US546138A - Type writing machine - Google Patents

Type writing machine Download PDF


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US546138A US546138DA US546138A US 546138 A US546138 A US 546138A US 546138D A US546138D A US 546138DA US 546138 A US546138 A US 546138A
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    • B41J19/00Character- or line-spacing mechanisms
    • B41J19/18Character-spacing or back-spacing mechanisms; Carriage return or release devices therefor
    • B41J19/34Escapement-feed character-spacing mechanisms
    • B41J19/42Escapements having two pawls or like detents
    • B41J19/46Escapements having two pawls or like detents and mounted on a single rocker


(No Model.) 5 Sheets-Sheet 1.

E. A. FORD. TYPE WRITING MACHINE. No. 546,138. 5 Patented Sept. 10, 1895.



(No Model.) 5 Sheets-Sheet 2.


No. 546,138. liatented Sept. 10, 1895.

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{No Model.) 5 Sheets-Sheet; 3.



No. 546,138. Patented Sept, 10, 1895.

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No. 546,138. Patented Sept. 10,1895.


(No Model.) 5 Sh eets--Sheet 5.


No. 546,138. Patented Sept, 10, 1895.

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SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 546,138, dated September 10, 1895.

Application filed May 19, 1894. Serial No. 511,829. (No model.) Patented in England April 12, 1892, No. 7,055.

To all whom it may concern.-

Be it known that I, EUGENE A. FOR-D, of New York city, New York, have invented a new and useful Improvement in Type-Writing Machines, which improvement is fully set forth in the following specification and partly described in British Patent No."7,055, dated April 12, 1892.

This invention has reference to typewriting machines and embraces certain improvements, hereinafter set forth in detail, adapted more particularly (though not exclusively) to machines of the type illustrated in Reissued Letters Patent No. 11,339, granted to me May 16, 1893. Machines of this type are characterized by type-bars which make a plunging stroke in printing and are pivoted so as to move transversely to the printing-stroke, the shift of type being effected by a swinging guide at the free ends of the type-bars.

The objects of the presentinvention are to improve the machine in points of speed of operation, lightness of stroke, and in other respects, as will more fully appear hereinafter.

The escapement mechanism of this invention is adapted to give a quick movement to the carriage, advancing it the space of a letter before the last type has moved a quarter of an inch from the platen, so that no matter how rapidly the type follow each other the feed will take place between the successive strokes. This mechanism includes a dog, which normally holds the carriage by engagement with one of the spaces of a slotted bar or rack, and another dog which displaces the first when a type-bar advances, (and itself displaces the first when a type-bar advances,)'

and itself holds the carriage until the typebar begins to move backward,whereupon the carriage is free and immediately moves forward until checked by the first dog entering the next slot or notch.

The line-spacing mechanism is constructed to admit of the carriage being turned the space of one or more lines, as desired, and dispenses with the detaining or check-spring heretofore employed to prevent the platen from turning accidentally. The pawl for turning the platen is so constructed that it is normally disengaged from the ratchet-wheel, so that the platen is free to be turned in either In connection with the platen I direction.

having this defect it is not practical to use a very sharp letter. invention I make it impossible, by reason of the shape given to the type-heads and the manner of connecting them with the typebars, for one type-head to engage, catch, or

interfere with the others, so that the machine can be worked at maximum speed. This construction of the type-heads and.the quickacting escapement, with other elements that in a measure contribute to the sameresnlt, make a very high-speed machine.

The invention includes improvements in other parts of the machine, all of which will be fully explained in the following detailed description, in which reference is made to the drawings accompanying and forming part of this specification.

Figure l is a longitudinal section through the middle of the machine. Fig. 2 is a plan view, part of the platen being broken away. Fig. 3 is a sectional elevation, the section being taken on line 0a at, Fig. 2. Fig. 4 is a rear elevation. Fig. 5 is a perspective view of the parts constituting the line-spacing mechan ism, the frame and other adjacent parts being indicated in dotted lines. Fig. 6 is an end View of the carriage. Fig. 7 is a bottom view of the carriage, partly in section, and showing the ball-bearing mechanism. Fig. 8 is a detail of one of the type-heads.

The type-bars B are arranged to strike a horizontal plunging blow at a common printing-point. The free ends of these bars enter the hollow guide and shifter C, which is triangular in shape and has at its apex c, adjacent to the platen D, aslot or opening of just sufficient size to permit the passage of a typehead I) and guide it properly to the printingpoint. As the same guide acts for all the type, correct alignment is secured and maintained.

The upper part of guide 0 at its apex c is According to the present.

beveled or curved downward toward the platen, thereby enabling the operator to View the characters as they are printed, and in the central part of this curved surface is a rib or pointer C, which serves as a letter-gage.

The guide and shifterC is pivoted at C and is provided with the usual means (which need not be described) for raising it to two new positions, the type-heads I) being provided each with three characters.

It is of the utmost importance for rapid work that the t ype-bars and type-heads should be able to pass each other freely under all conditions withoutinterference. To this end the type-heads b are formed, as shown in Figs. 2 and S, of approximately triangular shape looking from the-top, tapering gradually rearwardly to the dimension of the type-bar, to which they are attached by cutting a groo've in the side of the type-heads for the type near the sides of the machine, as shown in Fig. 2, or in the end of the type-heads for type near the middle of the machine, as shown in Fig.

8. The shape is such that the type-heads pass each other with perfect smoothness, no matter how rapidly the keys are struck, and it is impossible for the face of one type to strike against or catch any part of another type-head. V

The carriage is moved by a motor-spring F, inclosed in barrel F, through a cord e, and is normally held against the tension of the spring by a pivoted dog G, whose tooth strikes into one of the slots of a rack E on carriage E. On the other side of therack from holding-dog G is the release-dog G, whose tooth is normally clear of the rack, but just opposite the tooth of dog G dog G is connected with the bail-head G which in turn is connected by means of three rods 9 with the escapement-bail G which is a metal strip curved into a circular arc and disposed in such position as to be struck and moved.

pivot-hole g of dog G is slightly larger than its pin, (see Fig. 2,) and consequently, when pushed out of a notch, spring g draws the dog forward, so that its tooth engages against the solid strip or rack E betweenftheQslot just vacated and the one next to it, so that it is ready to enterthe latter as soon as the carriage moves. The carriage in the meantime is held by dog G, but as soon as the type-bar begins to return'bail G is released and the bail-head G and dog G are retracted by spring 9. The carriage is then for an instant free to move until arrested by dog G. The tension of the carriage-spring F normally holds the dog G in the position shown in Fig. 2. By means of the qnick-acting escapement the feed of the carriage maybe made to take place before the type-head has moved back a quarter of an inch from the platen, making it impossible for a second type to strike the paper before the feed takes place.

It will be observed that the holding-dog G extends from its pivot backward in the direction opposite to the movement of the carriage, so that the pressure of the rack 011 its tooth tends to turn the dog so as to force and lock the tooth firmly in the rack. On the other hand, the release-dog G extends forward from its pivot, so that When engaged in the rack the pressure of the latter tends to throw it out of engagement as soon as the operators finger releases the key. This enables me to get a prompt action by employing a very weak retracting-spring g", and in I The release-bail G is a rod loosely pivoted to the carriage E and hanging just behind the rear extension of holding-dog G. Its end g forms a convenienthandle by which the operator can swing the bail forward, withdrawing dog G and leaving the carriage free to be run in either direction, as desired.

Rods connecting bail G and bail-head G have right and left handed screw-threads for purposes of adjustment of the position of bail. G The latter is so adjusted that dog G re leases the rackE simultaneously, or nearly so, with the impact of the type against the paper. One end of the motor-spring F, Fig. 4, is attached to the barrel F, as usual, and the other end to a disk F pivoted on the shaft of the spring, but normally held by detent-springf engaging with one of the notchesf in the periphery of disk F Disk F can be turned, for the purpose of adjusting the tension of the motor-spring, by applying sufficient force to turn the disk against the holding force of springf.

The construction of the linespacing mechanism is best shown in Figs. 3, 4:, 5, and (l. The spindle d of cylinder D is journaled in the side pieces D of the carriage E and has at one end the pinion D. The pawl D by which the cylinder or platen I) is turned, has a slot (Z through which spindle d passes, the slot being of such size that the pawl can move vertically far enough to disengage its tooth d from pinion D. This is the normal position of the parts, the pawl being held in this position by its connection with the operating-handle I, which is normally pressed outward by a spiral spring 2'. The handle or lever I has an arm 1 to which is pivoted the lower end of a link i whose upper end is pivoted to pawl D Upon pressing lever I toward the carriage pawl D drops by gravity, bringing its tooth into one of the notches of pinion D, and as link I is pulled down by the further movement of handle I the pawl turns on spindle d as a fulcrum, carrying platen.D with it, until its end 61 is arrested by stop-pin d, fixed to the side piece D. This mechanism has several advantages. In the first place the pawl being always clear of the ICO pinion or ratchet-wheel the operator can at any time with one hand turn the platen in either direction. Furthermore, when the position of the cylinder has been changed for any reason in the course of writing a page it is not necessary to adjust the cylinder by hand to make the lines of completed writing register with the line where the type strike, since this registration is automatically effected by the pawl when it strikes against stop d".

The line-spacing mechanism may be constructed to turn the cylinder at each operation the space of one or more lines, as desired. As shown in Fig. 5, the mechanism is normally set for double-line spacing-that is to say, when the handle I is actuated pawl D drops in the second notch in front of stop (1 For single-line spacing an adjusting-lever 7' is turned to the position shown in Fig. 6, in which position its armj depresses the tailof pawl D bringing its tooth in such position that it will, when actuated, drop into the notch next to stop (1 and move the platen the space of one notch.

Handle I is placed at the end of carriage E, in convenient position to be used forpushing back the carriage to its starting-point by movement in the same direction as that which actuates the linespacing mechanism.

To facilitate adjustment of the paper on the platen in cases where workis replaced for correction, a line-indicator L is provided on the base of the machine, Figs. 2 and 3, its top being exactly in line horizontally with the line where the type strike. This indicator is in the form of a spring, so that it can be pressed against the platen to determine accurately the position of the line.

The platen D is held from turning too freely by the pressure of friction-roller K, extending along its entire length and pressed into contact therewith by leaf-springs 7.3, Fig. 3, which press against collars on the spindle of roller K. The latter also assists in feeding the paper, which passes between it and the platen. This roller takes the place of the detaining-spring usually employed to exert pressure on the platen and prevent its turning freely. The roller is journaled in a swinging frame K, pivoted at in the side pieces D of the carriage. Vv hen it is desired, for the easy introduction or removal of the work, to separate the roller K and platen D, the frame carrying the former is depressed by throwing forward the cam-lever 76 Fig. 3, which presses against the end of the spindle of roller K.

The carriage F. in its movements slides upon the rail N, antifriction-balls n. being interposed to make an easy movement, suitable grooves being cut in the rail and carriage to contain the balls. (See Figs. 6 and 7.) The balls on one side of the rail N are held in position by a trough-shaped plate at, which is pressed toward the rail by means of springs n Plate at and spring n constitute adj usting means for taking up the wear in both sets of balls, and also render it easy to take the carriage off the rail when for any reason that is desired.

In this machine it is desirable to have the platen set as close as possible to the apex of guide 0. It follows that in manifoldiug the space between these parts, which answers for ordinary work, would not be suficient. An adjustment is therefore necessary, and to that end the carriage is supported so that it can be tilted slightly, and the ball-bearing mechanism is so constructed as to admit of this movement. This adjustment is eifected by means of a plate P, Figs. 1 and 4, pivoted at P to a boss on the frame and provided with a cam-groove p. In this groove lies the head 19' of a screw, tapped -into a block Q, whose supporting-pin g slides freely in a hole in boss P Block Q also carries a hook g, which engages over a rod g on carriage E, and a supporting-roller g journaled therein and upon which said rod 95 rests. By moving cam-plate P to the right, Fig. 4, it will be seen that block Q, will be forced downward through the action of the cam-groove p upon the screw-head 19, tilting the carriage on the line of the front row of balls 11. as an axis, enlarging the space between the cylinder or platen D and guide C.

It will also be observed that while the carriage E is supported on one side by the antifriction-balls n it is also supported on its opposite side by the roller q, upon which rod rests and slides. This roller is, as shown, carried by the vertically-adjustable block Q, already described.

The paper-guide 'r at the left-hand end of the platen D, Figs. 2 and 3, is, as usual, made adjustable to accommodate different widths of paper. Accordingto the present invention, this paper-guide is combined with a carriagestop r, so that both may be adjusted simultaneously and the carriage be automatically arrested on its return movement at the proper point to begin the line for the size of paper in use at the time. Stop 0", which carries guide 7, is adjustable along a rail R in front of the carriage.- As shown in Fig. 2, this rail has a number of small vertical holes 3, into which a pin 2 can be fitted to hold the combined stop and paper-guide in its adjusted position. The fixed stop T, against which the stop 1' engages to arrest the carriage, is shown in Fig. 3. Of course any suitable or convenient clamping devices may be employed to hold the stop 'r in its adjusted position, and in general the details of construction shown and set forth are susceptible of modification without departing from the spirit of the invention.

'What I claim as new is- 1. The combination with the carriage and means for moving the same, of a perforated rack on the carriage, a spring actuated holding dog pivoted on one side of the rack, a releasing dog pivoted on the other side of the rack and having its tooth opposite to and adapted to displace that of the holding dog,

an escapement bail in position to be struck by each type-lever just as the latter reaches the end of its movement, and connections between the escapement bail and releasing dog, substantially as described.

2. The combination with the carriage and means for moving it, of a rack on the carriage, a spring-actuated holding dog and a pivoted releasing dog extendin g forward from its pivot in the direction of movement of the carriage, so that the pressure of the carriage tends to throw the release-dog out of engagement with the rack, substantially as described.

3. The combination with the platen of a pinion thereon, a pawl having a slot through which its pivot pin passes, so that the pawl has freedom of motion into and out of engagement with said pinion, a spring normally holding the pawl out of engagement with said pinion, an operating handle and connections for bringing said pawl into engagement with said pinion and turning it on its pivot, and a fixed stop for arresting the movement of the pawl always at the same spot, substantially as described.

4. The combination of the platen, the pinion thereon, the slotted pawl through which the arbor of the platen passes acting as a pivot for said pawl which is normally held clear of said pinion, means for moving said pawl into engagement with said pinion and turning the latter thereby, a stop for arresting the pawl, and an adjusting lever for varying the point at which the pawl engages the pinion, sub

stantially as described.

5. The combination with the platen, of a pinion thereon, a pawl having a slot, through which its pivot pin passes, and an extension or tail, said pawl being normally out of engagement with said pinion, means for moving said pawl into engagement with said pinion and turning the latter thereby, and an adjust ing lever acting on the extension or tail of said pawl for varying the point at which it engages said pinion, substantially as described.

6. The combination of the platen, its sliding carriage, a pinion on the platen, a slotted pawl on the arbor of the platen normally held out of engagement with the pinion, and an operating handle connected with said pawl and pivoted at the end of the carriage, so as to actuate said pawl and to move the carriage in the direction of its starting point, substantially as described.

7. The combination with the sliding carriage of a motor-spring a rotatable plate to which one end of said spring is attached for the pun pose of adjusting its tension, and a detent spring engaging notches in said plate for holding the same in its adjusted position, sub stantially as described.

8. The combination with the sliding carriage, of ball bearings for the same at one side thereof, a supporting roller upon which the opposite side of the carriage rests, and

means for adjusting said roller to tilt the carriage, substantially as described.

9. The combination with the typebars, and the guide therefor, of the impression cyclinder, its carriage, a rail upon which said carriage slides, ball-bearings for said carriage, and a yielding plate thereon constituting one of the bearings surfaces, so that the carriage can be tilted on its longitudinal axis to regulate the distance between the type-guide and impression cylinder, substantially as described.

10. The combination with the platen and the horizontally moving type-bars, of the hollow guide common to all the type-bars, said guide being beveled or curved downward at the end adjacent to the platen, substantially as described.

11. The combination with the platen and type-bars, of the hollow guide common to all the bars, said guide being of triangular shape, curved downward at its forward end adjacent to the platen and provided with a rib or pointer, substantially as described.

12. The combination with the guide and the longitudinally moving type-bars of type-heads of approximately triangular outline, tapering gradually backward to the thickness of the typebars, substantially as described.

In testimony whereof I have signed this specification in the presence of two subscribing witnesses.



PHILIP MAURO, Rnnvn Lewis.

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