US6176962B1 - Methods for fabricating enclosed microchannel structures - Google Patents

Methods for fabricating enclosed microchannel structures Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US6176962B1
US6176962B1 US08878437 US87843797A US6176962B1 US 6176962 B1 US6176962 B1 US 6176962B1 US 08878437 US08878437 US 08878437 US 87843797 A US87843797 A US 87843797A US 6176962 B1 US6176962 B1 US 6176962B1
Authority
US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
bonding material
method
surface
cover
step
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
US08878437
Inventor
David S. Soane
Zoya M. Soane
Herbert H. Hooper
M. Goretty Alonso Amigo
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Monogram Biosciences Inc
Original Assignee
Aclara Biosciences Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D57/00Separation, other than separation of solids, not fully covered by a single other group or subclass, e.g. B03C
    • B01D57/02Separation, other than separation of solids, not fully covered by a single other group or subclass, e.g. B03C by electrophoresis
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01FMIXING, e.g. DISSOLVING, EMULSIFYING, DISPERSING
    • B01F13/00Other mixers; Mixing plant, including combinations of mixers, e.g. of dissimilar mixers
    • B01F13/0059Micromixers
    • B01F13/0074Micromixers using mixing means not otherwise provided for
    • B01F13/0076Micromixers using mixing means not otherwise provided for using electrohydrodynamic [EHD] or electrokinetic [EKI] phenomena to mix or move the fluids
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J19/00Chemical, physical or physico-chemical processes in general; Their relevant apparatus
    • B01J19/0093Microreactors, e.g. miniaturised or microfabricated reactors
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01LCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL LABORATORY APPARATUS FOR GENERAL USE
    • B01L3/00Containers or dishes for laboratory use, e.g. laboratory glassware; Droppers
    • B01L3/50Containers for the purpose of retaining a material to be analysed, e.g. test tubes
    • B01L3/502Containers for the purpose of retaining a material to be analysed, e.g. test tubes with fluid transport, e.g. in multi-compartment structures
    • B01L3/5027Containers for the purpose of retaining a material to be analysed, e.g. test tubes with fluid transport, e.g. in multi-compartment structures by integrated microfluidic structures, i.e. dimensions of channels and chambers are such that surface tension forces are important, e.g. lab-on-a-chip
    • B01L3/502707Containers for the purpose of retaining a material to be analysed, e.g. test tubes with fluid transport, e.g. in multi-compartment structures by integrated microfluidic structures, i.e. dimensions of channels and chambers are such that surface tension forces are important, e.g. lab-on-a-chip characterised by the manufacture of the container or its components
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C65/00Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C65/02Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by heating, with or without pressure
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C65/00Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C65/48Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor using adhesives, i.e. using supplementary joining material; solvent bonding
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C66/00General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts
    • B29C66/50General aspects of joining tubular articles; General aspects of joining long products, i.e. bars or profiled elements; General aspects of joining single elements to tubular articles, hollow articles or bars; General aspects of joining several hollow-preforms to form hollow or tubular articles
    • B29C66/51Joining tubular articles, profiled elements or bars; Joining single elements to tubular articles, hollow articles or bars; Joining several hollow-preforms to form hollow or tubular articles
    • B29C66/54Joining several hollow-preforms, e.g. half-shells, to form hollow articles, e.g. for making balls, containers; Joining several hollow-preforms, e.g. half-cylinders, to form tubular articles
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B82NANOTECHNOLOGY
    • B82YSPECIFIC USES OR APPLICATIONS OF NANOSTRUCTURES; MEASUREMENT OR ANALYSIS OF NANOSTRUCTURES; MANUFACTURE OR TREATMENT OF NANOSTRUCTURES
    • B82Y10/00Nanotechnology for information processing, storage or transmission, e.g. quantum computing or single electron logic
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B82NANOTECHNOLOGY
    • B82YSPECIFIC USES OR APPLICATIONS OF NANOSTRUCTURES; MEASUREMENT OR ANALYSIS OF NANOSTRUCTURES; MANUFACTURE OR TREATMENT OF NANOSTRUCTURES
    • B82Y40/00Manufacture or treatment of nanostructures
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07KPEPTIDES
    • C07K1/00General methods for the preparation of peptides, i.e. processes for the organic chemical preparation of peptides or proteins of any length
    • C07K1/14Extraction; Separation; Purification
    • C07K1/24Extraction; Separation; Purification by electrochemical means
    • C07K1/26Electrophoresis
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N27/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of electric, electro-chemical, or magnetic means
    • G01N27/26Investigating or analysing materials by the use of electric, electro-chemical, or magnetic means by investigating electrochemical variables; by using electrolysis or electrophoresis
    • G01N27/416Systems
    • G01N27/447Systems using electrophoresis
    • G01N27/44704Details; Accessories
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N27/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of electric, electro-chemical, or magnetic means
    • G01N27/26Investigating or analysing materials by the use of electric, electro-chemical, or magnetic means by investigating electrochemical variables; by using electrolysis or electrophoresis
    • G01N27/416Systems
    • G01N27/447Systems using electrophoresis
    • G01N27/44704Details; Accessories
    • G01N27/44743Introducing samples
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N27/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of electric, electro-chemical, or magnetic means
    • G01N27/26Investigating or analysing materials by the use of electric, electro-chemical, or magnetic means by investigating electrochemical variables; by using electrolysis or electrophoresis
    • G01N27/416Systems
    • G01N27/447Systems using electrophoresis
    • G01N27/44704Details; Accessories
    • G01N27/44752Controlling the zeta potential, e.g. by wall coatings
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N27/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of electric, electro-chemical, or magnetic means
    • G01N27/26Investigating or analysing materials by the use of electric, electro-chemical, or magnetic means by investigating electrochemical variables; by using electrolysis or electrophoresis
    • G01N27/416Systems
    • G01N27/447Systems using electrophoresis
    • G01N27/44756Apparatus specially adapted therefor
    • G01N27/44773Multi-stage electrophoresis, e.g. two-dimensional electrophoresis
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N27/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of electric, electro-chemical, or magnetic means
    • G01N27/26Investigating or analysing materials by the use of electric, electro-chemical, or magnetic means by investigating electrochemical variables; by using electrolysis or electrophoresis
    • G01N27/416Systems
    • G01N27/447Systems using electrophoresis
    • G01N27/44756Apparatus specially adapted therefor
    • G01N27/44791Microapparatus
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03FPHOTOMECHANICAL PRODUCTION OF TEXTURED OR PATTERNED SURFACES, e.g. FOR PRINTING, FOR PROCESSING OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; MATERIALS THEREFOR; ORIGINALS THEREFOR; APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED THEREFOR
    • G03F7/00Photomechanical, e.g. photolithographic, production of textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. printing surfaces; Materials therefor, e.g. comprising photoresists; Apparatus specially adapted therefor
    • G03F7/0002Lithographic processes using patterning methods other than those involving the exposure to radiation, e.g. by stamping
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01FMIXING, e.g. DISSOLVING, EMULSIFYING, DISPERSING
    • B01F13/00Other mixers; Mixing plant, including combinations of mixers, e.g. of dissimilar mixers
    • B01F13/0059Micromixers
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01LCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL LABORATORY APPARATUS FOR GENERAL USE
    • B01L2200/00Solutions for specific problems relating to chemical or physical laboratory apparatus
    • B01L2200/06Fluid handling related problems
    • B01L2200/0689Sealing
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01LCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL LABORATORY APPARATUS FOR GENERAL USE
    • B01L2200/00Solutions for specific problems relating to chemical or physical laboratory apparatus
    • B01L2200/12Specific details about manufacturing devices
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01LCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL LABORATORY APPARATUS FOR GENERAL USE
    • B01L2300/00Additional constructional details
    • B01L2300/08Geometry, shape and general structure
    • B01L2300/0809Geometry, shape and general structure rectangular shaped
    • B01L2300/0816Cards, e.g. flat sample carriers usually with flow in two horizontal directions
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01LCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL LABORATORY APPARATUS FOR GENERAL USE
    • B01L2300/00Additional constructional details
    • B01L2300/08Geometry, shape and general structure
    • B01L2300/0887Laminated structure
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01LCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL LABORATORY APPARATUS FOR GENERAL USE
    • B01L2400/00Moving or stopping fluids
    • B01L2400/04Moving fluids with specific forces or mechanical means
    • B01L2400/0403Moving fluids with specific forces or mechanical means specific forces
    • B01L2400/0415Moving fluids with specific forces or mechanical means specific forces electrical forces, e.g. electrokinetic
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C65/00Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C65/02Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by heating, with or without pressure
    • B29C65/14Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by heating, with or without pressure using wave energy, i.e. electromagnetic radiation, or particle radiation
    • B29C65/1403Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by heating, with or without pressure using wave energy, i.e. electromagnetic radiation, or particle radiation characterised by the type of electromagnetic or particle radiation
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C65/00Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C65/02Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by heating, with or without pressure
    • B29C65/14Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by heating, with or without pressure using wave energy, i.e. electromagnetic radiation, or particle radiation
    • B29C65/1403Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by heating, with or without pressure using wave energy, i.e. electromagnetic radiation, or particle radiation characterised by the type of electromagnetic or particle radiation
    • B29C65/1406Ultraviolet [UV] radiation
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C65/00Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C65/02Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by heating, with or without pressure
    • B29C65/14Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by heating, with or without pressure using wave energy, i.e. electromagnetic radiation, or particle radiation
    • B29C65/1403Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by heating, with or without pressure using wave energy, i.e. electromagnetic radiation, or particle radiation characterised by the type of electromagnetic or particle radiation
    • B29C65/1412Infrared [IR] radiation
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C65/00Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C65/02Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by heating, with or without pressure
    • B29C65/14Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by heating, with or without pressure using wave energy, i.e. electromagnetic radiation, or particle radiation
    • B29C65/1403Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by heating, with or without pressure using wave energy, i.e. electromagnetic radiation, or particle radiation characterised by the type of electromagnetic or particle radiation
    • B29C65/1425Microwave radiation
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C65/00Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C65/48Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor using adhesives, i.e. using supplementary joining material; solvent bonding
    • B29C65/4805Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor using adhesives, i.e. using supplementary joining material; solvent bonding characterised by the type of adhesives
    • B29C65/481Non-reactive adhesives, e.g. physically hardening adhesives
    • B29C65/4815Hot melt adhesives, e.g. thermoplastic adhesives
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C65/00Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C65/48Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor using adhesives, i.e. using supplementary joining material; solvent bonding
    • B29C65/4805Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor using adhesives, i.e. using supplementary joining material; solvent bonding characterised by the type of adhesives
    • B29C65/483Reactive adhesives, e.g. chemically curing adhesives
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C65/00Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C65/48Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor using adhesives, i.e. using supplementary joining material; solvent bonding
    • B29C65/4805Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor using adhesives, i.e. using supplementary joining material; solvent bonding characterised by the type of adhesives
    • B29C65/483Reactive adhesives, e.g. chemically curing adhesives
    • B29C65/4835Heat curing adhesives
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C65/00Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C65/48Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor using adhesives, i.e. using supplementary joining material; solvent bonding
    • B29C65/4805Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor using adhesives, i.e. using supplementary joining material; solvent bonding characterised by the type of adhesives
    • B29C65/483Reactive adhesives, e.g. chemically curing adhesives
    • B29C65/4845Radiation curing adhesives, e.g. UV light curing adhesives
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C65/00Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C65/48Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor using adhesives, i.e. using supplementary joining material; solvent bonding
    • B29C65/4805Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor using adhesives, i.e. using supplementary joining material; solvent bonding characterised by the type of adhesives
    • B29C65/483Reactive adhesives, e.g. chemically curing adhesives
    • B29C65/485Multi-component adhesives, i.e. chemically curing as a result of the mixing of said multi-components
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C65/00Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C65/48Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor using adhesives, i.e. using supplementary joining material; solvent bonding
    • B29C65/4865Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor using adhesives, i.e. using supplementary joining material; solvent bonding containing additives
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C65/00Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C65/48Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor using adhesives, i.e. using supplementary joining material; solvent bonding
    • B29C65/52Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor using adhesives, i.e. using supplementary joining material; solvent bonding characterised by the way of applying the adhesive
    • B29C65/524Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor using adhesives, i.e. using supplementary joining material; solvent bonding characterised by the way of applying the adhesive by applying the adhesive from an outlet device in contact with, or almost in contact with, the surface of the part to be joined
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C66/00General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts
    • B29C66/01General aspects dealing with the joint area or with the area to be joined
    • B29C66/05Particular design of joint configurations
    • B29C66/20Particular design of joint configurations particular design of the joint lines, e.g. of the weld lines
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C66/00General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts
    • B29C66/50General aspects of joining tubular articles; General aspects of joining long products, i.e. bars or profiled elements; General aspects of joining single elements to tubular articles, hollow articles or bars; General aspects of joining several hollow-preforms to form hollow or tubular articles
    • B29C66/51Joining tubular articles, profiled elements or bars; Joining single elements to tubular articles, hollow articles or bars; Joining several hollow-preforms to form hollow or tubular articles
    • B29C66/53Joining single elements to tubular articles, hollow articles or bars
    • B29C66/534Joining single elements to open ends of tubular or hollow articles or to the ends of bars
    • B29C66/5346Joining single elements to open ends of tubular or hollow articles or to the ends of bars said single elements being substantially flat
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C66/00General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts
    • B29C66/70General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts characterised by the composition, physical properties or the structure of the material of the parts to be joined; Joining with non-plastics material
    • B29C66/71General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts characterised by the composition, physical properties or the structure of the material of the parts to be joined; Joining with non-plastics material characterised by the composition of the plastics material of the parts to be joined
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C66/00General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts
    • B29C66/70General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts characterised by the composition, physical properties or the structure of the material of the parts to be joined; Joining with non-plastics material
    • B29C66/73General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts characterised by the composition, physical properties or the structure of the material of the parts to be joined; Joining with non-plastics material characterised by the intensive physical properties of the material of the parts to be joined, by the optical properties of the material of the parts to be joined, by the extensive physical properties of the parts to be joined, by the state of the material of the parts to be joined or by the material of the parts to be joined being a thermoplastic or a thermoset
    • B29C66/731General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts characterised by the composition, physical properties or the structure of the material of the parts to be joined; Joining with non-plastics material characterised by the intensive physical properties of the material of the parts to be joined, by the optical properties of the material of the parts to be joined, by the extensive physical properties of the parts to be joined, by the state of the material of the parts to be joined or by the material of the parts to be joined being a thermoplastic or a thermoset characterised by the intensive physical properties of the material of the parts to be joined
    • B29C66/7311Thermal properties
    • B29C66/73117Tg, i.e. glass transition temperature
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29LINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASS B29C, RELATING TO PARTICULAR ARTICLES
    • B29L2031/00Other particular articles
    • B29L2031/756Microarticles, nanoarticles
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29LINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASS B29C, RELATING TO PARTICULAR ARTICLES
    • B29L2031/00Other particular articles
    • B29L2031/757Moulds, cores, dies

Abstract

Methods are provided for the fabrication of polymeric microchannel structures having enclosed microchannels of capillary dimension. The microchannel structures are constructed of a base plate and a cover, sealed together. Microchannel structures having walls of a plastic material are formed in a generally planar surface of at least the base plate. The cover has at least one generally planar surface, and the microchannel structures are enclosed by bonding the planar surfaces of the cover and the base plate together. In some embodiments the surfaces of the cover and base plate are both of plastic material, and are directly thermally bonded. In some embodiments a bonding material is applied to one of the surface prior to bringing the surfaces together. Suitable bonding materials are disclosed.

Description

This application is a Continuation-in-part of Ser. No. 08/853,661 filed May 9, 1997, which is a Continuation-in-part of Ser. No. 08/832,790, filed Apr. 4, 1997, which is a Continuation-in-part of Ser. No. 08/627,484, filed Apr. 4, 1996, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,858,188,which is a Continuation-in-part of Ser. No. 08/430,134, filed Feb. 26, 1995, abandoned, which was a Continuation of Ser. No. 08/196,763, filed Feb. 14, 1994, abandoned, which was a Continuation of Ser. No. 07/880,187, filed may 7, 1992, abandoned, which was a Continuation of Ser. No. 07/487,021, filed Feb. 28, 1990, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,126,022; and this application is also a Continuation-in-part of Ser. No. 08/615,642, filed Mar. 13, 1996 now U.S. Pat. No. 5,750,015, which is a Continuation-in-part of Ser. No. 08/430,134, supra; and this application is further a Continuation-in-part of Ser. No. 08/715,338, filed Sep. 18, 1996 now U.S. Pat. No. 5,935,401; and this application is a Continuation-in-part of Ser. No. 08/690,307, filed Jul. 30, 1996, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,770,029. The foregoing U.S. patent applications are hereby incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

BACKGROUND

This invention relates to construction of microchannel structures for use in microfluidic manipulations.

Microchannel structures are of great interest for applications involving the manipulation of small fluid volumes, such as chemical and biochemical analysis. Various microchannel structures having channel dimensions on the order of one or a few millimeters have been used for chemical and biochemical assays.

These structures are typically produced by injection molding using various thermoplastic polymers. Injection molding is an economical process, and a variety of thermoplastics having good optical and mechanical properties can be processed by injection molding to form the desired structures. The injection molding process involves introducing a molten thermoplastic material into a mold cavity, and then cooling the cavity to solidify the resin. In the case of forming microchannel structures, a mold having the negative pattern of the desired channel structures must be created. Conventional tooling methods can be used to create molds for channels having dimensions as small as about 1 mm. Typically, enclosed microchannels are desired for the final structure. A common method for enclosing microchannel structures formed in plastics is to join a base and cover substrate using sonic welding. In addition, certain adhesives can also be used to join the base and cover substrates.

It has become desirable to create microchannel structures having capillary dimensions, i.e., having dimensions ranging from less than 1 micron to upwards of 1 mm. These structures are of interest for manipulating very small fluid volumes through the application of electric fields to perform electrofluidics, i.e., the movement of fluids in microchannels utilizing electrokinetic flow, that is, electrophoresis and/or electroosmotic flow (EOF). Electrophoresis is the movement of individual charged particles or molecules in response to the application of an electric field to an ionic solution. Electroosmotic flow is a bulk fluid flow (individual ions plus solvent molecules) that also results from the application of an electric field to an ionic solution. The extent of the bulk fluid flow is a function of the charge on the wall of the channel, as well as the viscosity of the solution. Both EOF and electrophoresis can be used to transport substances from one point to another within the microchannel device.

To create microchannels having capillary dimensions, photolithography in silicon or glass substrates has been employed. See, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 4,908,112, U.S. Pat. No. 5,250,263. In the case of fused silica, these structures can be enclosed by anodic bonding of a base and cover substrate.

Although microchannel structures of such materials have been produced, it would be much more economical, and therefore desirable, to produce structures of capillary dimensions in polymeric materials or plastics. However, the conventional methods for forming and enclosing channels in plastic do not provide the accuracy and precision required for structures of capillary dimensions. For example, when using sonic welding, heating and deformation may occur in the channel regions. When the edges of a sonic weld are uneven, poor electrofluidic performance may result. Furthermore, sonic welding of highly defined intersections of capillary dimensions is not easily accomplished with adequate fidelity. Similarly, with conventional adhesive methods, the adhesive material may flow into and plug the channels.

Thus, there is interest in the development of new methods of fabricating polymeric microstructures, specifically in new methods of sealing the cover and base plates together, where such new methods do not result in deformation or filling in of the microchannels enclosed in the structure. Ideally, such methods should be simple and readily reproducible so as to be suitable for large scale manufacturing.

U.S. Pat. No. 5,376,252 to Eckstrom et al. describes a process for creating capillary size channels in plastic using elastomeric spacing layers. {umlaut over (O)}hman International Patent Publication WO 94/29400 describes a method for producing microchannel structures involving the application of a thin layer of a thermoplastic material to one or both of the surfaces to be joined, then joining the surfaces and heating the joined parts to melt the thermoplastic bonding layer.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Methods are provided for the fabrication of polymeric microchannel structures having enclosed microchannels of capillary dimension. The microchannel structures are constructed of a base plate and a cover, sealed together. Microchannel structures having walls of a plastic material are formed in a generally planar surface of at least the base plate. The cover has at least one generally planar surface, and the microchannel structures are enclosed by bonding the planar surfaces of the cover and the base plate together. The microchannel structures according to the invention find use in a variety of applications, particularly in electrofluidic applications.

Approaches to sealing the cover and base plate according to the invention include thermal bonding of the base plate and cover surfaces, and use of a bonding material between the base plate and cover surfaces. Suitable bonding materials include elastomeric adhesive materials, and activatable bonding materials, including liquid curable adhesive materials and thermo-melting adhesive materials.

The thermal bonding approach can be employed where the apposing planar surfaces of the base plate and the cover are made of similar polymeric materials. Generally, in this approach, the planar surfaces of the base plate and the cover are aligned and confined to a mechanical fixture, in which they are progressively heated under pressure to a temperature 2-5° C. above the glass transition temperature of the polymer. In this first step, small irregularities in the surfaces accommodate to each other, while maintaining the physical integrity of the channels. Then, the temperature is maintained above the glass transition temperature of the polymer for a time sufficient to allow the polymer molecules to interpenetrate the two surfaces and create a morphological bonding. Above the glass transition temperature the molecules have sufficient entropy to entangle and orient in the surfaces of the two plates. In a final step of the bonding process the temperature is slowly reduced in order to maintain a stress free interface that provides a stable assembled microchannel structure.

Bonding materials can be employed where the apposing planar surfaces of the base plate and the cover are made either of similar or of different materials.

In approaches employing thermo-melting adhesives, the adhesive formulation includes medium molecular weight components that upon heating melt and diffuse into the two apposed surfaces, interpenetrating the two surfaces and creating a stable interface for the assembled microchannel structure. Suitable thermo-melting adhesives are usually formulated with chemistries that provide secondary bond interactions (e.g., hydrogen bonding, Van der Waals forces, and hydrophobic forces) between the surfaces being bonded and the adhesive.

In approaches using liquid curable materials, one of the planar surfaces (usually of the cover), is coated with a layer or film of a liquid, curable adhesive material. The fluid layer is then rendered non-flowable, after which the coated surface is contacted with the apposing planar surface (usually of the base plate in which the microchannels have been formed). Then the curable adhesive material is cured to seal the surfaces together, forming the enclosed microchannel structure.

In approaches employing elastomeric bonding materials, the adhesive layer or film is a rubber or elastomer material (e.g., natural and synthetic rubbers, polyurethane, polysulfides and silicones). The elastomeric bonding material can be applied in solution, as an emulsion, or in formulations of two reactive components. Elastomeric bonding materials can be used in contact adhesive formulations, in which one or more small molecule components are admixed to provide tack; the do not require application of pressure to establish bonding. Or, elastomeric bonding materials can be used as pure elastomers to provide closure of the microchannel structures and to seal small irregularities in the generally planar apposed surfaces by application of pressure to exploit the compressibility of the elastomeric materials.

In some preferred methods according to the invention, the bonding process results in interpenetration into the two apposed planar surfaces, providing a stable sealed interface between the base plate and cover. Where a bonding material is used, a thin film or layer of the bonding material at the interface results.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a diagrammatic sketch in plan view of a base plate having a microchannel structure on one surface, which may be bonded to a cover according to the invention.

FIG. 2 is a diagrammatic sketch in sectional view thru the base plate of FIG. 1 at 22.

FIG. 3 is a diagrammatic sketch in plan view of a cover having a film of a bonding material on one surface, which may be bonded to a base plate according to the invention.

FIG. 4 is a diagrammatic sketch in sectional view thru the cover of FIG. 3 at 44.

FIG. 5 is a diagrammatic sketch in perspective view of a closed microchannel device fabricated by apposing and bonding the cover of FIGS. 3, 4 onto the base plate of FIGS. 1, 2 according to the invention.

FIG. 6 is a diagrammatic sketch in sectional view thru the microchannel device of FIG. 5 at 66.

FIG. 7 shows results of electrophoretic separation of fragments in the HAE III digest of ΦX174 RF DNA in a sealed plastic PMMA/Mylar™ microchannel structure.

FIG. 8 shows results of electrophoretic separation of fragments in the HAE III digest of ΦX174 RF DNA in a sealed plastic PMMA/PDMS microchannel structure.

FIG. 9 provides results of electrophoretic separation of single stranded DNA fragments having sizes from 50 to 500 bases at 50-base intervals in a thermobonded PMMA/PMMA microchannel structure.

FIG. 10 provides results of electrophoretic separation of single stranded DNA fragments having sizes from 35 to 500 bases in a PMMA/PMMA microchannel structure bonded using a thermally activated polymerizable bonding material.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

The invention is now described in further detail, beginning with a description of the microchannel structures that are constructed according to the methods of the invention, followed by a discussion of the methods themselves.

The microchannel structures produced by the subject methods include at least one enclosed polymeric microchannel of capillary dimension. Thus, the structure may comprise a single enclosed microchannel or a network of interconnecting or separate microchannels having a variety of different configurations. Although the subject microchannels are enclosed, the enclosed channels will comprise at least one means of introducing liquid into the internal volume of the channel.

A microchannel of “capillary dimension”, as that term is used herein, has cross-sectional dimensions that provide for capillary flow along the channel; usually a wider cross-sectional dimension of the channel is in the range about 50 μm to 750 μm, usually from about 100 μm to 500 μm and more usually from about 100 μm to 250 μm; a narrower cross-sectional dimension (usually the depth of the channel) can be somewhat smaller.

A “polymeric microchannel”, as that term is used herein is a microchannel in which at least the inner surfaces of the microchannel walls, i.e., that surface that contacts the liquid that is transported in the channel when in use, is of a polymeric material, where the thickness of the polymeric material will be at least about 1 μm, usually at least about 5 μm, and more usually at least about 50 μm, where the thickness may be as great as 5 mm or greater.

The structures may take a variety of different shapes; they may, for example, be including disc-like or card-like, and they may be layered or laminated “sandwich” structures. Representative shapes for such structures are further described in, for example, U.S. patent applications Ser. Nos. 08/853,661 and 08/715,338 and U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,750,015 and 5,770,029.

In general, the microchannel structures according to the invention are constructed of two parts, each having at least one generally planar surface, sealed together so that the generally planar surfaces are apposed. One part is referred to as a base plate, and the other is referred to as a cover. The planar surface of the base plate includes one or more microchannels, while the planar surface of the cover may or may not include one or more microchannels. The cover may be a more or less rigid plate, or it may be a film, and the thickness of the cover may be different for materials having different mechanical properties. Usually the cover ranges in thickness from at least about 200 μm, more usually at least about 500 μm, to as thick as usually about 5 mm or thicker, more usually about 2 mm. The cover substrate may be fabricated from a single material or be fabricated as a composite material. In some embodiments the cover is of a plastic material, and it may be rigid or elastomeric.

Both the base and cover substrates can be fabricated using any convenient methodology, such as molding, casting, extrusion sheet forming, calendaring, thermoforming, and the like. Suitable base and cover substrates for use in the subject invention are further described in U.S. patent applications Ser. Nos. 08/853,661 and 08/715,338 and U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,750,015 and 5,770,029.

Any of a variety of microchannel patterns, device shapes, and substrate materials can be used to construct and assemble the components of the microfluidic systems according to the invention, so long the device includes at least a generally planar base plate containing microchannels constructed of a plastic material. For example, a base plate and cover plate constructed of a plastic material can be bonded together directly (for example by thermal bonding), or by use of an adhesive layer. Or, a base plate constructed of a plastic material, in which the microchannels are formed, can be covered with a glass plate to enclose the channels, and sealed with an elastomeric film of, for example, a silicon or polyurethane elastomer. Glass provides improved dissipation of heat and better optical properties, as compared with plastic. Or, the device can be formed as a laminate (sandwich structure).

Construction of microchannel structures by bonding a base plate and a cover according to the invention will now be further described by reference for illustrative purposes to FIGS. 1-6, in which FIGS. 5 and 6 show an assembled microchannel device 10 made by bonding a base plate 12, shown in plan and sectional views in FIGS. 1 and 2 to a cover 14, shown in plan and sectional views in FIGS. 3 and 4, using a bonding material 16. As will be appreciated, the drawings of the exemplary microchannel structures are not to scale and, in particular, certain dimensions (for example the thicknesses of the base plate, the cover, and the bonding material layer; and the sizes of the microchannels and reservoir holes) are shown in extremely exaggerated scale.

Base 12 has a planar surface 13 in which a microchannel structure is formed, including intersecting linear microchannels 21, 23. At the ends of the channels holes 22, 24, 26, 28 are bored through, to provide reservoirs for fluids to be moved within the channels. Techniques for forming the microchannel structure in the base plate are disclosed, for example, in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 08/853,661. The microchannels as formed in the base plate are open, that is, absent a cover apposed to the channel-bearing surface 13 of the base plate, the microchannels are not fully enclosed.

Cover 11 has a generally planar surface 15, apposable onto the channel-bearing surface 13 of base plate 12, onto which a thin film 16 of a bonding material is applied. Microchannel device 10 is formed by apposing the surfaces 13, 15 with the bonding material between them. As a result, the microchannels 21, 23 are closed, having three walls formed in the base plate surface 13, and a fourth wall formed by the cover 11, with the bonding material film 16 constituting the surface of the fourth microchannel wall.

Reservoirs formed as described above are open on a surface of the base plate opposite the surface apposed to the cover. Other constructions may alternatively be employed for providing reservoirs. For example, holes can be bored only partway through the base plate at the ends of the channels, so that the reservoirs are not open on the opposite surface of the base plate; and holes can be bored or cut through the cover, aligned with the reservoirs. Liquids can be added to reservoirs formed in this manner can by filling through the holes in the cover, rather than from the opposite side.

In a method employing a curable bonding material according to the invention, a bonding material is applied onto a planar surface 15 of the cover material 14 to form a layer or film 16. The bonding material may be, for example, a fluid curable adhesive, or a fluid component reactive with the cover material 14 and/or with the base plate material 12, a meltable adhesive film, or a cured elastomeric film that provides physical or chemical characteristics to bind to the base plate in which at least one microchannel is formed.

Some care must be taken to apply the bonding material as a layer or film that is sufficiently thick and uniform to ensure that a continuous strong bond can form between the cover and the base plate at all points adjacent all the microchannels; and not so thick that too much of the bonding material adjacent the microchannels is displaced into the channels, distorting the channel shape or dimensions. An ideal thickness for the bonding material layer or film will accordingly be different for different bonding materials. In practice, generally, the bonding material usually is applied to a thickness at least about 0.5 μm, in some embodiments at least about 1 μm, and in still other embodiments at least about 2 μm.

The bonding material layer or film may be applied to the surface using any convenient means suitable for application of a fluid layer to the surface of substrate. Such means finding use in the subject method therefore include: spin coating, dip coating, knife coating, drawing, rolling, mechanical spraying, atomization, patterned discharge, stamping, silk screening, lamination and the like, with the particular method employed being at least partially dependent on the nature of the substrate, e.g., patterned discharge, stamping and lamination techniques being suited for use with flexible substrate materials.

As mentioned above, in some embodiments the apposed surfaces of the cover and base plate are bonded together according to the invention using a liquid curable adhesive. In these embodiments the adhesive is applied to one surface as a thin film. Accordingly, suitable fluid curable adhesives are flowable, having a viscosity in the range about 50 cp to 15,000 cp, usually about 50 cp to 10,000 cp, and more usually about 100 cp to 5,000 cp, where the viscosity is the viscosity of the material as measured at a temperature between about 15° C. and 50° C.

Any of a variety of bonding materials can be useful in constructing microchannel structures according to the invention. Curable bonding materials can be particularly useful.

Curable bonding materials include materials applicable to all or a part of the substrate surface as a layer, coating, film, etc., which upon application of energy result in formation of a durable stable interface material between the cover and the base materials. The durable stable interface material can be formed by covalent bonding, or interpenetration of the surface materials, or strong physical interaction, or by some combination of these. The energy can be one or a combination of heat, light, or other radiation including infrared or microwave radiation, for example; electron or other particle beam, and the like.

In some embodiments, where the movements of fluids or the progress of reactions within the microchannels are to be detected by means of light transmitted from the sample materials within the microchannel structure out through the cover or through the base plate, certain optical requirements must be met. Preferred modes of light detection may be based for example on UV and visible, luminescence and fluorescence responses of the sample material to incident radiation. For example, any material used in fabricating the cover, the base plate, or the bonding material on an enclosing wall of the microchannel should have good optical transmittance, generally allowing at least about 50%, in some embodiments at least about 20%, and in still other embodiments at least about 10% transmittance. And, for example, any material that is to be used in the field of fluorescence detection and through which light passes should have sufficiently low fluorescence in the detected bandwidths so that background fluorescence does not interfere with detection of the signal from the sample material.

Curable bonding materials finding use in the invention include polymerizable adhesives and activatable adhesives.

Polymerizable adhesives are those adhesives made up of polymerizable components including monomeric, oligomeric and low molecular weight polymeric compounds, where oligomeric and low molecular weight polymeric compounds present in the adhesive materials will generally have a molecular weight that does not exceed about 106, and usually does not exceed about 105, and more usually does not exceed about 103. The material may comprise one or a plurality of different types of polymerizable components, where when a plurality of different types of polymerizable components is present in the adhesive, the number of different components will generally not exceed 5 and will usually not exceed 3. The polymerizable components present in the polymerizable adhesives may be polymerizable by exposure to one or more of radiation (e.g., electron beam, W radiation, microwave radiation, γ-radiation), and/or heat, as will be described in greater detail below. A variety of polymerizable components may find use in the subject materials, based on any mode of polymerization mechanism (including condensation, free radical, ionic, ring opening) where the components may be acrylic, methacrylic, cyanoacrylic, epoxide base, two-component epoxy adhesives, two-component urethane adhesives, and the like. Specific polymerizable components of interest include methylmethacrylate, ethylene glycol methacrylate, tetraethylene glycol methacrylate, cyano acrylate, uretheane prepolymers and diols, epoxy-containing prepolymers with amines, and the like. In the subject polymerizable adhesives, the polymerizable compounds will generally make up at least about 1%, usually at least about 5%, and more usually at least about 10% by weight of the bonding material.

The polymerizable adhesive may include, in addition to the polymerizable components, one or more additional agents. One agent which may find use, depending on the particular adhesive employed, is a polymerization agent, where such agents include photosensitizers, photoinitiators, thermal initiators, and the like. Typical photosensitizers include the thioxantone derivatives; typical photoinitiators include benzophenone derivatives; and typical thermal initiators include the family of peroxy, perester, and azo initiators. When present, such polymerization agents will generally not make up more than about 5%, usually about 1% and more usually about 0.5% by weight of the bonding material.

Certain suitable polymerizable adhesive materials are commercially available, including for example (from Summers Corp., Fort Washington, Pa.): J91 (a single-component UV curable adhesive having a viscosity (uncured) of 250-300 cP; P92 (a single-component UV curable photopolymer having a viscosity (uncured) of 900-1400 cP; SK-9 (a single-component modified acrylate/methacrylate photopolymer having a viscosity (uncured) of 80-100 cP; DC-90 (a hybrid two-component UV sensitive cement having a viscosity (uncured) of 275-320 cP; EK-93 (a thixotropic two-component epoxy system having a viscosity of 25,000 cP; and (from Loctite Corp., Rocky Hill, Conn.): Depend 330 (a two-part mix acrylic thermocurable adhesive having a viscosity (uncured) greater than 10,000 cP.

Activatable adhesives finding use in the methods of the invention are those adhesives which include activatable polymeric compounds in combination with a carrier liquid. Depending on the particular adhesive, the polymeric compound may be dissolved in the carrier liquid (i.e., the carrier liquid is a solvent for the polymeric compound) or dispersed in the carrier liquid, such that the adhesive material is an emulsion or suspension of the polymeric compound in the carrier liquid. The number of different activatable polymeric compounds in the activatable adhesives may range from 0 to 3, and usually range from 0 to 2, more usually from 0 to 1. The activatable polymeric compounds will typically make up at least about 0%, usually at least about 5% and more usually at least about 10% by weight of the adhesive.

An activatable polymeric compound is a polymeric compound that is capable of being treated so as to serve as an agent capable of bonding or sealing two substrates together. Activatable polymeric compounds include compounds comprising activatable functional groups, where illustrative activatable functional groups include groups that can form strong interactive forces with the surface of the base substrate. Specific applicable groups can be hydrogen bonding forming groups such as the urethane containing polymers or halogen containing polymers, such as polyvinyl chloride. The activatable polymeric component includes small molecular weight polymers that upon application of heat or pressure diffuse or penetrate into the surface of the base material, creating sufficient physical adhesion to maintain the integrity of the microchannel structures. Activatable polymeric compounds include rubbery elastomeric materials such as, for example, silicone gums and resins, the styrene-butadiene copolymers, polychloroprene, neoprene, and the nitrile and butyl containing elastomeric polymers; polylacrylics; polyurethanes; polyamides; phenoxies; polyvinylacetals, and the like. Specific activatable polymeric compounds of interest include, for example: silicone gums, whereby upon application silicone polymers diffuse into the substrate surface, which can be thermocured after application to form crosslinked siloxane structures; urethane containing elastomers, which provide strong hydrogen bonding interaction with any polymer containing carboxyl groups, such as the acrylates; and nitrile containing polymers, which provide strong quasi-crossliniked intermolecular structures by dipole-dipole interaction of the nitrile groups.

The carrier liquid component of the activatable adhesive material may be any of a variety of different liquids, where the liquid is a liquid that is readily separable from the polymeric compound following application of the adhesive to the surface of the substrate. Illustrative liquids include solvents inert to the cover material that may be removed by evaporation, which may be carried out under low pressure. Carrier liquids will make up at least 50%, usually at least 25% and more usually at least 5%, by weight of the adhesive material.

Other components which may be present in the activatable adhesive include reaction catalysts, thermal initiators, and photoinitiators; where such components are present, they will usually be present in an amount which does not exceed 5%, more usually in an amount which does not exceed 1%, by weight of the adhesive material.

Following application of the layer of fluid curable adhesive to the surface of the substrate, the applied layer will be rendered non-flowable. By non-flowable is meant that the applied layer is thickened so that the viscosity of adhesive layer will be increased to at least about 105 cP, in some embodiments at least about 106 cP and in still other embodiments at least about 107 cP. The manner by which the adhesive layer is rendered non-flowable will depend on the nature of the adhesive employed.

Thus, for polymerizable adhesives, the adhesive will be partially polymerized so that a sufficient percentage of the polymerizable components of the adhesive are polymerized to render the material suitably non-flowable and tacky. Generally, during partial polymerization at least about 50%, usually at least about 75% and not more than about 95%, usually not more than about 90% of the polymerizable components will be polymerized. Partial polymerization can be achieved using any convenient means, including radiation, heat, light, and the like.

For the activatable adhesives, the applied layer will be rendered suitably non-flowable by separating or removing the carrier liquid from the layer. Removal of carrier liquid may be accomplished using any convenient means, including evaporation, which may be carried out under low pressure, and the like.

After the applied layer has been rendered non-flowable, the surface of the first substrate (e.g., the cover) comprising the adhesive layer will then be contacted with the surface of the second substrate (e.g., the base plate) in which the microchannel or microchannels are formed. To assist in ensuring sufficient contact, pressure may be employed, as convenient.

Following contact, the thickened adhesive will be cured, resulting in the bonding of the first and second substrates and the production of a sealed microchannel structure. The manner by which curing of the thickened adhesive is accomplished will depend on the type of adhesive employed. Thus, for polymerizable adhesives, the adhesive layer will already be partially polymerized and final curing may be accomplished by one ore more of exposure to radiation, heat, light and the like. Alternatively, for the activatable polymeric adhesives, the adhesive layer positioned between the first and second substrates will then be treated to activate the adhesive, where treatment could include exposure of the layer to radiation, heat, and the like, depending on the particular nature of the adhesive.

Where desired the above method may be further modified to include a substrate pretreatment step prior to the application of the adhesive to the substrate. Pretreatment steps that find use include exposure of the substrate, either the first or second substrate, to a cleaning and/or abrasion agent, etching agent, e.g plasma, corona, chemical, and the like, where such pretreatments provide for improved wettability of the surface of the substrate by the adhesive material.

EXAMPLES

The following examples are offered by way of illustration and not by way of limitation.

Example 1

This Example illustrates fabrication of a microchannel structure made up of a polymethylmethacrylate base plate bonded to a polymethylmethacrylate cover using a photocurable acrylate bonding material in a two-step curing process.

In this example, the bonding material is prepared as a blend of linear low molecular weight polymethylmethacrylate (MW=105-106, 5-30% w/w) dissolved in a mixture of methylmethacrylate monomer (60-95% w/w), allylmethacrylate (1-5% w/w), and 0.5% w/w 2-hydroxy-2,2-dimethylactophenone (Darocure-1173, EM Industries) as a polymerization photoinitiator. Using spin coating tools, a thin layer (1-10 μm) of this bonding material is applied to the flat cover plate made of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). The coated cover is exposed for 10-30 seconds to a 15 watt fluorescent lamp at 1 inch from the surface. With this pre-curing step, the thin film has a non-flowable consistency, tacky toward the surface of a PMMA base plate with microchannel structures. The base plate is aligned and firmly positioned over the cover plate to form a base-to-cover sandwich, and 50-150 psi of pressure is applied to maintain the contact of base-to-cover and complete the bonding process by curing the acrylic interface under a 15 watt fluorescent lamp at 1 inch from the surface for 1-2 hours. The final cured interface provides a crosslinked, optically transparent cement between the cover and base plates, with good wall contact to the cover plate and open channels for analytical applications.

Example 2

This Example illustrates fabrication of a microchannel structure made up of a polymethylmethacrylate base plate bonded to a Mylar™ film cover using a thermally activated bonding material.

In this Example, the bonding material is a commercially-available thermally-activated adhesive. Photolithographic and electroforming techniques were used to prepare a mold, and injection molding techniques were used to prepare a microchannel base plate of an acrylic polymer (AtoHaas, Plexiglas™V825NA-100). The microchannel structure in this Example corresponds to two crossed linear channels of dimensions 2 cm and 5.5 cm in length respectively. The channels have a trapezoidal cross-section, with widths measuring about 120 μm and about 30 μm, and with an average depth about 40 μm. At the termini of the channels, holes 3 mm in diameter were drilled through the base plate to serve as buffer reservoirs. The channels were covered by thermal lamination of a 2 mil thick sheet of Mylar™ coated with a thermally-activated adhesive (MonoKote™, made by Top Flight Co.) at 105° C. for 5 minutes. Electrodes of 76 micron diameter platinum wire were routed to each of the four reservoirs and terminated at one edge of the chip with a 4-prong 2.54 mm pitch KK® electrical heater (Waldon Electronics). No pretreatment or coating procedure was applied to the walls of the microchannel. The microchannel constructed this way has three walls whose surfaces are of acrylic polymer, formed from the base plate, and a fourth wall whose surface is formed of the MonoKote adhesive.

Example 3

This Example illustrates separation of the fragments in the HAE IlI digest of ΦX174 RF DNA by capillary electrophoresis in a sealed plastic PMMA/Mylar™ microchannel structure fabricated as described in Example 2.

DNA separations were done in a sieving matrix consisting of 0.5% (w/v) hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC, MW 90,0000-105,0000), dissolved in 0.5X TBE with 2.5 μg/mL ethidium bromide. A sample of Hae III digest of ΦX174 RF DNA with fragments ranging in size 72 to 1354 base pairs previously diluted in run buffer was injected in the separation microchannel. After sample injection, separation of double stranded fragments was performed at an effective field strength of 190 V/cm. Fragment detection was performed through the PMMA base plate, using a fluorescence microscope (Olympus America) with photometer detection system (Photon Technology International). Excitation was derived from a deuterium lamp and delivered to the separation channel through a dichroic cube with 530 nm excitation filter, a 560-580 nm dichroic mirror, and a 590 nm long pass emission filter. Representative results of this separation are shown in FIG. 7 for an effective separation length of 4 cm with a total separation time of 2.6 minutes.

Example 4

This Example illustrates fabrication of a microchannel structure made up of a polymethylmethacrylate base plate covered with a film composite of a polyethylene (PE) and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomeric material in a two-step curing process.

In this Example, the cover film was prepared by applying a thin coat (about 100 μm) of Sylgard 184 (PDMS, Dow Corning) to a 2 mil thick polyethylene film (Barrier Films). The elastomeric layer of PDMS was pre-cured for 30 minutes in air at room temperature. The resulting pre-cured PE/PDMS composite was applied to a polymethylmethacrylate microchannel base plate made by injection molding as described in Example 2, and the PDMS allowed to cure further for 24 hours at room temperature. No pretreatment or coating procedure was applied to the walls of the microchannel. The microchannel constructed this way has three walls whose surfaces are of acrylic polymer, formed from the base plate, and a fourth wall whose surface is formed of the PDMS elastomeric material.

Example 5

This Example illustrates separation of the fragments in the HAE III digest of ΦX174 RF DNA by capillary electrophoresis in a sealed plastic PMMA/PDMS microchannel structure fabricated as described in Example 4.

In this Example, the experimental parameters and conditions for the electrophoresis separation and detection of the Hae III digest of ΦX174 RF DNA fragments under non-denaturing conditions were as in Example 3. Results of the separation using the PMMA/PDMS microchannel structures are shown in FIG. 8. In this Example, separation of the eleven double stranded fragments was achieved in 5.0 minutes of total separation time.

Example 6

This Example illustrates fabrication of a microchannel structure made up of a polymethylmethacrylate base plate bonded to a polymethylmethacrylate cover using a thermally curable bonding material in a one-step curing process.

In this example, the bonding material is prepared as a mixture of linear low molecular weight polymethylmethacrylate (MW=105-106, 5-30% w/w) in methylmethacrylate monomer (70-95% w/w), and t-butylperoxypivalate (tBPP, Lupersol 11-Pennwalt) as a thermal polymerization initiator. Using spin coating tools, a thin layer (1-10 μm) of this bonding material is applied to a flat cover plate made of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). The base plate is aligned and firmly positioned over the cover plate to form a base-to-cover sandwich in a fixture, and pressure is applied using the fixture (50-150 psi) to maintain the contact of base-to-cover. The assembly of base-to-cover is carried out in a manner that avoids overflow of the channels with the bonding material. The bonding process is completed by curing the acrylic interface at 70° C. for 1-2 hours.

Example 7

This Example illustrates fabrication of a microchannel structure made up of a polymethylmethacrylate base plate bonded to a polymer film cover using a thermally curable bonding material in a one-step curing process.

In this Example a process similar to that of Example 6 is employed, by substitution of a cover film of 50-500 μm thickness for the PMMA cover plate. Films made of hydrocarbon based polymers (e.g., low density polyethylene, amorphous polypropylene), fluorinated polymers (e.g., polytetrafluoroethylene), or copolymers or blends of such polymers are suitable for this process and provide added optical transparency required for spectroscopic (fluorescence and UV) detection through the cover. Chemical bonding of the acrylic base to the cover film is carried out generally as described above for the acrylic flat cover. In this format, the application of the bonding material to the cover film can be carried out manually, for example using a fine paint brush or rollers, or automatically, for example using roll coaters or float coaters.

Example 8

This Example illustrates fabrication of a microchannel structure made up of a polymethylmethacrylate base plate bonded to a polymethylmethacrylate cover using a thermally curable bonding material using a one-step curing process.

A chemical bonding material was prepared as a mixture of linear low molecular weight polymethylmethacrylate (Mw=105-106, 15% w/w) in methylmethacrylate monomer (85% w/w), and t-butylperoxypivalate (tBPP, Lupersol 11, Penwalt) as a thermal polymerization initiator.

The microchannel structure was prepared from a base plate in which microchannels were formed, with recess wells bored partway through the base plate at the ends of the channels. The cover plate is provided with 2 mm diameter holes that align with the recess wells at the ends of the channels when the cover plate and base plate are apposed. The base plate and cover plate were made by injection molding from a polymethylmethacrylate resin (AtoHaas V825-NA100). After careful cleaning of the bonding surfaces with a surfactant containing solution, the curable bonding solution prepared as described above was applied onto the cover plate using standard spin coating equipment at 2000 rpm for 5 sec. The base plate was then carefully aligned onto the coated cover, with the apposing generally planar surfaces face-to-face. The sandwich structure assembled this way was then placed in a bonding fixture, configured to apply uniform pressure throughout the assembled structure. The interface layer is allowed to cure between the two plates under pressure of 40 psi in the fixture at 70° C. in an oven for two hours. After this curing process, the fixture containing the structure is cooled, and then the bonded microchannel structure is removed from the fixture in its final functional form.

The channel pattern used in this Example has a crossed-channel configuration, with reservoir wells at the ends of the channels. The shorter channel has a segment of length 0.4 cm from the well to the intersection on one side, and a segment of length 1.0 cm from the well to the intersection on the other side. The longer channel has segments of lengths 1 cm and 5 cm respectively from the well to the intersection. The channel cross-section has an asymmetrical trapezoidal shape of about 40 μm at the bottom of the channel and about 100 μm at the top of the channel. The channel depth after bonding was 35 μm as measured in scanning electron micrographs.

Example 9

This Example illustrates separation of a DNA ladder under denaturant conditions by capillary electrophoresis in a sealed plastic PMMA/PMMA microchannel structure constructed as described in Example 8.

Without any preconditioning of the microchannel surface, the microchannels were filled with a 5% linear polyacrylamide (MW=2-3×106) solution in 1×TBE buffer and 7 M urea using a pressurized syringe loading device with liquid tight connections to the well at the end of the long arm of the long channel. A solution of GeneScan 500 DNA ladder with tagged TAMRA label was electrokinetically injected into the channel cross-section from the short arm of the short channel. After a sample plug was formed at the channel intersection, a separation voltage of 200 V/cm was applied between the two wells of the long channel using platinum wire electrodes (76 μm). Detection of the separating bands in the longer segment of the longer channel was performed using a fluorescence microscope (Olympus America) with photometer detection system (Photon Technology International). Excitation was derived from mercury lamp and delivered to the separation channel through a dichroic cube with 535-550 nm excitation filter, a 560-580 nm dichroic mirror, and a 570 nm long pass emission filter.

Representative results of separations made in this way are shown in FIG. 10. The effective length of the separation is 4 cm, and separation was achieved in a total separation time of 7.5 minutes. The GeneScan 500 ladder sample contains 16 DNA fragments with different number of incremental bases from each fragment. Fragment separation of fragments differing by 10 bases are labeled in the electropherogram of FIG. 10. Normalized single base resolution was calculated at between 0.3 and 1.2 for the 35 to 500 bases separation range.

It is evident from the above results and discussion that improved methods for fabricating polymeric microchannel structures suitable for use in electrofluidic applications are provided. By using the subject methods, cover and base plate components of the structures can be sealed together without deformation, partial or complete clogging of the enclosed microchannels.

All publications and patent applications cited in this specification are herein incorporated by reference as if each individual publication or patent application were specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated by reference. The citation of any publication is for its disclosure prior to the filing date and should not be construed as an admission that the present invention is not entitled to antedate such publication by virtue of prior invention.

Although the foregoing invention has been described in some detail by way of illustration and example for purposes of clarity of understanding, it is readily apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art in light of the teachings of this invention that certain changes and modifications may be made thereto without departing from the spirit or scope of the appended claims.

Claims (17)

What is claimed is:
1. A method for constructing an enclosed microchannel structure comprising the steps of providing a substantially planar base substrate fabricated of a plastic material and having at least one substantially planar surface, forming in said base substrate at least one microchannel of capillary dimensions which opens onto said surface, providing a substantially planar cover substrate having at least one substantially planar surface, applying a bonding material to at least one of the surfaces, partially curing the bonding material and apposing said surface of said cover substrate and said surface of said base substrate whereby a stable interface applying a bonding material to at least one of the surfaces, partially curing the bonding material and between said apposed surfaces with the cured bonding material.
2. The method of claim 1 wherein said surface of said cover substrate is fabricated of a plastic material and wherein said apposing step includes the step of pressing said apposed surfaces together and heating said substrates for a time and to a temperature sufficient to bond said surfaces together.
3. The method of claim 1 wherein the applying step includes the step of applying the bonding material to said surface of said cover substrate.
4. The method of claim 1 wherein said cured bonding material comprises an elastomeric adhesive material.
5. The method of claim 1 wherein said bonding material comprises a thermo-melting bonding material and wherein said apposing step includes the step of heating said bonding material to a temperature and for a time sufficient to melt said bonding material and then cooling said bonding material between said apposed surfaces to permit the bonding material to harden.
6. The method of claim 1 wherein said bonding material comprises an activatable bonding material.
7. The method of claim 1 wherein said bonding material comprises a curable bonding material.
8. The method of claim 1 wherein said bonding material comprises a polymerizable bonding material.
9. The method of claim 7 wherein said applying step includes the step of applying the bonding material to said surface in a flowable state and wherein said partially curing step includes the step of partially curing the bonding material to a non-flowable state.
10. The method of claim 8 wherein said bonding material further comprises a polymerization initiator.
11. The method of claim 10 wherein said polymerization initiator comprises a photoinitiator and wherein said apposing step includes the step of exposing said bonding material between said apposed surfaces to light at a wavelength and intensity and for a time sufficient to cause polymerization.
12. The method of claim 10 wherein said polymerization initiator comprises a thermal initiator and wherein said apposing step includes the step of heating said bonding material between said apposed surfaces to a temperature and for a time sufficient to cause polymerization.
13. The method of claim 1 wherein said cover substrate comprises an elastomeric material.
14. A method for constructing an enclosed microchannel structure comprising the steps of providing a substantially planar base substrate fabricated of a plastic material and having at least one substantially planar surface, forming in said base substrate first and second microchannels of capillary dimensions which meet at an intersection and each open onto said surface, providing a substantially planar cover substrate having at least one substantially planar surface, applying a bonding material to at least one of the sufaces, partially curing the bonding material and apposing said surface of said cover substrate and said surface of said base substrate and causing formation of a stable interface between said apposed surfaces.
15. The method of claim 14 wherein the first and second microchannels are each provided with first and second end portions, further comprising the step of forming first and second wells in at least one of the base substrate and the cover substrate for each of the first and second microchannels, the first and second wells of each microchannel communicating with the respective first and second end portions of said microchannel.
16. The method of claim 15 further comprising the step of electrically coupling an electrode to each of the first and second wells.
17. The method of claim 14 further comprising the steps of applying a bonding material to at least one of the surfaces and partially curing the bonding material prior to the apposing step.
US08878437 1990-02-28 1997-06-18 Methods for fabricating enclosed microchannel structures Expired - Lifetime US6176962B1 (en)

Priority Applications (11)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US07487021 US5126022A (en) 1990-02-28 1990-02-28 Method and device for moving molecules by the application of a plurality of electrical fields
US88018792 true 1992-05-07 1992-05-07
US19676394 true 1994-02-14 1994-02-14
US43013495 true 1995-04-26 1995-04-26
US08615642 US5750015A (en) 1990-02-28 1996-03-13 Method and device for moving molecules by the application of a plurality of electrical fields
US08627484 US5858188A (en) 1990-02-28 1996-04-04 Acrylic microchannels and their use in electrophoretic applications
US08690307 US5770029A (en) 1996-07-30 1996-07-30 Integrated electrophoretic microdevices
US08715338 US5935401A (en) 1996-09-18 1996-09-18 Surface modified electrophoretic chambers
US83279097 true 1997-04-04 1997-04-04
US08853661 US6054034A (en) 1990-02-28 1997-05-09 Acrylic microchannels and their use in electrophoretic applications
US08878437 US6176962B1 (en) 1990-02-28 1997-06-18 Methods for fabricating enclosed microchannel structures

Applications Claiming Priority (9)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US08878437 US6176962B1 (en) 1990-02-28 1997-06-18 Methods for fabricating enclosed microchannel structures
AU7101698A AU7101698A (en) 1997-04-04 1998-04-03 Methods for fabricating enclosed microchannel structures
AT98918002T AT470851T (en) 1997-04-04 1998-04-03 A method for manufacturing structures of enclosed microchannels
EP19980918002 EP1015878B1 (en) 1997-04-04 1998-04-03 Methods for fabricating enclosed microchannel structures
PCT/US1998/006689 WO1998045693A1 (en) 1997-04-04 1998-04-03 Methods for fabricating enclosed microchannel structures
DE1998641712 DE69841712D1 (en) 1997-04-04 1998-04-03 A method for manufacturing structures of enclosed microchannels
CA 2285938 CA2285938C (en) 1997-04-04 1998-04-03 Methods for fabricating enclosed microchannel structures
JP54295298A JP2001519907A5 (en) 1998-04-03
US10016595 US20020053399A1 (en) 1996-07-30 2001-12-07 Methods for fabricating enclosed microchannel structures

Related Parent Applications (3)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US08690307 Continuation-In-Part US5770029A (en) 1996-07-30 1996-07-30 Integrated electrophoretic microdevices
US08715338 Continuation-In-Part US5935401A (en) 1996-09-18 1996-09-18 Surface modified electrophoretic chambers
US08853661 Continuation-In-Part US6054034A (en) 1990-02-28 1997-05-09 Acrylic microchannels and their use in electrophoretic applications

Related Child Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US49660100 Continuation 2000-02-02 2000-02-02

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US6176962B1 true US6176962B1 (en) 2001-01-23

Family

ID=27420235

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US08878437 Expired - Lifetime US6176962B1 (en) 1990-02-28 1997-06-18 Methods for fabricating enclosed microchannel structures

Country Status (4)

Country Link
US (1) US6176962B1 (en)
EP (1) EP1015878B1 (en)
CA (1) CA2285938C (en)
WO (1) WO1998045693A1 (en)

Cited By (204)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20010035351A1 (en) * 2000-03-10 2001-11-01 Simpson Peter C. Cross channel device for serial sample injection
US20020079220A1 (en) * 2000-11-09 2002-06-27 Pawliszyn Janusz B. Micromachining using printing technology
US20020098528A1 (en) * 2000-11-17 2002-07-25 Gordon John F. Methods and apparatus for blood typing with optical bio-disc
US20020100714A1 (en) * 2001-01-31 2002-08-01 Sau Lan Tang Staats Microfluidic devices
US20020117517A1 (en) * 2000-11-16 2002-08-29 Fluidigm Corporation Microfluidic devices for introducing and dispensing fluids from microfluidic systems
US20020125134A1 (en) * 2001-01-24 2002-09-12 Santiago Juan G. Electrokinetic instability micromixer
US6481648B1 (en) * 1999-10-01 2002-11-19 Agilent Technologies, Inc. Spray tip for a microfluidic laboratory microchip
US6485625B1 (en) * 1995-05-09 2002-11-26 Curagen Corporation Apparatus and method for the generation, separation, detection, and recognition of biopolymer fragments
US20020195196A1 (en) * 2001-06-23 2002-12-26 Steag Microparts Gmbh Process for the flush connection of bodies
US20030029724A1 (en) * 2000-01-30 2003-02-13 Helene Derand Method for covering a microfluidic assembly
US6555067B1 (en) * 1998-05-06 2003-04-29 Caliper Technologies Corp. Polymeric structures incorporating microscale fluidic elements
US20030085024A1 (en) * 2001-09-28 2003-05-08 Santiago Juan G Control of electrolysis gases in electroosmotic pump systems
DE10156767A1 (en) * 2001-11-19 2003-05-28 Rkt Rodinger Kunststoff Techni A method for manufacturing of micro-fluidics, micro-fluidics and tool for manufacturing of micro-fluidics
US20030098661A1 (en) * 2001-11-29 2003-05-29 Ken Stewart-Smith Control system for vehicle seats
US20030129360A1 (en) * 2001-12-31 2003-07-10 Helene Derand Microfluidic device and its manufacture
WO2003055660A2 (en) * 2001-10-26 2003-07-10 Aclara Biosciences Inc. System and method for injection molded micro-replication of micro-fluidic substrates
US20030133222A1 (en) * 2002-01-11 2003-07-17 Ong Boon Seng Method and apparatus for sealing disc drives
US6606251B1 (en) 2002-02-07 2003-08-12 Cooligy Inc. Power conditioning module
US20030161572A1 (en) * 2000-06-17 2003-08-28 Matthias Johnck Integrated optical waveguides for microfluidic analysis systems
US20030175160A1 (en) * 2002-02-14 2003-09-18 Archibald William B. High throughput screening with parallel vibrational spectroscopy
US20030205556A1 (en) * 2002-05-02 2003-11-06 Institute Of Microelectronics Capillary with glass internal surface
US20030211478A1 (en) * 2002-05-08 2003-11-13 Gentel Corporation Transcription factor profiling on a solid surface
US6649078B2 (en) * 2000-12-06 2003-11-18 The Regents Of The University Of California Thin film capillary process and apparatus
US20030217889A1 (en) * 2002-05-23 2003-11-27 Elena Sapatova Slip-resistant step stool and a method of manufacturing the same
US20030224457A1 (en) * 2000-11-17 2003-12-04 Hurt Susan Newcomb Methods and apparatus for blood typing with optical bio-discs
US20030232450A1 (en) * 2002-06-13 2003-12-18 Yoshikazu Yoshida Microfluidic device and method for producing the same
US20040009516A1 (en) * 2002-05-08 2004-01-15 Nelson Bryce P. Arrayed SPR prism
US20040011648A1 (en) * 2002-07-17 2004-01-22 Paul Phillip H. Laminated flow device
US20040020367A1 (en) * 2001-10-19 2004-02-05 Soane David S. Anti-pathogenic air filtration media and air handling devices having protective capabilities against infectious airborne microorganisms
US20040050699A1 (en) * 2002-09-11 2004-03-18 Goncalves Antonio M. Automated system for high-throughput electrophoretic separations
US20040058437A1 (en) * 2001-04-10 2004-03-25 Rodgers Seth T. Materials and reactor systems having humidity and gas control
US6712925B1 (en) * 1998-05-18 2004-03-30 University Of Washington Method of making a liquid analysis cartridge
US20040063151A1 (en) * 2002-04-24 2004-04-01 Beebe David J. Method of performing gradient-based assays in a microfluidic device
US20040063217A1 (en) * 2002-09-27 2004-04-01 Webster James Russell Miniaturized fluid delivery and analysis system
US6720143B2 (en) * 1999-05-27 2004-04-13 Orchid Biosciences, Inc. Genetic assay system
US20040074784A1 (en) * 2002-10-18 2004-04-22 Anex Deon S. Electrokinetic device having capacitive electrodes
US20040076408A1 (en) * 2002-10-22 2004-04-22 Cooligy Inc. Method and apparatus for removeably coupling a heat rejection device with a heat producing device
US20040089442A1 (en) * 2001-09-28 2004-05-13 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Electroosmotic microchannel cooling system
US20040104012A1 (en) * 2002-10-22 2004-06-03 Cooligy, Inc. Vapor escape microchannel heat exchanger
US20040115830A1 (en) * 2002-09-25 2004-06-17 Igor Touzov Components for nano-scale Reactor
US20040113068A1 (en) * 2001-09-19 2004-06-17 Biospect Inc. Multi-channel microfluidic chip for electrospray ionization
US6752966B1 (en) * 1999-09-10 2004-06-22 Caliper Life Sciences, Inc. Microfabrication methods and devices
US20040132166A1 (en) * 2001-04-10 2004-07-08 Bioprocessors Corp. Determination and/or control of reactor environmental conditions
WO2004058178A2 (en) 2002-12-23 2004-07-15 Schering Corporation Uses of mammalian cytokine; related reagents
US20040147045A1 (en) * 2002-10-29 2004-07-29 Gentel Biosurfaces, Inc. Signal molecule arrays
US20040166555A1 (en) * 1999-11-10 2004-08-26 Rebecca Braff Cell sorting apparatus and methods for manipulating cells using the same
US20040188066A1 (en) * 2002-11-01 2004-09-30 Cooligy, Inc. Optimal spreader system, device and method for fluid cooled micro-scaled heat exchange
US20040200724A1 (en) * 2002-09-19 2004-10-14 Teruo Fujii Microfluidic device
US20040206399A1 (en) * 2003-04-21 2004-10-21 Biospect, Inc. Microfluidic devices and methods
US20040241381A1 (en) * 2002-01-31 2004-12-02 Chen Yihfar Microfluidic structures with circumferential grooves for bonding adhesives and related optical analysis discs
US6830729B1 (en) 1998-05-18 2004-12-14 University Of Washington Sample analysis instrument
US6839179B2 (en) 2002-05-10 2005-01-04 Applera Corporation Imaging system and method for reduction of interstitial images
EP1500935A1 (en) * 2002-04-30 2005-01-26 ARKRAY, Inc. Analytical instrument
US20050016715A1 (en) * 2003-07-23 2005-01-27 Douglas Werner Hermetic closed loop fluid system
US20050026273A1 (en) * 2003-06-05 2005-02-03 Zarur Andrey J. Reactor with memory component
US20050032204A1 (en) * 2001-04-10 2005-02-10 Bioprocessors Corp. Microreactor architecture and methods
US6878523B2 (en) 2002-05-08 2005-04-12 Gentel Bio Surfaces, Inc. Molecular interaction assays on a solid surface
US20050100712A1 (en) * 2003-11-12 2005-05-12 Simmons Blake A. Polymerization welding and application to microfluidics
US20050106714A1 (en) * 2002-06-05 2005-05-19 Zarur Andrey J. Rotatable reactor systems and methods
US20050107742A1 (en) * 2003-09-15 2005-05-19 The Regents Of The University Of Michigan Shatter-resistant microprobes
US20050123688A1 (en) * 2003-09-26 2005-06-09 Craighead Harold G. Scanned source oriented nanofiber formation
US20050139993A1 (en) * 2003-12-26 2005-06-30 Lee Dae S. Plastic microfabricated structure for biochip, microfabricated thermal device, microfabricated reactor, microfabricated reactor array, and micro array using the same
US20050178960A1 (en) * 2002-03-21 2005-08-18 Cornell Research Foundation, Inc. Electrospray emitter for microfluidic channel
WO2005079844A2 (en) 2004-02-17 2005-09-01 Schering Corporation Use for interleukin-33 (il33) and the il-33 receptor complex
US20050208539A1 (en) * 2003-12-31 2005-09-22 Vann Charles S Quantitative amplification and detection of small numbers of target polynucleotides
US20050211427A1 (en) * 2002-11-01 2005-09-29 Cooligy, Inc. Method and apparatus for flexible fluid delivery for cooling desired hot spots in a heat producing device
US20050214167A1 (en) * 2002-11-22 2005-09-29 Solus Biosystems, Inc. High throughput screening with parallel vibrational spectroscopy
US20050211417A1 (en) * 2002-11-01 2005-09-29 Cooligy,Inc. Interwoven manifolds for pressure drop reduction in microchannel heat exchangers
US20050211555A1 (en) * 2002-02-14 2005-09-29 Solus Biosystems, Inc. Method for multiple sample screening using IR spectroscopy
US20050230080A1 (en) * 2004-04-19 2005-10-20 Paul Phillip H Electrokinetic pump driven heat transfer system
US20050255007A1 (en) * 2004-05-13 2005-11-17 Konica Minolta Sensing, Inc. Microfluidic device, method for testing reagent and system for testing reagent
US6969489B2 (en) 2001-08-24 2005-11-29 Cytoplex Biosciences Micro array for high throughout screening
US20050266433A1 (en) * 2004-03-03 2005-12-01 Ravi Kapur Magnetic device for isolation of cells and biomolecules in a microfluidic environment
US20050271560A1 (en) * 2004-06-07 2005-12-08 Bioprocessors Corp. Gas control in a reactor
US20050268626A1 (en) * 2004-06-04 2005-12-08 Cooligy, Inc. Method and apparatus for controlling freezing nucleation and propagation
US20050277187A1 (en) * 2004-06-07 2005-12-15 Bioprocessors Corp. Creation of shear in a reactor
US20050287572A1 (en) * 2004-06-01 2005-12-29 The Regents Of The University Of California Microfabricated integrated DNA analysis system
US20050287673A1 (en) * 2004-06-07 2005-12-29 Bioprocessors Corp. Reactor mixing
US20060019333A1 (en) * 2004-06-07 2006-01-26 Rodgers Seth T Control of reactor environmental conditions
US20060022130A1 (en) * 2004-07-29 2006-02-02 Predicant Biosciences, Inc., A Delaware Corporation Microfluidic devices and methods with integrated electrical contact
US20060027458A1 (en) * 2004-08-04 2006-02-09 Webster James R Capillary electrophoresis devices and processes for manufacturing same
US20060042785A1 (en) * 2004-08-27 2006-03-02 Cooligy, Inc. Pumped fluid cooling system and method
US7011791B2 (en) 2000-09-18 2006-03-14 University Of Washington Microfluidic devices for rotational manipulation of the fluidic interface between multiple flow streams
US20060060769A1 (en) * 2004-09-21 2006-03-23 Predicant Biosciences, Inc. Electrospray apparatus with an integrated electrode
US20060065532A1 (en) * 2004-09-30 2006-03-30 Matthias Stiene Microfluidic analytical system with accessible electrically conductive contact pads
US20060065361A1 (en) * 2004-09-30 2006-03-30 Matthias Stiene Process for manufacturing an analysis module with accessible electrically conductive contact pads for a microfluidic analytical system
US20060068668A1 (en) * 2004-09-27 2006-03-30 Cornell Research Foundation, Inc. Microfiber supported nanofiber membrane
US20060074143A1 (en) * 2004-09-30 2006-04-06 Rodgers James I Fusible conductive ink for use in manufacturing microfluidic analytical systems
WO2006035228A1 (en) * 2004-09-28 2006-04-06 Landegren Gene Technology Ab Microfluidic structure
US20060078470A1 (en) * 2004-10-13 2006-04-13 Kionix, Inc. Laminated microfluidic structures and method for making
US20060110294A1 (en) * 2003-01-30 2006-05-25 Gyros Patent Ab Inner walls of microfluidic devices
US20060124230A1 (en) * 2003-06-16 2006-06-15 Isabelle Chartier Method of bonding microstructured substrates
US20060140829A1 (en) * 2004-12-28 2006-06-29 Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd. Microstructure, microreactor, micro heat exchanger and method for fabricating microstructure
US20060159601A1 (en) * 2004-12-28 2006-07-20 Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd. Microfluidic device
US20060210445A1 (en) * 2004-05-12 2006-09-21 Osterfeld Sebastian J Multilayer microfluidic device
US7122093B1 (en) * 2002-05-14 2006-10-17 The Ohio State University Gas-assisted resin injection technique for bonding and surface modification in micro-fluidic devices
US20060240540A1 (en) * 2004-03-01 2006-10-26 Junji Nakatsuka Biosensor, biosensor chip, and biosensor device
US20060264779A1 (en) * 2005-05-09 2006-11-23 Kemp Timothy M Fluidic medical devices and uses thereof
US20060263914A1 (en) * 2005-05-19 2006-11-23 Konica Minolta Medical & Graphic, Inc. Testing chip and micro integrated analysis system
US20070003444A1 (en) * 2003-11-21 2007-01-04 Steven Howell Laminated device
US20070026381A1 (en) * 2005-04-05 2007-02-01 Huang Lotien R Devices and methods for enrichment and alteration of cells and other particles
US20070051824A1 (en) * 2003-02-19 2007-03-08 Olle Larsson Nozzles for electrospray ionization and methods of fabricating them
US20070099292A1 (en) * 2001-04-10 2007-05-03 Bioprocessors Corp. Reactor systems having a light-interacting component
US20070117873A1 (en) * 2005-05-13 2007-05-24 The Ohio State University Research Foundation Carbon nanofiber reinforced thermoplastic nanocomposite foams
US20070122932A1 (en) * 2001-10-05 2007-05-31 Cabot Corporation Methods and compositions for the formation of recessed electrical features on a substrate
US20070148014A1 (en) * 2005-11-23 2007-06-28 Anex Deon S Electrokinetic pump designs and drug delivery systems
US20070160503A1 (en) * 2003-06-13 2007-07-12 Palaniappan Sethu Microfluidic systems for size based removal of red blood cells and platelets from blood
US20070224084A1 (en) * 2006-03-24 2007-09-27 Holmes Elizabeth A Systems and Methods of Sample Processing and Fluid Control in a Fluidic System
US20070227708A1 (en) * 2006-03-30 2007-10-04 James Hom Integrated liquid to air conduction module
US20070235167A1 (en) * 2006-04-11 2007-10-11 Cooligy, Inc. Methodology of cooling multiple heat sources in a personal computer through the use of multiple fluid-based heat exchanging loops coupled via modular bus-type heat exchangers
US20070237686A1 (en) * 2006-03-22 2007-10-11 The Regents Of Theuniversity Of California Multiplexed latching valves for microfluidic devices and processors
US20070244258A1 (en) * 2006-03-29 2007-10-18 Shanti Swarup Clear coating compositions with improved scratch resistance
US20070259424A1 (en) * 2002-09-27 2007-11-08 The General Hospital Corporation Microfluidic device for cell separation and uses thereof
US20070256825A1 (en) * 2006-05-04 2007-11-08 Conway Bruce R Methodology for the liquid cooling of heat generating components mounted on a daughter card/expansion card in a personal computer through the use of a remote drive bay heat exchanger with a flexible fluid interconnect
US20080006396A1 (en) * 2006-06-30 2008-01-10 Girish Upadhya Multi-stage staggered radiator for high performance liquid cooling applications
WO2008007844A1 (en) * 2006-07-12 2008-01-17 Korea Advanced Institute Of Science And Technology Method of manufacturing microchannel structure and microfluidic device
US20080038839A1 (en) * 2004-01-26 2008-02-14 Vincent Linder Fluid Delivery System And Method
US20080050739A1 (en) * 2006-06-14 2008-02-28 Roland Stoughton Diagnosis of fetal abnormalities using polymorphisms including short tandem repeats
US20080074646A1 (en) * 2005-01-18 2008-03-27 Solus Biosystems, Inc. Multiple Sample Screening Using Ir Spectroscopy with Capillary Isoelectric Focusing
WO2008052136A2 (en) 2006-10-25 2008-05-02 Proteus Biomedical, Inc. Controlled activation ingestible identifier
US7390377B1 (en) 2005-09-22 2008-06-24 Sandia Corporation Bonding thermoplastic polymers
US20080221805A1 (en) * 2007-03-09 2008-09-11 David Richard Andrews Multi-channel lock-in amplifier system and method
US20080217246A1 (en) * 2007-03-09 2008-09-11 Dxtech, Llc. Electrochemical detection system
US20080237146A1 (en) * 1999-11-26 2008-10-02 The Governors Of The University Of Alberta Apparatus and method for trapping bead based reagents within microfluidic analysis systems
US20080248575A1 (en) * 2005-10-20 2008-10-09 The Ohio State University Research Foundation Drug and Gene Delivery by Polymer Nanonozzle and Nanotip Cell Patch
US20080273918A1 (en) * 2007-05-04 2008-11-06 Claros Diagnostics, Inc. Fluidic connectors and microfluidic systems
US7449122B2 (en) 2002-09-23 2008-11-11 Cooligy Inc. Micro-fabricated electrokinetic pump
US20080296158A1 (en) * 2007-05-31 2008-12-04 Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha Device for electrophoresis, device for transfer, device for electrophoresis and transfer, chip for electrophoresis and transfer, and method for electrophoresis, method for transfer, and method for electrophoresis and transfer
US7485454B1 (en) 2000-03-10 2009-02-03 Bioprocessors Corp. Microreactor
US20090035770A1 (en) * 2006-10-25 2009-02-05 The Regents Of The University Of California Inline-injection microdevice and microfabricated integrated DNA analysis system using same
US20090044928A1 (en) * 2003-01-31 2009-02-19 Girish Upadhya Method and apparatus for preventing cracking in a liquid cooling system
US20090046423A1 (en) * 2007-08-07 2009-02-19 James Hom Internal access mechanism for a server rack
US20090060797A1 (en) * 2002-12-30 2009-03-05 The Regents Of The University Of California Fluid control structures in microfluidic devices
US20090084679A1 (en) * 2002-05-24 2009-04-02 The Governors Of The University Of Alberta Apparatus and method for trapping bead based reagents within microfluidic analysis systems
US7517440B2 (en) 2002-07-17 2009-04-14 Eksigent Technologies Llc Electrokinetic delivery systems, devices and methods
US20090148308A1 (en) * 2007-12-11 2009-06-11 Saleki Mansour A Electrokinetic Pump with Fixed Stroke Volume
US20090225515A1 (en) * 2008-03-10 2009-09-10 James Hom Thermal bus or junction for the removal of heat from electronic components
EP2100617A1 (en) 2002-03-15 2009-09-16 Schering Corporation Methods of modulating CD200 receptors
US20090253181A1 (en) * 2008-01-22 2009-10-08 Microchip Biotechnologies, Inc. Universal sample preparation system and use in an integrated analysis system
EP2108658A1 (en) 2003-03-10 2009-10-14 Schering Corporation Uses of IL-23 agonists and antagonists; related reagents
US20090266421A1 (en) * 2008-04-25 2009-10-29 Claros Diagnostics, Inc. Flow control in microfluidic systems
US20100000681A1 (en) * 2005-03-29 2010-01-07 Supercritical Systems, Inc. Phase change based heating element system and method
US20100035024A1 (en) * 2008-08-05 2010-02-11 Cooligy Inc. Bonded metal and ceramic plates for thermal management of optical and electronic devices
US20100068723A1 (en) * 2004-09-15 2010-03-18 Stevan Bogdan Jovanovich Microfluidic devices
US20100099782A1 (en) * 2008-05-28 2010-04-22 The Ohio State University Research Foundation Suspension polymerization and foaming of water containing activated carbon-nano/microparticulate polymer composites
US20100112575A1 (en) * 2008-09-20 2010-05-06 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Noninvasive Diagnosis of Fetal Aneuploidy by Sequencing
US7745207B2 (en) 2006-02-03 2010-06-29 IntegenX, Inc. Microfluidic devices
US7749365B2 (en) 2006-02-01 2010-07-06 IntegenX, Inc. Optimized sample injection structures in microfluidic separations
US20100196207A1 (en) * 2009-02-02 2010-08-05 David Steinmiller Structures for controlling light interaction with microfluidic devices
US20100248277A1 (en) * 2006-11-14 2010-09-30 Ian Gibbons Detection and quantification of analytes in bodily fluids
US20100285975A1 (en) * 2007-07-24 2010-11-11 The Regents Of The University Of California Microfabricated droplet generator for single molecule/cell genetic analysis in engineered monodispersed emulsions
US20100291572A1 (en) * 2006-06-14 2010-11-18 Artemis Health, Inc. Fetal aneuploidy detection by sequencing
US7836597B2 (en) 2002-11-01 2010-11-23 Cooligy Inc. Method of fabricating high surface to volume ratio structures and their integration in microheat exchangers for liquid cooling system
US7837821B2 (en) 2004-10-13 2010-11-23 Rheonix, Inc. Laminated microfluidic structures and method for making
US7867592B2 (en) 2007-01-30 2011-01-11 Eksigent Technologies, Inc. Methods, compositions and devices, including electroosmotic pumps, comprising coated porous surfaces
US20110039303A1 (en) * 2007-02-05 2011-02-17 Stevan Bogdan Jovanovich Microfluidic and nanofluidic devices, systems, and applications
EP2292758A2 (en) 2004-12-20 2011-03-09 Schering Corporation Uses of mammalian cytokine; related reagents
US20110073292A1 (en) * 2009-09-30 2011-03-31 Madhav Datta Fabrication of high surface area, high aspect ratio mini-channels and their application in liquid cooling systems
US20110093249A1 (en) * 2009-10-19 2011-04-21 Theranos, Inc. Integrated health data capture and analysis system
US20110092049A1 (en) * 2008-05-23 2011-04-21 Zhenfang Chen Method and apparatus for substrate bonding
US20110120562A1 (en) * 2009-11-24 2011-05-26 Claros Diagnostics, Inc. Fluid mixing and delivery in microfluidic systems
US20110151610A1 (en) * 2009-12-23 2011-06-23 Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates, Inc. Workpiece patterning with plasma sheath modulation
WO2011072715A1 (en) * 2009-12-15 2011-06-23 Telecom Italia S.P.A. Process for assembling elements contacting biological substances
US20110206557A1 (en) * 2009-12-18 2011-08-25 Abbott Point Of Care, Inc. Biologic fluid analysis cartridge
US8007999B2 (en) 2006-05-10 2011-08-30 Theranos, Inc. Real-time detection of influenza virus
USD645971S1 (en) 2010-05-11 2011-09-27 Claros Diagnostics, Inc. Sample cassette
USRE43122E1 (en) 1999-11-26 2012-01-24 The Governors Of The University Of Alberta Apparatus and method for trapping bead based reagents within microfluidic analysis systems
US8137912B2 (en) 2006-06-14 2012-03-20 The General Hospital Corporation Methods for the diagnosis of fetal abnormalities
US8143337B1 (en) 2005-10-18 2012-03-27 The Ohio State University Method of preparing a composite with disperse long fibers and nanoparticles
US8158430B1 (en) 2007-08-06 2012-04-17 Theranos, Inc. Systems and methods of fluidic sample processing
US8168389B2 (en) 2006-06-14 2012-05-01 The General Hospital Corporation Fetal cell analysis using sample splitting
EP2460646A1 (en) * 2010-12-01 2012-06-06 Arkray, Inc. Microfluidic device and method for manufacturing the same
US20120182609A1 (en) * 2011-01-14 2012-07-19 Borenstein Jeffrey T Membrane-integrated microfluidic device for imaging cells
EP2482078A1 (en) 2006-05-01 2012-08-01 Critical Care Diagnostics, Inc. Diagnosis of cardiovascular disease
US8277112B2 (en) 2008-05-27 2012-10-02 The Research Foundation Of State University Of New York Devices and fluid flow methods for improving mixing
WO2012141844A2 (en) 2011-03-17 2012-10-18 Critical Care Diagnostics, Inc. Methods predicting risk of an adverse clinical outcome
US8388908B2 (en) 2009-06-02 2013-03-05 Integenx Inc. Fluidic devices with diaphragm valves
US8389272B2 (en) 2004-01-26 2013-03-05 President And Fellows Of Harvard College Fluid delivery system and method
US8394642B2 (en) 2009-06-05 2013-03-12 Integenx Inc. Universal sample preparation system and use in an integrated analysis system
US8512538B2 (en) 2010-05-28 2013-08-20 Integenx Inc. Capillary electrophoresis device
RU2497100C2 (en) * 2007-10-29 2013-10-27 Конинклейке Филипс Электроникс Н.В. Frustrated total internal reflection biosensor container
US8580569B2 (en) 2010-04-16 2013-11-12 Opko Diagnostics, Llc Feedback control in microfluidic systems
US8584703B2 (en) 2009-12-01 2013-11-19 Integenx Inc. Device with diaphragm valve
US8591829B2 (en) 2008-12-18 2013-11-26 Opko Diagnostics, Llc Reagent storage in microfluidic systems and related articles and methods
US8602092B2 (en) 2003-07-23 2013-12-10 Cooligy, Inc. Pump and fan control concepts in a cooling system
US8672532B2 (en) 2008-12-31 2014-03-18 Integenx Inc. Microfluidic methods
US20140102546A1 (en) * 2012-10-12 2014-04-17 Sony Dadc Austria Ag Microfluidic device and a method of manufacturing a microfluidic device
US20140150916A1 (en) * 2008-03-28 2014-06-05 Basf Se Surfaces, including microfluidic channels, with controlled wetting properties
US8763642B2 (en) 2010-08-20 2014-07-01 Integenx Inc. Microfluidic devices with mechanically-sealed diaphragm valves
US8797527B2 (en) 2011-08-24 2014-08-05 Abbott Point Of Care, Inc. Biologic fluid sample analysis cartridge
US8921102B2 (en) 2005-07-29 2014-12-30 Gpb Scientific, Llc Devices and methods for enrichment and alteration of circulating tumor cells and other particles
US8979511B2 (en) 2011-05-05 2015-03-17 Eksigent Technologies, Llc Gel coupling diaphragm for electrokinetic delivery systems
US20150239217A1 (en) * 2012-07-09 2015-08-27 Sony Corporation Microchip and method for manufacturing the same
US9121058B2 (en) 2010-08-20 2015-09-01 Integenx Inc. Linear valve arrays
US9212999B2 (en) 2012-04-25 2015-12-15 Avl Emission Test Systems Gmbh Device for determining the concentration of at least one gas in a sample gas stream
US9255866B2 (en) 2013-03-13 2016-02-09 Opko Diagnostics, Llc Mixing of fluids in fluidic systems
EP2995951A1 (en) 2006-05-02 2016-03-16 Critical Care Diagnostics, Inc. Method for selecting treatment based on differential diagnosis between pulmonary and cardiovascular disease
US9297571B1 (en) 2008-03-10 2016-03-29 Liebert Corporation Device and methodology for the removal of heat from an equipment rack by means of heat exchangers mounted to a door
US9696252B2 (en) 2005-10-19 2017-07-04 Abbott Laboratories Apparatus for performing counts within a biologic fluid sample
USD804682S1 (en) 2015-08-10 2017-12-05 Opko Diagnostics, Llc Multi-layered sample cassette
US9873118B2 (en) 2010-12-30 2018-01-23 Abbott Point Of Care, Inc. Biologic fluid analysis cartridge with sample handling portion and analysis chamber portion
USD812766S1 (en) * 2016-07-12 2018-03-13 EMULATE, Inc. Microfluidic chip for use with a fluid perfusion module
USD816861S1 (en) * 2016-09-07 2018-05-01 EMULATE, Inc. Transparent microfluidic chip without pressure features for use with a fluid perfusion module
US10099219B2 (en) 2010-03-25 2018-10-16 Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc. Device for generating droplets

Families Citing this family (34)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE19815632C2 (en) * 1998-04-07 2001-02-15 Max Planck Gesellschaft Adhesive-free compounds of polymer components for the production of closed micro and nano channel structures
CN1275202A (en) * 1998-08-19 2000-11-29 詹诺普蒂克股份公司 Device for transporting very small quantites of liquid and method for producing same
US6503359B2 (en) 1999-03-05 2003-01-07 Burstein Technologies, Inc. Monomolecular adhesion methods for manufacturing microfabricated multilaminate devices
DE19927533B4 (en) * 1999-06-16 2004-03-04 Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Spektrochemie und angewandten Spektroskopie e.V. Miniaturized analysis system
GB2385014B (en) * 1999-06-21 2003-10-15 Micro Chemical Systems Ltd Method of preparing a working solution
US7517442B1 (en) 1999-08-09 2009-04-14 Life Technologies Corporation Facile method and apparatus for the analysis of biological macromolecules in two dimensions using common and familiar electrophoresis formats
CA2394438A1 (en) * 1999-12-17 2001-06-21 Motorola, Inc. Devices and methods for making bioarrays
DE10004853C1 (en) * 2000-02-03 2001-04-26 Fraunhofer Ges Forschung Permanent bonding of polymer part with part of same or different material e.g. for making microstructurized disposable used in medicine, involves cleaning, activation and hot pressing without melting
US6561208B1 (en) 2000-04-14 2003-05-13 Nanostream, Inc. Fluidic impedances in microfluidic system
EP1309404A2 (en) 2000-08-07 2003-05-14 Nanostream, Inc. Fluidic mixer in microfluidic system
US6890093B2 (en) 2000-08-07 2005-05-10 Nanostream, Inc. Multi-stream microfludic mixers
US6877892B2 (en) 2002-01-11 2005-04-12 Nanostream, Inc. Multi-stream microfluidic aperture mixers
US6939451B2 (en) 2000-09-19 2005-09-06 Aclara Biosciences, Inc. Microfluidic chip having integrated electrodes
DE10153663B4 (en) * 2000-11-03 2005-05-25 Agilent Technologies, Inc. (n.d.Ges.d.Staates Delaware), Palo Alto Microanalytical apparatus for detecting near-infrared radiation emitting molecules
US6942778B1 (en) 2000-11-28 2005-09-13 Nanogen, Inc. Microstructure apparatus and method for separating differently charged molecules using an applied electric field
US7054258B2 (en) 2000-12-08 2006-05-30 Nagaoka & Co., Ltd. Optical disc assemblies for performing assays
WO2002046721A8 (en) 2000-12-08 2003-03-06 Burstein Technologies Inc Optical discs for measuring analytes
US7091034B2 (en) 2000-12-15 2006-08-15 Burstein Technologies, Inc. Detection system for disk-based laboratory and improved optical bio-disc including same
US20020129664A1 (en) * 2001-01-16 2002-09-19 Jorgenson James W. Non-invasive real-time flow meter and related flow measuring method
US7601286B2 (en) 2001-03-26 2009-10-13 Lawrence Livermore National Security, Llc Polymer-based platform for microfluidic systems
US7601251B2 (en) 2001-05-10 2009-10-13 Life Technologies Corporation Methods and apparatus for low resistance electrophoresis of prior-cast, hydratable separation media
US6835293B2 (en) 2001-07-09 2004-12-28 Greiner Bio-One Gmbh Analysis system
EP1296133A1 (en) * 2001-09-21 2003-03-26 Jean Brunner Miniature device for transport and analysis of a liquid sample and fabrication method therefor
DE10159091A1 (en) * 2001-12-01 2003-06-12 Evotec Ag Production of carriers comprising a base plate and a bottom plate, especially microtiter plates or microsystem chips, comprises using the same adhesive to bond the plates and coat the wells
US6814859B2 (en) 2002-02-13 2004-11-09 Nanostream, Inc. Frit material and bonding method for microfluidic separation devices
EP1352688A1 (en) 2002-04-09 2003-10-15 Jean Brunner Miniaturized sample holder
US6936167B2 (en) 2002-10-31 2005-08-30 Nanostream, Inc. System and method for performing multiple parallel chromatographic separations
WO2004040295A1 (en) 2002-10-31 2004-05-13 Nanostream, Inc. Parallel detection chromatography systems
US7010964B2 (en) 2002-10-31 2006-03-14 Nanostream, Inc. Pressurized microfluidic devices with optical detection regions
WO2004078639A1 (en) * 2003-03-07 2004-09-16 Tosoh Corporation Minute flow path structure body and die
US7309467B2 (en) 2003-06-24 2007-12-18 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. Fluidic MEMS device
DE20321146U1 (en) * 2003-08-25 2006-04-13 Technische Universität Braunschweig Carolo-Wilhelmina Gluing microcomponents to substrate for assembling electronic or mechanical microsystems involves initial fusing of precise pattern of hot-melt adhesive
KR100572207B1 (en) 2003-12-18 2006-04-19 주식회사 디지탈바이오테크놀러지 Plastic bonding method of the microchip
DE102014001203A1 (en) * 2014-01-29 2015-07-30 Thermo Electron Led Gmbh Link system for a laboratory device and / or medical device and manufacturing method thereof and use

Citations (19)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4680201A (en) 1985-10-30 1987-07-14 Stellan Hjerten Coating for electrophoresis tube
US4756884A (en) 1985-08-05 1988-07-12 Biotrack, Inc. Capillary flow device
US4875956A (en) 1987-10-06 1989-10-24 Integrated Fluidics, Inc. Method of bonding plastics
US4891120A (en) 1986-06-06 1990-01-02 Sethi Rajinder S Chromatographic separation device
US4908112A (en) 1988-06-16 1990-03-13 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours & Co. Silicon semiconductor wafer for analyzing micronic biological samples
US4999069A (en) 1987-10-06 1991-03-12 Integrated Fluidics, Inc. Method of bonding plastics
US5061381A (en) 1990-06-04 1991-10-29 Abaxis, Inc. Apparatus and method for separating cells from biological fluids
US5250263A (en) 1990-11-01 1993-10-05 Ciba-Geigy Corporation Apparatus for processing or preparing liquid samples for chemical analysis
EP0620432A1 (en) 1993-04-15 1994-10-19 Ciba-Geigy Ag Method for controlling sample introduction in microcolumn separation techniques and sampling device
WO1994029400A1 (en) 1993-06-15 1994-12-22 Pharmacia Biotech Ab Method of producing microchannel/microcavity structures
US5376252A (en) 1990-05-10 1994-12-27 Pharmacia Biosensor Ab Microfluidic structure and process for its manufacture
EP0452055B1 (en) 1990-04-11 1995-01-11 Hewlett-Packard Company Surfaces with reduced protein interactions
US5433898A (en) 1992-09-11 1995-07-18 Pilkington Barnes Hind, Inc. Method of manufacturing a contact lens
EP0665430A1 (en) 1994-01-28 1995-08-02 Hewlett-Packard GmbH Capillary made of plastics material for use in capillary electrophoresis and process for its production
WO1996004547A1 (en) 1994-08-01 1996-02-15 Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. Apparatus and method for performing microfluidic manipulations for chemical analysis and synthesis
WO1996029629A2 (en) 1995-03-01 1996-09-26 President And Fellows Of Harvard College Microcontact printing on surfaces and derivative articles
US5571410A (en) 1994-10-19 1996-11-05 Hewlett Packard Company Fully integrated miniaturized planar liquid sample handling and analysis device
WO1997006012A1 (en) 1995-08-04 1997-02-20 International Business Machines Corporation Stamp for a lithographic process
WO1997006013A1 (en) 1995-08-04 1997-02-20 International Business Machines Corporation Lithographic surface or thin layer modification

Family Cites Families (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US615642A (en) 1898-12-06 stebbins
US62854A (en) 1867-03-12 Gilson keyes
US62855A (en) 1867-03-12 Improved apparatus foe carburetting gas and air
US630534A (en) 1898-04-11 1899-08-08 George M Hayner Cigar-tip cutter.
US628522A (en) 1898-10-29 1899-07-11 Malcolm Campbell Top roll.
JPS50151971A (en) * 1974-05-31 1975-12-06
US5858188A (en) * 1990-02-28 1999-01-12 Aclara Biosciences, Inc. Acrylic microchannels and their use in electrophoretic applications
BE1016067A3 (en) 2004-06-03 2006-02-07 Frid Noureddine Luminal endoprosthesis FOR OBSTRUCTION OF ANEURYSM AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURING SUCH STENT.
JP6025353B2 (en) 2011-03-30 2016-11-16 キヤノン株式会社 Inkjet ink, ink cartridge, and an ink jet recording method
US8853661B1 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-10-07 Intermolecular, Inc. Metal aluminum nitride embedded resistors for resistive random memory access cells

Patent Citations (19)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4756884A (en) 1985-08-05 1988-07-12 Biotrack, Inc. Capillary flow device
US4680201A (en) 1985-10-30 1987-07-14 Stellan Hjerten Coating for electrophoresis tube
US4891120A (en) 1986-06-06 1990-01-02 Sethi Rajinder S Chromatographic separation device
US4875956A (en) 1987-10-06 1989-10-24 Integrated Fluidics, Inc. Method of bonding plastics
US4999069A (en) 1987-10-06 1991-03-12 Integrated Fluidics, Inc. Method of bonding plastics
US4908112A (en) 1988-06-16 1990-03-13 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours & Co. Silicon semiconductor wafer for analyzing micronic biological samples
EP0452055B1 (en) 1990-04-11 1995-01-11 Hewlett-Packard Company Surfaces with reduced protein interactions
US5376252A (en) 1990-05-10 1994-12-27 Pharmacia Biosensor Ab Microfluidic structure and process for its manufacture
US5061381A (en) 1990-06-04 1991-10-29 Abaxis, Inc. Apparatus and method for separating cells from biological fluids
US5250263A (en) 1990-11-01 1993-10-05 Ciba-Geigy Corporation Apparatus for processing or preparing liquid samples for chemical analysis
US5433898A (en) 1992-09-11 1995-07-18 Pilkington Barnes Hind, Inc. Method of manufacturing a contact lens
EP0620432A1 (en) 1993-04-15 1994-10-19 Ciba-Geigy Ag Method for controlling sample introduction in microcolumn separation techniques and sampling device
WO1994029400A1 (en) 1993-06-15 1994-12-22 Pharmacia Biotech Ab Method of producing microchannel/microcavity structures
EP0665430A1 (en) 1994-01-28 1995-08-02 Hewlett-Packard GmbH Capillary made of plastics material for use in capillary electrophoresis and process for its production
WO1996004547A1 (en) 1994-08-01 1996-02-15 Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. Apparatus and method for performing microfluidic manipulations for chemical analysis and synthesis
US5571410A (en) 1994-10-19 1996-11-05 Hewlett Packard Company Fully integrated miniaturized planar liquid sample handling and analysis device
WO1996029629A2 (en) 1995-03-01 1996-09-26 President And Fellows Of Harvard College Microcontact printing on surfaces and derivative articles
WO1997006012A1 (en) 1995-08-04 1997-02-20 International Business Machines Corporation Stamp for a lithographic process
WO1997006013A1 (en) 1995-08-04 1997-02-20 International Business Machines Corporation Lithographic surface or thin layer modification

Non-Patent Citations (26)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
"Adhesion and Bonding" In: Enclycopedia of Polymer Science and Engineering, Wiley Interscience, (1995) vol. 1, vol. 1, pp. 476-517.
Barron & Blanch, "DNA Separations by Slab Gel and Capillary Electrophoresis: Theory and Practice," Separation and Purification Methods (1995) 24:1-118.
Beckers et al., "Effect of sample stacking on resolution, calibration graphs and pH in capillary zone electrophoresis," J. Chrom. (1993), pp. 371-378.
Cai et al., "On-Line Preconcentration of Triazine Herbicides with Tandem Octadecyl Capillaries-Capillary Zone Electrophoresis," J. Liquid Chrom. pp. 1179-1192.
Cai et al., "Selective On-Line Preconcentration of Proteins by Tandem Metal Chelate Capillaries-Capillary Zone Electrophoresis," J. Liquid Chro. (1993), pp. 2007-2004.
Chien et al., "Field amplified sample injection in high-performance capillary electrophoresis," J. Chrom. (1991), pp. 141-152.
Cole et al., "Selective preconcentration for capillary zone electrophoresis using protein G immunoaffinity capillary chromatography," Electophoresis (1995), pp. 549-556.
Effenhauser et al., "High-Speed Separation of Antisense Oligonucleotides on a Micromachined Capillary Electrophoresis Device," Anal. Chem. (1994), pp. 2949-2953.
Gilges et al., "Capillary Zone Electrophoresis Separations of Basic and Acidic Proteins Using Poly(vinyl alcohol) Coatings in Fused Silica Capillaries," Anal. Chem., (1994), vol. 66, No. 13, pp. 2038-2046.
Guzman, "Biomedical applications of on-line preconcentration-capillary electrophoresis using an analyte concentrator:; investigation of design options," J. Liquid Chro. (1995), pp. 3751-3768.
Harrison et al., "Micromachining a Miniaturized Capillary Electrophoresis-Based Chemical Analysis System on a Chip," Science (1993), vol. 261, pp. 895-897.
Hjerten, "High-Performance Electrophoresis Elimination of Electroendosmosis and Solute Adsorption," J. Chrom., (1995), 347, pp. 191-198.
Jacobson et al., "Precolumn Reactions with Electophretic Analysis Integrated on a Microchip," Anal. Chem. (1994), pp. 4127-4132.
K. Hofmann et al., "Avidin Binding of Carboxyl-Substituted Biotin and Analogues," (1982), Biochemisty vol. 21, pp. 978-984.
Kasicka et al., "Isotachophoretic Electrodesorption of Proteins From an Affinity Adsorbent on a Microscale," J. Chrom. (1983), pp. 117-128.
Liu et al., "Polymeric Hollow Fibers for Capillary Electrophoresis," J. Microcol., (1993), vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 243-253.
Nielen, "Capillary Zone Electrophoresis Using a Hollow Polypropylene Fiber," J. High Res. Chrom., (1993), vol. 16, pp. 62-64.
Ratner, "Surface modification of polymers: chemical, biological and surface analytical challenges," Biosensors & Bioelectronis, (1995) 10, pp. 797-804.
Schutzner et al., "Electrophoresis in Synthetic Organic Polymer Capillaries: Variation of Electroosmotic Velocity and Potential with pH and Solvent Composition," Anal. Chem, (1992), vol. 64, No. 17.
Simpson et al., "Microfabricated Capillary Array Electrophoresis Device and Method," 1997.
Stegehuis et al., "Isotachophoresis as an on-line concentration pretreatment technique in capillary electrophoresis," J. Chrom. (1991), pp. 393-402.
Tomlinson et al., "Enchancement of concentration limits of detection in CE and CE-MS: A review of on-line sample extraction, clean-up, analyte preconcentration, and microreactor technology," J. Cap. Elc. (1995) pp. 247-266.
Tomlinson et al., "Improved On-Line Membrane Preconcentration-Capillary Electrophoresis (mPC-CE), " J. High Res. Chrom. (1995) 18:381-3.
VerLee et al., "Fluid Circuit Technology: Integrated Interconnect Technology for Miniature Fluidic Devices," Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop-Hilton Head, S.C., (Jun. 2-6, 1996), pp. 9-14.
VerLee et al., "Fluid Circuit Technology: Integrated Interconnect Technology for Miniature Fluidic Devices," Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop—Hilton Head, S.C., (Jun. 2-6, 1996), pp. 9-14.
Wooley et al., "Ultra-high-speed DNA fragment separations using Microfabricated capillary array electrophoresis chips," PNAS USA, (1994), vol. 91, pp. 11348-11352.

Cited By (407)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6485625B1 (en) * 1995-05-09 2002-11-26 Curagen Corporation Apparatus and method for the generation, separation, detection, and recognition of biopolymer fragments
US20030150555A1 (en) * 1998-05-06 2003-08-14 Caliper Technologies Corp. Methods of fabricating polymeric structures incorporating microscale fluidic elements
US20080223499A1 (en) * 1998-05-06 2008-09-18 Caliper Life Sciences, Inc. Methods of Fabricating Polymeric Structures Incorporating Microscale Fluidic Elements
US7138032B2 (en) 1998-05-06 2006-11-21 Caliper Life Sciences, Inc. Methods of fabricating polymeric structures incorporating microscale fluidic elements
US6555067B1 (en) * 1998-05-06 2003-04-29 Caliper Technologies Corp. Polymeric structures incorporating microscale fluidic elements
US6712925B1 (en) * 1998-05-18 2004-03-30 University Of Washington Method of making a liquid analysis cartridge
US20060127275A1 (en) * 1998-05-18 2006-06-15 University Of Washington Liquid analysis cartridge
US7226562B2 (en) 1998-05-18 2007-06-05 University Of Washington Liquid analysis cartridge
US6830729B1 (en) 1998-05-18 2004-12-14 University Of Washington Sample analysis instrument
US6852284B1 (en) 1998-05-18 2005-02-08 University Of Washington Liquid analysis cartridge
US6720143B2 (en) * 1999-05-27 2004-04-13 Orchid Biosciences, Inc. Genetic assay system
US6752966B1 (en) * 1999-09-10 2004-06-22 Caliper Life Sciences, Inc. Microfabrication methods and devices
US6481648B1 (en) * 1999-10-01 2002-11-19 Agilent Technologies, Inc. Spray tip for a microfluidic laboratory microchip
US20040166555A1 (en) * 1999-11-10 2004-08-26 Rebecca Braff Cell sorting apparatus and methods for manipulating cells using the same
US8034628B2 (en) 1999-11-26 2011-10-11 The Governors Of The University Of Alberta Apparatus and method for trapping bead based reagents within microfluidic analysis systems
USRE43122E1 (en) 1999-11-26 2012-01-24 The Governors Of The University Of Alberta Apparatus and method for trapping bead based reagents within microfluidic analysis systems
US20080237146A1 (en) * 1999-11-26 2008-10-02 The Governors Of The University Of Alberta Apparatus and method for trapping bead based reagents within microfluidic analysis systems
US20110048945A1 (en) * 1999-11-26 2011-03-03 The Governors Of The University Of Alberta Apparatus and method for trapping bead based reagents within microfluidic analysis systems
US20100326826A1 (en) * 1999-11-26 2010-12-30 The Governors Of The University Of Alberta Apparatus and method for trapping bead based reagents within microfluidic analysis systems
US20030029724A1 (en) * 2000-01-30 2003-02-13 Helene Derand Method for covering a microfluidic assembly
US7553393B2 (en) * 2000-01-30 2009-06-30 Gyros Ab Method for covering a microfluidic assembly
US20010035351A1 (en) * 2000-03-10 2001-11-01 Simpson Peter C. Cross channel device for serial sample injection
US7485454B1 (en) 2000-03-10 2009-02-03 Bioprocessors Corp. Microreactor
US20030161572A1 (en) * 2000-06-17 2003-08-28 Matthias Johnck Integrated optical waveguides for microfluidic analysis systems
US7011791B2 (en) 2000-09-18 2006-03-14 University Of Washington Microfluidic devices for rotational manipulation of the fluidic interface between multiple flow streams
US20020079220A1 (en) * 2000-11-09 2002-06-27 Pawliszyn Janusz B. Micromachining using printing technology
US20050224351A1 (en) * 2000-11-16 2005-10-13 Fluidigm Corporation Microfluidic devices for introducing and dispensing fluids from microfluidic systems
US20020117517A1 (en) * 2000-11-16 2002-08-29 Fluidigm Corporation Microfluidic devices for introducing and dispensing fluids from microfluidic systems
US6951632B2 (en) * 2000-11-16 2005-10-04 Fluidigm Corporation Microfluidic devices for introducing and dispensing fluids from microfluidic systems
US7087203B2 (en) 2000-11-17 2006-08-08 Nagaoka & Co., Ltd. Methods and apparatus for blood typing with optical bio-disc
US7026131B2 (en) 2000-11-17 2006-04-11 Nagaoka & Co., Ltd. Methods and apparatus for blood typing with optical bio-discs
US20020098528A1 (en) * 2000-11-17 2002-07-25 Gordon John F. Methods and apparatus for blood typing with optical bio-disc
US20030224457A1 (en) * 2000-11-17 2003-12-04 Hurt Susan Newcomb Methods and apparatus for blood typing with optical bio-discs
US6649078B2 (en) * 2000-12-06 2003-11-18 The Regents Of The University Of California Thin film capillary process and apparatus
US20020125134A1 (en) * 2001-01-24 2002-09-12 Santiago Juan G. Electrokinetic instability micromixer
US7070681B2 (en) 2001-01-24 2006-07-04 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Electrokinetic instability micromixer
US20020100714A1 (en) * 2001-01-31 2002-08-01 Sau Lan Tang Staats Microfluidic devices
US20040132166A1 (en) * 2001-04-10 2004-07-08 Bioprocessors Corp. Determination and/or control of reactor environmental conditions
US20070099292A1 (en) * 2001-04-10 2007-05-03 Bioprocessors Corp. Reactor systems having a light-interacting component
US20040058437A1 (en) * 2001-04-10 2004-03-25 Rodgers Seth T. Materials and reactor systems having humidity and gas control
US20050032204A1 (en) * 2001-04-10 2005-02-10 Bioprocessors Corp. Microreactor architecture and methods
US20020195196A1 (en) * 2001-06-23 2002-12-26 Steag Microparts Gmbh Process for the flush connection of bodies
US7238246B2 (en) 2001-06-23 2007-07-03 Boehringer Ingelheim Microparts Gmbh Process for the flush connection of bodies
US6969489B2 (en) 2001-08-24 2005-11-29 Cytoplex Biosciences Micro array for high throughout screening
US20040113068A1 (en) * 2001-09-19 2004-06-17 Biospect Inc. Multi-channel microfluidic chip for electrospray ionization
US6803568B2 (en) 2001-09-19 2004-10-12 Predicant Biosciences, Inc. Multi-channel microfluidic chip for electrospray ionization
US20040089442A1 (en) * 2001-09-28 2004-05-13 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Electroosmotic microchannel cooling system
US20050205241A1 (en) * 2001-09-28 2005-09-22 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Closed-loop microchannel cooling system
US20030085024A1 (en) * 2001-09-28 2003-05-08 Santiago Juan G Control of electrolysis gases in electroosmotic pump systems
US20070122932A1 (en) * 2001-10-05 2007-05-31 Cabot Corporation Methods and compositions for the formation of recessed electrical features on a substrate
US6872241B2 (en) 2001-10-19 2005-03-29 Innovative Construction And Building Materials, Llc Anti-pathogenic air filtration media and air handling devices having protective capabilities against infectious airborne mircoorganisms
US20040020367A1 (en) * 2001-10-19 2004-02-05 Soane David S. Anti-pathogenic air filtration media and air handling devices having protective capabilities against infectious airborne microorganisms
WO2003055660A3 (en) * 2001-10-26 2004-01-22 Aclara Biosciences Inc System and method for injection molded micro-replication of micro-fluidic substrates
US20040195728A1 (en) * 2001-10-26 2004-10-07 Dennis Slomski System and method for injection molded micro-replication of micro-fluidic substrates
WO2003055660A2 (en) * 2001-10-26 2003-07-10 Aclara Biosciences Inc. System and method for injection molded micro-replication of micro-fluidic substrates
DE10156767A1 (en) * 2001-11-19 2003-05-28 Rkt Rodinger Kunststoff Techni A method for manufacturing of micro-fluidics, micro-fluidics and tool for manufacturing of micro-fluidics
US20030098661A1 (en) * 2001-11-29 2003-05-29 Ken Stewart-Smith Control system for vehicle seats
US7105810B2 (en) 2001-12-21 2006-09-12 Cornell Research Foundation, Inc. Electrospray emitter for microfluidic channel
US20030129360A1 (en) * 2001-12-31 2003-07-10 Helene Derand Microfluidic device and its manufacture
US7238255B2 (en) 2001-12-31 2007-07-03 Gyros Patent Ab Microfluidic device and its manufacture
US20030133222A1 (en) * 2002-01-11 2003-07-17 Ong Boon Seng Method and apparatus for sealing disc drives
US20040241381A1 (en) * 2002-01-31 2004-12-02 Chen Yihfar Microfluidic structures with circumferential grooves for bonding adhesives and related optical analysis discs
US6678168B2 (en) 2002-02-07 2004-01-13 Cooligy, Inc. System including power conditioning modules
US20050094374A1 (en) * 2002-02-07 2005-05-05 Cooligy, Inc. Power conditioning module
US6606251B1 (en) 2002-02-07 2003-08-12 Cooligy Inc. Power conditioning module
US20040252535A1 (en) * 2002-02-07 2004-12-16 Cooligy, Inc. Apparatus for conditioning power and managing thermal energy in an electronic device
US20050211555A1 (en) * 2002-02-14 2005-09-29 Solus Biosystems, Inc. Method for multiple sample screening using IR spectroscopy
US7033542B2 (en) 2002-02-14 2006-04-25 Archibald William B High throughput screening with parallel vibrational spectroscopy
US20030175160A1 (en) * 2002-02-14 2003-09-18 Archibald William B. High throughput screening with parallel vibrational spectroscopy
EP2100617A1 (en) 2002-03-15 2009-09-16 Schering Corporation Methods of modulating CD200 receptors
EP2322218A1 (en) 2002-03-15 2011-05-18 Schering Corporation Methods of modulating CD200 receptors
US20050178960A1 (en) * 2002-03-21 2005-08-18 Cornell Research Foundation, Inc. Electrospray emitter for microfluidic channel
US7081622B2 (en) 2002-03-21 2006-07-25 Cornell Research Foundation, Inc. Electrospray emitter for microfluidic channel
US20040063151A1 (en) * 2002-04-24 2004-04-01 Beebe David J. Method of performing gradient-based assays in a microfluidic device
US7112444B2 (en) * 2002-04-24 2006-09-26 Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation Method of performing gradient-based assays in a microfluidic device
EP1975628A1 (en) 2002-04-30 2008-10-01 ARKRAY, Inc. Analytical instrument
US7468162B2 (en) 2002-04-30 2008-12-23 Arkray, Inc. Analytical instrument
US20050201892A1 (en) * 2002-04-30 2005-09-15 Takayuki Taguchi Analytical instrument
EP1500935A1 (en) * 2002-04-30 2005-01-26 ARKRAY, Inc. Analytical instrument
EP1500935A4 (en) * 2002-04-30 2006-05-24 Arkray Inc Analytical instrument
US20030205556A1 (en) * 2002-05-02 2003-11-06 Institute Of Microelectronics Capillary with glass internal surface
US6808644B2 (en) 2002-05-02 2004-10-26 Institute Of Microelectronics Capillary with glass internal surface
US6878523B2 (en) 2002-05-08 2005-04-12 Gentel Bio Surfaces, Inc. Molecular interaction assays on a solid surface
US20040009516A1 (en) * 2002-05-08 2004-01-15 Nelson Bryce P. Arrayed SPR prism
US20030211478A1 (en) * 2002-05-08 2003-11-13 Gentel Corporation Transcription factor profiling on a solid surface
US20050128598A1 (en) * 2002-05-10 2005-06-16 Applera Corporation Imaging system and method for reduction of interstitial images
US6839179B2 (en) 2002-05-10 2005-01-04 Applera Corporation Imaging system and method for reduction of interstitial images
US7122093B1 (en) * 2002-05-14 2006-10-17 The Ohio State University Gas-assisted resin injection technique for bonding and surface modification in micro-fluidic devices
US20030217889A1 (en) * 2002-05-23 2003-11-27 Elena Sapatova Slip-resistant step stool and a method of manufacturing the same
US6886660B2 (en) * 2002-05-23 2005-05-03 Rubbermaid Incorporated Slip-resistant step stool and a method of manufacturing the same
US20090084679A1 (en) * 2002-05-24 2009-04-02 The Governors Of The University Of Alberta Apparatus and method for trapping bead based reagents within microfluidic analysis systems
US20050106714A1 (en) * 2002-06-05 2005-05-19 Zarur Andrey J. Rotatable reactor systems and methods
US20030232450A1 (en) * 2002-06-13 2003-12-18 Yoshikazu Yoshida Microfluidic device and method for producing the same
US7517440B2 (en) 2002-07-17 2009-04-14 Eksigent Technologies Llc Electrokinetic delivery systems, devices and methods
US20050252772A1 (en) * 2002-07-17 2005-11-17 Paul Philip H Flow device
US7364647B2 (en) 2002-07-17 2008-04-29 Eksigent Technologies Llc Laminated flow device
US20040011648A1 (en) * 2002-07-17 2004-01-22 Paul Phillip H. Laminated flow device
US20040050699A1 (en) * 2002-09-11 2004-03-18 Goncalves Antonio M. Automated system for high-throughput electrophoretic separations
US20050217997A1 (en) * 2002-09-11 2005-10-06 Temple University - Of The Commonwealth System Of Higher Education Automated system for high-throughput electrophoretic separations
US6905585B2 (en) * 2002-09-11 2005-06-14 Temple University Of The Commonwealth System Of Higher Education Automated system for high-throughput electrophoretic separations
US20040200724A1 (en) * 2002-09-19 2004-10-14 Teruo Fujii Microfluidic device
US7449122B2 (en) 2002-09-23 2008-11-11 Cooligy Inc. Micro-fabricated electrokinetic pump
US20040115830A1 (en) * 2002-09-25 2004-06-17 Igor Touzov Components for nano-scale Reactor
US8304230B2 (en) 2002-09-27 2012-11-06 The General Hospital Corporation Microfluidic device for cell separation and uses thereof
US8323887B2 (en) 2002-09-27 2012-12-04 James Russell Webster Miniaturized fluid delivery and analysis system
US20100105065A1 (en) * 2002-09-27 2010-04-29 James Russell Webster Miniaturized Fluid Delivery and Analysis System
US20040063217A1 (en) * 2002-09-27 2004-04-01 Webster James Russell Miniaturized fluid delivery and analysis system
US20070020147A1 (en) * 2002-09-27 2007-01-25 Agnitio Science & Technology Miniaturized fluid delivery and analysis system
US10081014B2 (en) 2002-09-27 2018-09-25 The General Hospital Corporation Microfluidic device for cell separation and uses thereof
US20070031287A1 (en) * 2002-09-27 2007-02-08 Agnitio Science & Technology Miniaturized fluid delivery and analysis system
US20070259424A1 (en) * 2002-09-27 2007-11-08 The General Hospital Corporation Microfluidic device for cell separation and uses thereof
US20070020148A1 (en) * 2002-09-27 2007-01-25 Agnitio Science & Technology Miniaturized fluid delivery and analysis system
US7241421B2 (en) 2002-09-27 2007-07-10 Ast Management Inc. Miniaturized fluid delivery and analysis system
US8372579B2 (en) 2002-09-27 2013-02-12 The General Hospital Corporation Microfluidic device for cell separation and uses thereof
US7666687B2 (en) 2002-09-27 2010-02-23 James Russell Webster Miniaturized fluid delivery and analysis system
US8895298B2 (en) 2002-09-27 2014-11-25 The General Hospital Corporation Microfluidic device for cell separation and uses thereof
US8986966B2 (en) 2002-09-27 2015-03-24 The General Hospital Corporation Microfluidic device for cell separation and uses thereof
US20040074768A1 (en) * 2002-10-18 2004-04-22 Anex Deon S. Electrokinetic pump having capacitive electrodes
US8715480B2 (en) 2002-10-18 2014-05-06 Eksigent Technologies, Llc Electrokinetic pump having capacitive electrodes
US7267753B2 (en) 2002-10-18 2007-09-11 Eksigent Technologies Llc Electrokinetic device having capacitive electrodes
US7235164B2 (en) 2002-10-18 2007-06-26 Eksigent Technologies, Llc Electrokinetic pump having capacitive electrodes
US20080173545A1 (en) * 2002-10-18 2008-07-24 Eksigent Technologies, Llc Electrokinetic Pump Having Capacitive Electrodes
US8192604B2 (en) 2002-10-18 2012-06-05 Eksigent Technologies, Llc Electrokinetic pump having capacitive electrodes
US7875159B2 (en) 2002-10-18 2011-01-25 Eksigent Technologies, Llc Electrokinetic pump having capacitive electrodes
US20040074784A1 (en) * 2002-10-18 2004-04-22 Anex Deon S. Electrokinetic device having capacitive electrodes
US20070144909A1 (en) * 2002-10-18 2007-06-28 Eksigent Technologies, Llc Electrokinetic Pump Having Capacitive Electrodes
US20040076408A1 (en) * 2002-10-22 2004-04-22 Cooligy Inc. Method and apparatus for removeably coupling a heat rejection device with a heat producing device
US20040104012A1 (en) * 2002-10-22 2004-06-03 Cooligy, Inc. Vapor escape microchannel heat exchanger
US20040147045A1 (en) * 2002-10-29 2004-07-29 Gentel Biosurfaces, Inc. Signal molecule arrays
US7806168B2 (en) 2002-11-01 2010-10-05 Cooligy Inc Optimal spreader system, device and method for fluid cooled micro-scaled heat exchange
US20050211417A1 (en) * 2002-11-01 2005-09-29 Cooligy,Inc. Interwoven manifolds for pressure drop reduction in microchannel heat exchangers
US7836597B2 (en) 2002-11-01 2010-11-23 Cooligy Inc. Method of fabricating high surface to volume ratio structures and their integration in microheat exchangers for liquid cooling system
US20050211427A1 (en) * 2002-11-01 2005-09-29 Cooligy, Inc. Method and apparatus for flexible fluid delivery for cooling desired hot spots in a heat producing device
US20040188066A1 (en) * 2002-11-01 2004-09-30 Cooligy, Inc. Optimal spreader system, device and method for fluid cooled micro-scaled heat exchange
US20050214167A1 (en) * 2002-11-22 2005-09-29 Solus Biosystems, Inc. High throughput screening with parallel vibrational spectroscopy
WO2004058178A2 (en) 2002-12-23 2004-07-15 Schering Corporation Uses of mammalian cytokine; related reagents
US9651039B2 (en) 2002-12-30 2017-05-16 The Regents Of The University Of California Fluid control structures in microfluidic devices
US20090060797A1 (en) * 2002-12-30 2009-03-05 The Regents Of The University Of California Fluid control structures in microfluidic devices
US9644623B2 (en) 2002-12-30 2017-05-09 The Regents Of The University Of California Fluid control structures in microfluidic devices
US7431889B2 (en) 2003-01-30 2008-10-07 Gyros Patent Ab Inner walls of microfluidic devices
US20060110294A1 (en) * 2003-01-30 2006-05-25 Gyros Patent Ab Inner walls of microfluidic devices
US20090044928A1 (en) * 2003-01-31 2009-02-19 Girish Upadhya Method and apparatus for preventing cracking in a liquid cooling system
US20070051824A1 (en) * 2003-02-19 2007-03-08 Olle Larsson Nozzles for electrospray ionization and methods of fabricating them
EP2108658A1 (en) 2003-03-10 2009-10-14 Schering Corporation Uses of IL-23 agonists and antagonists; related reagents
US20050000569A1 (en) * 2003-04-21 2005-01-06 Biospect, Inc. A Delaware Corporation Microfluidic devices and methods
US20040206399A1 (en) * 2003-04-21 2004-10-21 Biospect, Inc. Microfluidic devices and methods
US7007710B2 (en) 2003-04-21 2006-03-07 Predicant Biosciences, Inc. Microfluidic devices and methods
US20050026273A1 (en) * 2003-06-05 2005-02-03 Zarur Andrey J. Reactor with memory component
US20070160503A1 (en) * 2003-06-13 2007-07-12 Palaniappan Sethu Microfluidic systems for size based removal of red blood cells and platelets from blood
US20060124230A1 (en) * 2003-06-16 2006-06-15 Isabelle Chartier Method of bonding microstructured substrates
US8647465B2 (en) * 2003-06-16 2014-02-11 Commissariat A L'energie Atomique Method of bonding microstructured substrates
US7021369B2 (en) 2003-07-23 2006-04-04 Cooligy, Inc. Hermetic closed loop fluid system
US8602092B2 (en) 2003-07-23 2013-12-10 Cooligy, Inc. Pump and fan control concepts in a cooling system
US20050016715A1 (en) * 2003-07-23 2005-01-27 Douglas Werner Hermetic closed loop fluid system
US20050047969A1 (en) * 2003-08-26 2005-03-03 Predicant Biosciences, Inc. Microfluidic chip with enhanced tip for stable electrospray ionization
US7105812B2 (en) 2003-08-26 2006-09-12 Predicant Biosciences, Inc. Microfluidic chip with enhanced tip for stable electrospray ionization
US20050107742A1 (en) * 2003-09-15 2005-05-19 The Regents Of The University Of Michigan Shatter-resistant microprobes
US7537807B2 (en) 2003-09-26 2009-05-26 Cornell University Scanned source oriented nanofiber formation
US8413603B2 (en) 2003-09-26 2013-04-09 Cornell Research Foundation, Inc. Scanned source oriented nanofiber formation
US20050123688A1 (en) * 2003-09-26 2005-06-09 Craighead Harold G. Scanned source oriented nanofiber formation
US8858815B2 (en) 2003-09-26 2014-10-14 Cornell Research Foundation, Inc. Scanned source oriented nanofiber formation
US20090280300A1 (en) * 2003-09-26 2009-11-12 Cornell Research Foundation, Inc. Scanned source oriented nanofiber formation
US20050100712A1 (en) * 2003-11-12 2005-05-12 Simmons Blake A. Polymerization welding and application to microfluidics
US20070003444A1 (en) * 2003-11-21 2007-01-04 Steven Howell Laminated device
US20050139993A1 (en) * 2003-12-26 2005-06-30 Lee Dae S. Plastic microfabricated structure for biochip, microfabricated thermal device, microfabricated reactor, microfabricated reactor array, and micro array using the same
US7652370B2 (en) 2003-12-26 2010-01-26 Electronics And Telecommunications Research Institute Plastic microfabricated structure for biochip, microfabricated thermal device, microfabricated reactor, microfabricated reactor array, and micro array using the same
US20050208539A1 (en) * 2003-12-31 2005-09-22 Vann Charles S Quantitative amplification and detection of small numbers of target polynucleotides
US8389272B2 (en) 2004-01-26 2013-03-05 President And Fellows Of Harvard College Fluid delivery system and method
US8030057B2 (en) 2004-01-26 2011-10-04 President And Fellows Of Harvard College Fluid delivery system and method
US10048252B2 (en) 2004-01-26 2018-08-14 President And Fellows Of Harvard College Fluid delivery system and method
US20080038839A1 (en) * 2004-01-26 2008-02-14 Vincent Linder Fluid Delivery System And Method
US9116148B2 (en) 2004-01-26 2015-08-25 President And Fellows Of Harvard College Fluid delivery system and method
WO2005079844A2 (en) 2004-02-17 2005-09-01 Schering Corporation Use for interleukin-33 (il33) and the il-33 receptor complex
EP2283860A2 (en) 2004-02-17 2011-02-16 Schering Corporation Use for interleukin-33 (il-33) and the il-33 receptor complex
US20060240540A1 (en) * 2004-03-01 2006-10-26 Junji Nakatsuka Biosensor, biosensor chip, and biosensor device
US20050266433A1 (en) * 2004-03-03 2005-12-01 Ravi Kapur Magnetic device for isolation of cells and biomolecules in a microfluidic environment
US7559356B2 (en) 2004-04-19 2009-07-14 Eksident Technologies, Inc. Electrokinetic pump driven heat transfer system
US20050230080A1 (en) * 2004-04-19 2005-10-20 Paul Phillip H Electrokinetic pump driven heat transfer system
US20060210445A1 (en) * 2004-05-12 2006-09-21 Osterfeld Sebastian J Multilayer microfluidic device
US7419639B2 (en) * 2004-05-12 2008-09-02 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Multilayer microfluidic device
US20050255007A1 (en) * 2004-05-13 2005-11-17 Konica Minolta Sensing, Inc. Microfluidic device, method for testing reagent and system for testing reagent
US7749444B2 (en) 2004-05-13 2010-07-06 Konica Minolta Sensing, Inc. Microfluidic device, method for testing reagent and system for testing reagent
US7799553B2 (en) 2004-06-01 2010-09-21 The Regents Of The University Of California Microfabricated integrated DNA analysis system
US8420318B2 (en) 2004-06-01 2013-04-16 The Regents Of The University Of California Microfabricated integrated DNA analysis system
US20050287572A1 (en) * 2004-06-01 2005-12-29 The Regents Of The University Of California Microfabricated integrated DNA analysis system
US20050268626A1 (en) * 2004-06-04 2005-12-08 Cooligy, Inc. Method and apparatus for controlling freezing nucleation and propagation
US20060019333A1 (en) * 2004-06-07 2006-01-26 Rodgers Seth T Control of reactor environmental conditions
US20050287673A1 (en) * 2004-06-07 2005-12-29 Bioprocessors Corp. Reactor mixing
US20050271560A1 (en) * 2004-06-07 2005-12-08 Bioprocessors Corp. Gas control in a reactor
US20050277187A1 (en) * 2004-06-07 2005-12-15 Bioprocessors Corp. Creation of shear in a reactor
US20060022130A1 (en) * 2004-07-29 2006-02-02 Predicant Biosciences, Inc., A Delaware Corporation Microfluidic devices and methods with integrated electrical contact
US20060027458A1 (en) * 2004-08-04 2006-02-09 Webster James R Capillary electrophoresis devices and processes for manufacturing same
US7211184B2 (en) 2004-08-04 2007-05-01 Ast Management Inc. Capillary electrophoresis devices
US20060042785A1 (en) * 2004-08-27 2006-03-02 Cooligy, Inc. Pumped fluid cooling system and method
US8551714B2 (en) 2004-09-15 2013-10-08 Integenx Inc. Microfluidic devices
US8431390B2 (en) 2004-09-15 2013-04-30 Integenx Inc. Systems of sample processing having a macro-micro interface
US20100068723A1 (en) * 2004-09-15 2010-03-18 Stevan Bogdan Jovanovich Microfluidic devices
US8431340B2 (en) 2004-09-15 2013-04-30 Integenx Inc. Methods for processing and analyzing nucleic acid samples
US9752185B2 (en) 2004-09-15 2017-09-05 Integenx Inc. Microfluidic devices
US8476063B2 (en) 2004-09-15 2013-07-02 Integenx Inc. Microfluidic devices
US7391020B2 (en) 2004-09-21 2008-06-24 Luc Bousse Electrospray apparatus with an integrated electrode
US20080235948A1 (en) * 2004-09-21 2008-10-02 Predicant Biosciences, Inc. Electrospray apparatus with an integrated electrode
US20060060769A1 (en) * 2004-09-21 2006-03-23 Predicant Biosciences, Inc. Electrospray apparatus with an integrated electrode
US20060068668A1 (en) * 2004-09-27 2006-03-30 Cornell Research Foundation, Inc. Microfiber supported nanofiber membrane
US7591883B2 (en) 2004-09-27 2009-09-22 Cornell Research Foundation, Inc. Microfiber supported nanofiber membrane
WO2006035228A1 (en) * 2004-09-28 2006-04-06 Landegren Gene Technology Ab Microfluidic structure
US9592501B2 (en) 2004-09-28 2017-03-14 Landegren Gene Technology Ab Microfluidic structure
US7402616B2 (en) 2004-09-30 2008-07-22 Lifescan, Inc. Fusible conductive ink for use in manufacturing microfluidic analytical systems
US20060065532A1 (en) * 2004-09-30 2006-03-30 Matthias Stiene Microfluidic analytical system with accessible electrically conductive contact pads
US20060074143A1 (en) * 2004-09-30 2006-04-06 Rodgers James I Fusible conductive ink for use in manufacturing microfluidic analytical systems
US20060065361A1 (en) * 2004-09-30 2006-03-30 Matthias Stiene Process for manufacturing an analysis module with accessible electrically conductive contact pads for a microfluidic analytical system
US7608160B2 (en) 2004-10-13 2009-10-27 Rheonix, Inc. Laminated microfluidic structures and method for making
US7837821B2 (en) 2004-10-13 2010-11-23 Rheonix, Inc. Laminated microfluidic structures and method for making
US20060078470A1 (en) * 2004-10-13 2006-04-13 Kionix, Inc. Laminated microfluidic structures and method for making
EP2292758A2 (en) 2004-12-20 2011-03-09 Schering Corporation Uses of mammalian cytokine; related reagents
US20060159601A1 (en) * 2004-12-28 2006-07-20 Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd. Microfluidic device
US20060140829A1 (en) * 2004-12-28 2006-06-29 Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd. Microstructure, microreactor, micro heat exchanger and method for fabricating microstructure
US7708950B2 (en) 2004-12-28 2010-05-04 Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd. Microfluidic device
US7632470B2 (en) * 2004-12-28 2009-12-15 Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd. Microstructure, microreactor, micro heat exchanger and method for fabricating microstructure
US20080074646A1 (en) * 2005-01-18 2008-03-27 Solus Biosystems, Inc. Multiple Sample Screening Using Ir Spectroscopy with Capillary Isoelectric Focusing
US20100000681A1 (en) * 2005-03-29 2010-01-07 Supercritical Systems, Inc. Phase change based heating element system and method
US8021614B2 (en) 2005-04-05 2011-09-20 The General Hospital Corporation Devices and methods for enrichment and alteration of cells and other particles
US20070026381A1 (en) * 2005-04-05 2007-02-01 Huang Lotien R Devices and methods for enrichment and alteration of cells and other particles
US8585971B2 (en) 2005-04-05 2013-11-19 The General Hospital Corporation Devices and method for enrichment and alteration of cells and other particles
US9956562B2 (en) 2005-04-05 2018-05-01 The General Hospital Corporation Devices and method for enrichment and alteration of cells and other particles
US9174222B2 (en) 2005-04-05 2015-11-03 The General Hospital Corporation Devices and method for enrichment and alteration of cells and other particles
US9075046B2 (en) 2005-05-09 2015-07-07 Theranos, Inc. Fluidic medical devices and uses thereof
US20080009766A1 (en) * 2005-05-09 2008-01-10 Holmes Elizabeth A Systems and methods for improving medical treatments
US20110104826A1 (en) * 2005-05-09 2011-05-05 Ian Gibbons Calibration of fluidic devices
US8679407B2 (en) 2005-05-09 2014-03-25 Theranos, Inc. Systems and methods for improving medical treatments
US9772291B2 (en) 2005-05-09 2017-09-26 Theranos, Inc. Fluidic medical devices and uses thereof
US20060264779A1 (en) * 2005-05-09 2006-11-23 Kemp Timothy M Fluidic medical devices and uses thereof
US20100081144A1 (en) * 2005-05-09 2010-04-01 Theranos, Inc. Point-of-care fluidic systems and uses thereof
US8841076B2 (en) 2005-05-09 2014-09-23 Theranos, Inc. Systems and methods for conducting animal studies
US20060264782A1 (en) * 2005-05-09 2006-11-23 Holmes Elizabeth A Point-of-care fluidic systems and uses thereof
US20100074799A1 (en) * 2005-05-09 2010-03-25 Kemp Timothy M Fluidic Medical Devices and Uses Thereof
US7888125B2 (en) 2005-05-09 2011-02-15 Theranos, Inc. Calibration of fluidic devices
US20060264780A1 (en) * 2005-05-09 2006-11-23 Holmes Elizabeth A Systems and methods for conducting animal studies
US8283155B2 (en) 2005-05-09 2012-10-09 Theranos, Inc. Point-of-care fluidic systems and uses thereof
US7635594B2 (en) 2005-05-09 2009-12-22 Theranos, Inc. Point-of-care fluidic systems and uses thereof
US9182388B2 (en) 2005-05-09 2015-11-10 Theranos, Inc. Calibration of fluidic devices
US20060264783A1 (en) * 2005-05-09 2006-11-23 Holmes Elizabeth A Systems and methods for monitoring pharmacological parameters
US20070117873A1 (en) * 2005-05-13 2007-05-24 The Ohio State University Research Foundation Carbon nanofiber reinforced thermoplastic nanocomposite foams
US7482585B2 (en) * 2005-05-19 2009-01-27 Konica Minolta Medical & Graphic, Inc. Testing chip and micro integrated analysis system
US20060263914A1 (en) * 2005-05-19 2006-11-23 Konica Minolta Medical & Graphic, Inc. Testing chip and micro integrated analysis system
US8921102B2 (en) 2005-07-29 2014-12-30 Gpb Scientific, Llc Devices and methods for enrichment and alteration of circulating tumor cells and other particles
US7390377B1 (en) 2005-09-22 2008-06-24 Sandia Corporation Bonding thermoplastic polymers
US8143337B1 (en) 2005-10-18 2012-03-27 The Ohio State University Method of preparing a composite with disperse long fibers and nanoparticles
US9193837B1 (en) 2005-10-18 2015-11-24 L. James Lee Reinforced nancomposites and method of producing the same
US9696252B2 (en) 2005-10-19 2017-07-04 Abbott Laboratories Apparatus for performing counts within a biologic fluid sample
US20080248575A1 (en) * 2005-10-20 2008-10-09 The Ohio State University Research Foundation Drug and Gene Delivery by Polymer Nanonozzle and Nanotip Cell Patch
US8152477B2 (en) 2005-11-23 2012-04-10 Eksigent Technologies, Llc Electrokinetic pump designs and drug delivery systems
US8794929B2 (en) 2005-11-23 2014-08-05 Eksigent Technologies Llc Electrokinetic pump designs and drug delivery systems
US20070148014A1 (en) * 2005-11-23 2007-06-28 Anex Deon S Electrokinetic pump designs and drug delivery systems
US7749365B2 (en) 2006-02-01 2010-07-06 IntegenX, Inc. Optimized sample injection structures in microfluidic separations
US7745207B2 (en) 2006-02-03 2010-06-29 IntegenX, Inc. Microfluidic devices
US20100252123A1 (en) * 2006-03-22 2010-10-07 The Regents Of The University Of California Multiplexed latching valves for microfluidic devices and processors
US20070237686A1 (en) * 2006-03-22 2007-10-11 The Regents Of Theuniversity Of California Multiplexed latching valves for microfluidic devices and processors
US7766033B2 (en) 2006-03-22 2010-08-03 The Regents Of The University Of California Multiplexed latching valves for microfluidic devices and processors
US8286665B2 (en) 2006-03-22 2012-10-16 The Regents Of The University Of California Multiplexed latching valves for microfluidic devices and processors
US8741230B2 (en) 2006-03-24 2014-06-03 Theranos, Inc. Systems and methods of sample processing and fluid control in a fluidic system
US9176126B2 (en) 2006-03-24 2015-11-03 Theranos, Inc. Systems and methods of sample processing and fluid control in a fluidic system
US20070224084A1 (en) * 2006-03-24 2007-09-27 Holmes Elizabeth A Systems and Methods of Sample Processing and Fluid Control in a Fluidic System
US20070244258A1 (en) * 2006-03-29 2007-10-18 Shanti Swarup Clear coating compositions with improved scratch resistance
US20070227708A1 (en) * 2006-03-30 2007-10-04 James Hom Integrated liquid to air conduction module
US8157001B2 (en) 2006-03-30 2012-04-17 Cooligy Inc. Integrated liquid to air conduction module
US7715194B2 (en) 2006-04-11 2010-05-11 Cooligy Inc. Methodology of cooling multiple heat sources in a personal computer through the use of multiple fluid-based heat exchanging loops coupled via modular bus-type heat exchangers
US20070235167A1 (en) * 2006-04-11 2007-10-11 Cooligy, Inc. Methodology of cooling multiple heat sources in a personal computer through the use of multiple fluid-based heat exchanging loops coupled via modular bus-type heat exchangers
EP2482078A1 (en) 2006-05-01 2012-08-01 Critical Care Diagnostics, Inc. Diagnosis of cardiovascular disease
EP3059594A1 (en) 2006-05-01 2016-08-24 Critical Care Diagnostics, Inc. Prognosis of cardiovascular disease
EP2995951A1 (en) 2006-05-02 2016-03-16 Critical Care Diagnostics, Inc. Method for selecting treatment based on differential diagnosis between pulmonary and cardiovascular disease
US20070256825A1 (en) * 2006-05-04 2007-11-08 Conway Bruce R Methodology for the liquid cooling of heat generating components mounted on a daughter card/expansion card in a personal computer through the use of a remote drive bay heat exchanger with a flexible fluid interconnect
US8007999B2 (en) 2006-05-10 2011-08-30 Theranos, Inc. Real-time detection of influenza virus
US8669047B2 (en) 2006-05-10 2014-03-11 Theranos, Inc. Real-time detection of influenza virus
US9885715B2 (en) 2006-05-10 2018-02-06 Theranos IP Comany, LLC Real-time detection of influenza virus
US8137912B2 (en) 2006-06-14 2012-03-20 The General Hospital Corporation Methods for the diagnosis of fetal abnormalities
US8168389B2 (en) 2006-06-14 2012-05-01 The General Hospital Corporation Fetal cell analysis using sample splitting
US9017942B2 (en) 2006-06-14 2015-04-28 The General Hospital Corporation Rare cell analysis using sample splitting and DNA tags
US9273355B2 (en) 2006-06-14 2016-03-01 The General Hospital Corporation Rare cell analysis using sample splitting and DNA tags
US9347100B2 (en) 2006-06-14 2016-05-24 Gpb Scientific, Llc Rare cell analysis using sample splitting and DNA tags
US20090280492A1 (en) * 2006-06-14 2009-11-12 Roland Stoughton Diagnosis of fetal abnormalities using polymorphisms including short tandem repeats
US20100291572A1 (en) * 2006-06-14 2010-11-18 Artemis Health, Inc. Fetal aneuploidy detection by sequencing
US8372584B2 (en) 2006-06-14 2013-02-12 The General Hospital Corporation Rare cell analysis using sample splitting and DNA tags
US20080050739A1 (en) * 2006-06-14 2008-02-28 Roland Stoughton Diagnosis of fetal abnormalities using polymorphisms including short tandem repeats
US20080006396A1 (en) * 2006-06-30 2008-01-10 Girish Upadhya Multi-stage staggered radiator for high performance liquid cooling applications
WO2008007844A1 (en) * 2006-07-12 2008-01-17 Korea Advanced Institute Of Science And Technology Method of manufacturing microchannel structure and microfluidic device
WO2008052136A2 (en) 2006-10-25 2008-05-02 Proteus Biomedical, Inc. Controlled activation ingestible identifier
US8841116B2 (en) 2006-10-25 2014-09-23 The Regents Of The University Of California Inline-injection microdevice and microfabricated integrated DNA analysis system using same
US20090035770A1 (en) * 2006-10-25 2009-02-05 The Regents Of The University Of California Inline-injection microdevice and microfabricated integrated DNA analysis system using same
US9303286B2 (en) * 2006-11-14 2016-04-05 Theranos, Inc. Detection and quantification of analytes in bodily fluids
US8778665B2 (en) 2006-11-14 2014-07-15 Theranos, Inc. Detection and quantification of analytes in bodily fluids
US20140308689A1 (en) * 2006-11-14 2014-10-16 Theranos, Inc. Detection and Quantification of Analytes in Bodily Fluids
US20100248277A1 (en) * 2006-11-14 2010-09-30 Ian Gibbons Detection and quantification of analytes in bodily fluids
US7867592B2 (en) 2007-01-30 2011-01-11 Eksigent Technologies, Inc. Methods, compositions and devices, including electroosmotic pumps, comprising coated porous surfaces
US8557518B2 (en) 2007-02-05 2013-10-15 Integenx Inc. Microfluidic and nanofluidic devices, systems, and applications
US20110039303A1 (en) * 2007-02-05 2011-02-17 Stevan Bogdan Jovanovich Microfluidic and nanofluidic devices, systems, and applications
US20080221805A1 (en) * 2007-03-09 2008-09-11 David Richard Andrews Multi-channel lock-in amplifier system and method
US20080217246A1 (en) * 2007-03-09 2008-09-11 Dxtech, Llc. Electrochemical detection system
US8506908B2 (en) 2007-03-09 2013-08-13 Vantix Holdings Limited Electrochemical detection system
US8409527B2 (en) 2007-05-04 2013-04-02 Opko Diagnostics, Llc Fluidic connectors and microfluidic systems
US8202492B2 (en) 2007-05-04 2012-06-19 Opko Diagnostics, Llc Fluidic connectors and microfluidic systems
US8475737B2 (en) 2007-05-04 2013-07-02 Opko Diagnostics, Llc Fluidic connectors and microfluidic systems
US8802445B2 (en) 2007-05-04 2014-08-12 Opko Diagnostics, Llc Fluidic connectors and microfluidic systems
US20080273918A1 (en) * 2007-05-04 2008-11-06 Claros Diagnostics, Inc. Fluidic connectors and microfluidic systems
US9075047B2 (en) 2007-05-04 2015-07-07 Opko Diagnostics, Llc Fluidic connectors and microfluidic systems
US9234888B2 (en) 2007-05-04 2016-01-12 Opko Diagnostics, Llc Fluidic connectors and microfluidic systems
US8702950B2 (en) 2007-05-31 2014-04-22 Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha Device for electrophoresis, device for transfer, device for electrophoresis and transfer, chip for electrophoresis and transfer, and method for electrophoresis, method for transfer, and method for electrophoresis and transfer
US20080296158A1 (en) * 2007-05-31 2008-12-04 Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha Device for electrophoresis, device for transfer, device for electrophoresis and transfer, chip for electrophoresis and transfer, and method for electrophoresis, method for transfer, and method for electrophoresis and transfer
US8454906B2 (en) 2007-07-24 2013-06-04 The Regents Of The University Of California Microfabricated droplet generator for single molecule/cell genetic analysis in engineered monodispersed emulsions
US20100285975A1 (en) * 2007-07-24 2010-11-11 The Regents Of The University Of California Microfabricated droplet generator for single molecule/cell genetic analysis in engineered monodispersed emulsions
US9575058B2 (en) 2007-08-06 2017-02-21 Theranos, Inc. Systems and methods of fluidic sample processing
US8158430B1 (en) 2007-08-06 2012-04-17 Theranos, Inc. Systems and methods of fluidic sample processing
US8883518B2 (en) 2007-08-06 2014-11-11 Theranos, Inc. Systems and methods of fluidic sample processing
US20090046423A1 (en) * 2007-08-07 2009-02-19 James Hom Internal access mechanism for a server rack
US7746634B2 (en) 2007-08-07 2010-06-29 Cooligy Inc. Internal access mechanism for a server rack
RU2497100C2 (en) * 2007-10-29 2013-10-27 Конинклейке Филипс Электроникс Н.В. Frustrated total internal reflection biosensor container
US20090148308A1 (en) * 2007-12-11 2009-06-11 Saleki Mansour A Electrokinetic Pump with Fixed Stroke Volume
US8251672B2 (en) 2007-12-11 2012-08-28 Eksigent Technologies, Llc Electrokinetic pump with fixed stroke volume
US20090253181A1 (en) * 2008-01-22 2009-10-08 Microchip Biotechnologies, Inc. Universal sample preparation system and use in an integrated analysis system
US8748165B2 (en) 2008-01-22 2014-06-10 Integenx Inc. Methods for generating short tandem repeat (STR) profiles
US20090225513A1 (en) * 2008-03-10 2009-09-10 Adrian Correa Device and methodology for the removal of heat from an equipment rack by means of heat exchangers mounted to a door
US20090225514A1 (en) * 2008-03-10 2009-09-10 Adrian Correa Device and methodology for the removal of heat from an equipment rack by means of heat exchangers mounted to a door
US8250877B2 (en) 2008-03-10 2012-08-28 Cooligy Inc. Device and methodology for the removal of heat from an equipment rack by means of heat exchangers mounted to a door
US9297571B1 (en) 2008-03-10 2016-03-29 Liebert Corporation Device and methodology for the removal of heat from an equipment rack by means of heat exchangers mounted to a door
US20090225515A1 (en) * 2008-03-10 2009-09-10 James Hom Thermal bus or junction for the removal of heat from electronic components
US20140150916A1 (en) * 2008-03-28 2014-06-05 Basf Se Surfaces, including microfluidic channels, with controlled wetting properties
US9849455B2 (en) 2008-04-25 2017-12-26 Opko Diagnostics, Llc Flow control in microfluidic systems
US20090266421A1 (en) * 2008-04-25 2009-10-29 Claros Diagnostics, Inc. Flow control in microfluidic systems
US9592505B2 (en) 2008-04-25 2017-03-14 Opko Diagnostics, Llc Flow control in microfluidic systems
US8222049B2 (en) 2008-04-25 2012-07-17 Opko Diagnostics, Llc Flow control in microfluidic systems
US20110092049A1 (en) * 2008-05-23 2011-04-21 Zhenfang Chen Method and apparatus for substrate bonding
US8277112B2 (en) 2008-05-27 2012-10-02 The Research Foundation Of State University Of New York Devices and fluid flow methods for improving mixing
US20100099782A1 (en) * 2008-05-28 2010-04-22 The Ohio State University Research Foundation Suspension polymerization and foaming of water containing activated carbon-nano/microparticulate polymer composites
US8507568B2 (en) 2008-05-28 2013-08-13 The Ohio State University Suspension polymerization and foaming of water containing activated carbon-nano/microparticulate polymer composites
US20100035024A1 (en) * 2008-08-05 2010-02-11 Cooligy Inc. Bonded metal and ceramic plates for thermal management of optical and electronic devices
US8254422B2 (en) 2008-08-05 2012-08-28 Cooligy Inc. Microheat exchanger for laser diode cooling
US8299604B2 (en) 2008-08-05 2012-10-30 Cooligy Inc. Bonded metal and ceramic plates for thermal management of optical and electronic devices
US20100032143A1 (en) * 2008-08-05 2010-02-11 Cooligy Inc. microheat exchanger for laser diode cooling
US20100112575A1 (en) * 2008-09-20 2010-05-06 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Noninvasive Diagnosis of Fetal Aneuploidy by Sequencing
US9404157B2 (en) 2008-09-20 2016-08-02 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Noninvasive diagnosis of fetal aneuploidy by sequencing
US8682594B2 (en) 2008-09-20 2014-03-25 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Noninvasive diagnosis of fetal aneuploidy by sequencing
US8195415B2 (en) 2008-09-20 2012-06-05 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Noninvasive diagnosis of fetal aneuploidy by sequencing
US9353414B2 (en) 2008-09-20 2016-05-31 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Noninvasive diagnosis of fetal aneuploidy by sequencing
US8296076B2 (en) 2008-09-20 2012-10-23 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Noninvasive diagnosis of fetal aneuoploidy by sequencing
US8591829B2 (en) 2008-12-18 2013-11-26 Opko Diagnostics, Llc Reagent storage in microfluidic systems and related articles and methods
US9878324B2 (en) 2008-12-18 2018-01-30 Opko Diagnostics, Llc Reagent storage in microfluidic systems and related articles and methods
US9561506B2 (en) 2008-12-18 2017-02-07 Opko Diagnostics, Llc Reagent storage in microfluidic systems and related articles and methods
US8672532B2 (en) 2008-12-31 2014-03-18 Integenx Inc. Microfluidic methods
US9770715B2 (en) 2009-02-02 2017-09-26 Opko Diagnostics, Llc Structures for controlling light interaction with microfluidic devices
US20100196207A1 (en) * 2009-02-02 2010-08-05 David Steinmiller Structures for controlling light interaction with microfluidic devices
US9827564B2 (en) 2009-02-02 2017-11-28 Opko Diagnostics, Llc Fluidic systems and methods for analyses
US9827563B2 (en) 2009-02-02 2017-11-28 Opko Diagnostics, Llc Fluidic systems and methods for analyses
US8221700B2 (en) 2009-02-02 2012-07-17 Opko Diagnostics, Llc Structures for controlling light interaction with microfluidic devices
US8480975B2 (en) 2009-02-02 2013-07-09 Opko Diagnostics, Llc Structures for controlling light interaction with microfluidic devices
US8802029B2 (en) 2009-02-02 2014-08-12 Opko Diagnostics, Llc Structures for controlling light interaction with microfluidic devices
US8388908B2 (en) 2009-06-02 2013-03-05 Integenx Inc. Fluidic devices with diaphragm valves
US8562918B2 (en) 2009-06-05 2013-10-22 Integenx Inc. Universal sample preparation system and use in an integrated analysis system
US8394642B2 (en) 2009-06-05 2013-03-12 Integenx Inc. Universal sample preparation system and use in an integrated analysis system
US9012236B2 (en) 2009-06-05 2015-04-21 Integenx Inc. Universal sample preparation system and use in an integrated analysis system
US20110073292A1 (en) * 2009-09-30 2011-03-31 Madhav Datta Fabrication of high surface area, high aspect ratio mini-channels and their application in liquid cooling systems
US8862448B2 (en) 2009-10-19 2014-10-14 Theranos, Inc. Integrated health data capture and analysis system
US20110093249A1 (en) * 2009-10-19 2011-04-21 Theranos, Inc. Integrated health data capture and analysis system
US9460263B2 (en) 2009-10-19 2016-10-04 Theranos, Inc. Integrated health data capture and analysis system
US9731291B2 (en) 2009-11-24 2017-08-15 Opko Diagnostics, Llc Fluid mixing and delivery in microfluidic systems
US8915259B2 (en) 2009-11-24 2014-12-23 Opko Diagnostics, Llc Fluid mixing and delivery in microfluidic systems
US9555408B2 (en) 2009-11-24 2017-01-31 Opko Diagnostics, Llc Fluid mixing and delivery in microfluidic systems
US9861980B2 (en) 2009-11-24 2018-01-09 Opko Diagnostics, Llc Fluid mixing and delivery in microfluidic systems
US8567425B2 (en) 2009-11-24 2013-10-29 Opko Diagnostics, Llc Fluid mixing and delivery in microfluidic systems
US20110120562A1 (en) * 2009-11-24 2011-05-26 Claros Diagnostics, Inc. Fluid mixing and delivery in microfluidic systems
US9075051B2 (en) 2009-11-24 2015-07-07 Opko Diagnostics, Llc Fluid mixing and delivery in microfluidic systems
US8584703B2 (en) 2009-12-01 2013-11-19 Integenx Inc. Device with diaphragm valve
WO2011072715A1 (en) * 2009-12-15 2011-06-23 Telecom Italia S.P.A. Process for assembling elements contacting biological substances
US9993817B2 (en) 2009-12-18 2018-06-12 Abbott Point Of Care, Inc. Biologic fluid analysis cartridge
US20110206557A1 (en) * 2009-12-18 2011-08-25 Abbott Point Of Care, Inc. Biologic fluid analysis cartridge
US9579651B2 (en) 2009-12-18 2017-02-28 Abbott Point Of Care, Inc. Biologic fluid analysis cartridge
US20110151610A1 (en) * 2009-12-23 2011-06-23 Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates, Inc. Workpiece patterning with plasma sheath modulation
US10099219B2 (en) 2010-03-25 2018-10-16 Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc. Device for generating droplets
US8932523B2 (en) 2010-04-16 2015-01-13 Opko Diagnostics, Llc Systems and devices for analysis of samples
US9981266B2 (en) 2010-04-16 2018-05-29 Opko Diagnostics, Llc Feedback control in microfluidic systems
US9116124B2 (en) 2010-04-16 2015-08-25 Opko Diagnostics, Llc Feedback control in microfluidic systems
US9643182B2 (en) 2010-04-16 2017-05-09 Opko Diagnostics, Llc Systems and devices for analysis of samples
US8580569B2 (en) 2010-04-16 2013-11-12 Opko Diagnostics, Llc Feedback control in microfluidic systems
US9682376B2 (en) 2010-04-16 2017-06-20 Opko Diagnostics, Llc Systems and devices for analysis of samples
US8765062B2 (en) 2010-04-16 2014-07-01 Opko Diagnostics, Llc Systems and devices for analysis of samples
USD645971S1 (en) 2010-05-11 2011-09-27 Claros Diagnostics, Inc. Sample cassette
US8512538B2 (en) 2010-05-28 2013-08-20 Integenx Inc. Capillary electrophoresis device
US8763642B2 (en) 2010-08-20 2014-07-01 Integenx Inc. Microfluidic devices with mechanically-sealed diaphragm valves
US9731266B2 (en) 2010-08-20 2017-08-15 Integenx Inc. Linear valve arrays
US9121058B2 (en) 2010-08-20 2015-09-01 Integenx Inc. Linear valve arrays
EP2460646A1 (en) * 2010-12-01 2012-06-06 Arkray, Inc. Microfluidic device and method for manufacturing the same
US9039880B2 (en) 2010-12-01 2015-05-26 Arkray, Inc. Device and method for manufacturing the same
US9873118B2 (en) 2010-12-30 2018-01-23 Abbott Point Of Care, Inc. Biologic fluid analysis cartridge with sample handling portion and analysis chamber portion
US20120182609A1 (en) * 2011-01-14 2012-07-19 Borenstein Jeffrey T Membrane-integrated microfluidic device for imaging cells
US9844779B2 (en) * 2011-01-14 2017-12-19 The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. Membrane-integrated microfluidic device for imaging cells
WO2012141844A2 (en) 2011-03-17 2012-10-18 Critical Care Diagnostics, Inc. Methods predicting risk of an adverse clinical outcome
US8979511B2 (en) 2011-05-05 2015-03-17 Eksigent Technologies, Llc Gel coupling diaphragm for electrokinetic delivery systems
US8797527B2 (en) 2011-08-24 2014-08-05 Abbott Point Of Care, Inc. Biologic fluid sample analysis cartridge
US9212999B2 (en) 2012-04-25 2015-12-15 Avl Emission Test Systems Gmbh Device for determining the concentration of at least one gas in a sample gas stream
US20150239217A1 (en) * 2012-07-09 2015-08-27 Sony Corporation Microchip and method for manufacturing the same
US20140102546A1 (en) * 2012-10-12 2014-04-17 Sony Dadc Austria Ag Microfluidic device and a method of manufacturing a microfluidic device
US9188991B2 (en) * 2012-10-12 2015-11-17 Sony Dadc Austria Ag Microfluidic device and a method of manufacturing a microfluidic device
US9255866B2 (en) 2013-03-13 2016-02-09 Opko Diagnostics, Llc Mixing of fluids in fluidic systems
US9588027B2 (en) 2013-03-13 2017-03-07 UPKO Diagnostics, LLC Mixing of fluids in fluidic systems
USD804682S1 (en) 2015-08-10 2017-12-05 Opko Diagnostics, Llc Multi-layered sample cassette
USD817511S1 (en) 2015-08-10 2018-05-08 Opko Diagnostics, Llc Multi-layered sample cassette
USD812766S1 (en) * 2016-07-12 2018-03-13 EMULATE, Inc. Microfluidic chip for use with a fluid perfusion module
USD816861S1 (en) * 2016-09-07 2018-05-01 EMULATE, Inc. Transparent microfluidic chip without pressure features for use with a fluid perfusion module

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
CA2285938A1 (en) 1998-10-15 application
EP1015878A1 (en) 2000-07-05 application
EP1015878B1 (en) 2010-06-09 grant
WO1998045693A1 (en) 1998-10-15 application
CA2285938C (en) 2007-07-10 grant
EP1015878A4 (en) 2003-05-02 application
JP2001519907A (en) 2001-10-23 application

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Grass et al. A new PMMA-microchip device for isotachophoresis with integrated conductivity detector
Sundararajan et al. Three-dimensional hydrodynamic focusing in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannels
Jacobson et al. Microchip structures for submillisecond electrophoresis
Jiang et al. A general method for patterning gradients of biomolecules on surfaces using microfluidic networks
Becker et al. Polymer microfabrication methods for microfluidic analytical applications
Ismagilov et al. Microfluidic arrays of fluid− fluid diffusional contacts as detection elements and combinatorial tools
Bartolo et al. Microfluidic stickers
Eddings et al. Determining the optimal PDMS–PDMS bonding technique for microfluidic devices
Hofmann et al. Modular approach to fabrication of three-dimensional microchannel systems in PDMS—application to sheath flow microchips
US5869004A (en) Methods and apparatus for in situ concentration and/or dilution of materials in microfluidic systems
Li et al. Integration of isoelectric focusing with parallel sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis for multidimensional protein separations in a plastic microfludic network
Henry et al. Surface modification of poly (methyl methacrylate) used in the fabrication of microanalytical devices
US5658413A (en) Miniaturized planar columns in novel support media for liquid phase analysis
Zhang et al. High-speed free-flow electrophoresis on chip
US6440645B1 (en) Production of microstructures for use in assays
Cygan et al. Microfluidic platform for the generation of organic-phase microreactors
US5641400A (en) Use of temperature control devices in miniaturized planar column devices and miniaturized total analysis systems
Kim et al. Imbibition and flow of wetting liquids in noncircular capillaries
Jakeway et al. Miniaturized total analysis systems for biological analysis
Monahan et al. A method for filling complex polymeric microfluidic devices and arrays
US20020185184A1 (en) Microfluidic synthesis devices and methods
US20020124896A1 (en) Modular microfluidic systems
Pihl et al. Microfluidic technologies in drug discovery
US20030136679A1 (en) Hybrid microfluidic and nanofluidic system
Dhopeshwarkar et al. Transient effects on microchannel electrokinetic filtering with an ion-permselective membrane

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: SOANE BIOSCIENCES, INC., CALIFORNIA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:SOANE, DAVID S.;SOANE, ZOYA M.;HOOPER, HERBERT H.;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:009073/0660

Effective date: 19971204

AS Assignment

Owner name: ACLARA BIOSCIENCES, INC., CALIFORNIA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:SOANE BIOSCIENCES, INC.;REEL/FRAME:009463/0347

Effective date: 19980701

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 4

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 8

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 12

AS Assignment

Owner name: VIROLOGIC, INC., CALIFORNIA

Free format text: MERGER AND CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNORS:APOLLO MERGER SUBSIDIARY, LLC;VIROLOGIC, INC.;REEL/FRAME:032920/0389

Effective date: 20050318

Owner name: APOLLO MERGER SUBSIDIARY, LLC, CALIFORNIA

Free format text: MERGER AND CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNORS:ACLARA BIOSCIENCES, INC.;APOLLO MERGER SUBSIDIARY, LLC;REEL/FRAME:032920/0258

Effective date: 20041210

Owner name: MONOGRAM BIOSCIENCES, INC., CALIFORNIA

Free format text: MERGER AND CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNORS:VIROLOGIC, INC.;MONOGRAM BIOSCIENCES, INC.;REEL/FRAME:032920/0433

Effective date: 20050901

SULP Surcharge for late payment