US56338A - Loftus perkins - Google Patents

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US56338A
US56338A US56338DA US56338A US 56338 A US56338 A US 56338A US 56338D A US56338D A US 56338DA US 56338 A US56338 A US 56338A
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coil
tubes
water
heating
air
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F28HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL
    • F28DHEAT-EXCHANGE APPARATUS, NOT PROVIDED FOR IN ANOTHER SUBCLASS, IN WHICH THE HEAT-EXCHANGE MEDIA DO NOT COME INTO DIRECT CONTACT
    • F28D21/00Heat-exchange apparatus not covered by any of the groups F28D1/00 - F28D20/00
    • F28D21/0001Recuperative heat exchangers
    • F28D21/0012Recuperative heat exchangers the heat being recuperated from waste water or from condensates

Description

L. PERKINS.

'Air Cooling andHeating Apparatus.

' Patentedluly 1.0, 1866.

MANN.

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PATENT OFFICE.

LOFTUS PERKINS, OF LONDON, ENGLAND.

APPARATUS FOR HEATING AND COOLING AIR, 80G.

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 56,338, dated July 10, 1866.

To all whom it may concern;

Be it known that I, Lon'rUsPEEKINs, of London, England, have invented a new and useful Improvement in Heating and Cooling Atmospheric Air, Suc.; and I do hereby declare that the following is a full, clear, and exact description thereof, which will enable others skilled in the art to make and use the same, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, forming part of this specification, in Which- Figure 1 represents a longitudinal vertical section of this invention, the line ac Fig. 2, indicating the plane of section. Fig. 2 is a sectional plan or top view of the same. Fig. 3 is a transverse vertical section of the same, the line y y, Fig. 1, indicating the plane of section. Fig. 4 is a similar section of the same, taken in the plane indicated by the line z z, Fig. 1.

Similar letters of reference indicate like parts.

This invention has for its object improvements in apparatus for heating and cooling atmospheric air and and for heating ovens and for heating and Ventilating buildings.

For these purposes iron or steel tubes are employed, or it may be tubes of copper or other suitable metal, which are closed at both ends by welding or by brazing or soldering, so as to make the closed ends stronger than, or as strong as may be in relation to, the other parts of the tubes, and capable of resisting more than the maximum pressure each tube will be required to bear without leaking and without melting the braze or solder when such materials are used for closing the ends. It is, however, preferred to employ wrought-iron or steel tubes welded at both ends. One end of each tube is first closed, and then there is introduced a quantity of water, or it may be other fluid, (but water is preferred except when the apparatus is intended for producing a cooling effect, when 'ether or other highly-volatile iluid is used and afterward the other end of each tube is closed.

A series of such tubes may be arranged and made up into apparatus for heating and I cooling air in` various ways.

Thus, supposing it is required to warm a tubes will constantly other aeriform bodies,

hall or rooin or other part of a building, a cluster of such tubes is used, the tubes being placed, by preference, in an upright position. At the lower end oi' the cluster of tubes a furnace or tire-place is constructed, which, together with the case containing the cluster or set of tubes. may be of a more or less ornamental character. The portions of the tubes exposed to the action of the fire being full of water, there will be a constant evaporation and conversion into steam of part of the water, and this steam in the upper parts of the condense, and will descend down to be again evaporated, and so the tubes are kept uniformly heated from end to end.

It is not essential when warming rooms and parts of buildings that the tubes should be vertical or arranged in clusters or parallel to each other, as they may be arranged in planes or in curved lines, or may be more or less inclined either to each other or to the horizon, so long as the condensed water or uid will run back to the heated ends of the tubes.

In constructing ovens and also hot rooms for baking bread or other articles, and for drying, and for various other purposes, the bottoms, tops, sides, and ends, or any of these parts of the oven or chamber, may thus be heated, using the series of such tubes inclined or vertically, according to the special requirement of each case.

For Ventilating rooms and buildings a set or coil of pipes of this description may be arranged in connection with an opening at the upper part of the room or building at the same time that air is being admitted by another opening or openings at the lower part.

Figure l of the annexed drawings shows a vertical section of an apparatus constructed according to my invention for warming a room or building.

Fig. 2 is a section of the same, taken at the line A B of Fig. 1. a a are the pipes. One of them is shown in section, and a transverse section of the same is shown full size at Fig. 3. They are, by preference, made of wroughtiron and welded up at the ends, care, of course, being taken in making the second weld to keep the other end of the tube, containing the water, the lowest until the weld is complete. The quantity of water placed inthe tube should be such as to insure that the part of the tube on which the iire acts shall be always full of water, and I generally allow a considerable margin but the quantity of water should not be too great, or the tubes will not heat properly from end to end. The quantity of water is indicated in the drawings, and the amount so shown is amply sufficient. b is a irebox,'lined with fire-brick, into which the lower ends of the tubes are inserted. c are the iire-bars in the center of the group of pipes. d is an ornamental casing masking the whole of the pipes.

Fig. 4 shows, in section, a heating apparatus suitable for a room or building, which may be employed when it is desired to use a greater extent of heating-surface at a lower temperature. a a is a coil of pipes placed in the room or building to be heated. It may be conveniently of pewter or lead pipe, such as is used in gas-litting. The coil is closed at its upper end, and from the lower end a pipe proceeds downward to another coil, b, which is contained in the'vessel c, in which is water kept boiling by a fire; or in any other way may the lower coil be exposed to a moderate heat. In making the coil, when the lower end has been soldered up, sufficient water is introduced to lill the upper coil with steam at atmospheric pressure, or more may be used 5 but the quantity should not be greater than can be contained by the coil b. Then this water is heated, and at the same time, by an airpump connected with the upper end of the coil a., the air is pumped out of the system as completely as possible, and then lthe upper vend of the coil a is bent over and soldered up.

There being' then a vacuum in the tube, the water in the coil b will boil long before the water in the open vessel c, and so long as the water in the vessel c is warm the apparatus will continue in action, evaporation taking place in the coil b and condensation in the coil a. The tire in this arrangement may be in the basement or other convenient locality. For Ventilating a building, a coil such as is shown in this Fig. 4 may be mounted at the top of the building, immediately Linder an aperture leading to the open air, while air at the same time is admitted at the lower part of the building or room. Where the object is to cool the air of a room or building a similar apparatus may be employed, except that the coil b should be above in place of below the coil a. The coil ct in this case is iilled with ether or other highlyvolatile liquid, and a vacuum having been made the coil b is sealed. The coil b is then kept cool by immersing it in a cooling-liquid or by keeping it moist while exposed to a current of cold air, or by other convenientmeans.

Fig. 6 shows a longitudinal section of a stationary brick oven arranged according to my invention.` Fig.7 shows a sectional plan of the same. Fig. 8 shows a transverse section taken at the line A B of Fig. 6, and Fig. 9 shows a transverse section taken at the line G D of Fig. 6.

a a is the baking-chamber, consisting of a brick-work casing, d, sufficiently thick to prevent any undue escape of heat from the oven or chamber a a, with a door, b, at one end, preferred to be filled in with lime e between its outer and inner casings to prevent the escape of heat, lime being a non-conductor, for

the introduction and withdrawal of the bread to and from the bread-tray c. The oven may be built solid below the hot-chamberfor bread, or upon arches. It is, however, preferred, for the sake of economy, to be upon small arches, as shown.

ff aretwo rows of pipes for water, similar to those described in respect to Fig. 1, and a transverse section of which is shown Aat Fig. 3. One of the rows of pipesfis at the bottom of the baking-chamber a, and the other at the top thereof, and immediately over the lower row is the bread-tray c, for receiving the bread or other articles to be baked.

g is a lire-box, lined with fire-brick, and into it the tubes ff project, as is shown, which projection forms the heating-surface of the tube for the action of the fire.

h is a small passage at the top of the lirebox, preferred to be built up of angle-iron, as shown, for the draft to pass through to the chimney i', which may be continued with the particular requirements of the case.

7c is a pyrometer for ascertaining the heat of the baking-chamber.

m is a dead-plate for the bottom -of the furnace g, fitted with arevolvin g bar, h, for clearing the fuel of the superliuous dirt, which may be shaken by the bar o from the front of the furnace, as shown.

Z Z are two ordinary furnace-doors for feeding the furnace through.

The plate p is affixed so as to make an air-space between it and the brick-work of the furnace, and so prevent the burning of any articles introduced into the baking-chamber.

Having thus described the nature of my said invention and the manner of performing the same, I would have it understood that what I claim is- The use of tubes sealed at both ends and containing water or other volatilizableliquid in heating and cooling atmospheric air and other aeriform bodies, and in heating ovens, and in heating and Ventilating buildings, as herein described.

LOFTUS PERKINS. Witnesses G. F. WARREN, JOHN DEAN,

Both of No. 17 Graceclnwch Street, Loudon.

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20040156554A1 (en) * 2002-10-15 2004-08-12 Mcintyre David J. System and method for simulating visual defects

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20040156554A1 (en) * 2002-10-15 2004-08-12 Mcintyre David J. System and method for simulating visual defects

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