US594735A - Carlo t - Google Patents

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US594735A
US594735A US594735DA US594735A US 594735 A US594735 A US 594735A US 594735D A US594735D A US 594735DA US 594735 A US594735 A US 594735A
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mouthpiece
holes
flute
hole
pipe
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10DSTRINGED MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; WIND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACCORDIONS OR CONCERTINAS; PERCUSSION MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; AEOLIAN HARPS; SINGING-FLAME MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G10D7/00General design of wind musical instruments
    • G10D7/02General design of wind musical instruments of the type wherein an air current is directed against a ramp edge
    • G10D7/026General design of wind musical instruments of the type wherein an air current is directed against a ramp edge with air currents blown into an opening arranged on the cylindrical surface of the tube, e.g. transverse flutes, piccolos or fifes

Description

(No Model.)

C. T. GIORGI. `FLUTE.

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YUNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.

CARLO T. GIORGI, OF NEV YORK, N. Y.

FLUTE.

SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 594,785, dated November 30, 1897.

Application led January 7, 1897. Serial No. 618,263. (No model.) Patented in Italy ,Tune 14,1888, No. 171, and October' 2, 1895, No. 39,663; in Switzerland March 13,1896,No.11,938; in Belgium March 16, 1896,1Io. 120,083; in England March 24,1896,No.6,515; in Austria, April 8, 1896, No. 46/1,629, and in France June 8,1896,No. 254,805.

To @ZZ whom t may concern.-

Be it known that I, CARLO T. GIORGI, residing in New York city, in the county and State of New York, have invented new and useful Improvements in Musical Instruments, (for which I have obtained Letters Patent in the following countries: Italy, dated .I une 14, 1888, No. 171, and October 2,1895, No. 89,668; Austria, dated April 8, 1896, No. 46/1,329; France, dated June 8, 1896, No. 254,805; Switzerland, dated March 18, 1896, No. 11,938; England, dated March 24, 1896, No. 6,515, and Belgium, dated March 16, 1896, No. 120,088,) of which the following is a full, clear, and exact description.

Keyless flutes, although used since an early date, have never been provided with the full number of eleven holes necessary to the natural production of the notes of the chromatic scale, and the holes they had were not dis* posed according to acoustic laws. lVhen other holes were added covered with keys, these holes also were not arranged in accordance with theoretic requirements. Consequently the notes had not the right intonation nor equality of sounds. The keys often occasioned cross-fingering, which rendered the digitation very difficult and sometimes quite impossible. Afterward when the flute was radically reformed and was constructed more scientifically the holes were closed with ingenious mechanisms of keys, but these, besides being delicate and expensive and not always to be depended upon, will bind some one key with another., so that it is impossible to close one hole without being obliged to close another. In all these systems the fingering is complicated.

In all transversal flutes the higher harmonics by which the different octaves should be obtained are not perfect in their intonation, but rather fiat in their progression. This is occasioned by the dispersion of the wind force through the form of the mouthpiece. In such flutes the air blown'from the lips beats against the interior part of the pipe, from there is deflected toward the cork which stops the upper end of the pipe, then deflected again along the pipe, so that it produces dispersion of its force, which renders the harmonic rather flat. Therefore a special `lingering' is necessary to produce the notes of the third octave, closing some lower holes to reinforce the column of air, and also a slight modification of the normal distance apart of the holes is required. Therefore the intonation is not perfect. The quality of sounds is not homogeneous. The cross-lingering renders the execution difficult and sometimes impossible with the normal digitation.

As a remedy for all these imperfections in iiutes I have invented an instrument entirely conformable to the laws of acoustics, possessing all the eleven holes necessary to the natural production of the chromatic scale. These are placed with mathematic exactness and in conformity with the natural position of the fingers, by which they can be closed without the necessity of keys. Each hole can be closed independently, and there is no cross-finger ing. Thus in the diminution of the mechan.- ism the instrument becomes lighter, simpler, and less expensive. The mouthpiece is at the upper extremity of the pipe and disposed for blowing directly instead of transversely to avoid the dispersion of wind and so that the harmonics of the twelfth are got in perfect intonation, and no special fingering is required for the production of the third octave. The holes are left in their normal place, and the notes are given of perfect intonation and equality of sound from the lowest to the highest. In this fiute the air is blown straight along the pipe, so that there is no attrition or dispersion of its force, and the octave is rendered in perfect intonation with the 'lingering of the harmonic of the fifth below.

I will describe a flute embodying my invention and then point out the novel features in the appended claims.

Reference is to be had to the accompanying drawings, forming a part of this specification, in which similar characters of reference indicate corresponding parts in all the views.

Figure 1 shows the scale by means of which 95 the centers of the linger-holes may be found.

Fig. 2 shows a flute with the finger-holes therein in accordance with the scale. Fig. .3 is a plan view of a flute and the improved mouthpiece thereon. Fig. a is a longitudinal section ofthe mouthpiece. Fig. 5 is a transverse section thereof on the line 5 5 et Fig. 3. Fig. h' shows a modification in which a key is employed. Fig. 7 is anothermodification showing keys, and Fig. S is a detail perspective View of the mouthpiece.

In carrying out the invention i employ a pipe corresponding to the fundamental note I wish to have. i divide its column of air in the proportions given bythe acoustic laws for the graduation of the chromatic scale shown in Fig. l and mark the distance from center to center of the holes l in the flute or pipe 2. I proportion the size of the holes with regard to the diameter of the pipe, and the distance between the linger-holes gradually diminishes from the lower to the upper hole.

Fig. l shows the theoreticalpositions of the holes in a simple flute to give the chromatic scale, being the half-wave lengths of the corresponding notes; but it is well known that in an actual flute the holes are considerably nearer the mouthpiece than the half-wave length. Consequently Fig. 2 shows the distances of Fig. l diminished to correspond with the shortening found necessary in practice.

ln Fig. 2 l have shown the holes arranged in a straight row. ln Fig. 3, however, i have arranged certain of the holes out of line with the others, as shown at 3, Li, 5, and (3. rlhis arrangement maybe desirable to suit the conformation of the Hngers of a player. ln this form of the instrument the third phalange of the first finger of the lelt hand will be placed over the first hole, (numbered 3,) and the end of said finger will govern the second hole, the thumb of the left hand will govern the third hole, (numbered ia) the next three holes will be governed, respectively, by the second, third, and little fingers of the lel't hand, the seventh hole will be governed by the thumb of the right hand, the eighth, ninth, and tenth holes by the first, second, and third lingers ol the right hand, and the last hele (5 by the little finger of the right hand.

The scales are formed by progressively opening the holes, beginning with the one covered bythe little finger of the right hand. The first hole 3 may be smaller than the rcmainder, as a resounding-harmonic toits ocA tave.

Keys are not necessary, but they can be furnished, as shown at 7 in Fig. (i, and lower or higher supplementary notes can be added, as in other flutes, as shown bythe keys S and 9 in Fig. 7.

The portion of an ordinary flute, as indicated at c x and which is generally provided with the regulating-cork, is removed, and in lieu of such cork for closing the upper extremity oi' the pipe employ a mouthpiece, and preferably the mouthpiece will be con formed somewhat to the shape of: a persons chin, against which it is designed to rest. fis here shown, the mouthpiece l0 is removably mounted en the flute 2-that is, it has an cxtension ll, designed to engage within the end ot' the flute. The mouthpiece is substantially circular in crossscctien, and its bore extends transversely to the length et' the flute. liy the circular formation ot the interior of the mouthpiece a resounding-clninnber is formed, as at l2 13, and the resistance to the blast el airis formed bythe reenter-ing' angle il. The ends ot the mouthpiece are flattened, as at l5, to compensate for the loud volume ol" air broduced in the chamber lf3. ihe mouthpiece is slightly )ent in an oblique direction, and the mouth-hole 17 is arranged at the top of the mouthpiece, substantially in line with the interior of the flute, so as to enable the player to blow directly into the pipe instead of transversely.

he laying out of' the iinger-holes is illustrated in Fig. l-that is, the flute divided between [L and li to find the octave at C, and then the octave is divided in twelve proportional parts to get the chrom atie scale between B and Having thus (.escribed my invention, l claim as new and desire to secure by lietters Patentl. l mouthpiece for flutes, curved in direction of the length ol' the flute and provided with a mouth-hole on its 'top and with a resounding-ehamber extending below the line of communication between said mouthpiece and the body of the flute, substantially as dc scribed.

2. A flute having eleven linger-holes, the first one of which is arranged out ot line with the second hole, whereby the phalange of the first finger may engage over the first hole and the said finger engage with the second hole, whereby all of the eleven holes may be controlled by the ten fingers of a player, substantially as specified.

mouthpiece for flutes substantially circular in direction of length el the ilute and having its lower portion extending below the line of comniunication between said mout-hpiece and the body ol the flute whereby te form a resounding-chamber, fnibstantially as shown and described.

i. d mouthpiece for flutes made substantially circular in the direction of length ol the flute having its lower portion extending below the line of' communicationbetween.said mouthpiece and the body of the fi nte and having its ends flattened all substantially as shown and described.

5. A mouthpiece for flutes, having its end widened to furnish a bearing for the chin and provided with a top opening and a resounding-chamber extendin below the line of; cem- IIO inuniczttion between the mouthpiece and the of the I'lutc, the end of the mouthpiece being,` body oi the flute7 Substantially its described. widened to form u bearing; for the chin, sub- G. A mouthpiece for flutes, curved in direcsta-ntiully as described.

tion of length of the iiute, und provided with CARLO T. GIORGI. 5v zt' mouth-opening in its top und t resounding- Wvi tnesscs:

chamber extending below the line of coinniu- JNO. M. RITTER,

niczttion between the mouthpiece and body C. R. FERGUSON.

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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3888154A (en) * 1974-02-25 1975-06-10 Sr Sam Wesley End blown free air-reed flute
US20070044634A1 (en) * 2005-08-09 2007-03-01 Jonathan Bear Instrument
US20090293701A1 (en) * 2008-06-03 2009-12-03 Claude Rozier End blown flute having an acoustic air space
WO2017199064A1 (en) * 2016-05-18 2017-11-23 Boyd Annie Rose Musical instrument

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3888154A (en) * 1974-02-25 1975-06-10 Sr Sam Wesley End blown free air-reed flute
US20070044634A1 (en) * 2005-08-09 2007-03-01 Jonathan Bear Instrument
US7700863B2 (en) * 2005-08-09 2010-04-20 Jonathan Bear Instrument
US20090293701A1 (en) * 2008-06-03 2009-12-03 Claude Rozier End blown flute having an acoustic air space
US7678980B2 (en) 2008-06-03 2010-03-16 Claude Rozier End blown flute having an acoustic air space
WO2017199064A1 (en) * 2016-05-18 2017-11-23 Boyd Annie Rose Musical instrument
US10360888B2 (en) * 2016-05-18 2019-07-23 Annie Rose BOYD Musical instrument

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