US4917120A - Nicotine impact modification - Google Patents

Nicotine impact modification Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US4917120A
US4917120A US07/308,936 US30893689A US4917120A US 4917120 A US4917120 A US 4917120A US 30893689 A US30893689 A US 30893689A US 4917120 A US4917120 A US 4917120A
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
nicotine
open end
reservoir
smokeless
volatile
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
US07/308,936
Inventor
Ira D. Hill
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Pharmacia AB
Original Assignee
Advanced Tobacco Products Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US86607386A priority Critical
Application filed by Advanced Tobacco Products Inc filed Critical Advanced Tobacco Products Inc
Priority to US07/308,936 priority patent/US4917120A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of US4917120A publication Critical patent/US4917120A/en
Assigned to PHARMACIA LEO, INC. reassignment PHARMACIA LEO, INC. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: ADVANCED TOBACCO PRODUCTS, INC.
Assigned to PHARMACIA, INC. reassignment PHARMACIA, INC. MERGER (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: PHARMACIA LEO, INC.
Assigned to PHARAMACIA, AB reassignment PHARAMACIA, AB ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: PHARMACIA, INC.
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Application status is Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical

Links

Images

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A24TOBACCO; CIGARS; CIGARETTES; SMOKERS' REQUISITES
    • A24FSMOKERS' REQUISITES; MATCH BOXES
    • A24F47/00Smokers' requisites not provided for elsewhere, e.g. devices to assist in stopping or limiting smoking
    • A24F47/002Simulated smoking devices, e.g. imitation cigarettes
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A24TOBACCO; CIGARS; CIGARETTES; SMOKERS' REQUISITES
    • A24BMANUFACTURE OR PREPARATION OF TOBACCO FOR SMOKING OR CHEWING; TOBACCO; SNUFF
    • A24B15/00Chemical features or treatment of tobacco; Tobacco substitutes
    • A24B15/10Chemical features of tobacco products or tobacco substitutes
    • A24B15/16Chemical features of tobacco products or tobacco substitutes of tobacco substitutes

Abstract

Compositions comprising nicotine and a volatile nicotine-miscible substance may be used to create sources of modulated nicotine vapor. The modulation of nicotine vapor may be one of quantity or of perceived physiological impact or a combination of both. The substance should have a volatility somewhat similar to that of nicotine and have a normal boiling point between about 175° C. and about 275° C. These compositions may be placed in the nicotine reservoir of a personal oral nicotine inhaler. Esters are preferred nicotine miscible substances, particularly when substantially flavorless and generally recognized as safe for human consumption. Nicotine and nicotine-miscible substance in a weight/weight ratio between about 0.5 and 40.0 are emplaced in a nicotine reservoir, for example absorbed in a porous polyethylene item, for insertion into the tubular passageway of a smokeless cigarette.

Description

This is a continuation of copending Ser. No. 866,073, filed 5/21/86, now abandoned.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to compositions of nicotine with nicotine impact modification agents and uses of such compositions.

Nicotine may be used in the construction of tobacco substitutes. Non-combustible cigarette substitutes, which may be termed "smokeless cigarettes" or "personal oral nicotine inhalers", preferably contain purified nicotine which is dispensed to passing air. Such a smokeless cigarette is described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,284,089, assigned to the assignee of the present invention.

Of particular significance in the design and construction of smokeless cigarettes is the control of parameters relating to nicotine dispensation. These parameters include:

1. the perceived impact of volatilized nicotine upon the oral and respiratory tissues of one using such a smokeless cigarette;

2. the duration during usage of consistent volatilized nicotine emissions from such a smokeless cigarette; and

3. the ability to construct mildly-perceived smokeless cigarettes without unacceptably detracting from the self-life of such a product.

The perceived impact of volatile nicotine obtained by use of a personal oral nicotine inhaler is important for the satisfaction of users of such inhalers. For example, a user accustomed to the sensation accompanying inhalation of a strong or unfiltered cigarette is likely to desire a sensation upon oral and respiratory tissues which might be regarded as irritating and unpleasant by a less hardened user. This less hardened user, for example one accustomed to the use of highly filtered cigarettes, is likely to desire much less perceived nicotine impact.

Features of the present invention relate to nicotinaceous mixtures usable in personal nicotine inhalers. Such nicotinaceous mixtures may be produced to modify the perceived impact of volatilized nicotine inhaled from personal oral nicotine inhalers without overwhelming the user with an alien flavor.

It is known in the tobacco product industry that certain highly flavored additives may "smooth" or reduce the harsh irritation of nicotine-containing tobacco smoke. For example, additives such as 1-menthol; menthol analogs; cocoa; licorice root extract, and similar aromatic materials may be added to tobacco. These additive, at levels below their own threshold of perception, appear to aid in reducing the perceived impact of inhaled nicotine. These materials may also be added to the nicotine of personal oral nicotine inhalers. Such additions (typically levels of less than 0.1 weight percent of nicotine) have been made with the nicotine of smokeless cigarettes. When nicotine is inhaled from such a fortified smokeless cigarette, the perceived nicotine impact is generally viewed as smoother. These flavorful additives however are limited for the production of a smooth-tasting nicotine inhalant without imparting their own taste. When such additives are added to tobacco or to nicotine above their levels of taste perception, the perceived taste of inhaled smoke or nicotine becomes identified with the additive itself.

An object of the present invention is to smooth the perceived impact of nicotine inhaled from a personal oral nicotine inhaler such as a smokeless cigarette. Such smoothing should not add unwanted flavors and should also, if possible, add to the shelf life of a smokeless cigarette. Additionally, any such smoothing agents should be generally regarded as safe (GRAS) for consumption. These latter requirements may also be regarded as advantages inherent in the present invention.

The vapor pressure of a volatile liquid is subject to a variety of physical conditions such as pressure temperature or mixture with other volatile liquids. The vapor pressure of liquids is influenced by the presence of miscible liquids in a manner governed by Raolt's law, at least if the liquids are ideal and their admixture is an ideal solution.

For two ideal solvents in a solution, Raoult's law may be expressed as:

p.sub.1 =N.sub.1 p.sub.lorig.

where: pl is the partial vapor pressure of ideal solvent 1 in an ideal solution with ideal solvent 2; N1 is the mole fraction of solvent 1; and plorig is the vapor pressure of pure solvent 1. An object of the present invention is to take advantage of the principle of Raoult's law to facilitate smooth and consistent intakes of nicotine from a personal oral nicotine inhaler such as a smokeless cigarette.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Compositions comprising nicotine and a volatile nicotine-miscible substance may be used to create sources of modulated nicotine vapor. The modulation of nicotine vapor may be either (1) of quantity or (2) of physiological impact or (3) combination of both. The substance should have a volatility somewhat similar to that of nicotine and have a normal boiling point between about 175° C. and about 275° C. These compositions may be placed in the nicotine reservoir of a personal oral nicotine inhaler. Esters are preferred nicotine miscible substances, particularly when substantially flavorless and generally recognized as safe for human consumption. Nicotine and nicotine-miscible substance in a weight/weight ratio between about 0.5 and 40.0 (i.e., the composition is preferably from about 33.3% nicotine to about 97.5% nicotine) are emplaced in a nicotine reservoir, for example, absorbed in a porous polyethylene item for insertion into the tubular housing of a smokeless cigarette.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING

FIG. 1 shows patterns of nicotine emission in puffs of air drawn through a smokeless cigarette loaded with nicotine and various amounts of glyceryl triacetate.

FIG. 2 shows a perspective view illustrating an embodiment of a personal nicotine inhaler of the present invention.

FIG. 3 shows a cross-sectional view taken along line 3--3 of FIG. 2.

DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

The present invention relates to the discovery that the perceived impact of inhaled nicotine may be smoothed by the presence of certain companion volatile substances. Such substances preferably have no perceptible flavor or taste but may, if desired for particular purposes, have a selected flavor. Glyceryl triacetate (Triacetin™, Eastman Chemical, Kingport, Tenn.) has been tested as a model substance for this purpose since it is generally regarded as safe (GRAS) by the Food and Drug Administration and has a volatility in the same range as that of nicotine. Although vapor pressures and boiling points are not always directly related, the relative volatility of a pair of compounds is usually reflected by the relationship of their boiling points. For the purposes of the present invention, a boiling temperature at about atmospheric pressure (760 mm Hg) is referred to as a normal boiling point.

FIGS. 1 and 2 show a personal oral nicotine inhaler 10 such as a smokeless cigarette comprising a housing 12 having a first open end 16 and a mouthpiece open end 16 and a tubular passageway 18 between those open ends 14, 16. Contained in the passageway 18 is a nicotine reservoir 20. The nicotine reservoir 20 is adapted to liberate volatilized nicotine when air is inhaled through the passageway 18 of the personal oral nicotine inhaler 10. Contained in the reservoir 20 is a composition comprising nicotine and a volatile substance or diluent miscible with nicotine. The nicotine and nicotine-miscible volatile substance are generally present in a weight/weight ratio between about 0.5 and about 40.0. The volatile substance preferably has a normal boiling point between about 175° C. and about 275° C. One function of the volatile substance may be to modulate the vaporization of nicotine in a manner consistent with Raoult's law. This substance is most preferably an ester and lessens the sensory impact of volatilized nicotine as the mucous tissues of a user of the personal oral nicotine inhaler. In most preferred circumstances the volatile substance is generally recognized as safe for human consumption. In many cases the most satisfactory substance may be a diol or troil at least partially esterified with an alkyl carboxylic acid having four or less carbon atoms to produce an ester having a normal boiling point between about 175° C. and about 275° C. A similar ester of ethanol and an alkyl carboxylic acid having more than four carbon atoms may also be utilized as such a substance. Glyceryl triacetate is a specifically preferred volatile nicotine-miscible substance. The substance miscible (i.e. mutually soluble) with nicotine may be loaded with nicotine in the nicotine reservoir. When such loading occurs, the effective vapor pressure of nicotine in the reservoir varies relative to the mole fraction of nicotine present in the nicotine mixture of the reservoir. When a standard amount of nicotine is contained in a nicotine reservoir, the presence of increasing amounts of a miscible substance tends to decrease the concentration of nicotine released into passing air.

In a case where the nicotine and miscible substance have about the same vapor pressure, gaseous nicotine is liberated into passing air at about the same rate as the substance. Thus the relative molar ratios do not significantly change as both the nicotine and substance evaporate at about the same rate into passing air over a period of time. Thus the rate of nicotine liberation may be decreased and the duration of nicotine liberation may be proportionately longer.

A substance having a volatility different from that of nicotine may be chosen for mixture with nicotine in a composition for a nicotine reservoir. Of particular interest is the case where the substance has a greater volatility than that of nicotine (e.g. with lower normal boiling point). In this situation the substance may evaporate from its composition in a nicotine reservoir more quickly than nicotine. The molar proportion of nicotine in the mixture would rise as air passes about or through the reservoir and carries away more substance than nicotine. As the proportion of nicotine increases, so does the rate at which nicotine volatilizes into passing air. Thus particular compositions of nicotine and miscible substances may be designed to facilitate patterns of nicotine liberation to air passing through a smokeless cigarette. These patterns concern both nicotine concentrations and the duration of nicotine liberation.

Although esters, as preferred nicotine-miscible impact modifiers, may be used to smooth perceived nicotine impact and to impart changed patterns of nicotine liberation with smokeless cigarettes, such esters may also be chosen and used to add flavors if desired.

Additionally, certain virtually flavorless esters have been found to lessen the perceived impact of gaseous nicotine on the sensing systems of oral, pharyngeal or lung mucous tissue. Esters miscible with nicotine, according to processes of the present invention, may have at least three effects: to decrease the rate of nicotine liberation; to add flavor to liberated nicotine; or to favorably alter the perceived impact of nicotine from a personal oral nicotine inhaler without the addition of a newly perceived flavor or concomitant reduction of actual nicotine liberation.

Perhaps the most important object of the present invention involves this third effect, namely alteration of perceived nicotine impact. This impact could of course be altered by the lowering of nicotine in the reservoir and therefore in air drawn through or by the reservoir. Merely lowering the nicotine content of the reservoir however tends to unacceptably shorten the shelf life of a smokeless cigarette packaged with less than a perfect seal. A lowering of nicotine content also reduces user satisfaction in as much as a portion of the satisfaction from usage of tobacco or tobacco derived products is a function of nicotine quantities delivered to the brain.

Esters useful in the practice of the present invention include nicotine-miscible esters having a normal boiling point between about 175° C. and about 275° C. These esters include alkyl diols or triols at least partially esterified with an alkylcarboxylic acid containing four or less carbon atoms. Esters of ethanol and an alkyl carboxylic acid may also be used in the practice of the present invention.

Glyceryl triacetate has been found to be particularly satisfactory in the practice of aspects of the present invention. Glyceryl triacetate (mol. wt. 218.20, normal bp 258°-261° C.) is an oily liquid. For practical purposes glyceryl triacetate is essentially flavorless and has a normal boiling point similar to that of nicotine (247° C. at 745 mmHg)

The impact of nicotine is due to its irritating effects on sensory nerves of mucous tissue. An important aspect of the present invention relates to the discovery that a minor amount of glyceryl triacetate serves to lessen the perceived irritative effect of nicotine. Thus glyceryl triacetate may be added to nicotine in a nicotine reservoir of a smokeless cigarette. The result of this addition is an emitted nicotine at only slightly reduced levels, with unaltered flavor and taste, but with a perceived impact smoothed to a greater extent than could be produced simply by reducing nicotine delivery.

Glyceryl triacetate thus possesses properties approaching ideal in the practice of important aspects of the present invention. It is substantially tasteless and flavorless; has a volatility similar to that of nicotine; is mutually soluble with nicotine; is generally regarded as safe for human consumption; and reduces the perceived impact of nicotine on mucous sensory nerves.

It is contemplated that other compounds possessing most, if not all, of these properties should be suitable additions to nicotine-containing compositions for the nicotine reservoir of personal oral nicotine inhalers. Such compounds could include other glyceryl esters such as: the mono, di or tri esters with butyric acid or propionic acid and the mono and di-esters with acetic acid. Esters of 1,2 or 1,3 propanediol with acetic, propionic or butyric acid should also be suitable for the practice of the present invention. Additionally, numerous esters of ethanol including ethyl caprate, ethyl caprylate, ethyl levulinate, ethyl malonate and, ethyl tartrate should be usable for at least aspects of the practice of the present invention.

While esters are often preferred nicotine diluents for purposes of the present invention, this is not necessarily limiting to the practice of the present invention. Esters, being often characteristically volatile and composed of biologically compatible alcohols and acids, appear to often be acceptable nicotine diluents. Other potentially usable substances such as menthol and methyl salicylate frequently possess a substantial taste, or flavor. Still other types of potential nicotine diluents may be undesirably toxic or possibly toxic to humans.

The following examples are presented to even more fully enable one skilled in the art to practice a preferred embodiment of the present invention but are not meant to limit the scope of the invention unless otherwise specifically stated in the claims appended hereto.

EXAMPLE 1 Loading of Nicotine and Glyceryl Triacetate into Porous Solid-form Polyolefin

Samples of porous solid-form polyolefin weighing about 360 mg and with a cylindrical shape about 1/4 inch in diameter and 5/8 inch in length were obtained as porous high density polyethylene products from Porex Technologies (Fairburn, Ga.). A series of these samples were contacted with nicotine liquid with or without glycerol triacetate (both obtained from Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N.Y.).

The porous polyethylene samples absorbed both substances. The various amounts of nicotine and glyceryl triacetate used to treat each sample is shown in Table 1 as weight percentages of the polyethylene sample original weight, eighteen milligrams being 5%.

              TABLE 1______________________________________POROUS POLYETHYLENE SAMPLECONTENT OF ABSORBEDNICOTINE AND GLYCERYL TRIACETATEStudy No.   % Nicotine                 % glyceryl triacetate______________________________________1           5         02           5         0.163           5         0.314           5         0.6255           5         1.256           5         2.57           5         5.08           5         7.59           3.75      3.7510          2.5       2.5______________________________________
EXAMPLE 2 Vaporization of Nicotine from Nicotine-Loading Porous Polyethylene Samples

The 360 mg pieces of Porex high density porous polyethylene loaded with nicotine (nic) or nicotine and glyceryl triacetate (qt) as described in Example 1 were interposed in the passageway of a tube. The tube was 84 mm long had an outer diameter of 5/16 inch and a wall thickness of about 5/1000 inch. Puffs of air (35 cc/puff) were drawn through the tube and nicotine-loaded porous polyethylene at about 1050 cc per minute (2 sec/puff). The nicotine content of the air puffs was monitored by gas chromatography (Model 5880A, Hewlett Packard). Glyceryl triacetate was found not to interfere with gas chromatographic nicotine analysis.

Table 2 contains the data concerning nicotine in the air puffs. Table 3 shows the peak nicotine output per puff.

              TABLE 2______________________________________NICOTINE EMISSION FROM POROUS SAMPLESStudy No.% nic.  1     2      3    4    5    6   7   8   9    0% gt    5     5      5    5    5    5   5   5   3.75 2.5Puff    0     0.16   0.31 0.625                          1.25 2.5 5   7.5 3.75 2.5Number  Nicotine per Puff______________________________________1       8.3   7.4    9.6  5.1  4.0  6.1 3.8 3.8 4.6  4.533      8.6   8.2    9.1  7.2  6.8  6.6 6.2 5.6 7.1  4.965      9.1   7.3    7.9  7.8  7.1  6.6 6.6 5.7 7.7  4.397      9.3   6.6    7.0  7.9  7.1  6.4 6.6 5.4 8.0  3.9128     9.1   6.1    6.2  8.0  6.8  6.2 6.6 5.3 8.1  3.7160     8.4   5.7    5.7  7.9  6.5  6.2 6.5 5.1 8.1  3.5192                       7.7  6.2  5.9 6.4 5.0 7.9  3.5224                       7.4  6.0  5.7 6.3 4.9 7.6  3.4256                       6.9  5.8  5.4 6.2 4.7 7.1  3.3288                       6.6  5.6  5.1 6.1 4.6 6.8  3.3320                       6.2  5.4  4.9 6.0 4.5 6.4  3.1352                       5.7  5.2  4.6 5.9 4.4 6.0  3.0383                       5.3  5.0  4.4 5.8 4.2 5.7  2.9415                       5.0  4.9  4.2 5.7 4.1 5.4447                       4.7  4.6  4.1 5.5 3.9 5.1511                       4.6  4.5  4.0 5.4 3.8 4.8543                       4.4  4.3  3.8 5.3 3.7 4.6575                       4.2  4.0  3.7 5.2 3.6 4.4607                       4.1  4.0  3.6 5.1 3.7 4.2638                       4.0  3.8  3.6 5.1 3.6 4.0670                       3.9  3.8  3.5 5.0 3.5 3.8702                       3.8  3.7  3.4 4.9 3.5 3.7734                       3.8  3.7  3.3 4.8 3.4 3.6766                       3.6  3.7  3.3 4.8 3.3 3.5798                       3.6  3.7  3.2 4.7 3.2 3.4830                       3.5  3.7  3.2 4.6 3.2 3.2893                       3.4  3.6  3.2 4.6 3.1 3.2925                       3.4  3.4  3.1 4.6 3.1 3.2957                       3.4  3.3  3.0 4.5 3.0 3.1989                       3.2  3.2  3.0 4.4     3.11021                      3.2  3.2      4.3     3.01053                      3.1  3.1      4.31085                      3.1  3.1      4.21116                      3.1  3.1      4.11148                      3.0  3.0      4.01180                      2.9  3.1      3.9______________________________________

              TABLE 3______________________________________PEAK NICOTINE EMISSIONS Study No.           ##STR1##                    Puffug Nicotine______________________________________           ##STR2##                   9.32           ##STR3##                   8.23           ##STR4##                   9.64           ##STR5##                   8.05           ##STR6##                   7.16           ##STR7##                   6.68           ##STR8##                   5.7______________________________________

As the data Table 1 and Table 3 show, glyceryl triacetate lessens the rate of nicotine emission to air passing through the nicotine-containing porous samples.

Data from Table 2 and analogously produced data is graphically shown in FIG. 1. Samples were loaded with nicotine as Study nos: 1 (5% nicotine/0% glyceryl triacetate (5% nic/0% gt); 4 (5% nic/0.625% gt); 5 (5% nic/1.25% gt); 6 (5% nic/2.5% gt); 7 (5% nic/5% gt); and 8 (5% nic/7.5% gt).

As may be seen in FIG. 1 and Table 3 nicotine emission is initially highest in the absence of glyceryl triacetate (see no. 1), nicotine emissions generally increase with increasing concentrations of glyceryl triacetate (an exception being Study No. 3). It is also noteworthy that certain levels of glyceryl triacetate (e.g. No.7) tend to decrease the early peak of nicotine emission and flatten the pattern of nicotine emission over a period of time.

EXAMPLE 3 Effects of Glyceryl Triacetate Upon Nicotine Impact and Flavoring of Smokeless Cigarettes

A variety of smokeless cigarettes similar to those described in Example 1 were prepared. Samples for testing by volunteers were all prepared with 5% nicotine and about 0.1% tobacco flavoring of one or more varieties (percentages indicating a weight percent of the porous holder). These samples additionally contained: no glyceryl triacetate (gt); 0.5% gt; 0.625% gt; 1.25% gt; or 2.5% gt. In various coded combinations unknown to the volunteers, samples were given to these volunteers and their usage of the smokeless cigarette samples and evaluations thereof requested. In one set of circumstances a group of six volunteers were asked to comparatively evaluate smokeless cigarettes containing either no glyceryl triacetate or 0.625% glyceryl triacetate. All of the six individuals selected the 0.625% gt - containing sample as being smoother than the 0% gt sample. As shown by comparing the nicotine emissions of study no. 1 and study no. 4 shown in Table 3, peak nicotine output is decreased by about 13% with 0.62% gt. That this modest decrease in nicotine output resulted in a unanimous selection of the 0.625% gt sample as smoother, represented the surprising discovery that glyceryl triacetate, without a perceptible impact or flavor of its own, inhibits the irritative effects of nicotine on the sensation system of mucous tissues.

In further testing, it was generally agreed by volunteers that puffing and inhalation from 2.5% gt smokeless cigarettes and 1.25% gt smokeless cigarettes was much less irritative than when glyceryl triacetate was absent. In many cases with 2.5% gt (a 30% reduction in nicotine emission (Table 3, No. 6)) no nicotine irritative effect at all was reported.

Numerous subsequent smokeless cigarette testing with 5% nicotine, a variety of tobacco flavoring (0.1% or less) and with or without 0.5% gt were conducted. Tested individuals unanimously chose the 0.5% gt as smoother than the control and also noted that a negative alteration of flavor balance was not caused by the presence of glyceryl triacetate. Thus a smokeless cigarette containing nicotine and glyceryl triacetate in a weight/weight ratio between about 2 (e.g. 5% nic/2.5% gt i.e., the composition being about 66.67% nicotine) and about 10 (e.g. 5% nic/0.5% gt i.e., the composition being about 90.91% nicotine) were particularly preferred.

Changes may be made in the arrangement of the various parts, elements, steps and procedures described herein without departing from the concept and scope of the invention as defined in the following claims.

Claims (11)

What is claimed is:
1. A smokeless nicotine inhaler consisting essentially of:
a housing having a first open end and a mouthpiece open end, said housing defining a tubular passageway between the first open end and the mouthpiece open end;
a reservoir in the passageway adapted to contain and liberate a volatile fluid comprising nicotine into air passing through said passageway, said reservoir being a porous solid-form synthetic polymer; and
a fluid contained in said reservoir, the fluid comprising nicotine and a volatile nicotine-miscible substance in a weight/weight ratio between about 2.0 and about 10.0, said volatile substance having a normal boiling point between about 175° C. and about 275° C.
2. The smokeless nicotine inhaler of claim 1 wherein the volatile nicotine-miscible substance is an ester.
3. The smokeless nicotine inhaler of claim 1 wherein the volatile nicotine-miscible substance accompanies nicotine vaporized from the reservoir and reduces sensory impact of vaporized nicotine on oral, pharyngeal or lung mucousal tissue.
4. The smokeless nicotine inhaler of claim 1 wherein the volatile nicotine-miscible substance is glyceryl triacetate.
5. The smokeless nicotine inhaler of claim 1 wherein the volatile nicotine-miscible substance is generally regarded as safe for human consumption.
6. The smokeless nicotine inhaler of claim 1 wherein the polymer is a polyolefin.
7. The smokeless nicotine inhaler of claim 1 wherein the polymer is polyethylene.
8. A smokeless nicotine inhaler consisting essentially of:
a housing having a first open end and a mouthpiece open end, said housing defining a tubular passageway between the first open end and the mouthpiece open end;
a porous solid-form polymeric reservoir contained in the passageway, said reservoir being adapted to contain volatile fluid and liberate the volatile fluid into air passing through said passageway; and
a fluid contained in said reservoir, the fluid consisting essentially of nicotine and a diol or triol at least partially esterified with an alkyl carboxylic acid having less than five carbon atoms to produce an ester having a normal boiling point between about 175° C. and about 275° C., the nicotine and ester being in a weight/weight ratio between about 0.5 and about 40.0.
9. A smokeless nicotine inhaler consisting essentially of:
a housing having a first open end and a mouthpiece open end, said housing defining a tubular passageway between the first open end and the mouthpiece open end;
a pourous solid-form polymeric reservoir contained in the passageway adapted to contain volatile fluid and liberate volatilized fluid into air passing through said passageway; and
a volatile fluid contained in said reservoir, the fluid consisting essentially of nicotine and an ester of ethanol with an alkyl carboxylic acid, the ester having a normal boiling point between about 175° C. and about 275° C., said nicotine and ester having a weight/weight ratio between about 0.5 and about 40.0.
10. A smokeless nicotine inhaler consisting essentially of:
a housing having a first open end and a mouthpiece open end, said housing defining a tubular passageway between the first open end and the mouthpiece open and;
a nicotine reservoir contained in the passageway to liberate nicotine into air passing through said passageway; and
a composition contained in said nicotine reservoir, the composition consisting essentially of nicotine and glyceryl triacetate in a weight/weight ratio between about 0.5 and about 40.
11. The smokeless nicotine inhaler of claim 10 wherein the fluid comprises nicotine and glyceryl triacetate in a weight/weight ratio between about 2 and about 10.
US07/308,936 1986-05-21 1989-02-07 Nicotine impact modification Expired - Lifetime US4917120A (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US86607386A true 1986-05-21 1986-05-21
US07/308,936 US4917120A (en) 1986-05-21 1989-02-07 Nicotine impact modification

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US07/308,936 US4917120A (en) 1986-05-21 1989-02-07 Nicotine impact modification

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US86607386A Continuation 1986-05-21 1986-05-21

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US4917120A true US4917120A (en) 1990-04-17

Family

ID=26976534

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US07/308,936 Expired - Lifetime US4917120A (en) 1986-05-21 1989-02-07 Nicotine impact modification

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US4917120A (en)

Cited By (29)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5293883A (en) * 1992-05-04 1994-03-15 Edwards Patrica T Non-combustible anti-smoking device with nicotine impregnated mouthpiece
BE1010444A5 (en) * 1996-07-29 1998-08-04 Daele Johan Van Device and method for inhaling nicotine
US6041790A (en) * 1994-11-23 2000-03-28 R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Cigarette substitute article and method of making the same
US20020170566A1 (en) * 1999-07-16 2002-11-21 Farr Stephen J. System for effecting smoke cessation
US20020179102A1 (en) * 1999-07-16 2002-12-05 Farr Stephen J. System for effecting smoke cessation
US6737042B2 (en) 2001-05-24 2004-05-18 Alexza Molecular Delivery Corporation Delivery of drug esters through an inhalation route
US20040099269A1 (en) * 2001-05-24 2004-05-27 Alexza Molecular Delivery Corporation Drug condensation aerosols and kits
DE10356925B4 (en) * 2003-12-05 2006-05-11 Lts Lohmann Therapie-Systeme Ag Inhaler for basic pharmaceutical agents, and methods for its preparation
US20070122353A1 (en) * 2001-05-24 2007-05-31 Hale Ron L Drug condensation aerosols and kits
US20070140982A1 (en) * 2002-11-26 2007-06-21 Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Diuretic Aerosols and Methods of Making and Using Them
US20070186944A1 (en) * 2006-01-31 2007-08-16 U. S. Smokeless Tobacco Company Tobacco Articles and Methods
US20080138423A1 (en) * 1999-07-16 2008-06-12 Igor Gonda Systems and methods for effecting cessation of tobacco use
US20080138294A1 (en) * 1999-07-16 2008-06-12 Igor Gonda Systems and methods for effecting cessation of tobacco use
US20080138399A1 (en) * 1999-07-16 2008-06-12 Aradigm Corporation Dual release nicotine formulations, and systems and methods for their use
US20080138398A1 (en) * 1999-07-16 2008-06-12 Aradigm Corporation Dual release nicotine formulations, and systems and methods for their use
WO2009010176A2 (en) * 2007-07-14 2009-01-22 Kornelia Tebbe Tobacco substitute, and molded tobacco substitute article
US7645442B2 (en) 2001-05-24 2010-01-12 Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Rapid-heating drug delivery article and method of use
US20100143270A1 (en) * 2007-02-21 2010-06-10 University Of Louisville Research Foubdation Therapeutic cotinine compositions
US20100163062A1 (en) * 2006-01-31 2010-07-01 U.S. Smokeless Tobacco Company Smokeless Tobacco Articles
US7766013B2 (en) 2001-06-05 2010-08-03 Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Aerosol generating method and device
US7819124B2 (en) 2006-01-31 2010-10-26 U.S. Smokeless Tobacco Company Tobacco articles and methods
GB2469850A (en) * 2009-04-30 2010-11-03 British American Tobacco Co Volatilization device
US7913688B2 (en) 2002-11-27 2011-03-29 Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Inhalation device for producing a drug aerosol
US7913699B2 (en) 2006-01-31 2011-03-29 U.S. Smokeless Tobacco Company Llc Tobacco articles and methods
US20110182831A1 (en) * 2010-01-25 2011-07-28 Aradigm Corporation Systems and methods used in conjunction with nicotine vaccines for effecting cessation of tobacco use
US7987846B2 (en) 2002-05-13 2011-08-02 Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Method and apparatus for vaporizing a compound
US8333197B2 (en) 2004-06-03 2012-12-18 Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Multiple dose condensation aerosol devices and methods of forming condensation aerosols
US8387612B2 (en) 2003-05-21 2013-03-05 Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Self-contained heating unit and drug-supply unit employing same
US10036574B2 (en) 2013-06-28 2018-07-31 British American Tobacco (Investments) Limited Devices comprising a heat source material and activation chambers for the same

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1776862A (en) * 1928-04-24 1930-09-30 Lindstaedt Frank Floyd Compound for use as insecticides, ovicides, and antiparasitics
US2139839A (en) * 1937-08-16 1938-12-13 Robert S Mckinney Alkaloid compound
US3109436A (en) * 1961-11-02 1963-11-05 Bavley Abraham Tobacco products
US3280823A (en) * 1963-10-01 1966-10-25 Philip Morris Inc Additive-releasing filter for releasing additives into tobacco smoke
US4340072A (en) * 1979-11-16 1982-07-20 Imperial Group Limited Smokeable device

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1776862A (en) * 1928-04-24 1930-09-30 Lindstaedt Frank Floyd Compound for use as insecticides, ovicides, and antiparasitics
US2139839A (en) * 1937-08-16 1938-12-13 Robert S Mckinney Alkaloid compound
US3109436A (en) * 1961-11-02 1963-11-05 Bavley Abraham Tobacco products
US3280823A (en) * 1963-10-01 1966-10-25 Philip Morris Inc Additive-releasing filter for releasing additives into tobacco smoke
US4340072A (en) * 1979-11-16 1982-07-20 Imperial Group Limited Smokeable device

Cited By (66)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5293883A (en) * 1992-05-04 1994-03-15 Edwards Patrica T Non-combustible anti-smoking device with nicotine impregnated mouthpiece
US6041790A (en) * 1994-11-23 2000-03-28 R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Cigarette substitute article and method of making the same
BE1010444A5 (en) * 1996-07-29 1998-08-04 Daele Johan Van Device and method for inhaling nicotine
US20080138423A1 (en) * 1999-07-16 2008-06-12 Igor Gonda Systems and methods for effecting cessation of tobacco use
US20020179102A1 (en) * 1999-07-16 2002-12-05 Farr Stephen J. System for effecting smoke cessation
US8689803B2 (en) 1999-07-16 2014-04-08 Aradigm Corporation Systems and methods for effecting cessation of tobacco use
US8256433B2 (en) 1999-07-16 2012-09-04 Aradigm Corporation Systems and methods for effecting cessation of tobacco use
US6799576B2 (en) 1999-07-16 2004-10-05 Aradigm Corporation System for effecting smoking cessation
US20020170566A1 (en) * 1999-07-16 2002-11-21 Farr Stephen J. System for effecting smoke cessation
US6874507B2 (en) 1999-07-16 2005-04-05 Aradigm Corporation System for effecting smoking cessation
US20050169849A1 (en) * 1999-07-16 2005-08-04 Aradigm Corporation System for effecting smoking cessation
US20090004249A1 (en) * 1999-07-16 2009-01-01 Igor Gonda Dual release nicotine formulations, and systems and methods for their use
US20090005423A1 (en) * 1999-07-16 2009-01-01 Aradigm Corporation Systems and methods for effecting cessation of tobacco use
US20090004250A1 (en) * 1999-07-16 2009-01-01 Igor Gonda Dual release nicotine formulations, and systems and methods for their use
US20080138398A1 (en) * 1999-07-16 2008-06-12 Aradigm Corporation Dual release nicotine formulations, and systems and methods for their use
US20050009882A1 (en) * 1999-07-16 2005-01-13 Farr Stephen J. System for effecting smoking cessation
US20080138399A1 (en) * 1999-07-16 2008-06-12 Aradigm Corporation Dual release nicotine formulations, and systems and methods for their use
US20080138294A1 (en) * 1999-07-16 2008-06-12 Igor Gonda Systems and methods for effecting cessation of tobacco use
US8381739B2 (en) 1999-07-16 2013-02-26 Aradigm Corporation Systems and methods for effecting cessation of tobacco use
US20070286816A1 (en) * 2001-05-24 2007-12-13 Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Drug and excipient aerosol compositions
US7988952B2 (en) 2001-05-24 2011-08-02 Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Delivery of drug esters through an inhalation route
US9440034B2 (en) 2001-05-24 2016-09-13 Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Drug condensation aerosols and kits
US20070122353A1 (en) * 2001-05-24 2007-05-31 Hale Ron L Drug condensation aerosols and kits
US7090830B2 (en) 2001-05-24 2006-08-15 Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Drug condensation aerosols and kits
US7078019B2 (en) 2001-05-24 2006-07-18 Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Delivery of drug esters through an inhalation route
US7070765B2 (en) 2001-05-24 2006-07-04 Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Delivery of drug esters through an inhalation route
US8235037B2 (en) 2001-05-24 2012-08-07 Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Drug condensation aerosols and kits
US9211382B2 (en) 2001-05-24 2015-12-15 Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Drug condensation aerosols and kits
US20040099269A1 (en) * 2001-05-24 2004-05-27 Alexza Molecular Delivery Corporation Drug condensation aerosols and kits
US6737042B2 (en) 2001-05-24 2004-05-18 Alexza Molecular Delivery Corporation Delivery of drug esters through an inhalation route
US7645442B2 (en) 2001-05-24 2010-01-12 Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Rapid-heating drug delivery article and method of use
US9308208B2 (en) 2001-06-05 2016-04-12 Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Aerosol generating method and device
US8955512B2 (en) 2001-06-05 2015-02-17 Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Method of forming an aerosol for inhalation delivery
US9439907B2 (en) 2001-06-05 2016-09-13 Alexza Pharmaceutical, Inc. Method of forming an aerosol for inhalation delivery
US9687487B2 (en) 2001-06-05 2017-06-27 Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Aerosol forming device for use in inhalation therapy
US8074644B2 (en) 2001-06-05 2011-12-13 Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Method of forming an aerosol for inhalation delivery
US7942147B2 (en) 2001-06-05 2011-05-17 Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Aerosol forming device for use in inhalation therapy
US7766013B2 (en) 2001-06-05 2010-08-03 Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Aerosol generating method and device
US7987846B2 (en) 2002-05-13 2011-08-02 Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Method and apparatus for vaporizing a compound
US20070140982A1 (en) * 2002-11-26 2007-06-21 Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Diuretic Aerosols and Methods of Making and Using Them
US7981401B2 (en) 2002-11-26 2011-07-19 Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Diuretic aerosols and methods of making and using them
US7913688B2 (en) 2002-11-27 2011-03-29 Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Inhalation device for producing a drug aerosol
US9370629B2 (en) 2003-05-21 2016-06-21 Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Self-contained heating unit and drug-supply unit employing same
US8387612B2 (en) 2003-05-21 2013-03-05 Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Self-contained heating unit and drug-supply unit employing same
US8991387B2 (en) 2003-05-21 2015-03-31 Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Self-contained heating unit and drug-supply unit employing same
US20070062548A1 (en) * 2003-12-05 2007-03-22 Lts Lohmann Therapie-Systeme Ag Inhaler for basic pharmaceutical agents and method for the production thereof
DE10356925B4 (en) * 2003-12-05 2006-05-11 Lts Lohmann Therapie-Systeme Ag Inhaler for basic pharmaceutical agents, and methods for its preparation
US8333197B2 (en) 2004-06-03 2012-12-18 Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Multiple dose condensation aerosol devices and methods of forming condensation aerosols
US20070186944A1 (en) * 2006-01-31 2007-08-16 U. S. Smokeless Tobacco Company Tobacco Articles and Methods
US7918231B2 (en) 2006-01-31 2011-04-05 U.S. Smokeless Tobacco Company Llc Tobacco articles and methods
US20110023899A1 (en) * 2006-01-31 2011-02-03 James Arthur Strickland Tobacco Articles and Methods
US8387623B2 (en) 2006-01-31 2013-03-05 U.S. Smokeless Tobacco Company Llc Smokeless tobacco articles
US7819124B2 (en) 2006-01-31 2010-10-26 U.S. Smokeless Tobacco Company Tobacco articles and methods
US8627826B2 (en) 2006-01-31 2014-01-14 U.S. Smokeless Tobacco Company Tobacco articles and methods
US8627827B2 (en) 2006-01-31 2014-01-14 U.S. Smokeless Tobacco Company Tobacco articles
US20090126746A1 (en) * 2006-01-31 2009-05-21 U.S. Smokless Tobacco Manufacturing Company, a CT corporation Tobacco Articles and Methods
US9427019B2 (en) 2006-01-31 2016-08-30 U.S. Smokeless Tobacco Company Llc Smokeless tobacco articles
US20100163062A1 (en) * 2006-01-31 2010-07-01 U.S. Smokeless Tobacco Company Smokeless Tobacco Articles
US20110220133A1 (en) * 2006-01-31 2011-09-15 U.S. Smokeless Tobacco Company Llc Tobacco Articles and Methods
US7913699B2 (en) 2006-01-31 2011-03-29 U.S. Smokeless Tobacco Company Llc Tobacco articles and methods
US20100143270A1 (en) * 2007-02-21 2010-06-10 University Of Louisville Research Foubdation Therapeutic cotinine compositions
WO2009010176A2 (en) * 2007-07-14 2009-01-22 Kornelia Tebbe Tobacco substitute, and molded tobacco substitute article
WO2009010176A3 (en) * 2007-07-14 2009-04-30 Kornelia Tebbe Tobacco substitute, and molded tobacco substitute article
GB2469850A (en) * 2009-04-30 2010-11-03 British American Tobacco Co Volatilization device
US20110182831A1 (en) * 2010-01-25 2011-07-28 Aradigm Corporation Systems and methods used in conjunction with nicotine vaccines for effecting cessation of tobacco use
US10036574B2 (en) 2013-06-28 2018-07-31 British American Tobacco (Investments) Limited Devices comprising a heat source material and activation chambers for the same

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US3144024A (en) Impregnated filter means for tobacco articles
FI80987C (en) Aromfrigoerande composition, roekartikel som innehaoller kompositionen samt foerfarande Foer framstaellning of a aromfrigoerande roekartikel.
US4800903A (en) Nicotine dispenser with polymeric reservoir of nicotine
JP3939363B2 (en) Health cigarette
CA2691571C (en) An inhalable composition
US6470894B2 (en) Glutathione, green tea, grape seed extract to neutralize tobacco free radicals
FI104038B (en) The smoking article
US7766018B2 (en) Device and composition for reducing the incidence of tobacco smoking
US5656255A (en) Composition to help stop smoking
CA2649319C (en) Carbonaceous heat source composition for non-combustion type smoking article and non-combustion type smoking article
CA2706928C (en) Aerosol-generating liquid for use in aerosol inhalator
EP0485421B1 (en) Means for use as an aid to stop smoking or for use in non-smoking areas
FI96342C (en) A paper wrapper for a smoking article, and it wrapped around the smoking article
EP0378774A2 (en) Cigarette
US5893371A (en) Non-nicotine smoking cessation aid
US4793366A (en) Nicotine dispensing device and methods of making the same
US5845647A (en) Tobacco and related products
EP1014812B1 (en) Smoking products containing antioxidants
US4941486A (en) Cigarette having sidestream aroma
US4813437A (en) Nicotine dispensing device and method for the manufacture thereof
NL193717C (en) Smoking article.
JP3210945B2 (en) Smoking alternative
Frith The effect of varying the nicotine content of cigarettes on human smoking behaviour
US5810018A (en) Method, composition and apparatus for reducing the incidence of cigarette smoking
US20100200008A1 (en) E-Cigarette With Vitamin Infusion

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
CC Certificate of correction
FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 4

AS Assignment

Owner name: PHARMACIA LEO, INC., NEW JERSEY

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:ADVANCED TOBACCO PRODUCTS, INC.;REEL/FRAME:007095/0872

Effective date: 19870914

AS Assignment

Owner name: PHARAMACIA, AB, SWEDEN

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:PHARMACIA, INC.;REEL/FRAME:007226/0084

Effective date: 19941115

Owner name: PHARMACIA, INC., OHIO

Free format text: MERGER;ASSIGNOR:PHARMACIA LEO, INC.;REEL/FRAME:007226/0324

Effective date: 19940601

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 8

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 12