, due to the consumption of the fuel or material used in driving the balloon or of theprovisions or loss of gas or to other causes, is preferably effected by the transfer of liquidsfor example, benzin, water, or the likeor by transferring heavy objects-for example, provisions, useful freight of all kinds, sand, or the like-out of the specifically heavier into the lighter balloon, or by-condensing gases or atmospheric air in the latter.

Having now described particularly the nature of my invention, what I claim, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is-

1. In aballoon, the combination of a framework divided into separate compartments, with a main gas-bag in each compartment, adapted to expand and fill the same when permitted, and auxiliary gas-bags in the compartments for maneuvering, to permit the main gas-bags to retain their full quantityof gas unaffected by the admission of air, substantially as set forth.

2. The combination of aballoon, with a running-weight suspended beneath the same, r0- tary drums provided with fusees, and a rope stretched from the weight to and around each fusee, substantially as and for the purpose set forth.

3. The combination of a balloon, with a the remainder adapted to carry the load or weight suspended beneath the same, and adfreight, and extensible covers secured to the justable in height, a movable carriage suprigid casings and covering the intermediate i5 porting the weight, rotary drums to which spaces between two adjacent balloons.

5 the carriage is connected and which are pro- In testimony that I claim the foregoing as vided with fusees and a rope stretched from myinvention Ihave signed my name in presthe weight to and around each fusee, substanence of two subscribing witnesses.

tially as and for the purpose set forth. V r T i. r

4..An air-craft comprising a series of bal- BERN) AND GM}. '{ENELIN 1o loons coupled together and provided with Witnesses:

rigid casings, the foremost of said balloons WM. HAHN, being provided with driving mechanism, and II. WAGNER.

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6749154B1 (en) * 2002-10-29 2004-06-15 Don Scott Johnson Aircraft advertising system
DE102019001130B3 (en) * 2019-02-13 2020-02-13 Friedrich Grimm Wheel propellers and vehicles with wheel propellers
DE102019003739B3 (en) 2019-05-24 2020-06-18 Friedrich Grimm Airplane with a folding system

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6749154B1 (en) * 2002-10-29 2004-06-15 Don Scott Johnson Aircraft advertising system
DE102019001130B3 (en) * 2019-02-13 2020-02-13 Friedrich Grimm Wheel propellers and vehicles with wheel propellers
WO2020165264A1 (en) 2019-02-13 2020-08-20 Friedrich Grimm Wheel propeller arrangement and vehicle having wheel propeller arrangements
DE102019003739B3 (en) 2019-05-24 2020-06-18 Friedrich Grimm Airplane with a folding system

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