US493426A - Apparatus fofmxhibiting photographs of moving objtcts - Google Patents

Apparatus fofmxhibiting photographs of moving objtcts Download PDF


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US493426A US493426DA US493426A US 493426 A US493426 A US 493426A US 493426D A US493426D A US 493426DA US 493426 A US493426 A US 493426A
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    • G03B21/00Projectors or projection-type viewers; Accessories therefor
    • G03B21/14Details
    • G03B21/32Details specially adapted for motion-picture projection


(No Model.) 4 ShegtS-Sheet 1.



.y'i/Weooeo V gwumm AMM, 64AM, Q: 3,3311% euro? 4 (Nd Model.) 4 Sheets-Sheet 2.


APIIARATUS FOR EXHIBITING PHOTOGRAPHS 0P MOVING osmo'rsl ,o. 493,4-26. Y PatentedMar,14,1893.

(No Modei.) 4 Sheets-Sheet 3.


(No Model).

4 Sheets-Sheet 4.


Patented 14, 1893.



sraomcnnon formingpart of Letters Patent No. 493,426, dated march 14, 1893.

application filed August 24, 1891. Serial 110,408,538. (No model.)

To all whom it may concern:

Be it known that I, THOMAS A. EDISON, a citizen of the United States, residing at Llewellyn Park, in the county of Essex and State 5 of New Jersey, have invented a certain new and useful Improvement in Apparatus for Exhibiting Photographs of Moving Objects,

(Case No. 930,) of which the following is a specification. p I The present invention relates to apparatus for using photographs which have been taken in rapid succession ofan object in motion, by'

means of which a single composite picture is 'seen by the eye, said picture giving the imrpression that the object photographed is in actual and natural motion.

The object ofithe inventionis to provide an efficient apparatus adapted to pass a large number of pictures rapidly before the eye of no the beholder in regular order, and the invention consists in the several combinations forming the apparatus, or definite parts thereof, hereinafter fully described, and set forth in the claims; p I.

In the accompanying drawings, Figure 1 is a plan View of the reproducing apparatus, the tbp of the inclo'sing case being removed. Fig. 2 is a rear'view of the apparatus, the back of thecase and the motor being'removed and the frame being broken away to show some of the parts behind it. Fig. 3 is a sectional view showing the arrangement of reflector, light, film, the; Fig. 4 is' a view illustrating the reprodnction of stereoscopic pictures; and Fig. 5'showsa modified form of lens and shutter.

The film 3, on which a large number of photographs of a moving object have been taken in suchmanner that any two successive p'ictures arealmost identical in appearance as 40. set forth in my application, Serial No. 403,534,

filed August 2i, 1-891, is passed backand forth over rollers 36, 37 at the top and bottom of the inclosing ease respectively, the ends of the film being connected sov that the film forms an endless band or belt. This band is 7 advanced at the proper rapid speed by the 'reel 38 on the shaft'39 driven through the belt 40 by any suitable motor., The film passes over the pulley 41, under the light spring 42, so through the slih43, and over the reel 38. In order to get a sufficiently longistrip or tapesayseveral hundreds or thousands of feet-the for the purposeof. absorbing heat-rays from the electric, or other lightj46. This is-shown as an incandescent lamp, which, when the apparatus is in use, is continuously lighted, but it is only essential that the light should exist when an opening in the shutter comes over a picture. The cell et'has a branch 47 terminating in a reservoir or tank 48, which is tightly closed-by a rubber diaphragm 49 held in placeby the clamping ring 50. On the surface of the alum water is a surface 51 otloil the film. This'plate may be tinted to give the picture the appearance of a colored picture, th plate beinga'll of one tint, or partially 0t l to still furtherpreveut evaporation. Above the cell 45 is a ground-glass plate 52 forstill 'further absorbing theheat-rays'and protecting one tint and partially of another tint, according to thesubject and arrangement of the picture. 'Above the film are suitable lenses or prisms 53, and asight opening 54 through which an observer can look to see the reproduced picture.- v

55 is a reflector below the lamp to throw the light upward to the film. I

In the reproducing apparatus a shutter is used for covering and exposing the pictures successivelyin much the same manner as the sensitive film is exposed in taking'the photographs. The position of such a shutter isin- (heated in 1 dotted lines at 56, Fig. 1. This shutter has oneor more openings 57 near its edge, the single opening sho'wnbeing directly over one of thepictures on the filn1.. This shutter is continuously revolved through the belt 40 with a speed sufficientto bring the opening centrally over a picture at intervals practically equal to the intervals between exposures 'in taking the pictures. The means for advancing the film and for operating the shutter to expose the pictures may be the same in all particulars as in the apparatus for taking pictures described in my application,

SeriaiNo. 403,535,filed Augustin, 1801. When .the brake ii. is released by means of the han- -dle, the film is pulled'forward between the 4 in fact represent lamp and the prisms at a regulated speed, corresponding to the speed at which the pictitres-were taken, when the observer. at the sight openingwill seem to scea single picture, the object represented being' in easy and natural motion, owing to the fact'that the successive pictures are so nearly alike that at aglance they-cannot be clearly disting'uished from each other, although they do different moments.

I pi-opose insome cases to use a film on which pictures have been taken stereoscopi cally,-that is, in whichpictures have been taken inpairs side by side on the film, as fully described in my application, Serial No. 403,535. This arrangement is indicated in Fig. 4, in which 3 is the film, which is supposed to'be movable-in a line'at right-angles to the paper. On thefilm at regular intervals are the pic tures arranged in pairs. These pictures are indicated, by the two h'eavyli'nes 3'. 46' is the electric lamp.

is a parabolic reflector, and 45 the alum cell between the lamp and the film.

45 are prisms for deflecting the rays from the two pictures and superposin g them on the projecting lens 45', 5 6is the shutter, which is rotated at a constant speed and which is I provided with an opening 57 adapted to un cover the lens at regular intervals. 57 is a screen on which the. picture is projected. This screen may be white or, preferably, may be colored to give the picture the appearance of a colored picture; for example, if the picture shows sky and earth, the upper part of the screen may be colored blue and the lower part brown, and it may be oth--.

erwise colored .for other objects. The reproduction of stereoscopic photographsof moving objects gives a very vivid impression of movement, and the coloring just described adds'to the realistic effect. 7

Instead of using a large shutter such as above described, I may use a very small shut-' ter with a small opening by placing it near 'the center of the lens through which the rays pass, the shutter being placed in' a slit in the body of the lens, and the opening in the shutter passing across the line where the converging rays intersect. 58 indicates a lens, 59 a slit therein, 60 a small shutter adaptedto rotate'in the slit, 61 an openingin the shutter, 62 the light-rays which intersect and pass through the opening 61. g V

, I am aware. that a heat absorbent, such as alum water, has been used in connection with microscopes between the objects being exam,-

i'ned and the lens to protect said object from the efiect of heat concentrated thereon by said lens. I do not, therefore, claim broadly the use of such heat absorbent, but only the use thereof in combination with the moving film having pictures thereon and certain ele,

V ments of my apparat us as hereinafter defined in the claims.

positions of the object at- WhatI claim is- 1. The combination, in a picture exhibiting app ratus, of a series of rollers, a tape in the form of an endless belt on which are a large number of pictures of 'a moving object, said tape being passed back and forth over'said rOIIers suitable means wherebythe' tape may be fed forward, and a light for illuminating said pictures as theyp'ass over it, substantially as described.

2. The combination, in a picture exhibiting apparatus, .ofv a series of rollers,'a tape on which area'large, number-ofpiotures of amoving object passed back and'forth over said rolls, suitable means whereby the tape may .be fed forward, a light for. illuminating said pictures as they pass over it, a sight opening, and prisms for directing the' beams to said sight'opening, substantially as described.

3. The combination, in a picture exhibiting apparatus, of a film in the form of a tape and eye, and a glass cell containing alum water and the film, substantially between the light as described. I V

5. The combination, in a'picture exhibiting apparatus, of a film or surface havinga large number of pictures on it representing an ob; ject in motion, means of supporting and mm! having a. large number ofpictures on it reping said film,'a light for illuminating each,

picture as it passes before the eye, and a ground glass plate between the light'and the film, substantially as'de's'cribed;

no I

. 6. The combinatiomiu apictur'e exhibiting I apparatus, of a long endless tape-ou'which are a large number ofpictures of 1 an object its in motion, a support forsaid tape, nteansfor advancing the't'ape; and a shutter having: an opening in it for-exposing the pictures one after another, said shutter being driven so that an opening comesdirectly over the film at. the same moment-that a picture is moved along into position' to be seen, substantially as described.

7. The combination of an endless tape with pictures representing an object in motion distinguishable arranged atregular intervals thereon, means for supporting saidtape and for moving it along at aregulated speed, and

a light for illuminating each picture as it comes into position to be seen,snbstantially as described.

8. The combination of a photograph, means for throwing the same onto a suitable lens or and being so nearly alike asnot to be readily prism, and a shutter provided with an opening and movable across the lens in a slit at or near the center thereof, substantially as described. 7

* 5 9. The combination of afilm or surfacehavb ing on it pictures of a moving object taken stereoscopically side byside, meansformoving said film or surface rapidly forwardat aregulated speed, a projecting lens or prism, and means for superposing said pictures .on said lens or prism, substantially as described.

10. The combination of a film or surface having on it pictures taken stereoscopically side by side, means for moving said film or r 5 surface forward at a regulated speed, a projecting lens or prism,.means for superposing said pictures on said lens or prism, and a screen onto which the pictures are thrown, substantially as descri ed.

11. The combination of a film or surface having on it side by side, means for moving said film or surface forward at a regulated. speed, means for superposingsaid pictures, and a screen a 5 colored to correspond with the subject of'the pictures taken stereoscopically.

photograph onto which the superposed pic-.

tures are thrown, substantially as described.

12. The combination of the film having pictures taken stereoscopically on it in pairs side y side, means for moving said film, thelight 3c and reflector for illuminating the pictures, the heat absorbent between said light and film, and means for superposing the pictures and rendering them visible as a single picture, substantially as described. 35

13. The combination, in a picture-exhibiting apparatus, of a transparent flexible band or tape having a large number of pictures on it representing an object in motion, means for supporting and moving said tape forward to 40 bring the pictures into view in rapid succession and regular order, and a sight opening at a point along the tape through which the pictures can be seen, substantially as described.

This specification signed and witnessed 45 this 31st day of July, 1891.

- THOS. A. EDISON. Witnesses:

' Joan F. RANDOLPH, Faunnnrcx .O'rr.

US493426D Apparatus fofmxhibiting photographs of moving objtcts Expired - Lifetime US493426A (en)

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2787188A (en) * 1953-07-31 1957-04-02 Gen Precision Lab Inc Optical cross-correlator

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2787188A (en) * 1953-07-31 1957-04-02 Gen Precision Lab Inc Optical cross-correlator

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