US4995882A - Radiolucent breast implant - Google Patents

Radiolucent breast implant Download PDF

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Publication number
US4995882A
US4995882A US07/399,180 US39918089A US4995882A US 4995882 A US4995882 A US 4995882A US 39918089 A US39918089 A US 39918089A US 4995882 A US4995882 A US 4995882A
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US
United States
Prior art keywords
breast
implant
breast implant
material
radiolucent
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
US07/399,180
Inventor
Judy M. Destouet
John O. Eichling
Louis A. Gilula
Barbara S. Monsees
Vernon L. Young
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Allergan Inc
Washington University in St Louis
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Washington University in St Louis
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Filing date
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Application filed by Washington University in St Louis filed Critical Washington University in St Louis
Priority to US07/399,180 priority Critical patent/US4995882A/en
Assigned to WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY reassignment WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST. Assignors: DESTOUET, JUDY M., EICHLING, JOHN O., GILULA, LOUIS A., MONSEES, BARBARA S., YOUNG, VERNON L.
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of US4995882A publication Critical patent/US4995882A/en
Assigned to COLLAGEN AESTHETICS reassignment COLLAGEN AESTHETICS ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: LIPOMATRIX, INC.
Assigned to ABLECO FINANCE LLC, AS AGENT reassignment ABLECO FINANCE LLC, AS AGENT SECURITY INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: COLLAGEN AESTHETICS, INC.
Assigned to COLLAGEN AESTHETICS, INC. reassignment COLLAGEN AESTHETICS, INC. RELEASE OF SECURITY INTEREST Assignors: ABLECO FINANCE LLC, AS AGENT
Assigned to UNION BANK OF CALIFORNIA, N.A., AS ADMINISTRATIVE AGENT reassignment UNION BANK OF CALIFORNIA, N.A., AS ADMINISTRATIVE AGENT NOTICE OF GRANT OF SECURITY INTEREST Assignors: COLLAGEN AESTHETICS, INC.
Assigned to COLLAGEN AESTHETICS, INC. reassignment COLLAGEN AESTHETICS, INC. TERMINATION OF SECURITY INTEREST Assignors: UNION BANK OF CALIFORNIA, N.A., AS ADMINISTRATIVE AGENT
Assigned to ALLERGAN, INC. reassignment ALLERGAN, INC. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: COLLAGEN AESTHETICS, INC.
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Application status is Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L27/00Materials for grafts or prostheses or for coating grafts or prostheses
    • A61L27/50Materials characterised by their function or physical properties, e.g. injectable or lubricating compositions, shape-memory materials, surface modified materials
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/12Mammary prostheses and implants
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B2017/00831Material properties
    • A61B2017/00902Material properties transparent or translucent

Abstract

A radiolucent breast implant is comprised of a silicon envelope filled with any biocompatible triglyceride such as peanut oil or sunflower seed oil, or any other material having an effective atomic number of 5.9 which is the effective atomic number of fat, the major component of a human breast. Such a breast implant is radiolucent in that it duplicates the photoelectric interaction of fat which is the major effect producing subject contrast at low radiation levels as used in mammography. A radiolucent breast implant dramatically improves the usefullness of mammography in detecting tumors in patients having breast implants and may also result in a lower radiation dose for each examination.

Description

BACKGROUND AND SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Since the development of silicone gel filled breast implants, over one million American women have undergone augmentation mammoplasty. Although various materials have been used experimentally, the predominant breast implant has been a silicone envelope filled with a silicone gel. It is well known that these silicone gel filled implants are radiodense or radiopaque and hence obscure significant portions of the glandular tissue during mammography. In recent years because of a ten percent lifetime risk that a woman will develop breast cancer, various X-ray techniques have been developed and improved to make mammography a safe and effective diagnostic tool in the early detection of breast cancer. These efforts are hindered for those women who have undergone augmentation mammoplasty with silicone gel filled implants.

A useful mammogram produces a radiograph that exhibits variations in the photographic density film in order to demonstrate meaningful information. Radiologists refer to the photographic density variations (a quantitative measure of film darkening) as film contrast. Film contrast is created by the differential attenuation of the X-ray beam that penetrates the body part being examined. Film contrast can be augmented or enhanced by the characteristics of the film but subject contrast, i.e. differential attenuation of the X-ray beam, must be present in order to obtain clinically useful information. An X-ray film is simply a spatial recording or mapping of the relative number of X-rays passing through the examined body part without any interaction. Subject contrast through differential attenuation occurs because some materials, e.g. bone, are more opaque to X-rays than other materials, e.g. muscle, fat, etc., thereby creating shadows of varying intensity in the radiograph which may be interpreted by skilled radiologists.

In the diagnostic radiology range of X-ray photon energies, only two interactions are effective in attenuating X-rays from the incident beam and, thereby, producing the differential attenuation or subject contrast needed to yield sufficient contrast for a useful radiograph. These two types of X-ray interactions are called Compton scattering and photoelectric effect or interaction. It is well known that Compton scattering yields little radiographic contrast and hence is generally not useful for conventional X-ray examinations. This is because the Compton scattering effect is generally related to the electron density (electrons per gram) of the material being viewed. Electron density has been defined as No Z/A where No is Avogadro's number, Z is the atomic number of the constituent element, and A is the atomic weight of the constituent element. The only significant exception to a general homogeneity of electron density within body constituents is hydrogen which has twice as many electrons per gram as most elements found in the human body. Hence, subtle variations in the electron densities of hydrogen-rich materials, e.g. fat, can be effectively mapped in computed tomography because of the Compton interaction.

The same cannot be said for the second kind of interaction, photoelectric effect. This is because the photoelectric effect varies approximately with the cube of the element's atomic number. In other words, comparing lead with aluminum, the photoelectric interaction with lead is about 250 times more likely than with aluminum as lead has an atomic number (Z) of 82 while aluminum has an atomic number (Z) of 13 and, by comparison, (82/13)3 is approximately equal to 251.

Others have developed techniques for predicting the photoelectric effect occurring in mixtures of compounds, relying on a number defined as the effective atomic number. This effective atomic number can be defined as ##EQU1## where a1, a2, a3, etc. are the electron fractions bound in the constituent elements having corresponding atomic numbers of Z1, Z2, Z3, etc. which comprise the compound. For water, the effective atomic number can be computed as 7.41 which means that water induces a photoelectric interaction much as would an element having an atomic number between nitrogen (Z=7) and oxygen (Z=8).

As indicated above, subject contrast in mammography is a particular problem especially in attempting to demonstrate a small cluster of microcalcifications in a relatively large tissue bed which might be indicative of cancer. Mammography is best performed at low X-ray energies since the photoelectric interaction is predominant over Compton scattering only at low X-ray energies. As silicone has an effective atomic number of 10.4, and fat which is generally the composition of breast tissue has an effective atomic number of 5.9, silicone implants are radiographically opaque and will obscure any information that would have otherwise been evident in the tissues below or above the silicone. This problem has forced radiologists to obtain additional special views in patients with implants in an attempt to image as much breast tissue as possible. Unfortunately, these additional views increase the total radiation dose required for each examination which, in itself, presents an increased health risk.

Mammograms are performed with a phototimer which is a radiation sensor placed beneath the film screen cassette that automatically terminates each exposure when sufficient X-rays have been transmitted to yield an appropriately darkened film after development. The use of the phototimer assists in achieving consistent film density for various size breasts and it helps to eliminate retakes. However, if a portion of a silicone gel implant intercepts the radiation monitored by the phototimer (a recent report stated that the implant often accounts for as much as 60% of the imaged area) then the exposure time will be much longer and the radiation dose to the overlying breast tissues can be several times higher than if the implant had not been present. Hence, the silicone gel implant not only prevents the imaging of overlying and underlying breast anatomy, but in some cases results in a substantially higher radiation dose to the overlying tissues for each exposure. Because of this, the phototimer cannot be used and even an experienced technologist must use trial and error to achieve the proper exposure. There is a further problem with augmented breasts that relates to the way a routine mammogram is performed. Normally, the breast is compressed between two plates which flattens the breast and enables a more uniform exposure. A subset of women with implants develop a condition known as "capsular contracture". This is a reaction to the implant that results in a fibrotic capsule surrounding the implant rendering it noncompressible. In these patients, specialized views are difficult if not impossible to obtain. If the implant is radiolucent, even in the presence of a capsular contracture, a useful mammogram can be performed.

To solve these and other problems, the inventors herein have succeeded in developing a breast implant which is essentially radiolucent in terms of having the same photoelectric interaction as body fat, the material which comprises the predominant tissue in a normal breast. While any filler material can be used having an effective atomic number of 5.9, the inventors have found that any biocompatible triglyceride which has an effective Z value of 5.9 and which is closest to carbon (Z=6) is preferred. Examples of a suitable filler include peanut oil and sunflower seed oil. Present techniques well known to those of ordinary skill in the art for breast implant manufacturing may be used to implement the invention including using a silicone envelope having a substantially thin wall as it does not dramatically alter the effective atomic number of the implant as a whole. Thus, the inventors' breast implant can be utilized immediately using existing and well known techniques to achieve implantation.

The inventors have also found that filler material having a physical density approximately the same as that of breast glandular material improves the radiolucent quality of the implant.

It is not believed that a drawing is required as an aid to understanding the present invention and, hence, none is being offered.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

The inventors' preferred embodiment for achieving a breast implant which is essentially radiolucent comprises a silicone envelope as is well known to those of ordinary skill in the breast implant art, said silicone envelope being filled with any biocompatible triglyceride, such as peanut oil or sunflower seed oil. The silicone envelope may be sealed as is presently done in the prior art and inserted using techniques and skills well known in the art of augmentation mammoplasty. While the inventors' preferred embodiment comprises peanut oil or sunflower seed oil, any other biocompatible filler material can be used which has an effective atomic number of 5.9, the effective atomic number of fat, which comprises the major element in breast glandular tissue, and which is close to the atomic number for carbon (Z=6).

There are various changes and modifications which may be made to the invention as would be apparent to those skilled in the art. However, these changes or modifications are included in the teaching of the disclosure, and it is intended that the invention be limited only by the scope of the claims appended hereto.

Claims (14)

What is claimed is:
1. A breast implant having an average radiographic density substantially the same as that of a human breast and being substantially radiolucent throughout its entirety.
2. The breast implant of claim 1 wherein said implant is substantially comprised of material having an effective atomic number approximately the same as that of breast glandular material.
3. The breast implant of claim 2 wherein said effective atomic number is approximately 5.9.
4. The breast implant of claim 2 wherein said implant material has a physical density approximately the same as that of breast glandular material.
5. The breast implant of claim 4 wherein said implant is comprised of a fluid contained within a flexible envelope, the fluid and envelope being made of different materials.
6. The breast implant of claim 5 wherein said envelope is made of silicone and the filler is a biocompatible triglyceride.
7. The breast implant of claim 6 wherein the filler is peanut oil.
8. The breast implant of claim 6 wherein the filler is sunflower seed oil.
9. A breast implant comprised of a material having an effective atomic number substantially the same as that of breast glandular material and being substantially radiolucent throughout its entirety.
10. The breast implant of claim 9 wherein the effective atomic number is approximately 5.9.
11. A breast implant comprised of a material having a physical density substantially the same as that of breast glandular material and being substantially radiolucent throughout its entirety.
12. A breast implant, said breast implant being substantially radiolucent throughout its entirety when surrounded by breast tissue, said breast implant being comprised of a filler material contained within an envelope, said filler material being comprised of a biocompatible triglyceride.
13. A breast implant, said breast implant being substantially radiolucent throughout its entirety so that surrounding and underlying breast tissue is readily viewable using accepted radiographic techniques, intensities, and protocols.
14. The breast implant of claim 13 wherein said implant is filled with a bio-compatible triglyceride.
US07/399,180 1989-08-28 1989-08-28 Radiolucent breast implant Expired - Lifetime US4995882A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US07/399,180 US4995882A (en) 1989-08-28 1989-08-28 Radiolucent breast implant

Applications Claiming Priority (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US07/399,180 US4995882A (en) 1989-08-28 1989-08-28 Radiolucent breast implant
CA000615046A CA1328544C (en) 1989-08-28 1989-09-29 Radiolucent breast implant

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US4995882A true US4995882A (en) 1991-02-26

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US07/399,180 Expired - Lifetime US4995882A (en) 1989-08-28 1989-08-28 Radiolucent breast implant

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Cited By (31)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO1991014410A1 (en) * 1990-03-20 1991-10-03 Bioplasty, Incorporated Bio-osmotic gel for implant prostheses
WO1993022987A2 (en) * 1992-05-20 1993-11-25 Cytrx Corporation Gel composition for implant and method
WO1994004095A1 (en) * 1992-08-20 1994-03-03 Lipomatrix, Incorporated Penile implant with triglyceride fill
WO1994007434A1 (en) * 1992-09-29 1994-04-14 Lipomatrix, Incorporated Breast implant with radiolucent shell
WO1994010937A1 (en) * 1992-11-18 1994-05-26 Lipomatrix Incorporated Radiolucent organ displacement device for radiation therapy
WO1994016647A1 (en) * 1993-01-19 1994-08-04 Hang Fu Lee Apparatus and method for implant prostheses
US5391203A (en) * 1992-04-13 1995-02-21 Scott P. Bartlett Method of draining and filling soft tissue implant
US5411554A (en) * 1993-07-20 1995-05-02 Ethicon, Inc. Liquid polymer filled envelopes for use as surgical implants
WO1995025549A1 (en) * 1994-03-23 1995-09-28 Lipomatrix Incorporated Synthetic triglyceride filler material for surgically implanted prostheses
US5496367A (en) * 1993-01-13 1996-03-05 Fisher; Jack Breast implant with baffles
WO1996015733A1 (en) 1994-11-17 1996-05-30 Bretz Phillip D Breast implant device
US5531786A (en) * 1992-04-13 1996-07-02 Perry; Larry C. Medical protheses containing a gel-filler comprising principally water and cellulose derivative
US5545217A (en) * 1995-04-20 1996-08-13 C.M. Offray & Son, Inc. Breast implant
US5824081A (en) * 1996-09-13 1998-10-20 Lipomatrix Incorporated Hydraulic foam tissue implant
US6146419A (en) * 1999-05-13 2000-11-14 Board Of Trustees Of The University Method for forming a hollow prosthesis
US6203570B1 (en) 1999-11-24 2001-03-20 John L. Baeke Breast implant with position lock
US6245960B1 (en) 1999-05-13 2001-06-12 Board Of Trustees Of The University Of Arkansas Inherent healing accelerator
US6268405B1 (en) 1999-05-04 2001-07-31 Porex Surgical, Inc. Hydrogels and methods of making and using same
US6290723B1 (en) 1994-06-14 2001-09-18 Winston A. Andrews Method of making a synthetic triglyceride filler material
US6315796B1 (en) 1999-05-13 2001-11-13 Board Of Trustees Of The University Of Arkansas Flexible seamless memory tissue expanding implant
US6520989B1 (en) 2000-01-18 2003-02-18 Board Of Trustees Of The University Of Arkansas Extreme volume flexible integrity prosthesis
US20050071003A1 (en) * 1999-03-17 2005-03-31 Ku David N. Poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel
US6932840B1 (en) * 2004-09-08 2005-08-23 Absolute Breast Solutions Implant device
US20050278025A1 (en) * 2004-06-10 2005-12-15 Salumedica Llc Meniscus prosthesis
US20060264399A1 (en) * 2004-12-10 2006-11-23 University Of Iowa Research Foundation Compositions for breast implant filling and methods of use
US20080279943A1 (en) * 2004-02-06 2008-11-13 Georgia Tech Research Corporation Method of making hydrogel implants
US20090263446A1 (en) * 2004-02-06 2009-10-22 Georgia Tech Research Corporation Method of making load bearing hydrogel implants
EP2161043A1 (en) 2008-09-05 2010-03-10 Ecole Polytechnique Federale De Lausanne (Epfl) Coated medical device and method of coating a medical device
US20120302818A1 (en) * 1997-10-10 2012-11-29 Senorx, Inc. Method of utilizing an implant for targeting external beam radiation
US9155543B2 (en) 2011-05-26 2015-10-13 Cartiva, Inc. Tapered joint implant and related tools
US9907663B2 (en) 2015-03-31 2018-03-06 Cartiva, Inc. Hydrogel implants with porous materials and methods

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3934274A (en) * 1974-10-29 1976-01-27 Hartley Jr John H Deflatable mammary augmentation prosthesis
US4610690A (en) * 1983-02-22 1986-09-09 Mentor Corporation Rupture resistant prosthesis with bonded surface layer and method of forming same
US4731081A (en) * 1984-09-11 1988-03-15 Mentor Corporation Rupture-resistant prosthesis with creasable shell and method of forming same

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3934274A (en) * 1974-10-29 1976-01-27 Hartley Jr John H Deflatable mammary augmentation prosthesis
US4610690A (en) * 1983-02-22 1986-09-09 Mentor Corporation Rupture resistant prosthesis with bonded surface layer and method of forming same
US4731081A (en) * 1984-09-11 1988-03-15 Mentor Corporation Rupture-resistant prosthesis with creasable shell and method of forming same

Cited By (54)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO1991014410A1 (en) * 1990-03-20 1991-10-03 Bioplasty, Incorporated Bio-osmotic gel for implant prostheses
US5067965A (en) * 1990-03-20 1991-11-26 Bioplasty, Inc. Bio-osmotic gel for implant prostheses
US5391203A (en) * 1992-04-13 1995-02-21 Scott P. Bartlett Method of draining and filling soft tissue implant
US5531786A (en) * 1992-04-13 1996-07-02 Perry; Larry C. Medical protheses containing a gel-filler comprising principally water and cellulose derivative
US5713959A (en) * 1992-04-13 1998-02-03 Scott P. Bartlett Soft tissue implants
WO1993022987A3 (en) * 1992-05-20 1994-01-20 Cytrx Corp Gel composition for implant and method
WO1993022987A2 (en) * 1992-05-20 1993-11-25 Cytrx Corporation Gel composition for implant and method
US5407445A (en) * 1992-05-20 1995-04-18 Cytrx Corporation Gel composition for implant prosthesis and method of use
WO1994004095A1 (en) * 1992-08-20 1994-03-03 Lipomatrix, Incorporated Penile implant with triglyceride fill
WO1994007434A1 (en) * 1992-09-29 1994-04-14 Lipomatrix, Incorporated Breast implant with radiolucent shell
AU683223B2 (en) * 1992-09-29 1997-11-06 Lipomatrix Incorporated Breast implant with radiolucent shell
US5653758A (en) * 1992-11-18 1997-08-05 Lipomatrix, Incorporated Method of using a radiolucent organ displacement device for radiation therapy
AU682009B2 (en) * 1992-11-18 1997-09-18 Lipomatrix Incorporated Radiolucent organ displacement device for radiation therapy
WO1994010937A1 (en) * 1992-11-18 1994-05-26 Lipomatrix Incorporated Radiolucent organ displacement device for radiation therapy
US5496367A (en) * 1993-01-13 1996-03-05 Fisher; Jack Breast implant with baffles
US5545221A (en) * 1993-01-19 1996-08-13 Hang-Fu; Lee Apparatus and method for implant prostheses
WO1994016647A1 (en) * 1993-01-19 1994-08-04 Hang Fu Lee Apparatus and method for implant prostheses
US5411554A (en) * 1993-07-20 1995-05-02 Ethicon, Inc. Liquid polymer filled envelopes for use as surgical implants
WO1995025549A1 (en) * 1994-03-23 1995-09-28 Lipomatrix Incorporated Synthetic triglyceride filler material for surgically implanted prostheses
US6251137B1 (en) 1994-03-23 2001-06-26 Mcghan Medical Corporation Synthetic triglyceride filler material for surgically implanted prostheses
US6290723B1 (en) 1994-06-14 2001-09-18 Winston A. Andrews Method of making a synthetic triglyceride filler material
WO1996015733A1 (en) 1994-11-17 1996-05-30 Bretz Phillip D Breast implant device
US5545217A (en) * 1995-04-20 1996-08-13 C.M. Offray & Son, Inc. Breast implant
US5824081A (en) * 1996-09-13 1998-10-20 Lipomatrix Incorporated Hydraulic foam tissue implant
US8541764B2 (en) * 1997-10-10 2013-09-24 Senorx, Inc. Method of utilizing an implant for targeting external beam radiation
US8680498B2 (en) 1997-10-10 2014-03-25 Senorx, Inc. Method of utilizing an implant in a human breast
US20120302818A1 (en) * 1997-10-10 2012-11-29 Senorx, Inc. Method of utilizing an implant for targeting external beam radiation
US20050071003A1 (en) * 1999-03-17 2005-03-31 Ku David N. Poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel
US20050106255A1 (en) * 1999-03-17 2005-05-19 Ku David N. Poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel
US6268405B1 (en) 1999-05-04 2001-07-31 Porex Surgical, Inc. Hydrogels and methods of making and using same
US6245960B1 (en) 1999-05-13 2001-06-12 Board Of Trustees Of The University Of Arkansas Inherent healing accelerator
US6315796B1 (en) 1999-05-13 2001-11-13 Board Of Trustees Of The University Of Arkansas Flexible seamless memory tissue expanding implant
US6146419A (en) * 1999-05-13 2000-11-14 Board Of Trustees Of The University Method for forming a hollow prosthesis
US6283998B1 (en) 1999-05-13 2001-09-04 Board Of Trustees Of The University Of Arkansas Alloplastic vertebral disk replacement
US6203570B1 (en) 1999-11-24 2001-03-20 John L. Baeke Breast implant with position lock
US6520989B1 (en) 2000-01-18 2003-02-18 Board Of Trustees Of The University Of Arkansas Extreme volume flexible integrity prosthesis
US8486436B2 (en) 2004-02-06 2013-07-16 Georgia Tech Research Corporation Articular joint implant
US20080279943A1 (en) * 2004-02-06 2008-11-13 Georgia Tech Research Corporation Method of making hydrogel implants
US20090263446A1 (en) * 2004-02-06 2009-10-22 Georgia Tech Research Corporation Method of making load bearing hydrogel implants
US7682540B2 (en) 2004-02-06 2010-03-23 Georgia Tech Research Corporation Method of making hydrogel implants
US7910124B2 (en) 2004-02-06 2011-03-22 Georgia Tech Research Corporation Load bearing biocompatible device
US8895073B2 (en) 2004-02-06 2014-11-25 Georgia Tech Research Corporation Hydrogel implant with superficial pores
US20110172771A1 (en) * 2004-02-06 2011-07-14 Georgia Tech Research Corporation Hydrogel implant with superficial pores
US8002830B2 (en) 2004-02-06 2011-08-23 Georgia Tech Research Corporation Surface directed cellular attachment
US8142808B2 (en) 2004-02-06 2012-03-27 Georgia Tech Research Corporation Method of treating joints with hydrogel implants
US8318192B2 (en) 2004-02-06 2012-11-27 Georgia Tech Research Corporation Method of making load bearing hydrogel implants
US20050278025A1 (en) * 2004-06-10 2005-12-15 Salumedica Llc Meniscus prosthesis
US6932840B1 (en) * 2004-09-08 2005-08-23 Absolute Breast Solutions Implant device
US20060264399A1 (en) * 2004-12-10 2006-11-23 University Of Iowa Research Foundation Compositions for breast implant filling and methods of use
US7951880B2 (en) 2004-12-10 2011-05-31 University Of Iowa Research Foundation Compositions for breast implant filling and methods of use
EP2161043A1 (en) 2008-09-05 2010-03-10 Ecole Polytechnique Federale De Lausanne (Epfl) Coated medical device and method of coating a medical device
US9155543B2 (en) 2011-05-26 2015-10-13 Cartiva, Inc. Tapered joint implant and related tools
US9526632B2 (en) 2011-05-26 2016-12-27 Cartiva, Inc. Methods of repairing a joint using a wedge-shaped implant
US9907663B2 (en) 2015-03-31 2018-03-06 Cartiva, Inc. Hydrogel implants with porous materials and methods

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