US607792A - Oswald e - Google Patents

Oswald e Download PDF

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US607792A
US607792A US607792DA US607792A US 607792 A US607792 A US 607792A US 607792D A US607792D A US 607792DA US 607792 A US607792 A US 607792A
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surface
pane
pencil
light
cavity
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F21LIGHTING
    • F21SNON-PORTABLE LIGHTING DEVICES; SYSTEMS THEREOF; VEHICLE LIGHTING DEVICES SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR VEHICLE EXTERIORS
    • F21S11/00Non-electric lighting devices or systems using daylight

Description

No. 607,792. Patented July l9, I898. 0. E. WINGER.

WINDOW PANE 0R LIGHT.

(Application filed Oct. 15 1897.)

(No Model.:

ZZWifW UNITED STATES PATENT ()EEnIE.

OS\VALI) E. \VINGER, OF CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, ASSIGNOR TO RALPH I). SMALL, OF SAME PLACE.

WINDOW PANE OR LIGHT.

SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 607,792, dated July 19, 1898.

Application filed October 15, 1897. Serial No. 655,341. (No model) To aZZ whom it may concern.- ing the manner in which the pencils of light Be it known that I, OS'WALD E. WINGER, a determine the form of the cavity. citizen of the United States, residing at Ohi- Like letters refer to like parts in the sevcago, in the county of Cook and State of Illieral figures. nois, have invented a certain new and useful As illustrated in Fig. 1, the pane a has a 5 5 Improvement in Window Panes or Lights, of light-receiving surface Z) and alight-dischargwhieh the following is a full, clear, concise, ing surface 0, arranged opposite and running and exact description, reference being had to substantiallyparallel with the light-receiving the accompanying drawings, forming a part surface. Within the pane, between the said to of this specification. substantially parallel surfaces a Z), are pro- 60 My invention relates to a window pane or vided a series of cavities (Z (Z d. The wall of light, my object being to provide an improved each cavity is constructed to constitute a reconstruction of pane or light for changing or fleeting-surface e, which acts to deflect the deflecting the direction of the light passing rays striking the same by reflection. Thus I 5 therethrough to thereby render the pane more the rays ff enter the receiving-surface of the 65 effective in illumination. pane, are refracted, strike the reflecting-sur- Myinvention relates toa window-pane havfaces 6 e, and are deflected, and in passing ing substantially parallel opposed faces on from the pane through the discharging-sun the receiving and discharging sides of the face are again refracted unless, as in the pres 2o pane and having formed in the interior of the out case, the rays pass through the discharg- 7o pane one or more cavities extending longituing-surface at right angles thereto. dinally into the pane between the substan- The cavities each has its wall so constructed tiallyparallelreceivingand dischargingfaces, as to also constitute a refractingsurface It, the walls of the cavity constituting light-dethrough which some of the rays pass and are 2 5 fleeting surfaces for changing the direction refracted, and also a refracting-surface 7t, 75 of the rays of light passing through the pane, through which the rays pass after traversing whereby the rays maybe directed into any dethe cavity, being again refracted. Thus the sired position. In practice I have usually rays Z Z enter the receiving-surface Z) of the formed the interior cavity so that the walls pane and are refracted, pass through the sur- 0 thereof constitute a reflecting-surface and enface It of the cavity,are again refracted, trav- 8o tering andleavingrefraeting-surfaces,andthe erse the cavity, pass through the surface 7- of presentinvention con'teinplatesthe formation the cavity, are again refracted, and finally of one or more of the deflecting-surfaces of pass through the discharging-surface of tho the cavity with a curved transverse dini'enpane, being again refracted. The deflection 5 sion, whereby the deflected rays are caused to of the rays Z Z is thus accomplished wholly by 8 5 diverge or converge as desired to direct the refraction. I have termed the surface 171. the same into proper paths, as will be more fully entering light refracting surface of the described hereinafter. cavity and the surface 7; the leaving light I have illustrated my invention, in connecrefracting surface of the cavity and will 0 tion with a number of modifications thereof, hereinafter refer to the same by these terms. 0 in the accompanying drawings, in which-- The lower surfaces m a of the cavity are Figure l is a face View thereof. Fig. 2 is a preferably not light-deflectin g surfaces and view showing the reflecting-surface curved. may have any desired position, though pref- Fig. 3 is a view showing the leaving-surface crably so arranged as not to conflict with the 5 of the cavity curved. Fig. 4 is aview showlight-rays reflected from the reflecting-sun 5 ing the reflecting-surface and the leaving reface of the cavity just beneath, as will be f ractin g-surface of the cavity curved. Fig. more particularly set forth hereinafter. 5 is a view showing the reflecting-surface and In Fig. 2 the reflecting-surface e is illusthe entering and leaving refracting-surfaces trated as curved, whereby the parallel rays 50 of the cavity curved. Fig. 6 is a view showentering the pane are caused. to diverge after ioo leaving the pane. The refracting-surfaces h and 7c are shown as plane.

In Fig. 3 the leaving-surface it of the cavity is illustrated as curved, while the entering-surface h and the reflecting-surface e are plane. Parallel rays pass through the receiving-surface Z) and the entering-surface 72 without diffusion and are diffused by the nonplanular surface In Fig. 4 the reflecting-surface e and the leaving refracting-surface 7.2 are curved,while the entering refracting-surface is plane.

In Fig. 5 all of the deflecting-surfaces are curvedthat is, the reflecting-surface e, the entering-surface of the cavity h, and the leaving-surface of the cavity 70 are curved. By this construct-ion each of the deflectingsurfaces serves to diffuse the light-rays.

When it is'desired to cause the rays acted upon by one of the deflecting-surfaces to diverge or converge, the transverse dimension of the deflecting-surface is curved-t-hat is, the dimension of the deflecting-surface which lies in the plane which includes the deflected ray before and after deflection is curved whereby the angle of deflection will vary throughout the width or transverse dimension of the deflecting-surface. As shown in the drawings, one or more of the deflectingsurfaces may be curved, as desired.

In Fig. 6 I have illustrated the light as entering and passing through the pane in penoils and have shown how the pencils determine the form of the cavity. In the present instance the lowermost ray of the pencil enters the pane at an angle of seventy degrees. The panes are preferably designed for the particular conditions of use, and the principal element in this consileration is the nature of the pencil of light as determined by surrounding objects or buildings which intercept light which would otherwise pass through the pane. Thus in cities, and particularly in the business districts, the lowermost ray of the pencil will be determined by the height of the building across the way. The angle which the lowermost ray passing over the opposite building makes with the pane is the angle which in practice I preferably employ as defining the lowermost ray of the pencil of light which I employ in designing the cavities in the pane. For the purpose of illustration I have chosen this angle as seventy degrees. The pencil of light 0 is shown as entering the pane, being refracted into the pencil 0, striking the reflecting-surface c and being reflected into the pencil 0 and then passing from the pane, being refracted into the pencil 0 The portion of the pencil striking the retracting-surface h is refracted into the pencil 0 and in passing the retractingsurface k is refracted into the pencil o and, finally, into the pencil 0. The uppermost ray of the pencil 0 determines the preferable position for the reflecting-surface, which should be so situated that the uppermost ray of this pencil 0 will not strike the reflecting-surface, but will pass through the refracting-surface 7c. The pencil of light 1) is refracted into the pencil p, passes through the retracting-surface h, is refracted into the pencil p thence into the pencil 19 and finally into the pencil 19 The portion of the pencil passing just below the end of the refracting-surface h, forming the pencil p strikes the reflectingsurface e of the next cavity below, is reflected into the pencil 19, and then refracted into the pencil 19 The lower surface m should coincide with the uppermost ray of the pencil p in order that interference may not result. The extreme upper ray of the pencil p determines the position of the lower surface on of the cavity. The pencil r refracts into the pencil 1', which strikes the extreme rightward end of the reflecting-surface e, andis reflected into the pencil which is finally refracted into the pencil T The uppermost ray of the pencil '1" determines the position of the surface a of the cavity. The entering-surface h and the leaving-surface 7c of the cavity may occupy such angular positions relatively as to direct the rays at the desired angle. The lower end of the leaving-surface 7c should be located at the intersection of the uppermost ray of the pencil r and the lowermost ray of the pencil p".

In practice I preferably form the window light or pane of a number of small panes or lights 0 1/12 secured together at the edges by any preferred form of framework, Fig. 1. These smaller panes are each preferably formed in a single and integral piece and are molded of glass, having the interior cavity or cavities extending longitudinally through the pane. These lengthwise cavities may be open at one end, as shown in the pane e, or open at both ends, as shown in pane v, or sealed atboth ends,as shown in pane v The receiving and discharging surfaces of the pane are illus trated herein as plane surfaces; but they may have other form, as desired, without departing from my invention.

Having described my invention, what I claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is v 1. As a new article of manufacture, a pane formed of a single and integral piece of transparent material, as glass, having formed therein and inclosed between the light-receiving and light-discharging surfaces one or more interior cavities, the walls of which are constructed to form curved light-reflecting and curved entering and leaving light-re fracting surfaces, substantially as described.

2. A pane formed of a single and integral piece of glass having opposed and substantially parallel light-receiving and light-discharging surfaces and having formed therein an interior cavity extending longitudinally into the pane between said substantially parallel receiving and discharging surfaces, said cavity having a wall constituting a light-defleeting surface and havingits transverse disaid surfaces with a cavity having walls eonniension curved, substantially as described. stituting entering and leaving light-refract- 3. A pane formed of a single and integral ing surfaces, one of said surfaces being piece ofglasshavinglight-receivingand lightcurved, substantially as described. I 5 5 dischargingsurfaeesand forinedbetweensaid In witness whereof I have hereunto subsurfaces with acavity, having walls constitutscribed my name in the presence of two witin g curved entering and leaving light-refractnesses.

ing surfaces, substantially as described. OSVALD E. \VINGER.

4:. A pane formed of a single and integral \Vitnesscs: 10 piece of glasshavinglight-receivingandlight- XV. CLYDE JONEs,

discharging surfaces and formed between R. S. LUDINGTON Correction in Letters Patent No.

Letters Paten t No. 607,79

the application of Oswald E. W'inger, of Chicago, Illinois,

indow Panes or correction and sealed this lltl [snAn] Oountersigned O. H. DUELL,

Commissioner of Patents.

, as follows: After line 38, page 1, the following 22, 1897, Serial 1V0. 652,5

the pane shown her 73, and

, granted July 19, 1898, upon for an improvement in r appears in the printed specification requiring paragraph should be inserted also in an application illustrated and described window panes of ein, and I hereby reserve for said applications 1 day of October, A. D., 1898.

First Assistant AS THUS. RYAN, 'eeretary of the Interior.

Correction in Letters Patent No. 607,792.

[SEAL] THOS. RYAN,

First Assistant Secretary of the Intem'or. Countersigned O. H. DUELL,

Commissionea" of Patents.

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Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4557565A (en) * 1981-10-09 1985-12-10 Unisearch Limited Beam sunlighting device for building interiors
US5295051A (en) * 1989-09-08 1994-03-15 Queensland University Of Technology Illuminating apparatus
US6356391B1 (en) 1999-10-08 2002-03-12 3M Innovative Properties Company Optical film with variable angle prisms
US6447135B1 (en) 1999-10-08 2002-09-10 3M Innovative Properties Company Lightguide having a directly secured reflector and method of making the same
US20050001043A1 (en) * 1999-10-08 2005-01-06 3M Innovative Properties Company Optical elements having programmed optical structures
US20060051048A1 (en) * 1999-10-08 2006-03-09 Gardiner Mark E Backlight with structured surfaces
US20170023197A1 (en) * 2014-04-08 2017-01-26 Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha Daylighting device

Cited By (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4557565A (en) * 1981-10-09 1985-12-10 Unisearch Limited Beam sunlighting device for building interiors
US5295051A (en) * 1989-09-08 1994-03-15 Queensland University Of Technology Illuminating apparatus
US20060051048A1 (en) * 1999-10-08 2006-03-09 Gardiner Mark E Backlight with structured surfaces
US6447135B1 (en) 1999-10-08 2002-09-10 3M Innovative Properties Company Lightguide having a directly secured reflector and method of making the same
US6560026B2 (en) 1999-10-08 2003-05-06 Mark E. Gardiner Optical film with variable angle prisms
US6707611B2 (en) 1999-10-08 2004-03-16 3M Innovative Properties Company Optical film with variable angle prisms
US20050001043A1 (en) * 1999-10-08 2005-01-06 3M Innovative Properties Company Optical elements having programmed optical structures
US6845212B2 (en) 1999-10-08 2005-01-18 3M Innovative Properties Company Optical element having programmed optical structures
US6356391B1 (en) 1999-10-08 2002-03-12 3M Innovative Properties Company Optical film with variable angle prisms
US7046905B1 (en) 1999-10-08 2006-05-16 3M Innovative Properties Company Blacklight with structured surfaces
US7221847B2 (en) 1999-10-08 2007-05-22 3M Innovative Properties Company Optical elements having programmed optical structures
US20080050088A1 (en) * 1999-10-08 2008-02-28 3M Innovative Properties Company Backlight with structured surfaces
US7873256B2 (en) 1999-10-08 2011-01-18 3M Innovative Properties Company Backlight with structured surfaces
US8588574B2 (en) 1999-10-08 2013-11-19 3M Innovative Properties Company Backlight with structured surfaces
US20170023197A1 (en) * 2014-04-08 2017-01-26 Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha Daylighting device
US9857041B2 (en) * 2014-04-08 2018-01-02 Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha Daylighting device

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