US4968116A - Polymer claddings for optical fibre waveguides - Google Patents

Polymer claddings for optical fibre waveguides Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US4968116A
US4968116A US07463873 US46387390A US4968116A US 4968116 A US4968116 A US 4968116A US 07463873 US07463873 US 07463873 US 46387390 A US46387390 A US 46387390A US 4968116 A US4968116 A US 4968116A
Authority
US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
acrylate
cladding
optical
fibre
composition
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
US07463873
Inventor
Alan G. Hulme-Lowe
Alistair S. Dodds
Stefan A. Babirad
Patricia M. Savu
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
3M Co
Original Assignee
3M Co
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C03GLASS; MINERAL OR SLAG WOOL
    • C03CCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF GLASSES, GLAZES, OR VITREOUS ENAMELS; SURFACE TREATMENT OF GLASS; SURFACE TREATMENT OF FIBRES OR FILAMENTS MADE FROM GLASS, MINERALS OR SLAGS; JOINING GLASS TO GLASS OR OTHER MATERIALS
    • C03C25/00Surface treatment of fibres or filaments made from glass, minerals or slags
    • C03C25/10Coating
    • C03C25/104Coating to obtain optical fibres
    • C03C25/105Organic claddings
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C03GLASS; MINERAL OR SLAG WOOL
    • C03CCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF GLASSES, GLAZES, OR VITREOUS ENAMELS; SURFACE TREATMENT OF GLASS; SURFACE TREATMENT OF FIBRES OR FILAMENTS MADE FROM GLASS, MINERALS OR SLAGS; JOINING GLASS TO GLASS OR OTHER MATERIALS
    • C03C13/00Fibre or filament compositions
    • C03C13/04Fibre optics, e.g. core and clad fibre compositions
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C47/00Extrusion moulding, i.e. expressing the moulding material through a die or nozzle which imparts the desired form; Apparatus therefor
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C47/00Extrusion moulding, i.e. expressing the moulding material through a die or nozzle which imparts the desired form; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C47/0009Extrusion moulding, i.e. expressing the moulding material through a die or nozzle which imparts the desired form; Apparatus therefor characterised by the shape of the articles
    • B29C47/0014Filamentary-shaped articles, e.g. strands

Abstract

An optical fibre comprising a core coated with a cladding composition having a lower refractive index than the core, said cladding composition comprising a fluorinated mono-acrylate, a polyfunctional cross-linking acrylate being difunctional or higher, and a photoinitiator, said cladding composition comprising less than 0.3% by weight of a mono- or polyfunctional thiol and being cured or cross-linked.

Description

This is a continuation application Ser. No. 07/322,893 filed Mar. 13, 1989 now abandoned.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to optical fibres and in particular to optical fibres comprising a glass core coated with a polymer cladding.

BACKGROUND TO THE INVENTION

The use of optical fibres as a means of transmitting data has received widespread interest. Information transfer using a modulated light beam guided by a glass or plastics fibre has been utilized in many applications including telecommunications and computer link-up and data base use. Advantages of the use of fibre optic linkages are very high information carrying capacity compared to metal wires carrying electrical signals and freedom from external interference.

Optical fibres comprise a core, generally an inorganic glass such as fused silica or a synthetic resin, and a cladding of a material having a lower refractive index than the core, which cladding confines the light energy to propagate in the core by total internal reflection. The refractive index of fused silica is 1.458 at room temperature and there is a limited range of materials which have refractive indices below this value. The efficiency of propagation increases as the difference in refractive index between the core and the cladding should be at least 0.03 units less than that of the core, preferably at least 0.05 units less.

Prior art cladding materials include thermoplastic polymers which are coated on the optical fibre by melt extrusion through a dye. This method of cladding suffers from the disadvantages that it is difficult to obtain thin coatings and the coatings tend to be loosely bonded to the silica core. Other polymers have been applied by solvent coating. However, solvent coating has the disadvantages that it may be necessary to coat a fibre several times until the desired thickness is obtained and the necessity of handling high solids solutions with attendant problems of bubbling of the coating. Furthermore, there is the additional problem of pollution of the environment during evaporation of the solvent.

Cross-linkable polymeric coating compositions have been employed which are rapidly cured after coating by heating or exposure to ultra violet light. Examples of such compositions are disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,099,837, 4,125,644 and 4,511,209.

British Patent No. 1262526 discloses an optical element e.g. a lens, view aperture etc. comprising a solid transparent base e.g. a thermoplastics material, on which is coated a fluorine-containing transparent, thermoset organic polymer having an index of refraction within 0.02 units of the base. The polymer is formed from a fluorine-free acrylic monomer and a fluorine-containing acrylic monomer, at least one of which monomers being polyfunctional. The specific coating compositions disclosed utilise at least 70% by weight of the fluorine free acrylic monomer.

U.S. Pat. No. 4,511,209 discloses a cladding composition for plastic clad silica optical fibres comprising:

a highly fluorinated monofunctional acrylate with a refractive index below 1.38 and constituting more than 50% by weight of the composition,

a polyfunctional acrylate being trifunctional or higher serving as a cross-linking agent,

a mono- or polyfunctional thiol that functions as a synergist preferably a thiol containing silane e.g. gamma-mercaptopropyl trimethoxy silane, and

a photoinitiator.

The cladding compositions are dip or spray coated onto the fibre and exposed to ultra violet radiation to cure the coating. The hard clad optical fibres produced have attenuation often below 10 dB/km and exhibit superior temperature behavior than silicone clad optical fibres.

The present invention provides alternative cladding formulations for optical fibres.

BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Therefore, according to the present invention there is provided an optical fibre comprising a core coated with a cladding having a lower refractive index than the core, the cladding composition comprising a fluorinated mono-acrylate, a polyfunctional cross-linking acrylate being difunctional or higher, and a photoinitiator, the composition comprising less than 0.3% by weight of a mono- or polyfunctional thiol and being cored or cross-linked.

Also according to the invention there is provided a cladding composition for optical fibres comprising from 40 to 95% by weight of a fluorinated acrylate, from 2 to 35% by weight of a plolyfunctional cross-linking acrylate being difunctional or higher and from 0.5 to 20% by weight of a photoinitiator, the composition comprising less than 0.3% by weight of a mono- or polyfunctional thiol.

The cladding composition of the invention may readily be applied by dip coating and can be immediately photopolymerised to cause curing or cross-linking, by exposure to ultra violet light to provide optical fibres having equivalent and often superior properties to those of the prior art. In particular the adhesion to glass of the cladding composition of the invention is superior to that of the composition of U.S. Pat. No. 4,511,209. If the formulations of the invention additionally comprise other vinyl functionalized components e.g. (meth)acrylic silanes and (meth)acrylic acid the adhesion to glass is further increased.

The cladding compositions of the invention differ from the compositions of U.S. Pat. No. 4,511,209 in that they do not require the presence of a thiol synergist. The function of the synergist is not defined although suitable compounds are identified as being of the gamma-mercaptopropyl trimethoxy silane type. The most likely function of these compounds is to chain transfer the polymer chain to the mercapto function and then via the silane, bond the polymer to the core surface. This results in the polymer matrix having silane groups appended only at the termini of the polymer chains. In the composition of the present invention when adhesion enhancers, e.g. acrylic silanes, are employed it results in the incorporation of the adhesion enhancer through the matrix thereby significantly promoting adhesion.

DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

The fluorinated mono-acrylates used in the compositions of the invention possess one polymerisable vinyl group. The term acrylate is used in the generic sense and includes not only derivatives or acrylic acid, but also methacrylic and other modified acrylic acids.

The fluorinated mono-acrylates possess a fluoro aliphatic group in which the higher of a minimum of three C--F bonds are present or 25% of the C--H bonds have been replaced by C--F bonds.

The fluoroaliphatic radical is generally a fluorinated, preferably saturated, monovalent, non-aromatic, aliphatic radical of at least two carbon atoms. The chain may be straight, branched, or, if sufficiently large, cyclic, and may be interrupted by oxygen atoms or nitrogen atoms bonded only to carbon atoms. A fully fluorinated group is preferred, but hydrogen or chlorine atoms may be present as substituents in the fluorinated aliphatic radical; generally not more than one atom of either is present in the radical for every two carbon atoms. Preferably the radical contains a terminal perfluoromethyl group. Preferably, the fluorinated aliphatic radical contains not more than 20 carbon atoms. More preferably the fluorinated aliphatic radical is cycloaliphatic, such as perfluorohexyl or perfluoropentyl. The presence of a fluorinated cycloaliphatic radical provides the unobvious advantage of a tougher cured coating composition in which thermal oxidative degradation processes are retarded compared to acyclic compositions. It is then possible to extend the use of the cladded fibre to a broader temperature operating range without sacrificing the optical clarity and colourlessness of the coating.

Typical fluorinated mono-acrylates used in the invention are of the general formula: ##STR1## in which: Y represents H, F or Cl;

Z represents H, F or Cl;

X represents H or an alkyl group, preferably CH3,

n is an integer from 2 to 12,

q is an integer from 4 to 24,

m is 0, 1 or 2,

with the proviso that for Z not more than one atom of hydrogen or chlorine is present for every two carbon atoms in the group Cn Zq.

Specific examples of such compounds include:

1,1-dihydroperfluorocyclohexane carbinol acrylate,

1,1-dihydroperfluorocyclohexane carbinol methacrylate,

1,1-dihydroperfluorocyclopentane carbinol acrylate,

1,1-dihydroperfluorocyclopentane carbinol methacrylate,

1,1-dihydroperfluoro-octyl acrylate,

1,1-dihydroperfluoro-octyl methacrylate,

1,1-dihydroperfluoro-butyl acrylate,

1H,1H,5H-octafluoro-pentyl acrylate,

1H,1H,11H-eicosafluoro-undecyl acrylate,

Hexafluoro-isopropyl acrylate,

Perfluoropentyl acrylate.

The acrylates may also possess other atoms e.g. sulphur and nitrogen, outside the fluoroaliphatic radical.

For example, fluorinated monoacrylates of the following general formula may be employed: ##STR2## in which: X is as defined above,

Rf represent a fluoro aliphatic radical, preferably Cy F2y +1 in which y is an integer from 3 to 12,

R represents an alkyl group, generally of 1 to 5 carbon atoms, and

x is 1 or 2.

Specific examples of such compounds include:

2-(N-ethyl perfluoro octane sulphonamido)ethyl acrylate,

2-(N-ethyl perfluoro octane sulphonamido)ethyl methacrylate,

2-(N-butyl perfluoro octane sulphonamido)ethyl acrylate.

Mixtures of two or more fluorinated mono-acrylates may also be employed.

The poly-functional cross-linking acrylates used in the invention are at least difunctional, preferably trifunctional or higher. The compounds generally have a molecular weight of less than 600.

Typical tri- and tetrafunctional acrylates have the general formula: ##STR3## in which: X is as defined above, and

R1 represents an alkyl group, generally of 1 to 5 carbon atoms (e.g. methyl), hydroxy, or --O.COC(X)CH2 in which X is as defined above.

Suitable difunctional acrylates are of the general formula: ##STR4## in which: each X is as defined above and

p is an integer from 3 to 8.

Examples of cross-linking acrylates include:

Trimethylol propane tri(meth)acrylate,

1,4 butanediol di(meth)acrylate,

1,3 butanediol di(meth)acrylate,

1,6 hexanediol di(meth)acrylate,

Pentaerythritol tetra(meth)acrylate,

Pentaerythritol tri(meth)acrylate,

Dipentaerythritol penta(meth)acrylate, and

Hydantoin hexa acrylate.

Mixtures of cross-linking acrylates may be employed.

The photoinitiator may comprise any of the photoinitiators known in the art e.g. d-hydroxyacetophenone type photoinitiators. Examples of photoinitiators are those commercially available from Ciba Geigy under the Trade Marks IRGACURE 651, IRGACURE 500, IRGACURE 184, and those commercially available from Merck under the trade names DAROCUR 1173 (2-hydroxy 2-methyl 1-phenyl-1-propanone) and DAROCUR 1116 (2-hydroxy-2-methyl-1-(4- isopropylpheny)-1 propanone).

In general suitable cladding compositions will have the following formulation:

______________________________________fluorinated mono-acrylate               50    to 95% by weightcross-linking acrylate               2     to 35% by weightphotoinitiator      0.5   to 20% by weight.______________________________________

Preferably the components are selected within the following ranges:

______________________________________fluorinated mono-acrylate               75    to 95% by weightcross-linking acrylate               2     to 10% by weightphotoinitiator      0.5   to 10% by weight.______________________________________

In addition to the three components the compositions preferably include an adhesion enhancer e.g. a compound having a vinyl functionality and being different from the fluorinated mono-acrylate and the cross-linking acrylate. The adhesion enhancers possess a single polymerisable vinyl group, and may be methacrylate, preferably acrylate silanes such as 3-tri(m)ethoxy-silylpropyl(meth)acrylate. Alternatively acrylic or methacrylic acid may be used as an adhesion enhancer.

The adhesion enhancers generally increase the bonding strength of the cladding composition to the silica by at least 10%, generally at least 20% compared with cladding compositions in which the adhesion enhancers are absent. Generally, the adhesion improves as the concentration of adhesion enhancer is increased. However, the refractive index of the cladding material also rises as the proportion of non-fluorinated material is increased, which is undesirable. Thus a compromise must be made, and best results have been obtained with the adhesion enhancer present in the range 1 to 25%, preferably 2 to 15% by weight of the composition.

The cladding compositions may also comprise a thermal stabilizer/antioxidant. Low loss optical fibres must pass a stringent cold/hot temperature cycling test. The optical fibres are kept at -65° C. for four hours and monitored as a function of loss in dB/Km. The fibres are then brought back to room temperature for two hours and thereafter held at +125° C. for four hours. Again the temperature is brought to ambient for two hours and the loss of the optical fibre is recorded. It has been found that the presence of up to 5%, generally 0.001% to 5%, preferably 0.01 to 1% by weight of one or more thermal stabilizers/antioxidants compatible with the cladding composition provides improved stability to the cold/hot cycling test. Suitable stabilizers/antioxidants include low melting hindered phenols and thioesters. Specific examples include 2, 6-di-tert-butyl-4-methyl phenol commercially available under the trade name Ultranox 226, octadecyl--3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate commercially available under the trade name IRGANOX 1076, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-sec-butyl phenol commercially available under the trade names ISONOX 132 or VANOX 1320, and dilauryl thiodipropionate commercially available under the trade name CYANOX LTDP. A combination of thioester and hindered phenol has proved to be particularly effective.

The core of the optical fibres of the invention is preferably formed of an inorganic glass, more preferably fused silica, but may optionally be formed of a synthetic resin. The cladding composition is selected to provide a refractive index lower than that of the core, preferably at least 0.03 units less, more preferably at least 0.05 units less than the refractive index of the core.

The optical fibres of the present invention may be prepared by conventional techniques employing the cladding compositions of the invention.

The optical fibres of the invention may also possess a protective layer such as those known in the art. For example a protective coating of a fluoropolymer e.g. poly (tetrafluoroethylene), may be coated as an extrusion by passing the clad fibre through a melt of the fluoropolymer. A suitable fluoropolymer is commercially available from Dupont under the trade name Tefzel 210.

The accompanying drawing illustrates suitable apparatus for preparing a coated optical fibre in accordance with the invention.

A glass fibre 2 is drawn from a pure glass preform 4 held in a furnace 6 on a standard glass drawing tower. The tower is provided with a coating station comprising a coating cup 8 containing the cladding composition and the metering die 10. The coated fibre is passed immediately through an ultra violet curing station where it is photopolymerised and cooled on a take-up spool 14. A typical fibre will have an overall diameter of 200 microns and a cladding thickness of 10 microns.

The invention will now be illustrated by the following Examples.

In the Examples the following components were employed:

Mono-acrylate A: 2-(N-ethyl perfluoro-octane sulphonamido)ethyl acrylate commercially available from Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Co., purified by extraction with ethanol.

Mono-acrylate B: 1,1-dihydroperfluoro-octylacrylate (commercially available from Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing Co.)

TMPTMA: trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate

HHA: hydantoin hexa-acrylate (commercially available from Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing Co.)

HDDA: hexanediol diacrylate acrylate silane: 3-trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate

IG651: Irgacure 651 commercially available from Ciba Geigy (benzildimethylketal)

IG500: Irgacure 500 commercially available from Ciba Geigy

IG184: Irgacure 184 commercially available from Ciba Geigy

thiol synergist: gamma-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane

EXAMPLE 1

A cladding composition was prepared by mixing the following components:

______________________________________Mono-acrylate A          92 parts by weightTMPTMA          4 parts by weightIG651           4 parts by weight______________________________________

Coated fibres were prepared by the technique described with reference to FIG. 1 to produce coated fused silica optical fibres having an overall diameter of 200 micrometers and a cladding thickness of 10 micrometers.

The coated fibre was tested using a Photon Kinetics spectrophotometer and an attenuation figure of 4.8 dB/Km at 812 nm was recorded. Commercially available optical fibres in accordance with U.S. Pat. No. 4,511,209 were tested under identical conditions and recorded an attenuation figure of 6.2 dB/Km.

EXAMPLES 2 TO 9 Comparison with fibres of U.S. Pat. No. 4,511,209

The formulations reported in Table 1 were prepared.

                                  TABLE 1__________________________________________________________________________(parts by weight) Mono-     Mono-                  acry- acry-     acryl-         thiol                        acrylic                            lateExample late A     ate B         TMPTMA IG651                    silane                        acid                            silane__________________________________________________________________________2     944 --  44     54  --  --  --3     890 --  44     54  60  --  --4     888 --  44     56  --  58  --5     910 --  44     56  --  --  566     --  935 58     41  --  --  --7     --  874 56     41  --  --  438     --  873 58     41  --  51  --9     --  880 56     41  41  --  --__________________________________________________________________________

The refractive index of the uncured formulations were measured. The adhesion of the cured formulations to glass was measured by a drag test.

The drag test consisted of coating the formulation to be tested on to a large glass slide. Lines were scored diagonally across the coating and a stylus to which a weight was attached was applied to the coating. The stylus was pulled across the coating. The weight applied to the stylus when a half of the lines are stripped away was recorded, in grams, as a measure of adhesion.

The refractive indices of the uncured, uncross-linked formulation at sodium D line wavelength and adhesion values are reported in the following Table 2.

              TABLE 2______________________________________Example      Adhesion Refractive Index______________________________________2            240      1.3933            <160     1.3974            >800     1.3975            720      1.3966            2407            4008            8009            160______________________________________

Examples 2 to 5 show the refractive index of the 3 component system was lower than the comparison formulation. Further that the glass adhesion of the 3 component system and adhesion enhanced systems was greater than that of the thiol silane containing formulation.

Coating using mono-acrylate B (Examples 6 to 9) were subjectively much more brittle than those using monoacrylate A.

EXAMPLES 10 TO 13 Comparison of the effect of fluorinated acrylate on adhesion

The formulations reported in Table 3 were prepared and refractive index and adhesion measurements were conducted as in Example 2.

                                  TABLE 3__________________________________________________________________________ Mono-      Mono-               Refrac- acrylate      acrylate            tiveExample B    A    TMPTMA                 IG651                     Adhesion                          Index__________________________________________________________________________10    928  --   57    40  240  1.35611    --   927  54    44  640  1.39212    922  --   49    41  <160 not                          measured13    --   946  51    44  720  not                          measured__________________________________________________________________________

These results indicate that the fluoro-octyl sulphonamido acrylate monomers exhibit advantageous adhesion properties.

EXAMPLES 14 TO 16 Comparison of the effect of photoinitiator choice on adhesion

The formulations reported in Table 4 were used to coat glass slides. The adhesion properties of the formulations were measured as in Example 2.

                                  TABLE 4__________________________________________________________________________Mono-acrylate   acrylicExampleA    TMPTMA           silane               IG651                   IG500                       IG184                           Adhesion__________________________________________________________________________14   734  116   103 115 --  --  104015   705  103   108 --  109 --  72016   701  126   114 --  --  100 800__________________________________________________________________________

All of these commercial photoinitiators effected acceptable levels of cure.

EXAMPLES 18 TO 23 Comparison of the effect of cross-linking agent selection on adhesion

The formulation reported in Table 5 were used to coat glass slides. The adhesion of the formulations was measured as in Example 2.

                                  TABLE 5__________________________________________________________________________Mono-    acry-acrylate late               Adhes-ExampleA    IG651         silane             TMPTMA                   HHA HDDA ion__________________________________________________________________________18   704  60  101 101   --  --   104019   696  61  103  50   --  --   120020   715  60  105 --    114 --   (a)21   722  62  101 --     62 --   120022   696  63  108 --    --  104   80023   702  61  100 --    --   51   720__________________________________________________________________________ (a) Very poor quality coatings led to inconsistent results
EXAMPLE 24 Effect of acrylic silane concentration on adhesion

To a formulation comprising Mono-acrylate A, IG651 and TMPTMA in the weight ratio 92:4:4 was added the following proportion of acrylate silane. The adhesion to glass was measured as in Example 2.

______________________________________weight % acrylate silane              Adhesion______________________________________0                  2401                  2002.4                6405                  4806                  6407.5                64011                 80014                 104019                 80022.5               104030                 >>1040______________________________________

It can be clearly seen that any amount of the acrylate silane over 1% was beneficial to core cladding adhesion.

EXAMPLES 25 TO 38 Comparison with fibres of U.S. Pat. No. 4,511,209

Optical fibres were prepared as in Example 1 using the following cladding compositions:

__________________________________________________________________________Mono-acrylate       acrylic                   acrylate                        thiolExampleA    IG651         TMPTMA               acid                   silane                        synergist                             Attenuation dB/Km__________________________________________________________________________25   88   4   4     --  4    --    2226   88   4   4     4   --   --   11.927   88   4   4     --  --   4    11428.sup.(1)  72.1       0.9          23.3 --  --     3.728                                48.4__________________________________________________________________________ .sup.(1) Table III, Example 14 of U.S. Pat. No. 4511209 Comparitive Attenuation at 820 nm

The presence of the thiol synergist of the prior art does not lead to lower attenuation as in the cladding compositions of the invention.

Comparison of adhesion by lap shear test 0.5 inch (12.8 mm) overlap.

______________________________________    Immediately   AfterExample  after cure    24 hrs  % Change______________________________________25       100.3         108.4   8.026       123.7         178.2   44.028        66.6          71.1   6.7______________________________________

Adhesion of cladding to silica of Examples 25 and 26 containing acrylic acid or acrylate silane is considerably improved over the cladding of Example 28 containing thiol synergist. The improvement is particularly pronounced upon ageing.

EXAMPLE 29 Addition of thermal stabilizer

Optical fibres were prepared as in Example 1 using a cladding composition of the following formulation:

______________________________________         % by weight______________________________________mono-acrylate A 88.5TMPTA           5acrylate silane 2IG651           4Ultranox 226     0.5______________________________________

After thermal cycling at +125° C. the fibre exhibited a permanent loss damage of 7 dB/Km compared to 10 to 14 dB/Km of fibres having the same cladding formulation without Ultranox 226 thermal stabilizer.

EXAMPLE 30 Combination of two thermal stabilizers

An optical fibre was prepared as in Example 1 using the following cladding formulation.

______________________________________         % by weight______________________________________mono-acrylate A 82.25TMPTA           10acrylate silane 5Darocur 1116    2Cyanox LTDP     0.5Irganox 1076    0.25______________________________________

After curing the clad fibre was extrusion coated with Tefzel 210 in a conventional manner. The permanent loss damage of the resulting buffered optical fibre was 1.1 Km/dB after being annealed at +125° C. for four hours.

EXAMPLE 31

A cladding composition was prepared by mixing the following components:

______________________________________1,1-dihydroperfluorocyclohexane carbinol                   88 parts by weightacrylate2-ethyl-2-(hyroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol tri-                    5 parts by weightacrylate3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate                    5 parts by weightDarocur 1173             2 parts by weight______________________________________

Coated fibres were prepared and evaluated using the procedure according to Example 1. An attenuation figure of 5.73 dB/Km at 820 nm was recorded. After curing the cladded fibre was extrusion coated with Tefzel 210 in a conventional manner to provide a buffered optical fibre with an attenuation loss of 6.23 dB/Km at 820 nm. The thermal stability of the Tefzel buffered fibre was evaluated after maintaining it as 125° C. for four hours and was recorded as 10.58 dB/Km.

The 1,1-dihydroperfluorocyclohexane carbinol acrylate used in this Example was prepared according to the procedure disclosed by D. W. Codding et al., "Journal of Polymer Science", 15, 518 (1955) except that the charge was 210 g trifluoroacetic anhydride, 79.8 g acrylic acid, 250 g perfluorocyclohexylmethylol, and 0.1 g phenathiazine as inhibitor; the reaction mixture was stirred for 2 hours after the reaction had subsided, and the product was purified by vacuum distillation.

A comparison was made of the Tefzel coated cladded fibre prepared in this Example with a commercially available hard clad silica fibre sold by Ensign-Bickford (Simsbury, Conn.). Both fibres were maintained at 125° C. for four hours. The instant fibre was colorless and transparent and showed no increase in attenuation at 600 nm whereas the Ensign-Bickford fibre yellowed and showed an increase in attenuation of 120 dB/Km at 600 nm. "Transparent" means that the cladded fibre when viewed under an optical microscope (e.g., at 100×), have the property of transmitting rays of visible light so that bodies beneath the fibre, for example, such as bodies having essentially the same nature as the fibre, can be clearly seen through the fibre.

Improved properties of the cladded fibre can be realized by including antioxidant/thermal stabilizer in the formulation as has been shown in Example 30.

Claims (41)

What we claim is:
1. An optical fibre comprising a core coated with a cladding composition having a lower refractive index than the core, said cladding composition comprising one or more fluorinated mono-acrylates selected from the group consisting of (a) mono-acrylates comprising fluorinated cycloaliphatic functionality, and (b) compounds of the formula ##STR5## wherein X is a member selected from the group consisting of H and an alkyl group of 1 to 5 carbon atoms,
R represents an alkyl group of 1 to 5 carbon atoms,
Rf represents a fluoroaliphatic radical in which the higher of a minimum of three C--F bonds are present or 25% of the C--H bonds have been replaced by C--F bonds, and
x is 1 or 2,
a polyfunctional cross-linking acrylate being difunctional or higher, and a photoinitiator, said cladding composition comprising less than 0.3% by weight of a mono- or polyfunctional thiol and being cured or cross-linked.
2. An optical fibre according to claim 1 wherein said cladding composition comprises less than 0.1% by weight of a mono- or polyfunctional thiol.
3. An optical fibre according to claim 1 wherein said cladding composition is free from mono- or polyfunctional thiol.
4. An optical fibre according to claim 1 wherein said fluorinated mono-acrylate comprises a fluoroaliphatic radical or a fluorinated cycloaliphatic radical in which radicals the higher of a minimum of three C--F bonds are present or 25% of the C--H bonds have been replaced by C--F bonds.
5. An optical fibre according to claim 4 wherein said fluoroaliphatic radical is a perfluoroalkyl group of 2 to 12 carbon atoms or a perfluorocycloalkyl group of 5 or 6 carbon atoms.
6. A optical fibre according to claim 1 wherein said fluorinated mono-acrylate is a member selected from the group consisting of compounds of the general formulae: ##STR6## wherein: Y and Z are independently members selected from the group consisting of H, F and Cl;
X is a member selected from the group consisting of H and an alkyl group of 1 to 5 carbon atoms,
n is an integer from 2 to 12,
q is an integer from 4 to 24
m is 0, 1 or 2,
with the proviso that for Z not more than one atom of H or Cl is present for every two carbon atoms in the group Cn Zq,
R represents an alkyl group of 1 to 5 carbon atoms,
Rf represents a fluoroaliphatic radical in which the higher of a minimum of three C--F bonds are present or 25% of the C--H bonds have been replaced by C--F bonds, and
x is 1 or 2.
7. An optical fibre according to claim 6 wherein said fluorinated mono-acrylate is a member selected from the group consisting of 1,1-dihydroperfluorocyclohexane carbinol acrylate, 1,1-dihydroperfluorocyclohexane carbinol methacrylate, 1,1-dihydroperfluorocyclopentane carbinol acrylate, 1,1-dihydroperfluorocyclopentane carbinol methacrylate, 2-(N-ethyl perfluoro octane sulphonamido)ethyl acrylate, 2-(N-ethyl perfluoro octane sulphonamido)ethyl methacrylate, 2-(N-butyl perfluoro octane sulphonamido)ethyl acrylate and mixtures thereof.
8. An optical fibre according to claim 1 wherein said polyfunctional cross-linking acrylate is trifunctional or higher.
9. An optical fibre according to claim 1 wherein said polyfunctional cross-linking acrylate is a member selected from the group consisting of compounds of the general formulae: ##STR7## in which: X is a member selected from the group consisting of H and an alkyl group of 1 to 5 carbon atoms,
R1 is a member selected from the group consisting of an alkyl group of 1 to 5 carbon atoms and --O.COC(X)CH2, and
p is an integer from 3 to 8.
10. An optical fibre according to claim 1 wherein said polyfunctional cross-linking acrylate is a member selected from the group consisting of trimethylol propane tri(meth)acrylate, 1,4 butanediol di(meth)acrylate, 1,3 butanediol di(meth)acrylate, 1,6 hexanediol di(meth)acrylate, Pentacrythritol tetra(meth)acrylate, pentacrythritol tri(meth)acrylate, dipentacrythritol penta(meth)acrylate, and hydantoin hexa acrylate and mixtures thereof.
11. An optical fibre according to claim 1 wherein said photoinitiator is a substituted acetophenone.
12. An optical fibre according to claim 1 wherein said cladding composition comprises:
______________________________________fluorinated mono-acrylate               50 to 95% by weightpolyfunctionalcross-linking acrylate               2 to 35% by weightphotoinitiator      0.5 to 20% by weight.______________________________________
13. An optical fibre according to claim 12 wherein said cladding composition comprises:
______________________________________fluorinated mono-acrylate               75 to 95% by weightpolyfunctionalcross-linking acrylate               2 to 10% by weightphotoinitiator      0.5 to 10% by weight.______________________________________
14. An optical fibre according to claim 1 wherein said cladding composition additionally comprises a vinyl-substituted adhesion enhancer different from the fluorinated mono-acrylate and the cross-linkable acrylate.
15. An optical fibre according to claim 14 wherein said vinyl-substituted adhesion enhancer is a (meth)acrylic silane.
16. An optical fibre according to claim 14 wherein said vinyl-substituted adhesion enhancer is present in an amount in the range from 1 to 50% by weight of the total cladding composition.
17. An optical fibre according to claim 16 wherein said adhesion enhancer is present in an amount in the range from 2 to 25% by weight of the total cladding composition.
18. An optical fibre according to claim 1 wherein said cladding composition additionally comprises a thermal stabilizer/antioxidant.
19. An optical fibre according to claim 18 wherein said thermal stabilizer/antioxidant is present in an amount in the range from 0.001 to 5% by weight of the total cladding composition.
20. An optical fibre according to claim 19 wherein said thermal stabilizer/antioxidant is present in an amount in the range from 0.01 to 1% by weight of the total cladding composition.
21. An optical fibre according to claim 19 wherein said thermal stabilizer/antioxidant is a member selected from the group consisting of hindered phenols and thioesters.
22. An optical fibre according to claim 21 wherein said thermal stabilizer/antioxidant is a member selected from the group consisting of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methyl phenyl, octadecyl-3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-sec-butyl phenol, dilauryl thiodipropionate and combinations thereof.
23. An optical fibre according to claim 1 wherein the refractive index of said cladding composition is at least 0.03 units less than that of the core.
24. An optical fibre according to claim 23 wherein the refractive index of said cladding composition is at least 0.05 units less than that of the core.
25. An optical fibre according to claim 23 wherein said core consists of fused silica.
26. An optical fibre according to claim 1 additionally comprising a protective layer over said cladding composition.
27. An optical fibre according to claim 26 wherein said protective coating comprises a fluoropolymer.
28. A cladding composition for optical fibres comprising:
from 50 to 95% by weight of one or more fluorinated acrylates selected from the group consisting of (a) mono-acrylates comprising fluorinated cycloaliphatic functionality, and (b) compounds having the formula ##STR8## wherein X is a member selected from the group consisting of H and an alkyl group of 1 to 5 carbon atoms,
R represents an alkyl group of 1 to 5 carbon atoms,
Rf represents a fluoroaliphatic radical in which the higher of a minimum of three C--F bonds are present or 25% of the C--H bonds have been replaced by C--F bonds, and
x is 1 or 2,
from 2 to 35% by weight of a polyfunctional cross-linking acrylate being difunctional or higher and,
from 0.5 to 20% by weight of a photoinitiator,
said composition comprising less than 0.3% by weight of a mono- or polyfunctional thiol.
29. A cladding composition according to claim 28 which is free from mono- or polyfunctional thiol.
30. A cladding composition according to claim 28 wherein said fluorinated acrylate comprises a fluoroaliphatic radical in which the higher of a minimum of three C--F bonds are present or 25% of the C--H bonds have been replaced by C--F bonds.
31. A cladding composition according to claim 28 wherein said fluorinated acrylate is 2-(N-ethyl perfluoro-octane sulphonamido)-ethyl acrylate.
32. A cladding composition according to claim 28 wherein said cross-linking acrylate is a member selected from the group consisting of trimethylol propane triacrylate and trimethylol propane trimethacrylate.
33. A cladding composition according to claim 28 wherein said photoinitiator is a substituted acetophonone.
34. A cladding composition according to claim 28 comprising:
______________________________________fluorinated acrylate              75 to 95% by weightpolyfunctionalcross-linking acrylate              2 to 10% by weightphotoinitiator     2 to 10% by weight.______________________________________
35. A cladding composition according to claim 28 additionally comprising from 1 to 50% by weight of the total composition of a vinyl-substituted adhesion enhancer.
36. A cladding composition according to claim 35 wherein said adhesion enhancer is a (meth)acrylic silane.
37. A cladding composition according to claim 28 additionally comprising a thermal stabilizer/antioxidant in an amount in the range from 0.001 to 5% by weight of the total cladding composition.
38. A cladding composition according to claim 37 wherein said thermal stabilizers/antioxidant is a member selected from the group consisting of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methyl phenol, octadecyl-3,5-di-tert-butyl-4hydroxyhydrocinnamate, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-sec-butyl phenol, dilauryl thiodipropionate and combinations thereof.
39. A cladding composition according to claim 28 wherein said fluorinated mono-acrylate is a member selected from the group consisting of 1,1-dihydroperfluorocyclohexane carbinol acrylate, 1,1-dihydroperfluorocyclohexane carbinol methacylate, 1,1-dihydroperfluorocyclopentane carbinol acrylate, 1,1-dihydroperfluorocyclopentane carbinol methacrylate, 2-(N-ethyl perfluoro octane sulphonamido)-ethyl acrylate, 2-(N-ethyl perfluoro octane sulphonamido)-ethyl methacrylate, 2-(N-butyl perfluoro octane sulphonamido)ethyl acrylate, and mixtures thereof.
40. The optical fibre according to claim 1 wherein said fluorinated mono-acrylate is 1,1-dihydroperfluorocyclohexane carbinol acrylate.
41. The cladding composition according to claim 28 wherein said fluorinated mono-acrylate is 1,1-dihydroperfluorocyclohexane carbinol acrylate.
US07463873 1988-03-15 1990-01-05 Polymer claddings for optical fibre waveguides Expired - Lifetime US4968116A (en)

Priority Applications (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB8806137 1988-03-15
GB8806137A GB8806137D0 (en) 1988-03-15 1988-03-15 Polymer claddings for optical fibre waveguides
GB8825400 1988-10-31
GB8825400A GB8825400D0 (en) 1988-03-15 1988-10-31 Polymer claddings for optical fibre waveguides

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US32289389 Continuation 1989-03-13

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US4968116A true US4968116A (en) 1990-11-06

Family

ID=26293638

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US07463873 Expired - Lifetime US4968116A (en) 1988-03-15 1990-01-05 Polymer claddings for optical fibre waveguides

Country Status (4)

Country Link
US (1) US4968116A (en)
EP (1) EP0333464B1 (en)
JP (1) JP2883624B2 (en)
DE (2) DE68906440D1 (en)

Cited By (33)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5093888A (en) * 1990-04-27 1992-03-03 Hitachi, Ltd. Optical transmitting system, optical members and polymer for same, and usage of same
US5148511A (en) * 1991-11-04 1992-09-15 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Low refractive index plastics for optical fiber cladding
US5204930A (en) * 1991-01-26 1993-04-20 Bayer Aktiengesellschaft Optical fibers, and a process for their production
US5223593A (en) * 1991-08-08 1993-06-29 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Fluorine containing plastic optical fiber cores
US5239026A (en) * 1991-08-26 1993-08-24 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Low loss high numerical aperture cladded optical fibers
US5343544A (en) * 1993-07-02 1994-08-30 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Integrated optical fiber coupler and method of making same
US5688553A (en) * 1994-07-20 1997-11-18 Gallileo Electro-Optics Corporation Polyimide coated heavy metal fluoride glass fiber and method of manufacture
US5690863A (en) * 1994-07-22 1997-11-25 Optical Polymer Research, Inc. Curable inter-polymer optical fiber cladding compositions
WO1999026990A1 (en) * 1997-11-25 1999-06-03 Rexam Release, Inc. Acrylate release compositions and sheet materials having a release coating formed of the same
US6391459B1 (en) * 1992-04-20 2002-05-21 Dsm N.V. Radiation curable oligomers containing alkoxylated fluorinated polyols
US20020142021A1 (en) * 1997-04-25 2002-10-03 Ishihara Sangyo Kaisha, Ltd. Composition for controlling harmful bio-organisms and method for controlling harmful bio-organisms using the same
US6489376B1 (en) 2000-07-31 2002-12-03 Alcatel Formulation of UV-curable coatings for optical fiber for a fast cure
EP1279976A2 (en) * 2001-07-18 2003-01-29 Asahi Glass Company Ltd. Plastic optical fiber and process for its production
US20030077059A1 (en) * 2001-03-13 2003-04-24 Ching-Kee Chien Optical fiber coating compositions
US20040241319A1 (en) * 2003-05-30 2004-12-02 Lg.Philips Lcd Co., Ltd. Method of manufacturing phase-difference film using polarized ultraviolet light
US20050158001A1 (en) * 2003-06-04 2005-07-21 Fabian Michelle D. Coated optical fiber and curable compositions suitable for coating optical fiber
US20050249957A1 (en) * 2004-05-07 2005-11-10 3M Innovative Properties Company Stain repellent optical hard coating
US20050250928A1 (en) * 2004-05-07 2005-11-10 3M Innovative Properties Company Fluorinated polyether polyamine and method of making the same
US20050249942A1 (en) * 2004-05-07 2005-11-10 3M Innovative Properties Company Article comprising fluorochemical surface layer
US20050249940A1 (en) * 2004-05-07 2005-11-10 3M Innovative Properties Company Fluoropolyether poly(meth)acryl compounds
US20050250921A1 (en) * 2004-05-07 2005-11-10 3M Innovative Properties Company Polymerizable compositions, methods of making the same, and composite articles therefrom
US20060147168A1 (en) * 2004-12-30 2006-07-06 Demartino Steven E Method of preventing optical fiber failure in high power application
US20060148350A1 (en) * 2004-12-30 2006-07-06 3M Innovative Properties Company Articles comprising a fluorochemical surface layer and related methods
US20060216500A1 (en) * 2005-03-23 2006-09-28 3M Innovative Properties Company Perfluoropolyether urethane additives having (meth)acryl groups and hard coats
US20070014018A1 (en) * 2004-12-30 2007-01-18 Wheatley John A Internal components of optical device comprising hardcoat
US20070285778A1 (en) * 2006-06-13 2007-12-13 Walker Christopher B Optical films comprising high refractive index and antireflective coatings
US20070285779A1 (en) * 2006-06-13 2007-12-13 Walker Christopher B Optical films comprising high refractive index and antireflective coatings
US20080008888A1 (en) * 2004-12-30 2008-01-10 Cheng-Chung Chang Stain-resistant fluorochemical compositions
US20080281066A1 (en) * 2004-07-01 2008-11-13 Adriana Paiva Hardcoat Compositions and Methods
US20110086221A1 (en) * 2007-08-31 2011-04-14 Pokorny Richard J Hardcoats having low surface energy and low lint attraction
WO2011150103A2 (en) 2010-05-25 2011-12-01 3M Innovative Properties Company Antimicrobial–coated medical articles
WO2014119250A1 (en) 2013-02-04 2014-08-07 古河電気工業株式会社 Optical fiber and method for producing same
WO2014209783A1 (en) * 2013-06-24 2014-12-31 Corning Incorporated Optical fiber coating for short data network

Families Citing this family (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPH07113005B2 (en) * 1988-09-05 1995-12-06 吉富製薬株式会社 Novel n- octadecyl 3- (3,5-di -t- butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl) having a crystal structure propionate
JP3755307B2 (en) 1998-08-26 2006-03-15 株式会社豊田自動織機 Axle housing support structure
US6689900B2 (en) 2001-02-09 2004-02-10 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Fluorinated crosslinker and composition
DE60224364T2 (en) 2001-11-06 2008-05-08 Asahi Fiber Glass Co. Ltd. Binder for inorganic fibers and wärmendämmendes acoustic inorganic fiber material
WO2004092105A1 (en) * 2003-04-16 2004-10-28 Hwan-Kyu Kim Novel uv-curable perfluorinated, multifunctionalized acrylates monomers, copolyacrylates and their synthetic methods for photonic devices
EP1700871B1 (en) 2005-03-10 2007-09-12 Nanogate Advanced Materials GmbH Moulding composition for preparation of precision optics
EP2239285B1 (en) 2009-04-07 2011-06-08 Nanogate Industrial Solutions GmbH Casting compound

Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB1262526A (en) * 1969-03-21 1972-02-02 Minnesota Mining & Mfg Coating for optical element
US4099837A (en) * 1976-05-26 1978-07-11 Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated Coating of fiber lightguides with UV cured polymerization products
US4125644A (en) * 1977-05-11 1978-11-14 W. R. Grace & Co. Radiation cured coatings for fiber optics
US4511209A (en) * 1982-02-24 1985-04-16 Ensign-Bickford Industries, Inc. Composition having improved optical qualities
US4707076A (en) * 1985-04-12 1987-11-17 Ensign-Bickford Industries, Inc. Coating compositions for optical fibers
EP0250996A2 (en) * 1986-06-21 1988-01-07 Daikin Industries, Limited Optical fibers
EP0256765A1 (en) * 1986-08-06 1988-02-24 Mitsubishi Rayon Co., Ltd. Plastic cladding composition for plastic core optical fiber, and plastic core optical fiber prepared therefrom
EP0257863A1 (en) * 1986-08-06 1988-03-02 Mitsubishi Rayon Co., Ltd. Plastic cladding composition for silica or glass core optical fiber, and silica or glass core optical fiber prepared therefrom

Family Cites Families (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPS6296508A (en) * 1985-10-23 1987-05-06 Sumitomo Chem Co Ltd Curable resin composition
JPS63208806A (en) * 1987-02-26 1988-08-30 Mitsubishi Rayon Co Ltd Optical fiber

Patent Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB1262526A (en) * 1969-03-21 1972-02-02 Minnesota Mining & Mfg Coating for optical element
US4099837A (en) * 1976-05-26 1978-07-11 Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated Coating of fiber lightguides with UV cured polymerization products
US4125644A (en) * 1977-05-11 1978-11-14 W. R. Grace & Co. Radiation cured coatings for fiber optics
US4511209A (en) * 1982-02-24 1985-04-16 Ensign-Bickford Industries, Inc. Composition having improved optical qualities
US4707076A (en) * 1985-04-12 1987-11-17 Ensign-Bickford Industries, Inc. Coating compositions for optical fibers
EP0250996A2 (en) * 1986-06-21 1988-01-07 Daikin Industries, Limited Optical fibers
EP0256765A1 (en) * 1986-08-06 1988-02-24 Mitsubishi Rayon Co., Ltd. Plastic cladding composition for plastic core optical fiber, and plastic core optical fiber prepared therefrom
EP0257863A1 (en) * 1986-08-06 1988-03-02 Mitsubishi Rayon Co., Ltd. Plastic cladding composition for silica or glass core optical fiber, and silica or glass core optical fiber prepared therefrom

Cited By (65)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5093888A (en) * 1990-04-27 1992-03-03 Hitachi, Ltd. Optical transmitting system, optical members and polymer for same, and usage of same
US5204930A (en) * 1991-01-26 1993-04-20 Bayer Aktiengesellschaft Optical fibers, and a process for their production
US5223593A (en) * 1991-08-08 1993-06-29 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Fluorine containing plastic optical fiber cores
US5239026A (en) * 1991-08-26 1993-08-24 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Low loss high numerical aperture cladded optical fibers
US5148511A (en) * 1991-11-04 1992-09-15 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Low refractive index plastics for optical fiber cladding
US6391459B1 (en) * 1992-04-20 2002-05-21 Dsm N.V. Radiation curable oligomers containing alkoxylated fluorinated polyols
US6680118B2 (en) 1992-04-20 2004-01-20 Dsm N.V. Radiation curable oligomers containing alkoxylated fluorinated polyols
US5343544A (en) * 1993-07-02 1994-08-30 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Integrated optical fiber coupler and method of making same
US5688553A (en) * 1994-07-20 1997-11-18 Gallileo Electro-Optics Corporation Polyimide coated heavy metal fluoride glass fiber and method of manufacture
US5690863A (en) * 1994-07-22 1997-11-25 Optical Polymer Research, Inc. Curable inter-polymer optical fiber cladding compositions
US20020142021A1 (en) * 1997-04-25 2002-10-03 Ishihara Sangyo Kaisha, Ltd. Composition for controlling harmful bio-organisms and method for controlling harmful bio-organisms using the same
US6150024A (en) * 1997-11-25 2000-11-21 Rexam Release, Inc. Acrylate release compositions and sheet materials having a release coating formed of the same
WO1999026990A1 (en) * 1997-11-25 1999-06-03 Rexam Release, Inc. Acrylate release compositions and sheet materials having a release coating formed of the same
US6489376B1 (en) 2000-07-31 2002-12-03 Alcatel Formulation of UV-curable coatings for optical fiber for a fast cure
US6887918B2 (en) 2000-07-31 2005-05-03 Alcatel Formulation of UV-curable coatings for optical fiber for a fast cure
US20030077059A1 (en) * 2001-03-13 2003-04-24 Ching-Kee Chien Optical fiber coating compositions
US20060115649A1 (en) * 2001-03-13 2006-06-01 Ching-Kee Chien Optical fiber coating compositions
US7676130B2 (en) * 2001-03-13 2010-03-09 Corning Incorporated Optical fiber coating compositions
EP1279976A3 (en) * 2001-07-18 2003-03-26 Asahi Glass Company Ltd. Plastic optical fiber and process for its production
US20030021577A1 (en) * 2001-07-18 2003-01-30 Asahi Glass Company Limited Plastic optical fiber and process for its production
EP1279976A2 (en) * 2001-07-18 2003-01-29 Asahi Glass Company Ltd. Plastic optical fiber and process for its production
US20040241319A1 (en) * 2003-05-30 2004-12-02 Lg.Philips Lcd Co., Ltd. Method of manufacturing phase-difference film using polarized ultraviolet light
US20050158001A1 (en) * 2003-06-04 2005-07-21 Fabian Michelle D. Coated optical fiber and curable compositions suitable for coating optical fiber
US7207732B2 (en) 2003-06-04 2007-04-24 Corning Incorporated Coated optical fiber and curable compositions suitable for coating optical fiber
US20050249940A1 (en) * 2004-05-07 2005-11-10 3M Innovative Properties Company Fluoropolyether poly(meth)acryl compounds
US20050250921A1 (en) * 2004-05-07 2005-11-10 3M Innovative Properties Company Polymerizable compositions, methods of making the same, and composite articles therefrom
US20050249942A1 (en) * 2004-05-07 2005-11-10 3M Innovative Properties Company Article comprising fluorochemical surface layer
US20050250928A1 (en) * 2004-05-07 2005-11-10 3M Innovative Properties Company Fluorinated polyether polyamine and method of making the same
US7342080B2 (en) 2004-05-07 2008-03-11 3M Innovative Properties Company Polymerizable compositions, methods of making the same, and composite articles therefrom
US7101618B2 (en) 2004-05-07 2006-09-05 3M Innovative Properties Company Article comprising fluorochemical surface layer
US7332217B2 (en) 2004-05-07 2008-02-19 3M Innovative Properties Company Article and comprising fluorochemical surface layer
US7288619B2 (en) 2004-05-07 2007-10-30 3M Innovative Properties Company Fluorinated polyether polyamine and method of making the same
US20050249957A1 (en) * 2004-05-07 2005-11-10 3M Innovative Properties Company Stain repellent optical hard coating
US20070237948A1 (en) * 2004-05-07 2007-10-11 3M Innovative Properties Company Article comprising fluorochemical surface layer
US7173778B2 (en) 2004-05-07 2007-02-06 3M Innovative Properties Company Stain repellent optical hard coating
US7267850B2 (en) 2004-05-07 2007-09-11 3M Innovative Properties Company Article comprising fluorochemical surface layer
US20060251885A1 (en) * 2004-05-07 2006-11-09 3M Innovative Properties Company Article comprising fluorochemical surface layer
US7671153B2 (en) 2004-07-01 2010-03-02 3M Innovative Properties Company Hardcoat compositions and methods
US20080281066A1 (en) * 2004-07-01 2008-11-13 Adriana Paiva Hardcoat Compositions and Methods
US20070014018A1 (en) * 2004-12-30 2007-01-18 Wheatley John A Internal components of optical device comprising hardcoat
US7239785B2 (en) 2004-12-30 2007-07-03 Corning Incorporated Method of preventing optical fiber failure in high power application
US9334418B2 (en) 2004-12-30 2016-05-10 3M Innovative Properties Company Stain-resistant fluorochemical compositions
US20080008888A1 (en) * 2004-12-30 2008-01-10 Cheng-Chung Chang Stain-resistant fluorochemical compositions
US20060147168A1 (en) * 2004-12-30 2006-07-06 Demartino Steven E Method of preventing optical fiber failure in high power application
US20060148350A1 (en) * 2004-12-30 2006-07-06 3M Innovative Properties Company Articles comprising a fluorochemical surface layer and related methods
US9200175B2 (en) 2004-12-30 2015-12-01 3M Innovative Properties Company Articles comprising a fluorochemical surface layer and related methods
US8729211B2 (en) 2005-03-23 2014-05-20 3M Innovative Properties Company Perfluoropolyether urethane additives having (meth)acryl groups and hard coats
US20060216500A1 (en) * 2005-03-23 2006-09-28 3M Innovative Properties Company Perfluoropolyether urethane additives having (meth)acryl groups and hard coats
US8981151B2 (en) 2005-03-23 2015-03-17 3M Innovative Properties Company Perfluoropolyether urethane additives having (meth)acryl groups and hard coats
US20100160595A1 (en) * 2005-03-23 2010-06-24 3M Innovative Properties Company Perfluoropolyether urethane additives having (meth)acryl groups and hard coats
US8147966B2 (en) 2005-03-23 2012-04-03 3M Innovative Properties Company Perfluoropolyether urethane additives having (meth)acryl groups and hard coats
US8476398B2 (en) 2005-03-23 2013-07-02 3M Innovative Properties Company Perfluoropolyether urethane additives having (meth)acryl groups and hard coats
US20060216524A1 (en) * 2005-03-23 2006-09-28 3M Innovative Properties Company Perfluoropolyether urethane additives having (meth)acryl groups and hard coats
US7718264B2 (en) 2005-03-23 2010-05-18 3M Innovative Properties Company Perfluoropolyether urethane additives having (meth)acryl groups and hard coats
US20070285779A1 (en) * 2006-06-13 2007-12-13 Walker Christopher B Optical films comprising high refractive index and antireflective coatings
US20070285778A1 (en) * 2006-06-13 2007-12-13 Walker Christopher B Optical films comprising high refractive index and antireflective coatings
US20110086221A1 (en) * 2007-08-31 2011-04-14 Pokorny Richard J Hardcoats having low surface energy and low lint attraction
US8728623B2 (en) 2007-08-31 2014-05-20 3M Innovative Properties Company Hardcoats having low surface energy and low lint attraction
WO2011150103A2 (en) 2010-05-25 2011-12-01 3M Innovative Properties Company Antimicrobial–coated medical articles
DE112011101787T5 (en) 2010-05-25 2013-05-02 3M Innovative Properties Company antimicrobial coatings
WO2011150001A2 (en) 2010-05-25 2011-12-01 3M Innovative Properties Company Antimicrobial coatings
US9809717B2 (en) 2010-05-25 2017-11-07 3M Innovative Properties Company Antimicrobial-coated medical articles
WO2014119250A1 (en) 2013-02-04 2014-08-07 古河電気工業株式会社 Optical fiber and method for producing same
WO2014209783A1 (en) * 2013-06-24 2014-12-31 Corning Incorporated Optical fiber coating for short data network
US9322986B2 (en) 2013-06-24 2016-04-26 Corning Incorporated Optical fiber coating for short data network

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
EP0333464B1 (en) 1993-05-12 grant
JP2883624B2 (en) 1999-04-19 grant
EP0333464A1 (en) 1989-09-20 application
DE68906440T2 (en) 1993-12-23 grant
JPH028803A (en) 1990-01-12 application
DE68906440D1 (en) 1993-06-17 grant

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US5416880A (en) Optical fibre coatings and method for producing same
US5096626A (en) Process of molding a coated plastic lens
US6584263B2 (en) Optical fiber coating compositions and coated optical fibers
US5665450A (en) Optically transparent composite material and process for preparing same
US6335149B1 (en) High performance acrylate materials for optical interconnects
US4904051A (en) Optical fiber provided with a synthetic resin coating
US4931523A (en) Plastic lens
US6358601B1 (en) Antistatic ceramer hardcoat composition with improved antistatic characteristics
US6531522B1 (en) Fast curing primary optical fiber coating
US4798445A (en) Plastic optical fiber and process for producing the same
US4472021A (en) Strippable radiation-cured coatings for optical fiber and method
US4849462A (en) Ultraviolet-curable coatings for optical glass fibers having improved adhesion
US5148511A (en) Low refractive index plastics for optical fiber cladding
US3968309A (en) Molded articles of plastics having improved surface characteristics and process for producing the same
US4056651A (en) Moisture and heat resistant coating for glass fibers
US4756972A (en) Laminated optical component
US4536267A (en) Plastic lens of neopentyl glycol dimethacrylate copolymerized with methoxy diethylene glycol methacrylate or diethylene glycol dimethacrylate
US4599274A (en) Photo-curable adhesive composition for glass lamination and laminated glass and process for its production
US4319811A (en) Abrasion resistance radiation curable coating
US5136682A (en) Curable compositions and methods for use in forming optical waveguide structures
US4324575A (en) Low TG soft UV-curable coatings
US4544572A (en) Coated ophthalmic lenses and method for coating the same
US5741831A (en) Polymerizable compositions based on thio (meth) acrylate monomers, polymers with a low yellow index obtained from such compositions, and corresponding ophthalmic lenses
US6563996B1 (en) Optical fibers prepared with a primary coating composition including a monomer with a pendant hydroxyl functional group
US20040126592A1 (en) Transparent composite composition

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 4

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 8

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 12

REMI Maintenance fee reminder mailed