US511424A - Still - Google Patents

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US511424A
US511424A US511424DA US511424A US 511424 A US511424 A US 511424A US 511424D A US511424D A US 511424DA US 511424 A US511424 A US 511424A
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D3/00Distillation or related exchange processes in which liquids are contacted with gaseous media, e.g. stripping
    • B01D3/001Processes specially adapted for distillation or rectification of fermented solutions

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  • This invention relates to certain new and useful improvements in stills, and it consists substantially in such features of construction, arrangement and combinations of parts as will hereinafter be more particularly described.
  • the object of the invention isto provide a still in which the process of distillation may be carried on. continuously without loss of time incident to the stoppage of machinery or other similar causes.
  • a further object of the invention is tosimplify the construction of this class of apparatus generally, and to provide means for as-. certaining at all times the height and condition of the liquor ormaterial being treated.
  • a still further objeetof the invention is to provide an apparatus or still in which the process of distillation shall be rendered much more complete; and also to provide for the easy manipulation of parts; as well as the perfect regulation and control of the distillation process, substantially as will more fully appear on reference to the accompanyingdrawings, in which- I Figure 1, is a vertical, elevation, partly in section, of an apparatus or still constructed and arranged in accordance with my improvements.
  • Fig. 2 is a bottom plan View of the lower or primary chamber in which is located the heating coil through which the liquid mash is forced into the apparatus under pressure.
  • Fig. 3 is a view in detail, partly in section, of the blow-off and signal devices.
  • Fig. 1 is a vertical, elevation, partly in section, of an apparatus or still constructed and arranged in accordance with my improvements.
  • Fig. 2 is a bottom plan View of the lower or primary chamber in which is located the heating coil through which the liquid mash is forced into the apparatus under pressure.
  • Fig. 3 is
  • FIG. 4 is a plan view of one of the perforated plates constituting the bottom of the upper contracted chambers or compartments.
  • Fig. 5 is asimilar view of the bottom of one of the larger compartments, showing the arrangement-of theboiling capsor hoods, this figure, as
  • Fig. 6 represents a view in perspective of thestirring rake; and Fig. 7, is also a perspective View in detail of one of ,the seal-boxes or traps,'showing the arrangement and working therein of said rake Fig. 8, is a view in detail, respectively, of one of the steam tips in the bottom of each of the larger or main chambers or compartments, and the cap or hood which fits .over the same.
  • I provide a suitablecolumn constituted of a number of superposed hollow flanged sections, which areunited at their flanges in a perfectly air-tight manner, by means ot'suitable fastening bolts,.and said column is supported at thebottom upon a suitable base or foun-
  • the interior of the column is divided into a number of separate chambers or compartments, each communicating with the other, the lower compartment or chamber being preferably larger than the others and containing a heating coil, the surrounding space of which being constantly heated by an incoming supply of steam.
  • the said column is somewhat smaller orcontracted for a suitable distance from the top, and the interior of this contracted portion is likewise divided up into a number of separate compartments or chambers similar to the lower chambers of the main body.
  • the mash to be treated is forced into the heating coil at the bottom and caused to rise to a suitable height within the column, preferably to the top chamber of the column, and thence descends to the upper compartment or chamber of the larger series, where it starts to move or circulate around said compartment, passes below to the next compartment where it is made to travel an opposite course or direction; thence to the next succeeding chamber below, and so on until it has reached the bottom, or slop chamber, the same being made to alternately follow an opposite course, so as to be kept thoroughly agitated in its passage ICC tractcd form give to the vapor an increased pressure before its passage out to the cooler or condenser thereby depriving the vapor of its bad flavor and yieldinga greater percentage of alcohol.
  • a suitable float is employed in the slop chamberwhich at the propel-time operates the valve of the blow-off; and in addition, an automatic alarm-whistle is employed to give notice of any irregularity or' improper working of the still.
  • an automatic alarm-whistle is employed to give notice of any irregularity or' improper working of the still.
  • A represents a vertical column constituted of a number of superposed hollow flanged sections a united at their flanges by means of fastening belts or rivets b, and which column is supported at its base or bottom upon a suitable foundation of brickwork c.
  • the said column is divided up into a number of separate chambers or compartments (1, the one at the bottom being preferably a little higher or larger than the rest, so as to accommodate the heating coil, while the remaining ones are of practically the same height and dimensions throughout.
  • the sides of the columns are somewhat contracted for a suitable distance from the top, as shown by the letter 6, and the surrounding portion is also divided up into a number of separate chambers or compartments d in like manner.
  • each set of compartments may be varied to suit particular requirements, but preferably of the compartments (1 I have herein selected nine,while of the compartments or chambers d, I have selected three.
  • Each of the compartments d and d is provided with a bottom d which is formed or provided with an overflow box (1 the arrangement of such boxes alternating with each other, as shown and for the purpose to be described.
  • the bottoms of the chambers d are provided with a number of openings or perforations 6, while secured in suitable openings e in the bottoms of the compartments or chambers (Z is a number of steam tipsf, each being open at the top f for the escape or passage of steam therethrough.
  • the said tips are provided with a threaded part g for receiving the nuts 6 which secure them in place in the bottoms of the compartments; and fitting over the top of each of said tips is a cap or hood it having a flaring lower edge, as shown at f so as to cause the steam escaping from the open tops of the tips to spread outwardly all around.
  • These caps are placed in position through the manholes hereinafter referred to and are maintained in position over the tips by virtue of the connection formed between the groove 71 formed on the inner sides of the caps into which small projections 2' on the sides of the tips enter when said caps are slipped into place.
  • caps or hoods become heated as the steam issues from the tips and they thus serve to cook the material as it passes over the bottoms of the compartments (1, and thereby yield much greater results from the liquor or material being treated.
  • That part of the tip entering the bottom of the chamber is circular or round, while the upper portion thereof is oval, as shown, the caps being of corresponding shape to fit them.
  • the arrangement in each chamber is such as to form channels or spaces through which the mash passes on its way to the outlet pipe.
  • i small vertical grooves or slots are provided, as shown at i in Fig. 8.
  • each chamber or compartment (Z and d is provided with a discharge ,or out let pipej, which occupies a position about centrally of the overflow box of the next succeeding chamber, the lower ends of these pipes terminating a short distance abovethe bottoms of the boxes, so that in practice, as the mash or liquor passes from one chamber to the other through said pipes, a trap or seal is formed which prevents the steam entering the compartments from passing up through said pipes, which if it did might cause the pipes to become clogged from the heavier matters which combine with the steam as it passes up through theliquor being treated. In this way, an alternate arrangement of discharge pipes and overflow boxes or troughs is created, the purpose of which willbe understood more fully hereinafter.
  • each overflow box or trough through the side of the column is the handle of a perforated rake or stirrer Z, which is intended to be moved back and forth in the box or trough, whenever the same may become clogged or packed up by accumulating mash, and thus always enable the distilling operation to be carried on without interruption from such a cause.
  • the said stirrer is cut out or notched at m, so as to pass free of the discharge pipe which depends from above.
  • Each of the chambers or compartments d and d is provided with a test cook a which is for the purpose of ascertaining which of said chambers has been stepped up or clogged, as above explained.
  • Each of the compartments d, d is further provided with a partition (l extending'partly through or across the same, the saidpartitions being so disposed as that the over-flow troughs and discharge pipes of the several chambers will alternate on opposite sides of said partitions, for the purpose more fully hereinafter explained.
  • a heating coil B which terminates in a vertical portion 0 extending up through all of the chambers or compartments, about centrally thereof, until it reaches the top chamber, where it takes a bend downwardly, as shown at D, and terminating at near the bottom of the upper chamber 01 and entering the over-flow box thereof, as shown.
  • the said heating coil is connected at r to any suitable apparatus for forcing the mash into the coil and causing said mash to be discharged or emptied from the depending portion D of said pipe.
  • the space surrounding the coil is kept constantly supplied with steam which enters through a pipe E and escapes through a series of perforations 0 in said pipe.
  • This pipe may be employed to supply live steam to'the chamber in which the coil is placed, and preferably an additional pipe F is sometimes employed for supplying exhaust steam thereto, accordingly as desired.
  • the lowermost chamber dsurrounding the coil is the one constituting the slop chamber, and within this chamber is contained a float H, which has a movable connection 19 unitingthe same with the key J, which opens the valve J of a blow-off K.
  • the said connection has also attached to it a hook q, held by the end of a loop 0 which depends from an automatic steam-whistle or alarm M.
  • This automatic whistle or alarm M is quite an important feature in this class of apparatus, since as soon as any improper working of the still occurs, an alarm is instantly chamber.
  • the top of the still is provided with a pipe L, leading oif to any suitable cooler or con- C, and then descends through thedepending portion D, thereof, and is discharged into the overflow box of say, for instance, the upper one of the chambers or compartments of.
  • the mash or liquor overflows the said box and spreads over the surface of the bottom of the chamber until it reaches the opening leading into the outlet ordischarge pipe of said cham ber; thence it passes into the overflow box of the next succeeding chamber, again spreads out over the bottom of this chamber in like manner, and so on until it has passed through all of the chambers d to the bottom or slop
  • the steam from below is all the while issuing through the perforations of the tips in the bottoms of the chambers, and iscaused to spread out all around said tips and pass up through the material in an obvious manner, to take up with or become mixed or intermingled with the alcoholic or other vapors.
  • each separate compartment is provided with a manshole T, properly closed over, and that the several pipes maybe prov ided with the usual cut-off orregulatingcocks or valves.
  • the entire apparatus is very compact, consumes but little space, and givesthe bestresults in use.
  • each pipe a heating coil in the lowermost chamber, and a vertical pipe leading from said coil to the top of the still, thence downwardly and terminating within the ;upper chamberof the main series; substantially as described.

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  • Chemical Kinetics & Catalysis (AREA)
  • Commercial Cooking Devices (AREA)

Description

(No Model.) I 2 Sheets-Sheet 11 H. HINZ.
STILL.
No. 511,424. Patnted 116 26, 1893.
2 Sheets-Sheet 2.
( No Model.) v
Patented Dec. 26; 1893.
JTMMHIJIQ ma NATIONAL LITHOGRAPNING OIIPAI|Y.
E Mme TATES ATENT FFICE.
HERMANN HINZ, OF FRANKFORT, KENTUCKY.
STILL.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 511,424, dated December 26, 1893.
Application filed July 13 1893 $erial No. 480,407. {No model.) I
To aZZ whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, HERMANN HINZ, a citizen of the United States, residing at Frankfort, in the county of Franklin and State, of
Kentucky, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Stills, of which the following is a specification.
This invention relates to certain new and useful improvements in stills, and it consists substantially in such features of construction, arrangement and combinations of parts as will hereinafter be more particularly described.
The object of the invention isto provide a still in which the process of distillation may be carried on. continuously without loss of time incident to the stoppage of machinery or other similar causes. r
A further object of the invention is tosimplify the construction of this class of apparatus generally, and to provide means for as-. certaining at all times the height and condition of the liquor ormaterial being treated.
A still further objeetof the invention is to provide an apparatus or still in which the process of distillation shall be rendered much more complete; and also to provide for the easy manipulation of parts; as well as the perfect regulation and control of the distillation process, substantially as will more fully appear on reference to the accompanyingdrawings, in which- I Figure 1, is a vertical, elevation, partly in section, of an apparatus or still constructed and arranged in accordance with my improvements. Fig. 2, is a bottom plan View of the lower or primary chamber in which is located the heating coil through which the liquid mash is forced into the apparatus under pressure. Fig. 3, is a view in detail, partly in section, of the blow-off and signal devices. Fig. 4, is a plan view of one of the perforated plates constituting the bottom of the upper contracted chambers or compartments. Fig. 5, is asimilar view of the bottom of one of the larger compartments, showing the arrangement-of theboiling capsor hoods, this figure, as
well as the one preceding, showing the alternate arrangement of the seal or overflow, and the partitions which cause the liquor or material being treated to circulatein opposite directions as the same'passes from one chamber or or stirrer.
i dat-ion of brickwork.
compartment. to the other. Fig. 6, represents a view in perspective of thestirring rake; and Fig. 7, is also a perspective View in detail of one of ,the seal-boxes or traps,'showing the arrangement and working therein of said rake Fig. 8, is a view in detail, respectively, of one of the steam tips in the bottom of each of the larger or main chambers or compartments, and the cap or hood which fits .over the same.
In carrying my invention into effect, I provide a suitablecolumn constituted of a number of superposed hollow flanged sections, which areunited at their flanges in a perfectly air-tight manner, by means ot'suitable fastening bolts,.and said column is supported at thebottom upon a suitable base or foun- The interior of the column is divided into a number of separate chambers or compartments, each communicating with the other, the lower compartment or chamber being preferably larger than the others and containing a heating coil, the surrounding space of which being constantly heated by an incoming supply of steam. The said column is somewhat smaller orcontracted for a suitable distance from the top, and the interior of this contracted portion is likewise divided up into a number of separate compartments or chambers similar to the lower chambers of the main body.. The mash to be treated is forced into the heating coil at the bottom and caused to rise to a suitable height within the column, preferably to the top chamber of the column, and thence descends to the upper compartment or chamber of the larger series, where it starts to move or circulate around said compartment, passes below to the next compartment where it is made to travel an opposite course or direction; thence to the next succeeding chamber below, and so on until it has reached the bottom, or slop chamber, the same being made to alternately follow an opposite course, so as to be kept thoroughly agitated in its passage ICC tractcd form give to the vapor an increased pressure before its passage out to the cooler or condenser thereby depriving the vapor of its bad flavor and yieldinga greater percentage of alcohol. A suitable float is employed in the slop chamberwhich at the propel-time operates the valve of the blow-off; and in addition, an automatic alarm-whistle is employed to give notice of any irregularity or' improper working of the still. Such other appurtenances to the apparatus as are employed, will be referred to more fully hereinafter.
Referring to the drawings, A represents a vertical column constituted of a number of superposed hollow flanged sections a united at their flanges by means of fastening belts or rivets b, and which column is supported at its base or bottom upon a suitable foundation of brickwork c. The said column is divided up into a number of separate chambers or compartments (1, the one at the bottom being preferably a little higher or larger than the rest, so as to accommodate the heating coil, while the remaining ones are of practically the same height and dimensions throughout. The sides of the columns are somewhat contracted for a suitable distance from the top, as shown by the letter 6, and the surrounding portion is also divided up into a number of separate chambers or compartments d in like manner. The number of each set of compartments may be varied to suit particular requirements, but preferably of the compartments (1 I have herein selected nine,while of the compartments or chambers d, I have selected three. Each of the compartments d and d is provided with a bottom d which is formed or provided with an overflow box (1 the arrangement of such boxes alternating with each other, as shown and for the purpose to be described. The bottoms of the chambers d are provided with a number of openings or perforations 6, while secured in suitable openings e in the bottoms of the compartments or chambers (Z is a number of steam tipsf, each being open at the top f for the escape or passage of steam therethrough. The said tips are provided with a threaded part g for receiving the nuts 6 which secure them in place in the bottoms of the compartments; and fitting over the top of each of said tips is a cap or hood it having a flaring lower edge, as shown at f so as to cause the steam escaping from the open tops of the tips to spread outwardly all around. These caps are placed in position through the manholes hereinafter referred to and are maintained in position over the tips by virtue of the connection formed between the groove 71 formed on the inner sides of the caps into which small projections 2' on the sides of the tips enter when said caps are slipped into place. The
said caps or hoods become heated as the steam issues from the tips and they thus serve to cook the material as it passes over the bottoms of the compartments (1, and thereby yield much greater results from the liquor or material being treated.
That part of the tip entering the bottom of the chamber is circular or round, while the upper portion thereof is oval, as shown, the caps being of corresponding shape to fit them. These are preferable to perfectly round tips at the top, and, as shown, it will be seen that the arrangement in each chamber is such as to form channels or spaces through which the mash passes on its way to the outlet pipe. To enable the caps or hoods to he slipped into place over the projections i small vertical grooves or slots are provided, as shown at i in Fig. 8. The bottom of each chamber or compartment (Z and d is provided with a discharge ,or out let pipej, which occupies a position about centrally of the overflow box of the next succeeding chamber, the lower ends of these pipes terminating a short distance abovethe bottoms of the boxes, so that in practice, as the mash or liquor passes from one chamber to the other through said pipes, a trap or seal is formed which prevents the steam entering the compartments from passing up through said pipes, which if it did might cause the pipes to become clogged from the heavier matters which combine with the steam as it passes up through theliquor being treated. In this way, an alternate arrangement of discharge pipes and overflow boxes or troughs is created, the purpose of which willbe understood more fully hereinafter.
Entering each overflow box or trough through the side of the column is the handle of a perforated rake or stirrer Z, which is intended to be moved back and forth in the box or trough, whenever the same may become clogged or packed up by accumulating mash, and thus always enable the distilling operation to be carried on without interruption from such a cause. The said stirrer is cut out or notched at m, so as to pass free of the discharge pipe which depends from above. Each of the chambers or compartments d and d is provided with a test cook a which is for the purpose of ascertaining which of said chambers has been stepped up or clogged, as above explained. Whenever an imperfect operation or working of the apparatusis experienced,the said cocks are opened until the proper chamber has been found in which the employment of the rake is needed. If the liquid flows from the chambers freely, they will be found in perfect working order,but if not, it will be an indication that the mash should be moved away from the lower end of the discharge pipe.
By the use of myimproved stirrers or rakes, I obviate the necessity of stopping the machinery and the opening of the man-holes, together with the necessity of cleaning out the several compartments by hand. It is obvious that these rakes or stirrers possess considerable advantage in this respect.
Each of the compartments d, d, is further provided with a partition (l extending'partly through or across the same, the saidpartitions being so disposed as that the over-flow troughs and discharge pipes of the several chambers will alternate on opposite sides of said partitions, for the purpose more fully hereinafter explained.
Located in the bottom or lowermost compartment or chamber d is a heating coil B which terminates in a vertical portion 0 extending up through all of the chambers or compartments, about centrally thereof, until it reaches the top chamber, where it takes a bend downwardly, as shown at D, and terminating at near the bottom of the upper chamber 01 and entering the over-flow box thereof, as shown. The said heating coil is connected at r to any suitable apparatus for forcing the mash into the coil and causing said mash to be discharged or emptied from the depending portion D of said pipe. The space surrounding the coil is kept constantly supplied with steam which enters through a pipe E and escapes through a series of perforations 0 in said pipe. This pipe may be employed to supply live steam to'the chamber in which the coil is placed, and preferably an additional pipe F is sometimes employed for supplying exhaust steam thereto, accordingly as desired. By thus increasing the height of the bottom or lowermost chamber, and locating the heating coil B within said chamber, I economize very materially in the amount of space consumed by the apparatus, as com-' paredwith other constructions heretofore in use. I
- Heretofore, it has been common to place the heating coil in a wooden tub or tank located to one side of the apparatus or still proper, which arrangement has not only been foundexpensive, but has given rise to much trouble in keeping the same clean, and' in proper working condition.
By'the use of my invention, no trouble israpidly, as is the case with many former inventions on this subject.
The lowermost chamber dsurrounding the coil, is the one constituting the slop chamber, and within this chamber is contained a float H, which has a movable connection 19 unitingthe same with the key J, which opens the valve J of a blow-off K. The said connection has also attached to it a hook q, held by the end of a loop 0 which depends from an automatic steam-whistle or alarm M. The use of this automatic whistle or alarm M is quite an important feature in this class of apparatus, since as soon as any improper working of the still occurs, an alarm is instantly chamber.
sounded, whereupon'the defects may be r'emedied, and the operation of the still continued, whereasin former plans of distilling apparatus, the constant watch of an attendant hasin the usual'way at the time of starting the still, to ascertain whether any singlings or low wines have been left in the still.
within the still or apparatus.
he graduated in degrees if desired, and then to determine the amountof pressure the cock ,t is simply turned on, whereupon the column ;of water in the tube will rise to a heightcorresponding to pounds pressure.
Y The top of the still is provided with a pipe L, leading oif to any suitable cooler or con- C, and then descends through thedepending portion D, thereof, and is discharged into the overflow box of say, for instance, the upper one of the chambers or compartments of. The mash or liquor overflows the said box and spreads over the surface of the bottom of the chamber until it reaches the opening leading into the outlet ordischarge pipe of said cham ber; thence it passes into the overflow box of the next succeeding chamber, again spreads out over the bottom of this chamber in like manner, and so on until it has passed through all of the chambers d to the bottom or slop During this passage of the material through the several chambers or compartments, the steam from below is all the while issuing through the perforations of the tips in the bottoms of the chambers, and iscaused to spread out all around said tips and pass up through the material in an obvious manner, to take up with or become mixed or intermingled with the alcoholic or other vapors.
The steam heats the caps or hoods fitting over the tips, so that as the material passes from one chamber to the other it becomes cooked most thoroughly, so as to be caused. to part with allits desirableconstituents, and
in this way "the results obtained are perfect. As the liquor .or material ,flows overthe sides of the-boxes in thechambers and comes into contact with the hot or heatedcapsflt be: comes agitated .toa degree and begins toflow in the direction indicated by the arrows Fig. 5-and inthis way,thepassage fromone chamberto the other takes place without any trouble. stantly filled, forms aliquid seal at thelower ends of the pendent discharge pipes,,so thatno steam can pass up through the same. The arr ngement of the steamtips and theirhoods or caps is aregular one, as shown, thuscre ating passages between them which the liquor or materialf ollowsin its course orcirculatiomtowardthepoint of discharge fromone chambertothe other. By reason of thea1- nate arrangem o i char pi e a d overflows, the material ,is caused to. travel in opposite directions as it leaves one chamber and enters auothenth us tending to increased results in the treatment.
chambers d where it becomes reducedlin volume, or somewhat compressed thereby becoming deprived of its nauseous vapor which passes out through pipe 1. provided with a let off valve shown, and thence the mixture passes through the pipe in the top of the still .to any suitable form of condenser or cooler. Afterbeingcondensed, it is returned tothe still throughthe pipe L, in the nature of low wine, which passes through thefperforatedibottoms of the chambers cl, until the nppertchamber dis reached, when it maybe eitherdrawn on orpassed back through the still,.as maybe desired.
It should be remarked that each separate compartmentis provided with a manshole T, properly closed over, and that the several pipes maybe prov ided with the usual cut-off orregulatingcocks or valves. The entire apparatus is very compact, consumes but little space, and givesthe bestresults in use.
What I claim is- 1. Ina still, the combination of a number of superposed main compartments or cham- The overflow boxesbeingkept con-- he cqm ins l vapor and steam passes up into the smaller- .bers, and a series of separate smaller compartments located abovesaid main compartments and provided with prarforated bottoms,
discharge pi pespendent frqmlthabottomsof both sets of compartments in alternate arrange'inent, an overflow box or trough ,for
each pipe, a heating coil in the lowermost chamber, and a vertical pipe leading from said coil to the top of the still, thence downwardly and terminating within the ;upper chamberof the main series; substantially as described.
2. ,In a still, the ,coinbinationof a series of up p s omp me communicat with each other by the discharge pipes disposed in alternatearrangement, theoverflew .jboxesor troughs located beneath the ends of each pipe, rakes or stirrer-s located within said troughs or boxes and providedwithh'ahdlespassing throughtheside ef ,thestill; substantially as described.
3. In astill, thecombination of a series of superposed compartmentsthe discharge pipes leading tfrom thebotto n of one compartment to a suitable pointwithin the compartment below it, an overflow box tor each ,pipe par- ,titions extending, partly across each chamber, and steam tips entering thebottoms of the am er t e s idt p bei Open .at h o and provided with the hoods formed with flaring om a h a n WiLand he wi cally extendingpipe terminatingin one of the upper chambers; substantially as described.
4:. In a still, the combination of a series of su p compar m n ehember el provided inits bottom with a depending disr e p p n av n an ver w t u into which said pipedischarges, and a rake or stirrer enteringsuchtronghs from thesidejs of the still and provided with the cutout por-
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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3353800A (en) * 1965-01-11 1967-11-21 Detrick M H Co Apparatus for removing solids from hot gases
AU2002314879B2 (en) * 2001-06-01 2006-11-23 Biofisica, Llc Apparatus and methods for facilitating wound healing

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3353800A (en) * 1965-01-11 1967-11-21 Detrick M H Co Apparatus for removing solids from hot gases
AU2002314879B2 (en) * 2001-06-01 2006-11-23 Biofisica, Llc Apparatus and methods for facilitating wound healing

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