US4948214A - Step-index light guide and gradient index microlens device for LED imaging - Google Patents

Step-index light guide and gradient index microlens device for LED imaging Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US4948214A
US4948214A US07377641 US37764189A US4948214A US 4948214 A US4948214 A US 4948214A US 07377641 US07377641 US 07377641 US 37764189 A US37764189 A US 37764189A US 4948214 A US4948214 A US 4948214A
Authority
US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
index
refractive index
light
light guide
substrate
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
US07377641
Inventor
David P. Hamblen
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Eastman Kodak Co
Original Assignee
Eastman Kodak Co
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B3/00Simple or compound lenses
    • G02B3/0087Simple or compound lenses with index gradient
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B3/00Simple or compound lenses
    • G02B3/0006Arrays
    • G02B3/0012Arrays characterised by the manufacturing method
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B3/00Simple or compound lenses
    • G02B3/0006Arrays
    • G02B3/0037Arrays characterized by the distribution or form of lenses
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/04Light guides formed by bundles of fibres
    • G02B6/06Light guides formed by bundles of fibres the relative position of the fibres being the same at both ends, e.g. for transporting images
    • G02B6/08Light guides formed by bundles of fibres the relative position of the fibres being the same at both ends, e.g. for transporting images with fibre bundle in form of plate

Abstract

Each individual light emitter of a LED linear array is imaged by a discrete step-index light guide and gradient index microlens device. The light guides consist of high refractive index cores, each surrounded by low refractive index matter. A multiplicity of light guides are deposited in channels formed in a host material, such as a silicon wafer. The host material between adjacent channels functions as an opaque separator to prevent cross-talk between adjacent light guides. Optically bonded to the LED array, the light guides conduct a large portion of the diffuse light emitted to a series of microlenses optically bonded to and in registration with the exit end of each light guide. The microlenses are constructed in a transparent substrate, with each microlens having a spherical or aspherical gradient index profile and short focal length.

Description

DESCRIPTION OF THE PRIOR ART

In optical scanning devices such as copiers, facsimile machines and printers, lens arrays formed of gradient index cylindrical microlenses or rods, sometimes called GRIN (from GRadient INdex) rods, are used in place of conventional lens and mirror systems. Lens arrays, such as those sold by Nippon Sheet Glass Co,. Ltd. under the SELFOC trademark, are composed of one or two linear rows of cylindrical rods, each rod typically 1 mm in diameter. The rods are aligned in two staggered lines between two flame retardant fiberglass-reinforced plastic walls. The interstices between the rods are filled with black silicone rubber to position each individual rod. The manufacturer claims that this also prevents crosstalk between the adjacent rods. In the cylindrical lenses utilized in these arrays, the index of refraction varies in the direction perpendicular to the optical axis (long axis), particularly in a parabolic profile in which the refractive index is highest on the optical axis and decreases toward the periphery as the square of the radial distance from the optical axis.

Linear arrays of cylindrical lenses such as described above have a number of features. They provide optical systems for 1:1 imaging applications. They produce erect, real images. They are also small in size, light weight and significantly decrease the conjugate distance between object and image from 600-1,200 mm to between 20-70 mm.

In a linear array, such as described above, the light power distribution at the image plane, which is a combination of the power distribution of each individual cylindrical lens where the images overlap, is inherently uneven. For fiber optic coupler applications this poses no noticeable problem. However, for copier and facsimile applications where photographs or material having tonal gradients are to be reproduced, such linear arrays produce light and dark streaks. Since LEDs are Lambertion emitters (i.e. light is diffused in a number of directions over a hemispherical distribution angle) and since each cylindrical lens of the linear array is in registry with 11 or more LEDs (at least 300 LEDs per inch), there is considerable cross talk between adjacent LEDs. Multiplexing individual LEDs (i.e., off and on in relationship to adjacent light emitters) causes light to occupy space in the image plane intended for another LED. Also, when used in LED printers, the linear arrays typically transmit less than 10% of the light emitted by the LEDs from object to image plane. In order to insure that sufficient light is transmitted to the image plane, the light output of the LEDs must be increased, which, in turn, requires greater energy consumption and generates more heat. The greater the heat generated the greater the size of the heat sink necessary to dissipate the heat.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention resides in a step-index light guide and gradient index microlens device, and method of manufacturing the same. The light guide-microlens device of the present invention is useful for imaging a large fraction of light from a diffuse source such as a light emitting diode. Each step index light guide includes an opaque host material, a core of high refractive index material and a layer of low refractive index material separating the core from the host material. A micro imaging gradient index lens is formed in a substrate which is bonded to the host material in optical registration with the optical axis of the core. The method includes providing a host material which is opaque to light, forming one or more channels in the host material, depositing a low refractive index light reflective film on the surface of the channels, filling the channels with a high refractive index material to form the light guides, forming one or more gradient index microlenses in a substrate and bonding the substrate to the host material with each microlens in optical alignment with a corresponding one of the light guides.

The foregoing structure and method has a number of advantages, as will be apparent to those skilled in the art, including those set forth below.

DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a schematic perspective view of the composite LED, light guide and microlens imaging device of the present invention;

FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view of the composite device of FIG. 1, taken along lines A--A; and

FIG. 3 is an partial cross-sectional view taken along lines B--B of FIG. 2.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

With reference to the drawings, composite LED, light guide and microlens imaging device 11 (FIG. 1) includes an opaque host material 13, such as a silicon wafer or other etchable, opaque substrate, in which are provided a series of channels 15 (FIG. 2), spaced apart by opaque separators 17. The three sides of each channel 15 are coated with a low refractive index film 19, having an index of refraction preferably much lower than the index of core 21, and preferably in the range of n=1.42-1.46. After the films 19 are deposited, the channels 15 are filled with cores 21 of transparent high refractive index material. The resultant structure is a series of step-index light guides 23. The air, which contacts the cores 21 on their exposed side, constitutes low refractive index matter and performs the same function, namely to reflect light back into core 21, as its low refractive index matter in the form of the film 19 which contacts the core on its other sides, namely to reflect light back into core 21.

As best illustrated in FIG. 3, bonded to one end of each step-index light guide 23, via optical cement 24, is a LED 25. Optically bonded, via optical cement 26, to the opposite, exit end of step-index light guides 23 is a substrate 27 in which are formed a plurality of micro imaging lenses 29, each in optical registration with a step-index light guide 23.

Using photolithographic techniques, channels 15 (FIG. 2) can be formed in host material 13 by projection masking, in conjunction with plasma-ion or wet etching techniques used in the microelectronics industry. In projection masking, photo resist is deposited on host material 13 and is exposed through a mask having the desired pattern. After ultraviolet exposure and development the unexposed resist is removed, leaving openings to permit the desired etching of the non-coated substrate. The width of these openings in the resist is approximately equal to one width of the LEDs 25. The depth of channels 15, which is controlled by the length of time the etching process is carried out, is typically less than the other width of the LEDs 25. As can be seen from FIG. 2, the process leaves channels which, in cross-section are somewhat trough shaped. After channels 15 are etched, a film of low refractive index material 19, such as silicone dioxide (SiO2), n=1.459, or magnesium flouride (MgF2), n=1.378, is deposited by chemical vapor deposition or spin-on glass techniques. Typically, high refractive index core 21 is provided by coating a polymer film, n=1.6+, or an inorganic or organic multi-component sol-gel glass, n>1.6. Alternatively, organic modified silicates (ormosils) or organic/inorganic composites, n>1.55, can likewise be used. Plastics material with, for example, n=1.57, may also be used. After coating, adjacent cores 21 are separated by a post lithography/etching process to form discrete light guides 23. As can be seen from FIG. 2, the exposed surfaces 31 of cores 21 are not flush with the surface of substrate 13. The depth of each core 21 is, thus, approximately equal to the other width of the LEDs 25.

Each microlens 29 is formed by producing a gradient index lenslet in substrate 27, which may be of glass, plastic, organic/inorganic composition or sol-gel. Localized index changes are produced by diffusion of mono valent ions (Ag+, Tl+), or low molecular weight monomers, or ion implantation. In all these processes, a metal mask having small circular openings is first placed over substrate 27 by a process of metalizing one substrate surface. Then lithography is used to make an array of openings with equal spacing between centers. Ion exchange, through the small circular openings, changes the localized index of refraction via binary diffusion, to build an index distribution with iso-index contours that are spherical in shape (i.e. lens shape). The largest index change occurs at the openings and decreases radially outward to that of the substrate. Ion exchange or diffusion can be also made in a sol-gel or organic/inorganic composite substrate. By a second method, the exchange between a monomer and partially polymerized polymer host substrate of differing refractive index can build a micro lens array. Final thermal polymerization gives a rigid array of lenslets. In a third method, high energy ion implantation of such elements as Pb+, Au+, etc., followed by thermal diffusion, can give the requisite index change and lesn shaped contours. Through thermal treatment of the ion implanted substrate, atomic diffusion develops a spherical lens shape which extends under the mask opening. Microlenses 29 can be made aspherical shaped through an electrical bias on substrate 27 during the process of forming such microlenses, to enhance their focal properties.

After the microlenses 29 are formed, additional ligthography is used on the metal mask material, illustrated at 33 in FIG. 3, to open larger apertures 32 at each microlens. Having a diameter of 100 microns or less, and slightly smaller than the diagonal dimension of each light guide 23, each aperture 32 restricts far off-axis light rays from entering the substrate and passing to the image plane. The substrate 27 is then optically bonded via cement 26 to host 13 with each microlens 29 in registration with a corresponding light guide 23.

The above described structure permits each microlens 29 to image a large fraction, up to 60%, of the diffuse light emitted from its associated LED 25. A typical ray path is illustrated at 35 in FIG. 3.

The structure set forth above has several advantages. In the first place, each light guide 23 (FIG. 2) can conduct up to 60% of the light emitted from the associated LED 25. This gain in light channeling efficiency will reduce both the power required for, and the heat dissipated by, each LED 25. Secondly, it permits faster photoconductor drum rotation. Further, since each light guide 23 and microlens 29 are in axial alignment with their associated LED 25 (i.e., all the elements have the same pitch) and are separated from adjacent light guides to prevent cross talk, the light intensity of each LED 25 can be individually controlled with respect to its neighboring LED to produce a grey scale. Multiplexing of the LED array will, in turn, produce continuous tonal changes in the image plane. Finally, the spacing of the light guides 23 relative to each other results, in the image plane, in a small percentage of merging of adjacent focused spots to eliminate voids (i.e., white spaces) in the image plane.

Whereas the drawings and accompanying description have shown and described the preferred embodiment of the present invention, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various changes may be made in the form of the invention without effecting the scope thereof.

Claims (9)

What I claim is:
1. A method of manufacturing a step-index light guide and gradient index microlens device comprising:
a. providing a host material which is opaque to light;
b. forming a multiplicity of channels in said host material;
c. depositing a low refractive index film on the surface of said channels;
d. filling said channels with a high refractive index material;
e. providing a substrate;
f. forming a multiplicity of gradient index microlenses in said substrate; and,
g. bonding said substrate to said host material, with each of said microlenses being in optical alignment with a corresponding one of said channels.
2. A step-index light guide and gradient index microlens device comprising:
a step-index light guide including:
an opaque host material;
a channel in said host material;
low refractive index material coating the walls of said channel; and
high refractive index material in said channel, said high refractive index material forming a core and the low refractive index material being adapted to reflect light back into said high refractive index material; and
a micro imaging gradient index lens optically bonded to one end of said core and in optical registration with said light guide.
3. The light guide and microlens device of claim 2, wherein said microlens is formed in a substrate bonded to said core.
4. The light guide and microlens device of claim 3, wherein said substrate is made of glass, plastic or sol-gel glass.
5. The light guide and microlens device of claim 2, wherein the refractive index of said core is n>1.55 and the index of said low refractive index film is n<1.46.
6. The light guide and microlens device of claim 2 or 5, wherein said light guide transmits up to 60% of the light emitted from an LED.
7. The light guide and microlens device of claim 2, wherein said host material is a silicon wafer.
8. An array of light guides and microlenses for light emitting diode imaging, said array comprising a substrate of optically opaque material, a plurality of light guides having first and second ends and side surfaces extending between said ends, formed in parallel array in and separated from each other by, said opaque substrate, said light guides including a core of high refractive index material surrounded on said side surfaces by low refractive index matter, said first and second ends being exposed on opposite sides of said opaque substrate, a transparent substrate optically bonded to one of said opposite sides of said opaque substrate, said transparent substrate including a plurality of micro imaging gradient-index lenses in optical registration one with each of said light guides, and a plurality of LED's bonded to the other of said opposite sides one in optical registration with each of said light guides.
9. The array of claim 8, wherein the refractive index of said core is n>1.55 and the index of said low refractive index film is n<1.46.
US07377641 1989-07-10 1989-07-10 Step-index light guide and gradient index microlens device for LED imaging Expired - Lifetime US4948214A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US07377641 US4948214A (en) 1989-07-10 1989-07-10 Step-index light guide and gradient index microlens device for LED imaging

Applications Claiming Priority (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US07377641 US4948214A (en) 1989-07-10 1989-07-10 Step-index light guide and gradient index microlens device for LED imaging
PCT/US1990/003819 WO1991001019A1 (en) 1989-07-10 1990-07-06 Step-index light guide and gradient index microlens device for led imaging

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US4948214A true US4948214A (en) 1990-08-14

Family

ID=23489940

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US07377641 Expired - Lifetime US4948214A (en) 1989-07-10 1989-07-10 Step-index light guide and gradient index microlens device for LED imaging

Country Status (2)

Country Link
US (1) US4948214A (en)
WO (1) WO1991001019A1 (en)

Cited By (40)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5148322A (en) * 1989-11-09 1992-09-15 Omron Tateisi Electronics Co. Micro aspherical lens and fabricating method therefor and optical device
US5169677A (en) * 1989-10-27 1992-12-08 Brother Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Method for forming lens at end portion of optical apparatus, optical signal transmission apparatus, and optical information processing apparatus
US5235463A (en) * 1990-12-04 1993-08-10 Thomson-Csf Method for the making of microlenses for optical applications
US5268978A (en) * 1992-12-18 1993-12-07 Polaroid Corporation Optical fiber laser and geometric coupler
EP0708351A2 (en) 1994-10-21 1996-04-24 Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha Light source and display
US5585968A (en) * 1993-12-01 1996-12-17 International Business Machines Corporation Optical elements having regions of different indices of refraction and method of fabricating the same
US5757124A (en) * 1993-06-30 1998-05-26 Pope; Edward J. A. Display screen having amorphous silica microspheres with fluorescence behavior
US5883606A (en) * 1995-12-18 1999-03-16 Bell Communications Research, Inc. Flat virtual displays for virtual reality
WO2001075777A1 (en) * 2000-03-31 2001-10-11 Iridian Technologies, Inc. Micro-illuminator for use with image recognition system
US6340251B1 (en) * 1998-02-23 2002-01-22 Oki Electric Industry Co., Ltd. Multi-channel optical coupling module
US6466323B1 (en) 1999-11-23 2002-10-15 Westinghouse Savannah River Company, L.L.C. Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy sensor and methods for using same
US20020197456A1 (en) * 1993-06-30 2002-12-26 Pope Edward J. A. Integrated electro-luminescent biochip
US6538823B2 (en) 2001-06-19 2003-03-25 Lucent Technologies Inc. Tunable liquid microlens
US6545816B1 (en) 2001-10-19 2003-04-08 Lucent Technologies Inc. Photo-tunable liquid microlens
US6545815B2 (en) 2001-09-13 2003-04-08 Lucent Technologies Inc. Tunable liquid microlens with lubrication assisted electrowetting
US20030169987A1 (en) * 2002-03-08 2003-09-11 Lucent Technologies Inc. Tunable microfluidic optical fiber devices and systems
US20030206351A1 (en) * 2001-06-19 2003-11-06 Kroupenkine Timofei Nikita Method and apparatus for calibrating a tunable microlens
US6674940B2 (en) 2001-10-29 2004-01-06 Lucent Technologies Inc. Microlens
US20040042721A1 (en) * 2002-08-30 2004-03-04 Kroupenkine Timofei Nikita Optical waveguide devices with electro-wetting actuation
US20040174610A1 (en) * 2003-03-03 2004-09-09 Joanna Aizenberg Lenses with tunable liquid optical elements
US6847493B1 (en) 2003-08-08 2005-01-25 Lucent Technologies Inc. Optical beamsplitter with electro-wetting actuation
US20050024730A1 (en) * 2003-07-31 2005-02-03 Joanna Aizenberg Tunable micro-lens arrays
US20050149570A1 (en) * 2003-12-19 2005-07-07 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Maintenance support method, storage medium, and maintenance support apparatus
US20060040213A1 (en) * 2004-08-18 2006-02-23 Joanna Aizenberg Tunable lithography with a refractive mask
US7058027B1 (en) 1998-09-16 2006-06-06 Scientific Research Corporation Systems and methods for asynchronous transfer mode and internet protocol
US20060254316A1 (en) * 2005-05-13 2006-11-16 Hon Hai Precision Industry Co., Ltd. Method for manufacturing gradient refractive index lens
US20070059510A1 (en) * 2005-09-15 2007-03-15 Lucent Technologies Inc. Surface for reversible wetting-dewetting
US20070058483A1 (en) * 2005-09-15 2007-03-15 Lucent Technologies Inc. Fluid oscillations on structured surfaces
US20070059489A1 (en) * 2005-09-15 2007-03-15 Lucent Technologies Inc. Structured surfaces with controlled flow resistance
US20070059213A1 (en) * 2005-09-15 2007-03-15 Lucent Technologies Inc. Heat-induced transitions on a structured surface
US20070056853A1 (en) * 2005-09-15 2007-03-15 Lucnet Technologies Inc. Micro-chemical mixing
US20070147081A1 (en) * 2005-12-26 2007-06-28 Lg.Philips Lcd Co. Ltd. Blacklight unit, liquid crystal display device having the same, and method for providing substantially white light for liquid crystal display device
US7410794B2 (en) * 2002-04-19 2008-08-12 Infineon Technologies Ag Device based on partially oxidized porous silicon and method for its production
US20090190349A1 (en) * 2008-01-29 2009-07-30 Middlemass Kirk A Light guide exposure device
US7666665B2 (en) 2005-08-31 2010-02-23 Alcatel-Lucent Usa Inc. Low adsorption surface
EP2299423A1 (en) * 2009-09-11 2011-03-23 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Utensil
US20110073159A1 (en) * 2009-09-28 2011-03-31 Yu-Nung Shen Heat Dissipating Device and Module Using Same
US20110121732A1 (en) * 2009-11-20 2011-05-26 Koito Manufacturing Co., Ltd. Light emitting module and vehicle lamp
EP2400324A1 (en) 2010-04-28 2011-12-28 Dymax Corporation Exposure device having an array of light emitting diodes
US9720158B2 (en) 2015-06-11 2017-08-01 Dell Products L.P. Light guide for display light enhancement

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPS58198001A (en) * 1982-05-14 1983-11-17 Seiko Epson Corp Refractive index distributed type flat plate microlens array
JPS60119501A (en) * 1983-12-02 1985-06-27 Nippon Telegr & Teleph Corp <Ntt> Production of optical element
US4557581A (en) * 1984-08-03 1985-12-10 Xerox Corporation Full-frame short focal length imaging system
JPS61241702A (en) * 1985-04-18 1986-10-28 Mitsubishi Electric Corp Microlens and its production
JPS61275710A (en) * 1985-05-31 1986-12-05 Hoya Corp Distributed index anamorphic plane microlens and its manufacture

Family Cites Families (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4168900A (en) * 1978-04-24 1979-09-25 Minolta Camera Kabushiki Kaisha Compact erect optical imaging copier system and method

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPS58198001A (en) * 1982-05-14 1983-11-17 Seiko Epson Corp Refractive index distributed type flat plate microlens array
JPS60119501A (en) * 1983-12-02 1985-06-27 Nippon Telegr & Teleph Corp <Ntt> Production of optical element
US4557581A (en) * 1984-08-03 1985-12-10 Xerox Corporation Full-frame short focal length imaging system
JPS61241702A (en) * 1985-04-18 1986-10-28 Mitsubishi Electric Corp Microlens and its production
JPS61275710A (en) * 1985-05-31 1986-12-05 Hoya Corp Distributed index anamorphic plane microlens and its manufacture

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
NSG America Inc Selfoc Lens Array catalog (Nippon Sheet Glass Co., Ltd.). *

Cited By (73)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5169677A (en) * 1989-10-27 1992-12-08 Brother Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Method for forming lens at end portion of optical apparatus, optical signal transmission apparatus, and optical information processing apparatus
US5148322A (en) * 1989-11-09 1992-09-15 Omron Tateisi Electronics Co. Micro aspherical lens and fabricating method therefor and optical device
US5345336A (en) * 1989-11-09 1994-09-06 Omron Tateisi Electronics Co. Micro aspherical lens and fabricating method therefor and optical device
US5235463A (en) * 1990-12-04 1993-08-10 Thomson-Csf Method for the making of microlenses for optical applications
US5268978A (en) * 1992-12-18 1993-12-07 Polaroid Corporation Optical fiber laser and geometric coupler
US5757124A (en) * 1993-06-30 1998-05-26 Pope; Edward J. A. Display screen having amorphous silica microspheres with fluorescence behavior
US20020197456A1 (en) * 1993-06-30 2002-12-26 Pope Edward J. A. Integrated electro-luminescent biochip
US5808806A (en) * 1993-12-01 1998-09-15 International Business Machines Corporation Optical element having regions of different refractive indices for refraction of light transmitted therethrough and wherein the regions form a refractive lens and method of fabricating the same
US5585968A (en) * 1993-12-01 1996-12-17 International Business Machines Corporation Optical elements having regions of different indices of refraction and method of fabricating the same
US6061489A (en) * 1994-10-12 2000-05-09 Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha Light source and display
EP0708351A3 (en) * 1994-10-21 1996-07-31 Sharp Kk Light source and display
GB2294350A (en) * 1994-10-21 1996-04-24 Sharp Kk Light source and display
EP0708351A2 (en) 1994-10-21 1996-04-24 Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha Light source and display
US5883606A (en) * 1995-12-18 1999-03-16 Bell Communications Research, Inc. Flat virtual displays for virtual reality
US6340251B1 (en) * 1998-02-23 2002-01-22 Oki Electric Industry Co., Ltd. Multi-channel optical coupling module
US7058027B1 (en) 1998-09-16 2006-06-06 Scientific Research Corporation Systems and methods for asynchronous transfer mode and internet protocol
US6466323B1 (en) 1999-11-23 2002-10-15 Westinghouse Savannah River Company, L.L.C. Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy sensor and methods for using same
WO2001075777A1 (en) * 2000-03-31 2001-10-11 Iridian Technologies, Inc. Micro-illuminator for use with image recognition system
US6540392B1 (en) 2000-03-31 2003-04-01 Sensar, Inc. Micro-illuminator for use with image recognition system
US20050002112A1 (en) * 2001-06-19 2005-01-06 Kroupenkine Timofei Nikita Method and apparatus for calibrating a tunable microlens
US6538823B2 (en) 2001-06-19 2003-03-25 Lucent Technologies Inc. Tunable liquid microlens
US6965480B2 (en) 2001-06-19 2005-11-15 Lucent Technologies Inc. Method and apparatus for calibrating a tunable microlens
US20030206351A1 (en) * 2001-06-19 2003-11-06 Kroupenkine Timofei Nikita Method and apparatus for calibrating a tunable microlens
US20050088754A9 (en) * 2001-06-19 2005-04-28 Kroupenkine Timofei N. Method and apparatus for calibrating a tunable microlens
US7006299B2 (en) 2001-06-19 2006-02-28 Lucent Technologies Inc. Method and apparatus for calibrating a tunable microlens
US6545815B2 (en) 2001-09-13 2003-04-08 Lucent Technologies Inc. Tunable liquid microlens with lubrication assisted electrowetting
US6545816B1 (en) 2001-10-19 2003-04-08 Lucent Technologies Inc. Photo-tunable liquid microlens
US6674940B2 (en) 2001-10-29 2004-01-06 Lucent Technologies Inc. Microlens
US20030169987A1 (en) * 2002-03-08 2003-09-11 Lucent Technologies Inc. Tunable microfluidic optical fiber devices and systems
US7110646B2 (en) 2002-03-08 2006-09-19 Lucent Technologies Inc. Tunable microfluidic optical fiber devices and systems
US7410794B2 (en) * 2002-04-19 2008-08-12 Infineon Technologies Ag Device based on partially oxidized porous silicon and method for its production
US20040042721A1 (en) * 2002-08-30 2004-03-04 Kroupenkine Timofei Nikita Optical waveguide devices with electro-wetting actuation
US6829415B2 (en) 2002-08-30 2004-12-07 Lucent Technologies Inc. Optical waveguide devices with electro-wetting actuation
US6891682B2 (en) 2003-03-03 2005-05-10 Lucent Technologies Inc. Lenses with tunable liquid optical elements
US20040174610A1 (en) * 2003-03-03 2004-09-09 Joanna Aizenberg Lenses with tunable liquid optical elements
US20050024730A1 (en) * 2003-07-31 2005-02-03 Joanna Aizenberg Tunable micro-lens arrays
US20060245065A1 (en) * 2003-07-31 2006-11-02 Joanna Aizenberg Tunable micro-lens arrays
US20060245066A1 (en) * 2003-07-31 2006-11-02 Joanna Aizenberg Tunable micro-lens arrays
US7106519B2 (en) 2003-07-31 2006-09-12 Lucent Technologies Inc. Tunable micro-lens arrays
US7253958B2 (en) 2003-07-31 2007-08-07 Lucent Technologies Inc. Tunable micro-lens arrays
US7297474B2 (en) 2003-07-31 2007-11-20 Lucent Technologies Inc. Tunable micro-lens arrays
US20050030637A1 (en) * 2003-08-08 2005-02-10 Davis John P. Optical beamsplitter with electro-wetting actuation
US6847493B1 (en) 2003-08-08 2005-01-25 Lucent Technologies Inc. Optical beamsplitter with electro-wetting actuation
US20050149570A1 (en) * 2003-12-19 2005-07-07 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Maintenance support method, storage medium, and maintenance support apparatus
US20060040213A1 (en) * 2004-08-18 2006-02-23 Joanna Aizenberg Tunable lithography with a refractive mask
US7927783B2 (en) * 2004-08-18 2011-04-19 Alcatel-Lucent Usa Inc. Tunable lithography with a refractive mask
US20060254316A1 (en) * 2005-05-13 2006-11-16 Hon Hai Precision Industry Co., Ltd. Method for manufacturing gradient refractive index lens
US7666665B2 (en) 2005-08-31 2010-02-23 Alcatel-Lucent Usa Inc. Low adsorption surface
US20070058483A1 (en) * 2005-09-15 2007-03-15 Lucent Technologies Inc. Fluid oscillations on structured surfaces
US20070056853A1 (en) * 2005-09-15 2007-03-15 Lucnet Technologies Inc. Micro-chemical mixing
US20070059213A1 (en) * 2005-09-15 2007-03-15 Lucent Technologies Inc. Heat-induced transitions on a structured surface
US20070059489A1 (en) * 2005-09-15 2007-03-15 Lucent Technologies Inc. Structured surfaces with controlled flow resistance
US7412938B2 (en) 2005-09-15 2008-08-19 Lucent Technologies Inc. Structured surfaces with controlled flow resistance
US9681552B2 (en) 2005-09-15 2017-06-13 Alcatel Lucent Fluid oscillations on structured surfaces
US9839908B2 (en) 2005-09-15 2017-12-12 Alcatel Lucent Micro-chemical mixing
US20070059510A1 (en) * 2005-09-15 2007-03-15 Lucent Technologies Inc. Surface for reversible wetting-dewetting
US8734003B2 (en) 2005-09-15 2014-05-27 Alcatel Lucent Micro-chemical mixing
US8721161B2 (en) 2005-09-15 2014-05-13 Alcatel Lucent Fluid oscillations on structured surfaces
US8287808B2 (en) 2005-09-15 2012-10-16 Alcatel Lucent Surface for reversible wetting-dewetting
US20070147081A1 (en) * 2005-12-26 2007-06-28 Lg.Philips Lcd Co. Ltd. Blacklight unit, liquid crystal display device having the same, and method for providing substantially white light for liquid crystal display device
US8203665B2 (en) * 2005-12-26 2012-06-19 Lg Display Co., Ltd. Blacklight unit, liquid crystal display device having the same, and method for providing substantially white light for liquid crystal display device
US7802910B2 (en) 2008-01-29 2010-09-28 Dymax Corporation Light guide exposure device
US20090190349A1 (en) * 2008-01-29 2009-07-30 Middlemass Kirk A Light guide exposure device
EP2085801A1 (en) 2008-01-29 2009-08-05 Dymax Corporation Light guide exposure device
EP2299423A1 (en) * 2009-09-11 2011-03-23 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Utensil
US20110073159A1 (en) * 2009-09-28 2011-03-31 Yu-Nung Shen Heat Dissipating Device and Module Using Same
US20110121732A1 (en) * 2009-11-20 2011-05-26 Koito Manufacturing Co., Ltd. Light emitting module and vehicle lamp
US8550677B2 (en) * 2009-11-20 2013-10-08 Koito Manufacturing Co., Ltd. Light emitting module and vehicle lamp
CN102109136A (en) * 2009-11-20 2011-06-29 株式会社小糸制作所 Light emitting module and vehicle lamp
EP2400324A1 (en) 2010-04-28 2011-12-28 Dymax Corporation Exposure device having an array of light emitting diodes
US8134132B2 (en) 2010-04-28 2012-03-13 Dymax Corporation Exposure device having an array of light emitting diodes
US9720158B2 (en) 2015-06-11 2017-08-01 Dell Products L.P. Light guide for display light enhancement
US9958588B2 (en) 2015-06-11 2018-05-01 Dell Products L.P. Light guide for display light enhancement

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
WO1991001019A1 (en) 1991-01-24 application

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US6301051B1 (en) High fill-factor microlens array and fabrication method
US5976907A (en) Solid state imaging device and production method for the same
US20050067944A1 (en) Light emitting array with improved characteristics, optical writing unit, and image forming apparatus
US6909121B2 (en) Microlens array substrate, method of manufacturing the same, and display device
US5493143A (en) Solid color image pickup device
US4572611A (en) Apparatus including an integral optical device
US5198655A (en) Image reading device having a light waveguide means widened toward an end nearest to an image surface
US20050078377A1 (en) Method and apparatus for balancing color response of imagers
US6638667B2 (en) Fabricating optical elements using a photoresist formed using of a gray level mask
US5225935A (en) Optical device having a microlens and a process for making microlenses
US5956163A (en) Image sensor
US5536455A (en) Method of manufacturing lens array
US4462662A (en) Imaging system utilizing a gradient index lens array compensated for non-uniform object illumination
US6814901B2 (en) Method of manufacturing microlens array and microlens array
US5439621A (en) Method of making an array of variable focal length microlenses
US7081912B2 (en) Optical writing head such as organic EL array exposure head, method of manufacturing the same, and image forming apparatus using the same
US6071652A (en) Fabricating optical elements using a photoresist formed from contact printing of a gray level mask
US20050286123A1 (en) Compact projection system including a light guide array
US6822799B2 (en) Exposing apparatus and exposing method for microlens array
US6583805B2 (en) Exposure unit for image forming apparatus using electrophotographic system, and electrophotographic image forming apparatus
US5747796A (en) Waveguide type compact optical scanner and manufacturing method thereof
US20090067055A1 (en) Lens array, manufacturing method thereof, LED head having lens array, exposure device having LED head, image forming apparatus having exposure device, and reading apparatus
US7385169B2 (en) Contact image sensor and methods for aligning a light element array substrate thereof
US5269867A (en) Method for producing optical device
US20040100700A1 (en) Method of microlens array and projection type of liquid crystal display apparatus

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY, ROCHESTER, NY, A CORP. OF N

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:HAMBLEN, DAVID P.;REEL/FRAME:005103/0486

Effective date: 19890629

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 4

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 8

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 12