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US4964862A - Method of and means for measuring ligament tension - Google Patents

Method of and means for measuring ligament tension Download PDF

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Publication number
US4964862A
US4964862A US07401221 US40122189A US4964862A US 4964862 A US4964862 A US 4964862A US 07401221 US07401221 US 07401221 US 40122189 A US40122189 A US 40122189A US 4964862 A US4964862 A US 4964862A
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Prior art keywords
means
ligament
tension
measuring
position
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Expired - Fee Related
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US07401221
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Steven W. Arms
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MicroStrain Inc
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MicroStrain Inc
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/08Muscles; Tendons; Ligaments
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B90/00Instruments, implements or accessories specially adapted for surgery or diagnosis and not covered by any of the groups A61B1/00 - A61B50/00, e.g. for luxation treatment or for protecting wound edges
    • A61B90/36Image-producing devices or illumination devices not otherwise provided for

Abstract

The novel ligament tension measuring device has a looped prosthetic ligament or sutures that surround a receptacle. The receptacle contains a positioning hole that allows a fixation pin to be inserted to obtain the optimum position for the desired process. The receptacle also has measuring devices, such as strain gauges or magnets and hall effect sensors. The method includes the steps of: preparing to attach the ligament to the bone; placing the device into the loop of the ligament at the tibia; adjusting the tension on the measuring device; temporarily attaching the ligament at the desired position; pinning the device in place; moving the knee through the entire range of motion; repositioning the device as necessary for the optimum position; removing the device, while leaving the pin in position; and proceeding with the permanent attachment of the ligament.

Description

This invention pertains to measurement devices, and in particular to such measurement devices that relate to the measurement of ligament tensions for use during surgical procedures for ligament replacement.

Devices that measure tension of the ligament are well known to those in the surgical prosthetic field, especially to those who are dealing with surgical ligament replacement. One of the main difficulties with the current procedures is that most of the devices are fairly large and require large openings or a series of openings in order to function properly. It would be highly desirable to develop a miniature sensor to eliminate many of the disadvantages of the previous mechanisms. Examples of some of these mechanisms can be seen in the Acufex Isometric Positioner. This device requires the use of a large position pointer and a knurled centering knob to measure the isometric point; that is, the hole entry sites within the knee which allow the knee to go through a complete range of motion with minimum changes of length. In order to fix the ligament to bone, the surgeon must hold the tensioning device, pull while reading the scale, and then try to guess the exact placement of the screw in the bone in order to maintain the ideal tension.

The difficulties that are inherent in these designs and should be overcome include the following: large sizing of the equipment; the inability to temporarily attach the device to test the tension and adjust it as necessary; lack of a continuous tension reading; and the inability to have the specific attachment point be maintained.

Clearly, it is desirable for a means for measuring ligament tension that can easily be used with permanent ligament prosthesis shown in the U.S. Patent issued to Chen et. al., No. 4,773,910 on 27 Sept. 1988. It is the object of this invention, then to set forth a means for and method of measuring ligament tension which avoids the disadvantages and limitations, above-recited, which occur in previous measuring devices. It is another object of this invention to teach a device that has a small geometry and provides a continuous readout for said means.

It is also the object of this invention to teach a means for measuring ligament tension which is simple to install and use and that will enable the surgeon to easily determine the exact placement of the drill hole for permanent attachment. Particularly, it is the object of this invention to set forth means for measuring ligament tension, for use during surgical procedures for ligament replacement, comprising retaining means; said retaining means comprising at least one looped flexible strand; receptacle means being enveloped within said retaining means; said receptacle means having an aperture located therein; said receptacle means further having measurement means; monitoring means for continuously measuring the ligament tension; and position setting means. It is another object of this invention to teach a method of measuring ligament tension, for use during surgical procedures for ligament replacement, comprising the steps of preparing to attach the ligament to the bone; placing the means for measuring ligament tension into the loop of the ligament at the tibia; adjusting the tension on said means while continuously monitoring the tension; temporarily attaching the ligament at the desired position; pinning said means in place; moving the knee throughout the entire range of motion; repositioning said means as necessary to obtain the optimum position; removing said means, while leaving the pin in the optimum position and proceeding with the permanent attachment of the ligament.

Further objects and features of this invention will become more apparent by reference to the following description taken in conjunction with the accompanying figures, in which:

FIG. 1 is a top view of the novel ligament tension measuring means;

FIG. 2 is a top view of the novel means with strain gauges in position, showing the compression of the receptacle;

FIG. 3 is a top view of the novel means with a hall effect sensor and magnet in position;

FIG. 4 is a perspective view of the novel means in position in the knee; and

FIG. 5 is a schematic block drawing of the voltage or current regulator, signal conditioner and display.

As shown in the figures, the novel tension measuring means 10 is comprised of looped prosthetic ligament or suture 11 which surrounds a compressible implantable receptacle 12. The receptacle contains a positioning hole 13 and a measuring device. The measuring device can be in the form of a pair of strain gauges 14 and 14a, bonded to the receptacle 12 where resistance changes as a result of the deformation of the receptacle 12. In an alternative embodiment, a magnet 15 and hall effect sensor 16 act as measurement devices to measure the changes in their relative positions to each other when compressed. Electrical connections 17 from the regulator 21 provide constant voltage or current to the strain gauges 14 and 14a or the hall effect sensor 16. Electrical connections 17a connect the sensors to a signal conditioner 19, which in turn connects to a display device 20 in order to provide a continuous readout of the tension being measured. A fixation pin 18 is used to temporarily attach the means 10 in position and then, the pin is left in when the means are removed to pinpoint the exact location for permanent attachment of the ligament.

The novel method comprises the steps of:

preparing to attach the ligament to the bone;

placing the means for measuring ligament tension into the loop of the ligament at the tibia;

adjusting the tension on the device while continuously monitoring the tension;

temporarily attaching the ligament at the desired position;

pinning the device in place;

moving the knee throughout the entire range of motion;

repositioning the device as necessary to get the optimum position;

removing the device, while leaving the pin in the optimum position; and

proceeding with the permanent attachment of the ligament.

In operation, the surgeon prepares to attach the ligament to the bone. He would place the tensiometer within the loop at the end of the prosthetic ligament or suture at the tibia. The device can be held by placing a loop of wire or suture through the aperture in the receptacle and pulling it as necessary to get the desired reading on the readout unit. This aperture is located adjacent to the positioning hole. When the reading is measured, the device is brought to rest against the tibia and a small pin is placed in the positioning hole of the receptacle to mark the location of the attachment of the ligament. The knee can then be moved through several ranges of motion and the varying tensions can be measured by the readout device. If the position is not ideal the pin can be removed to another location, until the ideal site is identified. Once the ideal location is identified, the device can be removed, leaving the pin in position. The proper drill is then used to place the washer, screw and ligament assembly into position in the tibia.

While I have described my invention in connection with specific embodiments thereof, it is clearly to be understood that this is done only by way of example and not as a limitation to the scope of my invention as set forth in the objects thereof and in the appended claims.

Claims (5)

I claim:
1. Means for measuring ligament tension, for use during surgical procedures for ligament replacement, comprising:
retaining means;
said retaining means comprising at least one looped flexible strand;
implantable receptacle means being enveloped within said retaining means;
said implantable receptacle means having a position aperture located therein;
said implantable receptacle means further having measurement means;
monitoring means for continuously measuring the ligament tension;
said monitoring means having flexible lead wire circuitry from said measuring means for (a) delivering excitation to said measuring means, and (b) conducting said signals from said measuring means to conditioning electronic means and to a continuous display of tension;
position setting means; and
said position setting means comprising a fixation pin placed through said position aperture located within said implantable receptacle means.
2. Means for measuring ligament tension, according to claim 1, wherein:
said looped flexible strands comprising a prosthetic ligament.
3. Means for measuring ligament tension, according to claim 1, wherein:
said implantable receptacle means comprising a compressible u-shaped structure manufactured of a material possessing a high modulus of elasticity with a predetermined structural thickness.
4. Means for measuring ligament tension, according to claim 1, wherein:
said measuring means comprising strain gauges located within said receptacles; and
said strain gauges comprising piezo-resistive materials, such as constantan foil bonded to said implantable receptacle.
5. A method of measuring ligament tension, for use during surgical procedures for ligament replacement, comprising the steps of:
preparing to attach the ligament to the bone;
placing the means for measuring ligament tension into the loop of the ligament at the tibia;
adjusting the tension on said means while continuously monitoring the tension;
temporarily attaching the ligament at the desired position;
pinning said means in place;
moving the knee throughout the entire range of motion;
repositioning said means as necessary to obtain the optimum position for permanently anchoring the ligament at a predetermined tension;
removing said means, while leaving the pin in the optimum position; and
proceeding with the permanent attachment of the ligament.
US07401221 1989-08-31 1989-08-31 Method of and means for measuring ligament tension Expired - Fee Related US4964862A (en)

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Cited By (23)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5507812A (en) * 1992-12-28 1996-04-16 Moore; David E. Modular prosthetic ligament
US5564437A (en) * 1992-12-15 1996-10-15 Universite Joseph Fourier Method and system for determining the fixation point on the femur of a crossed ligament of the knee
US6059784A (en) * 1998-10-08 2000-05-09 The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space Administration Capacitive extensometer particularly suited for measuring in vivo bone strain
US6125294A (en) * 1995-06-07 2000-09-26 Kera Vision Inc. Method and apparatus for measuring corneal incisions
US6175754B1 (en) 1995-06-07 2001-01-16 Keravision, Inc. Method and apparatus for measuring corneal incisions
US7237556B2 (en) 2002-02-11 2007-07-03 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Image-guided fracture reduction
US7477926B2 (en) 2004-03-31 2009-01-13 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Methods and apparatuses for providing a reference array input device
US7547307B2 (en) 2001-02-27 2009-06-16 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Computer assisted knee arthroplasty instrumentation, systems, and processes
US7764985B2 (en) 2003-10-20 2010-07-27 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Surgical navigation system component fault interfaces and related processes
US7794467B2 (en) 2003-11-14 2010-09-14 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Adjustable surgical cutting systems
US7862570B2 (en) 2003-10-03 2011-01-04 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Surgical positioners
US20110112570A1 (en) * 2009-11-10 2011-05-12 Sandeep Mannava Tissue tensioning devices and related methods
US8109942B2 (en) 2004-04-21 2012-02-07 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Computer-aided methods, systems, and apparatuses for shoulder arthroplasty
US8177788B2 (en) 2005-02-22 2012-05-15 Smith & Nephew, Inc. In-line milling system
US8747439B2 (en) 2000-03-13 2014-06-10 P Tech, Llc Method of using ultrasonic vibration to secure body tissue with fastening element
US20140228880A1 (en) * 2013-02-11 2014-08-14 Leslie John Bisson Soft tissue-to-bone suturing and monitoring device
US8808329B2 (en) 1998-02-06 2014-08-19 Bonutti Skeletal Innovations Llc Apparatus and method for securing a portion of a body
US8814902B2 (en) 2000-05-03 2014-08-26 Bonutti Skeletal Innovations Llc Method of securing body tissue
US8845699B2 (en) 1999-08-09 2014-09-30 Bonutti Skeletal Innovations Llc Method of securing tissue
US8845687B2 (en) 1996-08-19 2014-09-30 Bonutti Skeletal Innovations Llc Anchor for securing a suture
US9060767B2 (en) 2003-04-30 2015-06-23 P Tech, Llc Tissue fastener and methods for using same
US9149281B2 (en) 2002-03-20 2015-10-06 P Tech, Llc Robotic system for engaging a fastener with body tissue
US9770238B2 (en) 2001-12-03 2017-09-26 P Tech, Llc Magnetic positioning apparatus

Citations (7)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4301551A (en) * 1979-05-24 1981-11-24 Ecole Polythechnique Deformable high energy storage tension spring
US4597766A (en) * 1984-10-26 1986-07-01 American Hospital Supply Corporation Implantable bioprosthetic tendons and ligaments
US4712542A (en) * 1986-06-30 1987-12-15 Medmetric Corporation System for establishing ligament graft orientation and isometry
US4739751A (en) * 1986-10-03 1988-04-26 Temple University Apparatus and method for reconstructive surgery
US4773910A (en) * 1987-08-17 1988-09-27 Johnson & Johnson Consumer Products, Inc. Permanent ligament prosthesis
US4834752A (en) * 1986-03-17 1989-05-30 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Tissue augmentation device and method of repairing a ligament or tendon
US4851005A (en) * 1980-09-25 1989-07-25 South African Invention Development Corporation Surgical implant

Patent Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4301551A (en) * 1979-05-24 1981-11-24 Ecole Polythechnique Deformable high energy storage tension spring
US4851005A (en) * 1980-09-25 1989-07-25 South African Invention Development Corporation Surgical implant
US4597766A (en) * 1984-10-26 1986-07-01 American Hospital Supply Corporation Implantable bioprosthetic tendons and ligaments
US4834752A (en) * 1986-03-17 1989-05-30 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Tissue augmentation device and method of repairing a ligament or tendon
US4712542A (en) * 1986-06-30 1987-12-15 Medmetric Corporation System for establishing ligament graft orientation and isometry
US4739751A (en) * 1986-10-03 1988-04-26 Temple University Apparatus and method for reconstructive surgery
US4773910A (en) * 1987-08-17 1988-09-27 Johnson & Johnson Consumer Products, Inc. Permanent ligament prosthesis

Cited By (34)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5564437A (en) * 1992-12-15 1996-10-15 Universite Joseph Fourier Method and system for determining the fixation point on the femur of a crossed ligament of the knee
US5507812A (en) * 1992-12-28 1996-04-16 Moore; David E. Modular prosthetic ligament
US6125294A (en) * 1995-06-07 2000-09-26 Kera Vision Inc. Method and apparatus for measuring corneal incisions
US6175754B1 (en) 1995-06-07 2001-01-16 Keravision, Inc. Method and apparatus for measuring corneal incisions
US8845687B2 (en) 1996-08-19 2014-09-30 Bonutti Skeletal Innovations Llc Anchor for securing a suture
US8808329B2 (en) 1998-02-06 2014-08-19 Bonutti Skeletal Innovations Llc Apparatus and method for securing a portion of a body
US6059784A (en) * 1998-10-08 2000-05-09 The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space Administration Capacitive extensometer particularly suited for measuring in vivo bone strain
US8845699B2 (en) 1999-08-09 2014-09-30 Bonutti Skeletal Innovations Llc Method of securing tissue
US8747439B2 (en) 2000-03-13 2014-06-10 P Tech, Llc Method of using ultrasonic vibration to secure body tissue with fastening element
US8814902B2 (en) 2000-05-03 2014-08-26 Bonutti Skeletal Innovations Llc Method of securing body tissue
US7547307B2 (en) 2001-02-27 2009-06-16 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Computer assisted knee arthroplasty instrumentation, systems, and processes
US9770238B2 (en) 2001-12-03 2017-09-26 P Tech, Llc Magnetic positioning apparatus
US7237556B2 (en) 2002-02-11 2007-07-03 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Image-guided fracture reduction
US9149281B2 (en) 2002-03-20 2015-10-06 P Tech, Llc Robotic system for engaging a fastener with body tissue
US9271779B2 (en) 2002-03-20 2016-03-01 P Tech, Llc Methods of using a robotic spine system
US9271741B2 (en) 2002-03-20 2016-03-01 P Tech, Llc Robotic ultrasonic energy system
US9192395B2 (en) 2002-03-20 2015-11-24 P Tech, Llc Robotic fastening system
US9486227B2 (en) 2002-03-20 2016-11-08 P Tech, Llc Robotic retractor system
US9585725B2 (en) 2002-03-20 2017-03-07 P Tech, Llc Robotic arthroplasty system
US9629687B2 (en) 2002-03-20 2017-04-25 P Tech, Llc Robotic arthroplasty system
US9808318B2 (en) 2002-03-20 2017-11-07 P Tech, Llc Robotic arthroplasty system
US9155544B2 (en) 2002-03-20 2015-10-13 P Tech, Llc Robotic systems and methods
US9877793B2 (en) 2002-03-20 2018-01-30 P Tech, Llc Robotic arthroplasty system
US9060767B2 (en) 2003-04-30 2015-06-23 P Tech, Llc Tissue fastener and methods for using same
US7862570B2 (en) 2003-10-03 2011-01-04 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Surgical positioners
US8491597B2 (en) 2003-10-03 2013-07-23 Smith & Nephew, Inc. (partial interest) Surgical positioners
US7764985B2 (en) 2003-10-20 2010-07-27 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Surgical navigation system component fault interfaces and related processes
US7794467B2 (en) 2003-11-14 2010-09-14 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Adjustable surgical cutting systems
US7477926B2 (en) 2004-03-31 2009-01-13 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Methods and apparatuses for providing a reference array input device
US8109942B2 (en) 2004-04-21 2012-02-07 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Computer-aided methods, systems, and apparatuses for shoulder arthroplasty
US8177788B2 (en) 2005-02-22 2012-05-15 Smith & Nephew, Inc. In-line milling system
US20110112570A1 (en) * 2009-11-10 2011-05-12 Sandeep Mannava Tissue tensioning devices and related methods
US8926626B2 (en) 2009-11-10 2015-01-06 Wake Forest University Health Sciences Tissue tensioning devices and related methods
US20140228880A1 (en) * 2013-02-11 2014-08-14 Leslie John Bisson Soft tissue-to-bone suturing and monitoring device

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AS Assignment

Owner name: MICRO STRAIN COMPANY, A CO. OF VT, VERMONT

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:ARMS, STEVEN W.;REEL/FRAME:005357/0256

Effective date: 19900703

REMI Maintenance fee reminder mailed
LAPS Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees
FP Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee

Effective date: 19941026

AS Assignment

Owner name: MICROSTRAIN, INC., VERMONT

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:MICRO STRAIN COMPANY;REEL/FRAME:018385/0171

Effective date: 20060717