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Electrooptic deflector

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Publication number
US4930853A
US4930853A US07384642 US38464289A US4930853A US 4930853 A US4930853 A US 4930853A US 07384642 US07384642 US 07384642 US 38464289 A US38464289 A US 38464289A US 4930853 A US4930853 A US 4930853A
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beam
optical
refractive
index
direction
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Expired - Fee Related
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US07384642
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Giorgio Grego
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CSELT - CENTRO STUDI E LABORATORI TELECOMUNICAZIONI SpA VAI GUGLIELMO REISS ROMOLI 274 TORINO ITALY A CORP OF ITALY
Centro Studi e Laboratori Telecomunicazioni SpA (CSELT)
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Centro Studi e Laboratori Telecomunicazioni SpA (CSELT)
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02FDEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS, THE OPTICAL OPERATION OF WHICH IS MODIFIED BY CHANGING THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MEDIUM OF THE DEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF THE INTENSITY, COLOUR, PHASE, POLARISATION OR DIRECTION OF LIGHT, e.g. SWITCHING, GATING, MODULATING OR DEMODULATING; TECHNIQUES OR PROCEDURES FOR THE OPERATION THEREOF; FREQUENCY-CHANGING; NON-LINEAR OPTICS; OPTICAL LOGIC ELEMENTS; OPTICAL ANALOGUE/DIGITAL CONVERTERS
    • G02F1/00Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics
    • G02F1/29Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the position or the direction of light beams, i.e. deflection
    • G02F1/292Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the position or the direction of light beams, i.e. deflection by controlled diffraction or phased-array beam steering

Abstract

An electrooptic deflector composed of a plate made of a material with a refractive index which can be modified by the application of an electrical field, whereinto a collimated optical beam can be injected in direction parallel to the electrodes deposited on a plate face. Said electrodes are parallel to one another, equally-spaced and separately connected to voltage sources apt to increase the refractive index in the material passing from an electrode to the next. The emerging optical beam is deflected in the direction wherein the refractive index increases.

Description

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to optical devices and more particularly to an electrooptic deflector.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

As known in a number of technical applications, the deflection of a collimated light-beam can be controlled by an electrical signal so as to illuminate preferential regions, as in printing machines or fixed-image reading machines, to modulate or switch optical signals, such as in equipment for optical fiber tranmission systems, to process signals in scientific apparatus, etc.

In the domain of digital telecommunications using light signals, particular performances in terms of deflection velocity are further required, e.g. in the implementation of switching circuits for high bit rate systems. The beam collimated at the input is to be kept, as far as possible, collimated at the output after deflection to avoid drawbacks, e.g., to avoid coupling losses with optical fibers whenever the beam is focused with an angle larger than the acceptance angle.

Finally, a deflection angle as large as possible is required especially when scanning large surfaces.

Nowadays, the most-widely used method of deflecting a light beam uses mirrors oriented by electrical motors. In case a continuous scanning is desired, mirrors are placed along the faces of a rotating prism. This method, however, does not always prove satisfactory because of the limited scanning frequency, which can be at the utmost a value of the order of some KHz, of mechanical complexity and of mechanical part wear, even though very large scanning angles are obtainable.

A more sophisticated technique handles an optical beam with acousto-optic means, (see page 517 of the book entitled "Acoustic waves", written by Gordon S. Kino, Prentice-Hall). In this case, a plane acoustic wave is launched into a crystal to cause a periodic structure of rarefaction and compression regions in the material. As a consequence a sequence of higher refractive-index zones alternated with lower-refractive index zones, wholly equivalent to a diffraction grating, is obtained. The light beam is launched into the crystal at a convenient angle with respect to the grating lines and at the output a reflected beam is obtained with an angle dependent on the acoustic signal wavelength. However, the deflection angles obtained are rather small. Typically they are of the order of a few degrees.

Devices operating on the basis of the electrooptical properties of some materials, such as lithium niobate, are also known. The article entitled "Electrooptic Fresnel lens-scanner with an array of channel waveguides," Applied Optics, Vol. 22, No. 16, 15 Aug. 1983, describes a Fresnel lens, obtained by deposition on a lithium niobate plate of conveniently-spaced electrodes alternately connected to two conductors. Refractive-index variations are obtained by applying a convenient potential difference, that is why the emerging beam, covering equivalent optical paths of different length, undergoes different phase variations. As a consequence, at the output regions the optical beams is focussed when the interference is constructive. Hence it is a lens.

Further electrooptic devices, e.g. as described in the U.S. Pat. No. 4,415,226, have a plate of electrooptic material with electrodes separetely fed and connected to a control apparatus. In this case a Bragg grating is implemented, wherein the deflection angle of the outgoing beam a function of the input angle and of the grating spacing, which cannot be modified once the device has been fabricated, hence only two directions of the outgoing optical beam are possible.

OBJECT OF THE INVENTION

It is the object of the invention to obviate these disadvantages by an improved electrooptic deflector which allows a guided and collimated optical beam to be deflected of an angle of several tens of degrees, by keeping it collimated, with a considerable deflection velocity and without mechanical parts in movement.

The present invention provides an electrooptic deflector which comprises a plate of a material with a refractive index which may be modified by application of an electric field, with a first plane face into which a collimated optical beam is launched, a second plane face, parallel to the first, from which is deflected optical beam emerges and a third plane face, perpendicular to the first and second faces and such as to form a planar optical guide and on which electrodes are deposited. The collimated optical beam is sent in a direction parallel to the electrodes, which are parallel to one another and perpendicular to the first and second face, are separately connected to electrical conductors, connected in turn to voltage sources adapted to modify the refractive index of the material in increasing direction passing from an electrode to the next, so as to obtain parallel zones with proportionally increasing refractive indices, the outgoing optical beam being deflected in the direction wherein the refractive index increases.

Advantageously the voltage sources are processor controlled.

The sole FIGURE of the drawing schematically represents the electro-optic deflector in a plan view.

SPECIFIC DESCRIPTION

The deflector consists of a plate made of electrooptic material, namely a material whose refractive index can be modified by applying an electric field. An electric field capable of giving origin to periodic variations of refractive index, is applied to said material to obtain an operation similar to that of a phase diffraction grating. A material of this kind may be, e.g., lithium niobate.

As shown in the FIGURE, parallel and equally-spaced electrodes E, separately connected to electrical conductors C, are deposited on a plane face of plate P. A plane face, perpendicular to that containing the electrodes, allows the input of collimated optical beam LE into the guide and another plane face, parallel thereto, allows the output of deflected beam LU.

Each conductor C is connected to a voltage source, with a value permitting the generation in the crystal of parallel regions with a different, e.g. increasing or decreasing, refractive index. Thus an array of optical paths of different equivalent lengths (e.g. increasing or decreasing) can be obtained so as to form a phase grating.

Collimated optical beam LE is sent into this grating in direction parallel to the electrodes. As a consequence, the phase of the optical front of beam LU outgoing from the plurality of electrically-obtained "slits" created by the different refractive indices of successive regions controlled and such as to generate a constructive interference in the desired direction, analogously to what happens for synthetic aperture antennas. Of course, if the voltages applied are such as to provide equal refractive indices in all the optical paths, the outgoing beam LE will not be deflected.

Since the intensity of the electrical field I of the light beam is given by: ##EQU1## the parameters necessary to the deflector construction can be determined.

More particularly, N and d denote the electrode number and the spacing between. Quantity λ is the optical wavelength and quantity α, which is the phase difference between contiguous optical paths, is given by: ##EQU2## where: l is the electrode length;

ni is the refractive index of the generic optical path or particular "slit" which is a, function of the voltage applied to the electrodes.

The voltages applied to the electrodes can be controlled by a microprocessor programmed to supply the most convenient values in function of the required deflection angle, which can attain values of some tens of degrees.

In case a deflection in one determined direction is required, the refractive indices should linearly increase in the same direction. To obtain this result, the electrical field E is to be incremented from one electrode to the next according to the relationship: ##EQU3## where n is the refractive index and K a material-dependant electrooptic coefficient.

Claims (2)

I claim:
1. An electrooptic deflector for deflection of a light beam over angles of tens of degrees, said electrooptic deflector comprising:
an elongated plate composed of a material whose refractive index can be varied by application of an electric field thereto, said plate being formed with a first planar surface along one longitudinal side of said plate, a second planar surface along an opposite longitudinal side of said plate and a third planar surface between said first and second planar surfaces;
a multiplicity of electrode strips deposited on said third planar surface and extending in mutually parallel transversely spaced relationship transverse to a longitudinal dimension of said plate in an array of sufficient length to effect said deflection of said light beam over angles of tens of degrees;
voltage-source means connected to said electrode strips for applying voltages to said strips progressively increasing from one strip to a next strip selectively in a respective direction over the entire array, thereby forming in said material a multiplicity of parallel zones with refractive indices proportionally increasing in said direction over said array; and
means for introducing a collimated optical beam into said plate through said first surface in a direction parallel to said electrode strips, whereby said collimated optical beam is deflected in said direction and emerges as an outgoing optical beam from said second surface.
2. The electrooptic deflector defined in claim 1 wherein said voltage-source means is processor controlled.
US07384642 1988-07-04 1989-07-24 Electrooptic deflector Expired - Fee Related US4930853A (en)

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IT6763188 1988-07-04

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Cited By (15)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6034883A (en) * 1998-01-29 2000-03-07 Tinney; Charles E. Solid state director for beams
US6317251B1 (en) 1996-02-05 2001-11-13 Corning Applied Technologies Corporation Thin film electro-optic beam steering device
US6373620B1 (en) * 1996-02-05 2002-04-16 Corning Applied Technologies Corporation Thin film electro-optic beam steering device
US6538625B2 (en) * 1998-11-09 2003-03-25 University Of Washington Scanned beam display with adjustable accommodation
US6567206B1 (en) 2001-12-20 2003-05-20 St. Clair Intellectual Property Consultants, Inc. Multi-stage optical switching device
US6765644B1 (en) * 2000-03-01 2004-07-20 Raytheon Company Broadband optical beam steering system and method
US20060181764A1 (en) * 2005-01-24 2006-08-17 Novatrans Group Sa Electro-optical modulator
US7177494B1 (en) 2005-01-14 2007-02-13 St. Clair Intellectual Property Consultants, Inc. Optical control device and method
US20100107394A1 (en) * 2008-11-04 2010-05-06 Gard Randy L Vehicle fixture with alignment target
US20110013179A1 (en) * 2008-04-03 2011-01-20 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Controllable light angle selector
RU2512597C1 (en) * 2012-10-01 2014-04-10 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Самарский государственный аэрокосмический университет имени академика С.П. Королева (национальный исследовательский университет)" (СГАУ) Method of deflecting light beam
US20140169736A1 (en) * 2012-12-17 2014-06-19 Hon Hai Precision Industry Co., Ltd. Lens element and optical communication apparatus with same
US20140177997A1 (en) * 2012-12-24 2014-06-26 Hon Hai Precision Industry Co., Ltd. Waveguide lens including planar waveguide and media grating
RU2571582C2 (en) * 2013-08-13 2015-12-20 Корпорация "САМСУНГ ЭЛЕКТРОНИКС Ко., Лтд." Deflection system for controlling plane electromagnetic wave
US9829663B2 (en) 2014-02-25 2017-11-28 Empire Technology Development Llc Silicon chip with refractive index gradient for optical communication

Families Citing this family (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6865310B2 (en) 2002-08-09 2005-03-08 Fujitsu Limited Multi-layer thin film optical waveguide switch

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4143939A (en) * 1976-07-02 1979-03-13 Thomson-Csf Magneto optical deflector
US4415226A (en) * 1980-12-31 1983-11-15 Battelle Memorial Institute Apparatus for controlling light in electrooptic waveguides with individually addressable electrodes
US4511206A (en) * 1981-04-27 1985-04-16 Institutet For Optisk Forskning Lensless spectrum analyzer
US4738502A (en) * 1983-02-10 1988-04-19 Omron Tateisi Electronics Co. Optical deflector
US4755036A (en) * 1985-02-07 1988-07-05 Brother Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Apparatus for deflecting light beam

Family Cites Families (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4386827A (en) * 1980-10-27 1983-06-07 Xerox Corporation Electrooptical scanning device
JPS6290628A (en) * 1985-10-17 1987-04-25 Nippon Telegr & Teleph Corp <Ntt> Laser scanner

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4143939A (en) * 1976-07-02 1979-03-13 Thomson-Csf Magneto optical deflector
US4415226A (en) * 1980-12-31 1983-11-15 Battelle Memorial Institute Apparatus for controlling light in electrooptic waveguides with individually addressable electrodes
US4511206A (en) * 1981-04-27 1985-04-16 Institutet For Optisk Forskning Lensless spectrum analyzer
US4738502A (en) * 1983-02-10 1988-04-19 Omron Tateisi Electronics Co. Optical deflector
US4755036A (en) * 1985-02-07 1988-07-05 Brother Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Apparatus for deflecting light beam

Non-Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
Acoustic Waves by Gordon S. Kino, Devices, Imaging & Analog Signal Processing, pub. Prentice Hall Signal Processing Series. pp. 517 518. *
Acoustic Waves by Gordon S. Kino, Devices, Imaging & Analog Signal Processing, pub. Prentice-Hall Signal Processing Series. pp. 517-518.
Electrooptic Fresnel Lens Scanner with an Array of Channel Waveguides by K. Takizawa, Applied Optics, vol. 22, No. 16, Aug. 15, 1983, pp. 2468 2473. *
Electrooptic Fresnel Lens-Scanner with an Array of Channel Waveguides by K. Takizawa, Applied Optics, vol. 22, No. 16, Aug. 15, 1983, pp. 2468-2473.

Cited By (25)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6317251B1 (en) 1996-02-05 2001-11-13 Corning Applied Technologies Corporation Thin film electro-optic beam steering device
US6373620B1 (en) * 1996-02-05 2002-04-16 Corning Applied Technologies Corporation Thin film electro-optic beam steering device
US6034883A (en) * 1998-01-29 2000-03-07 Tinney; Charles E. Solid state director for beams
US6108231A (en) * 1998-01-29 2000-08-22 Tinney; Charles E. Solid state director for beams
US6538625B2 (en) * 1998-11-09 2003-03-25 University Of Washington Scanned beam display with adjustable accommodation
US6765644B1 (en) * 2000-03-01 2004-07-20 Raytheon Company Broadband optical beam steering system and method
US6567206B1 (en) 2001-12-20 2003-05-20 St. Clair Intellectual Property Consultants, Inc. Multi-stage optical switching device
US7046425B1 (en) 2001-12-20 2006-05-16 St. Clair Intellectual Property Consultants, Inc. Multi-stage optical switching device
US20060114548A1 (en) * 2001-12-20 2006-06-01 St. Clair Intellectual Property Consultants, Inc. Multi-stage optical switching device
US7085037B2 (en) 2001-12-20 2006-08-01 St Clair Intellectual Property Multi-stage optical switching device
US7411723B2 (en) 2001-12-20 2008-08-12 St. Clair Intellectual Property Consultants, Inc. Multi-stage optical switching device
US20060221433A1 (en) * 2001-12-20 2006-10-05 St. Clair Ip Consultants, Inc. Multi-stage optical switching device
US7177494B1 (en) 2005-01-14 2007-02-13 St. Clair Intellectual Property Consultants, Inc. Optical control device and method
US20060181764A1 (en) * 2005-01-24 2006-08-17 Novatrans Group Sa Electro-optical modulator
US7495815B2 (en) 2005-01-24 2009-02-24 Nova Trans Group S.A. Electro-optical modulator
US20110013179A1 (en) * 2008-04-03 2011-01-20 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Controllable light angle selector
US8184280B2 (en) 2008-04-03 2012-05-22 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Controllable light angle selector
US20100107394A1 (en) * 2008-11-04 2010-05-06 Gard Randy L Vehicle fixture with alignment target
US8402637B2 (en) 2008-11-04 2013-03-26 Chief Automotive Technologies, Inc. Vehicle fixture with alignment target
RU2512597C1 (en) * 2012-10-01 2014-04-10 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Самарский государственный аэрокосмический университет имени академика С.П. Королева (национальный исследовательский университет)" (СГАУ) Method of deflecting light beam
US20140169736A1 (en) * 2012-12-17 2014-06-19 Hon Hai Precision Industry Co., Ltd. Lens element and optical communication apparatus with same
US9182557B2 (en) * 2012-12-17 2015-11-10 Hon Hai Precision Industry Co., Ltd. Lens element and optical communication apparatus with same
US20140177997A1 (en) * 2012-12-24 2014-06-26 Hon Hai Precision Industry Co., Ltd. Waveguide lens including planar waveguide and media grating
RU2571582C2 (en) * 2013-08-13 2015-12-20 Корпорация "САМСУНГ ЭЛЕКТРОНИКС Ко., Лтд." Deflection system for controlling plane electromagnetic wave
US9829663B2 (en) 2014-02-25 2017-11-28 Empire Technology Development Llc Silicon chip with refractive index gradient for optical communication

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
JPH0264619A (en) 1990-03-05 application
EP0349907A3 (en) 1991-03-20 application
EP0349907A2 (en) 1990-01-10 application

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