US570546A - Type-writing machine - Google Patents

Type-writing machine Download PDF


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US570546A US570546DA US570546A US 570546 A US570546 A US 570546A US 570546D A US570546D A US 570546DA US 570546 A US570546 A US 570546A
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    • B41J1/00Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the mounting, arrangement, or disposition of the types or dies
    • B41J1/22Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the mounting, arrangement, or disposition of the types or dies with types or dies mounted on carriers rotatable for selection
    • B41J1/32Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the mounting, arrangement, or disposition of the types or dies with types or dies mounted on carriers rotatable for selection the plane of the type or die face being parallel to the axis of rotation, e.g. with type on the periphery of cylindrical carriers


6 Sheets-Sheet 1.
(No Model.)
Patented Nov. 3, 1896.
VIZ/[W555- (No Model.) 6 Sheets-Sheet 2. W. FREDRIGK. TYPE WRITING MACHINE.
No. 570,546. Patented Nov. 3, 1896.
Mil ii \wh R am u (No Model.)
6 Sheets-Sheet 3.
Patented N0v.3, 1896.
6 Sheets-Sheet; 4.
(No Model.) Y
W. FREDRIOK TYPE WRITING MACHINE. No. 570,546. Patented Nov. 3, 1896.
(No Model.) 6 Sheets-Sheet 5. W. FREDRIGK. TYPE WRITING MACHINE.
No. 570,546. Patented Nov. 3, 1896.
(No Iodel.) v 6 Sheets-Sheet 6. W. FREDRIGK.
TYPE WRITING MACHINE. No. 570,546. Patented Nov. 3, 1896.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 570,546, dated November 3, 1896. Application filed May 31,1893. Serial No. 476,189. No model.)
to all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, \VILLIAM FREDRILK, of Toledo, county of Lucas, and State of Ohio, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Type-\Vriters; and I do hereby declare that the following is a full, clear, and exact description of the invention, which will enable others skilled in the art to which it appertainsto make and use the same, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, and to the letters of reference marked thereon, which form part of this specitication.
My invention relates to a type-writer of the class known as high-grade machines, in which both hands of the operator are em ployed in writing and the parts are all automatic with respect to the operation of the keys.
The object of the invention is to construct a machine of the character described that shall be of few parts and adjustments, and therefore inexpensive of construction, automatic in its movements, and positive in operation.
The invention consists generally in the peculiar construction ofthe various parts and their novel combination or arrangement, all
of which will be fully illustrated in the drawings and pointed out in the claims.
The invention also consists especially in an improved automatically-shifting mechanism for reversing the feed of the ribbon, and also in an improved mechanism for holding the hammer inert during the manipulation of the type-wheel, and then locking the wheel and releasing the hammer, which is spring impelled.
The invention relates also to a special construction for maintaining the type-wheel in its normal position, and relates also to a special construction of carriage whereby said carriage can be tilted back and moved to the right or left, as desired.
Figure 1 is a side elevation of a type-writer constructed in accordance with my invention. Fig. 2 is a longitudinal vertical sectional view through the machine. Fig. 3 is a rear sectional elevation on lines X X, Fig. l, illustrat ing more specifically the centering device for the type-wheel, the locking mechanism l for feeding the same, the feed for the carriage, and the springs for actuating the hammer. Fig. r is a sectional plan view of the machine on lines Y Y, Fig. 1. Fig. 5 is a front elevation of the machine, the keys, levers, and a section of the front plate being broken away to show, respectively, the slots for guiding the levers and mechanism for feeding the ribbon, and the mechanism for reversing the feed of the same. Fig. U is a side elevation of a portiouof the machine, said view being partly broken away to show the mechanism for projecting the hammer. Fig. 7 is a plan view of a portion of the machine illustratingthe ribbon-spools, the typewheel, and a part of the mechanism for reversing the feed of the ribbon. Fig. 8 is a detail elevation of the alarm mechanism. Fig. 9 is a perspective view of the type-wheel, showing the form of the same. Fig. 10 is a detail view of a modified form of mechanism for securing tension upon the hammer.
1 designates the frame of the machine, in the side plates 2 of which is journaled the rock-shaft 3 of the torsional or twisted rocking bars or frame I. Said bars or frame extend substantially parallel with the rockshaft and are inversely inclined, and are secured to the rock-shaft at each end. At a point substantially midway the length of the rock-shaft 3 is secured the lower end of an arm 5, having arms ti projecting therefrom, circular at their outer ends to embrace the torsional rocking bars 4, and secured thereto preferably by soldering.
T designates a segmental rack-bar integral with arm 5, and at its upper end the said rackbar, engaging with a pinion 8, secured upon a tubular shaft t), journaled in a similar shaft 1), secured in a casting 9 extending downwardly from the under surface of the frame.
Loosely journaled in the bore of the tube is a solid shaft 10, upon the upper end of which is secured, in any preferred manner, the type-wheel 11, the lower end of the shaft extending through pinion 8 and below the same, and formed with a rounded lower end, against which abuts the rear end of an arm 12, secured upon a shaft 123, journaled at each end in the sides 2 of the frame, the shaft and type-wheel being raised by means of a keylever 13, the rear end of the same being fixedly secured to the shaft l2 with reference to rotative movement,but pivotally secured with relation to lateral movement, the lever passing through astepped opening it in the front plate of the frame, the shoulder 14 limiting the movement, so that the shaft and arm 1; are only rocked to raise thet ype-wheel to present the second row of type-characters, which comprise the capital letters, and the shoulder or base of the opening it limiting the movement of the raise of the type-wheel to present the lower row of characters, which comprise the numerals, punetnation-marks, &c., there being a spring 15, secured at one end to a pin 11', in the front plate 17 of the frame, the spring exerting at all times an upward pull upon the key-lever 13, which results in a downward movement of the arm 12, the gravity of the shaft and the type-wheel ll causing the lower end of the shaft to abut at all times against the lever.
Type-wheel ll is preferably formed of a shell 1 l, of vulcanized rubber, aluminium, or analogous material, having vertical recesses ll therein, the type-faces ll being preferably cast thereon, the object being to secure lightness, thereby preventing too great m0- mentum as the wheel is rapidly revolved.
Secured upon the upper end of tubular shaft 0 is a cross-piece forn'iing arms 18, there being projections 11) upon the ends of the same, which enter recesses 11' in the type-wheel to revolve the wheel, it being understood that the type-wheel can be raised or lowered independent of the mechanism for revolving the same, and at the same time revolves therewith.
21 designates anotched wheel secured upon revolnble tubular shaft 9, and revolves there with, the notched wheel having as many notches or recesses in the periphery as there are type-faces in a row around the wheel, there being a pawl-faced arm 2-? of a size and shape to enter the recesses, said arm being secured in a shaft 2b and rotating therewith to engage the notched wheel to lock the typewheel in position.
25) designates shaft parallel with shaft 12* 1 and journaled in the sides 2 of the frame, and upon said shaft near each end are secured levers 3H and lit), the forward ends of the levers extending to near the front of the machine, and connected by means of a hollow revoluble shaft 23], journaled at each end on said levers, thus forming a s 'lacing-bail. there being a screw-threaded rod ll secured into and extending in the rear of the shaft, upon which is an adjustable weight 31", which serves to normally raise shaft 131. If desired, however, a spring maybe interposed between the frame and levers 3t.) and lift to subserve the purpose of the weight.
32 designates key-levers, the rear end of which have a notch 32 upon the upper edge, which engages with the upper side of slots 233 cut in the back of plate Sit of the frame,
l the front ends of the levers passing through i slots 35 in front of plate 17, where the keys 35 are secured thereto.
1 3o designates spring-arms integral with plates as, which are riveted to cross-piece 1 34", the arms bearing against the key-levers to normally raise the same.
32* designates space-levers similar to key- 1 levers E2, the slots 323' being shorter to give a shorter stroke to the same, so as to allow the space-barto operate without moving thetypewheel-opcrating shaft, the space-ltwers being connected by a space-bar 32. extending across the front of the machine.
37 designates an arm loosely journaled at one end upon shaft is, the opposite end having a slot as therein, into which passes a pin 31! upon arm l l.
to designates a coiled spring, one end being attached to a hub t1, secured upon shaft 29, the opposite end secured to a ratchetwheel 2.3T, loosely secured to the shaft, there being a pawl 37 secured to the arm 37 and engaging with the teeth of the ratchet-wheel, by which means, when the wheel is revolved. the spring is regulated, there being a pin 337 in shaft 2b, which strikes a projection 37 to limit the movement of the shaft.
42 designates a gravity-catch having a recess or notch 42' therein, in which engages a pin l2 ,secnred to shaft 28 on the opposite end of the shaft to that occupied by pin 2.37 already described, the cat ch being disengaged from the pin by means of projection 42 upon lever ll the catch automatically engaging the pin.
41 designates the paper-carriage, comprising a paper-receptacle all, formed substantially circular in cross-section, having an opening ti, into which the paper is inserted.
45 designates the feed-roller, journaled in the carriage, and preferably formed with a rubber or analogtms covering, revolved by hand-knob l5.
ll; designates a friction roller bearing against the feed-roller, said roller being journaled in openings 46' in the carriage. and held against the feed-roller by means of springs 47, secured to the carriage and bear ing against the friction-roller.
4s designates a guide-rod secured in the carriage toguidcthe paper and hold the same in position to receive the impression.
Rear plate 34 of the frame extends forwardly as a covering for the rear end of the type-bars, &c., and is turned at an angle, forming a downwardly-projecting end 34, on which is journaled ai'itifriction-rollers 40, upon which rides a shaft of), secured in the carriage, the shaft being held on the antifriction-rollers by clamp 51, secured to the frame and passing over the shaft.
5; designates a ratchet-bar secured to the lower side of the papercarriage, the teeth of the bar normally bearing against a pawl 5'. when tension is given to the carriage to move the carriage by means of flexible connection 53, connecting the carriage and a spring-actuated drum 51, said pawl being secured to the shaft 22!) and rocking with the same. Pivoted to the pawl at 55 is aweighted movable pawl 56, which has a lIlOVQlllOllt equal to the distance between the teeth on the ratchetbar, so that when shaft 29 is rocked and the ratchet-bar engages the movable pawl the carriage moves forward the distance of one notch, and when the shaft is reversed the pawl 52 engages the teeth and the movable pawl swings back by its gravity one notch, and the operation is repeated, and the carriage moves forward.
It will be seen that in tilting the carriage it; swings upon the shaft 50 and (lisengages from the pawls 52 and 56, and the carriage is free to be moved laterally in either direction.
57 designates tubular bearings secured to the under side of top plate 22 and extending downwardly therefrom, in which are journaled pins 58, having secured upon the upper squared ends thereof ribbon-spools 51'), having a ribbon (i0 passing from one spool to the other in either direction as they are unreeled.
til designates a U-shaped lever pivoted to the upperface of the top plate midway of the spools, the bend of the lever being against the coil of ribbon 011 the spools, the arms moving from side to side as the spools are unrceled and reeled. Midway of the arms projects an arm 6 of a weighted lever (14, said lever being pivoted at the lower end on a pin 17, fixedly secured to the inside of the front plate 17 by a screw 17* passed through the front plate and screwing into the pin 17, the upper end moving in the are of a circle and actuated by the arms of the U-shaped lever til moving the lever to beyond the vertical center, the weight serving to throw the same to the opposite side.
In the body of the lever tit is a slot U5, in which projects one end of a pin 66, the pin being secured in a double reversible pawl 67,
which is pivoted to one arm of a bell-crank lever (58, which is oscillated by means of the arm of), the arm being connected to the lever t 234) by a link 130 Secured upon the lower ends of pins 58 are ratchet-wheels 71, having 11 pwardly-extendin g teeth with which contact one of the ends of a double pawl 67, the teeth being arranged to revolve by a downward movement of the space-rod and held from backward movement by adouble catch 07. l 72 designates an inclosing shell or case for 1 the type-wheel, having a cut-out portion of a size to admit of the hammer contacting, with the type-faces in line therewith, (see Fig. 7,) and over which the ribbon passes, the shell or case serving to form a protection for the type, not only to keep the ribbon from rubbing against the same, but to exclude dust from the type-wheel. l Secured to shaft 28, substantially midway the length of the same, is lever 73, which passes through a slot in the horizontal portion of the rear plate .Hof the frame and upwardly to a point opposite the upper row of type on the type-wheel, at which point is secured the hammer Tl, having a perforation therein, in which is inserted a rubber ormetal poundin face 74, which serves to make a good impression of the type, as the rubber yields to the face of the same. If desired, however, a solid hammer may be employed and a rubber band 74 oranalogous material, placed between the hammer and type-wheel, as shown in dotted lines, Fig.
Secured upon guide 18 is an adjustable stop 75 for the hammer when placed at any desired position, but used more specifically at the end of the line, prevents thehammer from striking over or piling up letters after the carriage has reached the limit of its movement, there being a bell 75 secured upon the stop, having a hammer 75 the opposite end of the hammer extending beyond the stop 75 in a position to be slightly raised to sound the alarm as the hammer in passing under raises the same.
As the characters entirely surround the type-wheel 11, to alternately use a character at or near the extreme limit of one revolution of the same, the character at ornear the limit of the opposite revolution of the same in succession, requires the type-wheel to have a substantially complete revolution, which increases the momentum. To secure a partial revolution of the same and only a minimum momentum, I provide for only a half-revolution as the extreme limit of the movement by forming a pin 76 on the lever 5 in the transverse center of the same, to which one end of a spring 77 is secured, the opposite end being secured to the under side of the top plate, the tension of the spring normally drawing the lever 5 to a vertical position and at all times normally holding the type-wheel in position to cause the characters composing each half of the turn to be equally divided, so that the type-wheel is only revolved one-half a rev olution in either direction at the farthest, and automatically returns to the original position.
7o designates a supplemental guide for the paper as it is fed from the paper-holder,which not only holds the paper so that the matter printed thereon is visible to the operator, but keeps the paper from contact with the hammer and spring-actuated drum 54, said supplemental guide being adapted to fold over the front of the machine, as shown in dotted lines, Fig. 1, to admit of a cover inclosing the type-writer.
78 designates a copy-holder comprising inclined standards 79, the lower ends of which are secured in a foot 80, which is secured in the frame of the machine, there being a clamp Sl upon the upper side of the copy, it being understood that the holder extends above the frame a sufficient distance to hold the copy above the carriage and paper as it is fed therefrom, so that it is plainly visible to the operator.
In operation the paper is lirst inserted. into the paper-carrier bypassing the s; me between food and friction rollers and. it respectively, the paper rolling up in the cylinder it until only the end is visible, and in position between the type-wheel and hammer, the carriage being pulled to the side of the machine. A key isnow depressed bythe operator, lowering one of the key-levers 3-. which ti rst alines the torsional rocking levers with the under side of the same, rocking shaft 3, lever 5, segmental gear 7, turning-gearS, shell 9, arms 11), and type-wheel 11, a sufficient distance to aline the type-faces represented by the key depressed. The key-lever has now been depressed to a degree to lower shaft 3] a sulficicnt distance to rock lever 3t) sufficiently to depress arm 37 to put tension upon spring it), shaft 28 remaining stationary, owing to the catch 12 engaging the pin 42 until when the key-lever has been fully lowered the catch is released from the pin 42 the spring now revolving shaft 28, first causing pawl-arm 23 to revolve to engage with the pawl-wheel holding the type-wheel in a locked position. The hammeris now projected and the impression of the type-face is now made upon the paper interposed between the samc. The key is now re leased and the spring 36 returns the key-lever to its original position, the weighted rear ends of levers 30 and 30 returning shaft 29, the pawlarm 22 and hammer 74 being retracted and resuming the original position, the spring 77 returning the type-wheel to its normal position, and the carriage is moved the distance equal to one notch in the ratchet-bar 52, ready for a repeated operation. As a key, and consequently the lever 30, is depressed the bellcrank lever 68 is rocked, oscillating the double pawl (37, which engages one of the ratchets in wheel. 71 and revolves the same, the direction of the feed being regulated bythe U-shaped lever 151, as has been described, the double catch being also operated by the U-shaped lever 31 and at all times keeps the ribbon from reverse motion.
To make a space between each word, the space-barisdepressed,whichlowers the levers 30 and. 30' to rock shaft ft! to a degree (their movement being limited in its downward direction by contacting with the lower wall of the short slots 33') to engage the movable pawl with the ratchet-bar of the carriage, which allows the same to move forward the required space. As a line is completed, the carriage is tilted back, releasing the rack-bar from the pawls, and is now free to be moved to the opposite side of the machine to commence a new line.
In the modilied construction shown in Fig. 10 lever 37 on shaft 28 is formed with an arm 38', connected with pin .42 bv means of a coiled spring 28, and lever 17 is connected with arm 30 by means of a link 30*, the catch t2 in this instance operating to control the end of pin 38 In this construction spring 40 and connections are omitted, it only being necessary to raise or lower spring 28 to secure greater or less tension upon the same.
\Vhile l have shownthree rows of type upon thetype-whcel, I may use any number of rows of type, the operation being the same.
It will be seen that, by means of thehammer being projected by the spring, the tension of which is set to the same point for each stroke, Iproduce an even pound upon the same, thereby making an even impression of all characters upon the paper.
In manifolding, the rubber inserted in the hammer is removed, the solid hammer is inserted, by which operation a harder stroke is given, and the manifolding perfected.
\Yhile l have shown and described antifriction-rollers upon whichthe pa per-carriage moves, I also wish it undcrst ood that anyother means may be employed.
\Vhat 1 claim is- 1. In a type-writer, the case and key-levers, a rockshaft journaled in the case, a frame rigidly connected with said rock-shaft and adapted to be operated upon by the key-levers, said frame comprising longitudinal bars parallel with the rock-shat" t upon opposite sides of the same and connected thereto at each end, said bars being inclined with reference to their length, each bar having an opposite inclination, a vertical arm secured to the rock-shaft. and each longitudinal bar and carrying a segmental tooth-bar upon its upper end and a t ype-wheel having a shaft provided with a pinion adapted to mesh with the segmental tooth-bar.
2. ln atypc-writer, the type-wheel, and ribbon -spools, the ratchet-wheels connected with said spools, a double reversible pawl pivoted between the. ratchet-wheels, a weighted lever connected with the reversible pawl, a U- shaped lever pivoted between the spools and adapted to contact. therewith, an elbow-lever pivotally connected with the pawl, the spacing-bail and the link coi'inecting the elbowlever and spacing-bail.
3. In a type-writer, a type-wheel and shaft, and means for operating the same, a notched wheel mounted upon the end of the typewheel shaft, a spri ng-actuated hammer-shaft, a hammer carried thereon, and a lockingarm also carried by said shaft and in advance of the hammer, adapted to engage the notched wheel prior to the stroke of the hammer, and thus hold the type-wheel rigid during said stroke.
4. ln atype-writer, a type-wheel and means for operating the same through the medium of. a series of keys and key-levers, a hammershaft, a hammer carried thereby, a spring for driving the hammer, a shaft parallel to said hammer-shaft carrying levers 3t) and 30 having a shaft 31 secured to the ends of the same, said shaft normally bearing against the under side of the key-levers, a lever 37 connecting the lever 30 and a ratchet-wheel 37 upon the hammer-shaft, a pin 4; projecting downwardly from the hammer-shaft normally in engagement with a lever 42 and a pin carried shafts, a double pawl, a lever for shifting said by the lever 30' in the path of travel of lever pawl to reverse the ribbon-feed, said. lever 42, whereby when a key-lever is depressed the type-wheel is first revolved and tension put upon the spring and the lever 42 is then depressed releasing the hammer-shaft and allowing it to be projected under the action of the spring.
5. In a type-writer, a case and a rock-shaft arranged therein below the key-levers, a segi mental toothed arm connected with and operated by said shaft, the type-wheel and shaft, said shaft carrying a gear adapted to mesh with the toothed arm and a spring connected with the toothed arm at one end and to the case whereby the tension of the spring is to normally hold the arm in alinement with the spring or the segment in an intermediate position as regards the pinion.
6. In atype-writer, the ri bbon-spools carrying ratchet-wheels upon the lower ends of the l having an arm extending above the pawl, and a- U-shaped lever pivoted between the ribi Don-spools, and adapted to alternately contact therewith, whereby as one spool is filled f the Ushaped lever is moved, operating the 5 arm of the lever and reversing the movement of the pawl. I '7. In a type-writer, a guide for the paper, a stop for the hammer adjustable thereon, a bell, the hammer-lever of which is in the path of travel of the impression-hammer to raise the same.
In testimony that I claim the foregoing as my own I hereby atfix my signature in pres ence of two witnesses.
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