US4893284A - Calibration of phased array ultrasound probe - Google Patents

Calibration of phased array ultrasound probe Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US4893284A
US4893284A US07/199,893 US19989388A US4893284A US 4893284 A US4893284 A US 4893284A US 19989388 A US19989388 A US 19989388A US 4893284 A US4893284 A US 4893284A
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
means
array
transducers
delay
transducer
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Fee Related
Application number
US07/199,893
Inventor
Mark G. Magrane
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
General Electric Co
Original Assignee
General Electric Co
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by General Electric Co filed Critical General Electric Co
Priority to US07/199,893 priority Critical patent/US4893284A/en
Assigned to GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY reassignment GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST. Assignors: MAGRANE, MARK G.
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of US4893284A publication Critical patent/US4893284A/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Application status is Expired - Fee Related legal-status Critical

Links

Images

Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S7/00Details of systems according to groups G01S13/00, G01S15/00, G01S17/00
    • G01S7/52Details of systems according to groups G01S13/00, G01S15/00, G01S17/00 of systems according to group G01S15/00
    • G01S7/52017Details of systems according to groups G01S13/00, G01S15/00, G01S17/00 of systems according to group G01S15/00 particularly adapted to short-range imaging
    • G01S7/5205Means for monitoring or calibrating
    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10KSOUND-PRODUCING DEVICES; METHODS OR DEVICES FOR PROTECTING AGAINST, OR FOR DAMPING, NOISE OR OTHER ACOUSTIC WAVES IN GENERAL; ACOUSTICS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G10K11/00Methods or devices for transmitting, conducting or directing sound in general; Methods or devices for protecting against, or for damping, noise or other acoustic waves in general
    • G10K11/18Methods or devices for transmitting, conducting, or directing sound
    • G10K11/26Sound-focusing or directing, e.g. scanning
    • G10K11/34Sound-focusing or directing, e.g. scanning using electrical steering of transducer arrays, e.g. beam steering
    • G10K11/341Circuits therefor
    • G10K11/346Circuits therefor using phase variation

Abstract

The dynamic range of ultrasound images is extended by providing compensation of errors inherent in the manufacturing process of medical ultrasound phased array probes. Time delay errors are predetermined and stored in a memory associated with each probe. A system then reads the values needed to perform error compensation directly from the particular probe being used.

Description

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates in general to phased array ultrasound imaging, and more specifically to a phased array ultrasound probe with increased dynamic range.

Ultrasound imaging systems transmit ultrasonic waves into a volume to be imaged and receive ultrasonic waves therefrom. The reflected ultrasonic waves are converted to electrical signals which are then processed for use in controlling a video display. In an electronically steered sector scanner, ultrasonic waves are transmitted and received from multiple transducer elements, separately excited and arranged in an array on a probe. Types of electronically steered probes include linear arrays, two-dimensional arrays, curved phased arrays, and annular phased arrays, which will be collectively referred to as phased arrays.

Phased array scanners form images using electronic focusing to direct ultrasonic energy along a line (i.e., vector angle) and to receive echoes from the line. Focusing is achieved by selectively delaying signals during transmission and during reception by respective transducer elements in the phased array. Thus, signals along the vector angle exhibit constructive interference and signals from other locations exhibit destructive interference.

The ultrasound beam is steered along various vector angles by selectively delaying the signals according to the differences in path length between each transducer element and the various points on the beam line. Each transducer is typically connected to a respective controlled delay element. On reception, the output signals from the delay elements are coherently summed to provide an echo signal.

The time delay introduced by each delay element is determined by a controller, typically a computer or microprocessor. Many different schemes have been used to implement the needed signal delays. U.S. Pat. No. 4,285,011, issued to Sato, provides an example wherein analog switches connected to the taps of many delay lines are controlled by a CPU.

Due to physical manufacturing limitations, the transducer elements of an array have their own inherent time delays that vary from element to element. These variable delays modify the relative physical delay applied to a channel of the array such that the actual delay varies from the theoretical delay. Therefore, an image reconstructed from the delayed signals exhibits reduced dynamic range.

Because of the nature of transducer materials, it is not practical to isolate the cause of delay errors to any particular electrical or mechanical parameters. Thus, it has not been possible to eliminate delay errors by improving manufacturing techniques.

Accordingly, it is a principal object of the invention to improve the dynamic range of phased array ultrasound systems.

It is another object of the invention to provide a method and apparatus for removing signal delay errors caused by the transducer characteristics.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

These and other objects are achieved in a phased array transducer probe assembly including a plurality of transducers arranged in an array. A memory means stores values corresponding to time delay errors inherent in the transducers. An assembly means carries the transducers and the memory means. A conductor means is coupled to the transducers and the memory means and is carried by the assembly means, thus permitting the transducers and memory means to be connected to an ultrasound system. Preferably, the stored values represent a time delay error for each respective transducer relative to the delay error of one predetermined transducer, such as the transducer with the most negative error.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The novel features of the invention are set forth with particularity in the appended claims. The invention itself, however, both as to its organization and method of operation, together with further objects and advantages thereof, may best be understood by reference to the following description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which:

FIG. 1 is a block diagram depicting a linear phased array ultrasound system of the invention.

FIGS. 2-6 are graphical depictions of various waveforms associated with the system of FIG. 1.

FIG. 7 illustrates a completed probe assembly of the invention connected to an ultrasound system.

FIG. 8 illustrates apparatus for determining the inherent time delay errors of a transducer array.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

FIG. 1 shows a phased array ultrasound system including the improvement of the present invention. The system includes an array of transducers 11 in a housing 17. Transducers 11 are arranged in a linear array having only five transducer elements to simplify the drawing. A reception circuit including a corresponding array of controlled delay elements 12, a receive control 13 and a summing circuit 14 is connected to transducer array 11. Summing circuit 14 is connected to an image generator and display 15. Housing 17 typically comprises part of a detachable probe, while the reception circuit is contained within a system console.

Transducer array 11 includes individual transducers 21-25 which are respectively connected to individual delay elements 31-35 in delay element array 12. Each delay element 31-35 is individually connected to control 13 for receiving a delay time which corresponds to a particular vector angle.

Also contained in the system console is a transmission circuit 18 which preferably includes a transmit control, transmit delay elements, and individual pulsers for connecting to each transducer element 21-25 of array 11. Alternatively, transmission circuit 1B could be connected to share delay elements 31-35 with the reception circuit. During transmission, each element is excited by a corresponding pulser in a predetermined time relationship to provide transmission along a particular vector angle.

To demonstrate the operation of the system thus far described, reception of ultrasonic energy from a point source 10 will be described. The relative time of arrival of the peak of the signal radiating from point 10 varies with the path distance between each individual transducer element 21-25 and point 10. The different arrival times are illustrated in FIG. 2. Delay elements 31-35 compensate for the path length differences, theoretically resulting in a time alignment of all channel signals input to summing circuit 14 as is shown in FIG. 3. The summation of all the separate channel signals results in the signal shown in FIG. 4 which has maximum amplitude and minimum pulse length due to the in-phase summation of signals from all channels.

Due to the inherent time delay errors in individual transducers 21-25, the actual relative time arrival of signals to summing circuit 14 is as shown in FIG. 5. The resulting signal after summation has a much degraded waveform as is shown in FIG. 6. The final image constructed from such degraded signals will show a degraded dynamic range. Thus, in the prior art system, constructive interference has not been substantially accomplished while destructive interference (rejection of signals) from off-vector targets is less than optimal, resulting in less than optimal signal-to-noise.

According to the present invention, the inherent time delay errors of the individual transducers of an array can be corrected, so as to obtain waveforms as shown in FIGS. 3 and 4 on reception (and to obtain a desired beam on transmission), by determining a delay error for each individual channel and then compensating for that error in programming the time delays in a scanning system. Thus, FIG. 1 further includes a memory 16 located in housing 17 which stores values corresponding to the time delay errors inherent in the transducers. Memory 16 is connected to receive control 13 and to transmission circuit 1B. After control 13 or transmission circuit 1B determines a theoretical delay for a respective transducer on transmit or receive, it obtains a predetermined delay error correction value from memory 16 and adds the correction value to the theoretical delay. Alternatively, all values from memory 16 can be initially transferred to memory internal to receive control 13 or transmission circuit 1B for use in later calculations. Preferably, the values stored in memory 16 have been normalized to the inherent delay error of a particular transducer such as the transducer at the center of the array, (i.e., transducer 23) or to the transducer with the most negative or smallest delay error.

A preferred embodiment of a transducer probe according to the invention is shown in FIG. 7. The probe includes a handle 40 which carries an array of transducer elements 41. The delay error memory can be contained within handle 40 as shown at 42A or may be carried remotely from the handle in another portion of the probe assembly such as at 42B on a probe connector end 44. A set of conductors 43 connects transducer array 41 and memory 42A or 42B to an ultrasound system 45 including a system console and a monitor. Many different probes are typically used with any single ultrasound system, each probe having its own delay errors. In the configuration shown in FIG. 7, after a particular probe assembly is connected to an imaging system, the controller (i.e., system computer) reads the values from the memory and will subsequently modify each theoretical time delay by the delay error correction value for each individual transducer. In the most preferred embodiment, memory 42 is comprised of a Programmable Read-Only Memory (PROM).

A preferred method for determining relative time delay errors for an array will be described with reference to FIG. 8. This method is similar to techniques described in co-pending U.S. applications Ser. No. 099,422; filed Sept. 21, 1987 and Ser. No. 132,097; filed Dec. 11, 1987, assigned to the assignee of the present application and hereby incorporated by reference.

Transducer array 41 is placed in a water-filled tank 50 with its face aligned parallel to an optically flat target 51 also positioned in watertank 50 and at a distance substantially equal to the nominal focal depth of array 41. The following procedure is then used to determine the time delay error for each element relative to the time delay error of a chosen transducer element, in this case the center element.

Probe connector 44 is connected to a multiplexer 52 as shown in FIG. 8. Under control of a data acquisition CPU 53, respective elements are selected for connection to a pulser 54 and a receiver 55. At a specific reference time To, the pulser is fired to generate an acoustic wave from a transducer element n. The acoustic wave travels to and from the flat target in a fixed time period 2R/v, where R is the distance from the surface of array 41 to target 51 and v is the velocity of sound in the tank medium (e.g., water). This fixed time period is constant for all array elements. However, due to fabrication variations, each transducer element exhibits an additional time delay εn which varies from element to element.

Next, the time delay error relative to a particular element (e.g., the center element) is determined for a respective element by comparing the echo waveform of the element under consideration with the echo waveform of the particular (center) element using cross correlation. Thus, the center element waveform is shifted in time relative to that of the transducer element being considered and a cross correlation coefficient is calculated at each shift point. The delay error for the particular element is the amount by which the center element waveform is shifted at the point of the maximum correlation coefficient. For example, a positive value for the amount of time shift indicates that the echo at a particular element arrived after the echo at the center element while a negative value indicates that it arrived before the center channel echo.

Data acquisition CPU 53 preferably normalizes all of the time delay values c n so that all of the correction values are greater than or equal to zero, in order to avoid a condition where the sum of a theoretical delay and the correction value is negative (i.e., attempting to go backwards in time). Preferably, the most negative delay error (or the smallest positive delay error if none are negative) is set to zero and all other values are given relative to that. CPU 53 then transmits a delay correction map to a PROM burner 56 for storage in a PROM which is to be mounted in the probe handle 17 or connector 44, for example.

Using the time delay error correction values determined above, an ultrasound beam can be transmitted and received with greater dynamic range and signal-to-noise.

While preferred embodiments of the invention have been shown and described herein, it will be understood that such embodiments are provided by way of example only. Numerous variations, changes and substitutions will occur to those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit of the invention. Accordingly, it is intended that the appended claims cover all such variations as fall within the spirit and scope of the invention.

Claims (9)

What is claimed is:
1. A transducer probe assembly comprising:
a plurality of ultrasonic transducers arranged in an array;
means for storing correction values corresponding to time delay . errors inherent in said transducers;
assembly means for carrying said transducers and said correction means; and
conductor means coupled to said transducers and said correction value storing means and carried by said assembly means for permitting said transducers and said correction value storing means to be electrically connected to an ultrasound system.
2. The assembly of claim 1 wherein said memory means is comprised of a programmable read-only memory.
3. The assembly of claim 1 wherein said values represent a time delay error relative to the delay error of a predetermined transducer.
4. The assembly of claim 1 wherein said array is a linear phased array.
5. An ultrasound system comprising: a plurality of transducers arranged in an array;
means for storing values for correcting time delay errors inherent in said transducers;
computer means for controlling transmission and reception by said transducers; and
connector means for connecting said transducers and said correction value storing means to said computer means and for passing electrical signals therethrough.
6. The system of claim 5 further comprising:
probe assembly means for incorporating said transducers, said memory means and said connection means.
7. A method of operating an ultrasound phased array system, said system including an array of transducer elements and respective delay elements, said method comprising the steps of:
determining a theoretical delay for a respective transducer element according to a desired scanning vector angle of an ultrasound beam relative to said array;,
obtaining a predetermined delay error correction value corresponding to said respective transducer element prior to system operation;
storing said correction value in a memory; and
changing said theoretical delay by a value equal to said correction value to obtain a corrected delay.
8. The method of claim 7 wherein said value represents a time delay error inherent in said respective transducer relative to a time delay error inherent in a predetermined transducer element.
9. The method of claim 7 further comprising the steps of:
transmitting an acoustic wave from said array, said wave being formed according to said corrected delay; and
receiving an acoustic wave arriving at said array, said wave being detected according to said corrected delay.
US07/199,893 1988-05-27 1988-05-27 Calibration of phased array ultrasound probe Expired - Fee Related US4893284A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US07/199,893 US4893284A (en) 1988-05-27 1988-05-27 Calibration of phased array ultrasound probe

Applications Claiming Priority (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US07/199,893 US4893284A (en) 1988-05-27 1988-05-27 Calibration of phased array ultrasound probe
DE19893917003 DE3917003C2 (en) 1988-05-27 1989-05-24
GB8912171A GB2219089B (en) 1988-05-27 1989-05-26 Calibration of phased array ultrasonic probe
JP1131722A JPH0235389A (en) 1988-05-27 1989-05-26 Calibration system for phased array ultrasonic probe

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US4893284A true US4893284A (en) 1990-01-09

Family

ID=22739451

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US07/199,893 Expired - Fee Related US4893284A (en) 1988-05-27 1988-05-27 Calibration of phased array ultrasound probe

Country Status (4)

Country Link
US (1) US4893284A (en)
JP (1) JPH0235389A (en)
DE (1) DE3917003C2 (en)
GB (1) GB2219089B (en)

Cited By (63)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5089988A (en) * 1989-12-22 1992-02-18 Krupp Atlas Elektronik Gmbh Method and apparatus for compensating sensitivity fluctuations in a hydrophone transducer array
US5429129A (en) * 1991-08-22 1995-07-04 Sensor Devices, Inc. Apparatus for determining spectral absorption by a specific substance in a fluid
US5535176A (en) * 1993-06-28 1996-07-09 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Method and system for sensing with an active acoustic array
US5549111A (en) * 1994-08-05 1996-08-27 Acuson Corporation Method and apparatus for adjustable frequency scanning in ultrasound imaging
US5555534A (en) * 1994-08-05 1996-09-10 Acuson Corporation Method and apparatus for doppler receive beamformer system
US5581517A (en) * 1994-08-05 1996-12-03 Acuson Corporation Method and apparatus for focus control of transmit and receive beamformer systems
US5657761A (en) * 1994-04-22 1997-08-19 Hitachi Medical Corporation Ultrasonic diagnosis system
US5675554A (en) * 1994-08-05 1997-10-07 Acuson Corporation Method and apparatus for transmit beamformer
US5685308A (en) * 1994-08-05 1997-11-11 Acuson Corporation Method and apparatus for receive beamformer system
US5921932A (en) * 1994-08-05 1999-07-13 Acuson Corporation Method and apparatus for a baseband processor of a receive beamformer system
US5986972A (en) * 1998-03-31 1999-11-16 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Beam pattern shaping for transmitter array
US6016285A (en) * 1994-08-05 2000-01-18 Acuson Corporation Method and apparatus for coherent image formation
US6029116A (en) * 1994-08-05 2000-02-22 Acuson Corporation Method and apparatus for a baseband processor of a receive beamformer system
US6104673A (en) * 1994-08-05 2000-08-15 Acuson Corporation Method and apparatus for transmit beamformer system
US6120449A (en) * 1998-11-25 2000-09-19 General Electric Company Method and apparatus for compensating for inoperative elements in ultrasonic transducer array
EP1223864A1 (en) * 1999-10-14 2002-07-24 Arrow International, Inc. A method and apparatus for improving the accuracy with which the speed of a fluid is measured
EP1353195A2 (en) * 1996-12-24 2003-10-15 Teratech Corporation Ultrasound scan conversion with spatial dithering
WO2004005957A1 (en) * 2002-07-03 2004-01-15 Aitech, Inc. Method and system for construction of ultrasound images
US20040122323A1 (en) * 2002-12-23 2004-06-24 Insightec-Txsonics Ltd Tissue aberration corrections in ultrasound therapy
US6768455B1 (en) * 2003-05-20 2004-07-27 The Boeing Company Calibration probe motion detector
US20040220463A1 (en) * 2002-09-30 2004-11-04 Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd. Ultrasonic probe and ultrasonic transmitting and receiving apparatus using the same
US20050259517A1 (en) * 2004-05-10 2005-11-24 Airmar Technology Corporation Transducer identification
US20070016048A1 (en) * 2005-06-16 2007-01-18 Tatsuro Baba Ultrasonic transmission/reception condition optimization method, ultrasonic transmission/reception condition optimization program, and ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus
US20070016039A1 (en) * 2005-06-21 2007-01-18 Insightec-Image Guided Treatment Ltd. Controlled, non-linear focused ultrasound treatment
US20070167781A1 (en) * 2005-11-23 2007-07-19 Insightec Ltd. Hierarchical Switching in Ultra-High Density Ultrasound Array
US20070197918A1 (en) * 2003-06-02 2007-08-23 Insightec - Image Guided Treatment Ltd. Endo-cavity focused ultrasound transducer
US20080031090A1 (en) * 2006-08-01 2008-02-07 Insightec, Ltd Transducer surface mapping
US20080082026A1 (en) * 2006-04-26 2008-04-03 Rita Schmidt Focused ultrasound system with far field tail suppression
US20090088623A1 (en) * 2007-10-01 2009-04-02 Insightec, Ltd. Motion compensated image-guided focused ultrasound therapy system
US20100030076A1 (en) * 2006-08-01 2010-02-04 Kobi Vortman Systems and Methods for Simultaneously Treating Multiple Target Sites
US20100056962A1 (en) * 2003-05-22 2010-03-04 Kobi Vortman Acoustic Beam Forming in Phased Arrays Including Large Numbers of Transducer Elements
US20100125193A1 (en) * 2008-11-19 2010-05-20 Eyal Zadicario Closed-Loop Clot Lysis
US20100179425A1 (en) * 2009-01-13 2010-07-15 Eyal Zadicario Systems and methods for controlling ultrasound energy transmitted through non-uniform tissue and cooling of same
US20100262013A1 (en) * 2009-04-14 2010-10-14 Smith David M Universal Multiple Aperture Medical Ultrasound Probe
US20100268088A1 (en) * 2009-04-17 2010-10-21 Oleg Prus Multimode ultrasound focusing for medical applications
US20100318002A1 (en) * 2009-06-10 2010-12-16 Oleg Prus Acoustic-Feedback Power Control During Focused Ultrasound Delivery
US20110034800A1 (en) * 2009-08-04 2011-02-10 Shuki Vitek Estimation of alignment parameters in magnetic-resonance-guided ultrasound focusing
US20110046472A1 (en) * 2009-08-19 2011-02-24 Rita Schmidt Techniques for temperature measurement and corrections in long-term magnetic resonance thermometry
US20110046475A1 (en) * 2009-08-24 2011-02-24 Benny Assif Techniques for correcting temperature measurement in magnetic resonance thermometry
US20110066032A1 (en) * 2009-08-26 2011-03-17 Shuki Vitek Asymmetric ultrasound phased-array transducer
US20110109309A1 (en) * 2009-11-10 2011-05-12 Insightec Ltd. Techniques for correcting measurement artifacts in magnetic resonance thermometry
US20110201933A1 (en) * 2006-09-14 2011-08-18 Specht Donald F Point source transmission and speed-of-sound correction using multi-aperture ultrasound imaging
USRE43901E1 (en) 2000-11-28 2013-01-01 Insightec Ltd. Apparatus for controlling thermal dosing in a thermal treatment system
US8409099B2 (en) 2004-08-26 2013-04-02 Insightec Ltd. Focused ultrasound system for surrounding a body tissue mass and treatment method
WO2014026185A1 (en) * 2012-08-10 2014-02-13 Maui Imaging, Inc. Calibration of multiple aperture ultrasound probes
US8661873B2 (en) 2009-10-14 2014-03-04 Insightec Ltd. Mapping ultrasound transducers
US8684936B2 (en) 2006-10-25 2014-04-01 Maui Imaging, Inc. Method and apparatus to produce ultrasonic images using multiple apertures
US8932237B2 (en) 2010-04-28 2015-01-13 Insightec, Ltd. Efficient ultrasound focusing
US9192355B2 (en) 2006-02-06 2015-11-24 Maui Imaging, Inc. Multiple aperture ultrasound array alignment fixture
US9220478B2 (en) 2010-04-14 2015-12-29 Maui Imaging, Inc. Concave ultrasound transducers and 3D arrays
US9265484B2 (en) 2011-12-29 2016-02-23 Maui Imaging, Inc. M-mode ultrasound imaging of arbitrary paths
US9282945B2 (en) 2009-04-14 2016-03-15 Maui Imaging, Inc. Calibration of ultrasound probes
US9339256B2 (en) 2007-10-01 2016-05-17 Maui Imaging, Inc. Determining material stiffness using multiple aperture ultrasound
US9510806B2 (en) 2013-03-13 2016-12-06 Maui Imaging, Inc. Alignment of ultrasound transducer arrays and multiple aperture probe assembly
US9582876B2 (en) 2006-02-06 2017-02-28 Maui Imaging, Inc. Method and apparatus to visualize the coronary arteries using ultrasound
US9668714B2 (en) 2010-04-14 2017-06-06 Maui Imaging, Inc. Systems and methods for improving ultrasound image quality by applying weighting factors
US9788813B2 (en) 2010-10-13 2017-10-17 Maui Imaging, Inc. Multiple aperture probe internal apparatus and cable assemblies
US9852727B2 (en) 2010-04-28 2017-12-26 Insightec, Ltd. Multi-segment ultrasound transducers
US9883848B2 (en) 2013-09-13 2018-02-06 Maui Imaging, Inc. Ultrasound imaging using apparent point-source transmit transducer
US9981148B2 (en) 2010-10-22 2018-05-29 Insightec, Ltd. Adaptive active cooling during focused ultrasound treatment
US9986969B2 (en) 2012-08-21 2018-06-05 Maui Imaging, Inc. Ultrasound imaging system memory architecture
US10226234B2 (en) 2011-12-01 2019-03-12 Maui Imaging, Inc. Motion detection using ping-based and multiple aperture doppler ultrasound
US10401493B2 (en) 2014-08-18 2019-09-03 Maui Imaging, Inc. Network-based ultrasound imaging system

Families Citing this family (15)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPH11503927A (en) * 1995-01-23 1999-04-06 カマンウェルス・サイエンティフィック・アンド・インダストリアル・リサーチ・オーガナイゼイション Phase and / or amplitude aberration correction for imaging
US6120450A (en) * 1995-01-23 2000-09-19 Commonwealth Scientific And Industrial Research Organisation Phase and/or amplitude aberration correction for imaging
US5839442A (en) * 1995-06-29 1998-11-24 Teratech Corporation Portable ultrasound imaging system
US8241217B2 (en) 1995-06-29 2012-08-14 Teratech Corporation Portable ultrasound imaging data
US7500952B1 (en) 1995-06-29 2009-03-10 Teratech Corporation Portable ultrasound imaging system
US5957846A (en) * 1995-06-29 1999-09-28 Teratech Corporation Portable ultrasound imaging system
WO1997001768A2 (en) * 1995-06-29 1997-01-16 Teratech Corporation Portable ultrasound imaging system
US5590658A (en) * 1995-06-29 1997-01-07 Teratech Corporation Portable ultrasound imaging system
FR2746509B1 (en) * 1996-03-20 1998-08-21 Imra Europe Sa Process for calibration and control METHOD FOR detection device objects by ultrasound in air
US6685645B1 (en) 2001-10-20 2004-02-03 Zonare Medical Systems, Inc. Broad-beam imaging
US7527591B2 (en) 2003-11-21 2009-05-05 General Electric Company Ultrasound probe distributed beamformer
US7527592B2 (en) 2003-11-21 2009-05-05 General Electric Company Ultrasound probe sub-aperture processing
JP5484930B2 (en) 2010-01-25 2014-05-07 三菱重工業株式会社 Air conditioner
US9279786B2 (en) * 2011-08-23 2016-03-08 Olympus Ndt Method of and an apparatus conducting calibration for phased-array shear wave channels inspecting square bars
CN107328866B (en) * 2017-02-27 2019-10-08 陕西师范大学 A kind of reparation bearing calibration of ultrasonic phase array linear transducer array

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4173749A (en) * 1977-03-10 1979-11-06 Standard Oil Company (Indiana) Digital drive and phase-lock for seismic vibrators
US4356731A (en) * 1980-11-03 1982-11-02 General Electric Company Method and means for generating time gain compensation control signal for use in ultrasonic scanner and the like
US4611304A (en) * 1983-07-27 1986-09-09 Sundstrand Data Control, Inc. Transducer memory circuit
US4686655A (en) * 1970-12-28 1987-08-11 Hyatt Gilbert P Filtering system for processing signature signals

Family Cites Families (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPS5231190A (en) * 1975-06-17 1977-03-09 Kanebo Ltd Multiicolor continuous printing method of and apparatus for textile
GB2034144B (en) * 1978-10-25 1982-12-01 Secr Defence Time dealy signal processor
DE3048527C2 (en) * 1980-12-22 1984-02-02 Siemens Ag, 1000 Berlin Und 8000 Muenchen, De
JPS58113746A (en) * 1981-12-26 1983-07-06 Toshiba Corp Electronic scanning type ultrasonic test equipment
JPH0131150B2 (en) * 1983-08-31 1989-06-23 Yokokawa Medeikaru Shisutemu Kk
GB2153528B (en) * 1984-02-02 1987-05-07 Yokogawa Medical Syst Ultrasonic phased-array receiver
JPS60196688A (en) * 1984-03-19 1985-10-05 Hitachi Medical Corp Scanning type ultrasonic wave apparatus
JPS60222766A (en) * 1984-04-19 1985-11-07 Hitachi Medical Corp Identification circuit for transducer
GB2205946B (en) * 1985-03-21 1991-06-19 Donald Christian Knudsen Digital delay generator for sonar and radar beam formers
JPS61265566A (en) * 1985-05-20 1986-11-25 Toshiba Corp Ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus
US4700573A (en) * 1986-03-07 1987-10-20 Hewlett-Packard Company Method to improve accuracy in delay lines
JPS6349147A (en) * 1986-08-15 1988-03-01 Olympus Optical Co Ultrasonic endoscope apparatus
JPH0734797B2 (en) * 1986-12-18 1995-04-19 株式会社日立メデイコ The ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus
US4835689A (en) * 1987-09-21 1989-05-30 General Electric Company Adaptive coherent energy beam formation using phase conjugation

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4686655A (en) * 1970-12-28 1987-08-11 Hyatt Gilbert P Filtering system for processing signature signals
US4173749A (en) * 1977-03-10 1979-11-06 Standard Oil Company (Indiana) Digital drive and phase-lock for seismic vibrators
US4356731A (en) * 1980-11-03 1982-11-02 General Electric Company Method and means for generating time gain compensation control signal for use in ultrasonic scanner and the like
US4611304A (en) * 1983-07-27 1986-09-09 Sundstrand Data Control, Inc. Transducer memory circuit

Cited By (107)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5089988A (en) * 1989-12-22 1992-02-18 Krupp Atlas Elektronik Gmbh Method and apparatus for compensating sensitivity fluctuations in a hydrophone transducer array
US5429129A (en) * 1991-08-22 1995-07-04 Sensor Devices, Inc. Apparatus for determining spectral absorption by a specific substance in a fluid
US5535176A (en) * 1993-06-28 1996-07-09 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Method and system for sensing with an active acoustic array
US5657761A (en) * 1994-04-22 1997-08-19 Hitachi Medical Corporation Ultrasonic diagnosis system
US6172939B1 (en) 1994-08-05 2001-01-09 Acuson Corporation Method and apparatus for transmit beamformer system
US5581517A (en) * 1994-08-05 1996-12-03 Acuson Corporation Method and apparatus for focus control of transmit and receive beamformer systems
US5555534A (en) * 1994-08-05 1996-09-10 Acuson Corporation Method and apparatus for doppler receive beamformer system
US5675554A (en) * 1994-08-05 1997-10-07 Acuson Corporation Method and apparatus for transmit beamformer
US5685308A (en) * 1994-08-05 1997-11-11 Acuson Corporation Method and apparatus for receive beamformer system
US5827188A (en) * 1994-08-05 1998-10-27 Acuson Corporation Method and apparatus for receive beamformer system
US5928152A (en) * 1994-08-05 1999-07-27 Acuson Corporation Method and apparatus for a baseband processor of a receive beamformer system
US5882307A (en) * 1994-08-05 1999-03-16 Acuson Corporation Method and apparatus for receive beamformer system
US5921932A (en) * 1994-08-05 1999-07-13 Acuson Corporation Method and apparatus for a baseband processor of a receive beamformer system
US5549111A (en) * 1994-08-05 1996-08-27 Acuson Corporation Method and apparatus for adjustable frequency scanning in ultrasound imaging
US6016285A (en) * 1994-08-05 2000-01-18 Acuson Corporation Method and apparatus for coherent image formation
US5995450A (en) * 1994-08-05 1999-11-30 Acuson Corporation Method and apparatus for transmit beamformer system
US6363033B1 (en) 1994-08-05 2002-03-26 Acuson Corporation Method and apparatus for transmit beamformer system
US6029116A (en) * 1994-08-05 2000-02-22 Acuson Corporation Method and apparatus for a baseband processor of a receive beamformer system
US6042547A (en) * 1994-08-05 2000-03-28 Acuson Corporation Method and apparatus for receive beamformer system
US6104673A (en) * 1994-08-05 2000-08-15 Acuson Corporation Method and apparatus for transmit beamformer system
US6110116A (en) * 1994-08-05 2000-08-29 Acuson Corporation Method and apparatus for receive beamformer system
US5856955A (en) * 1994-08-05 1999-01-05 Acuson Corporation Method and apparatus for transmit beamformer system
EP1353195A3 (en) * 1996-12-24 2004-04-14 Teratech Corporation Ultrasound scan conversion with spatial dithering
EP1353195A2 (en) * 1996-12-24 2003-10-15 Teratech Corporation Ultrasound scan conversion with spatial dithering
US5986972A (en) * 1998-03-31 1999-11-16 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Beam pattern shaping for transmitter array
US6120449A (en) * 1998-11-25 2000-09-19 General Electric Company Method and apparatus for compensating for inoperative elements in ultrasonic transducer array
EP1223864A1 (en) * 1999-10-14 2002-07-24 Arrow International, Inc. A method and apparatus for improving the accuracy with which the speed of a fluid is measured
US20050256408A1 (en) * 1999-10-14 2005-11-17 Gerard Hascoet Method and apparatus for improving the accuracy with which the speed of a fluid is measured
EP1223864B1 (en) * 1999-10-14 2009-08-12 Arrow International, Inc. A method and apparatus for improving the accuracy with which the speed of a fluid is measured
USRE43901E1 (en) 2000-11-28 2013-01-01 Insightec Ltd. Apparatus for controlling thermal dosing in a thermal treatment system
US6695778B2 (en) 2002-07-03 2004-02-24 Aitech, Inc. Methods and systems for construction of ultrasound images
WO2004005957A1 (en) * 2002-07-03 2004-01-15 Aitech, Inc. Method and system for construction of ultrasound images
US20040220463A1 (en) * 2002-09-30 2004-11-04 Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd. Ultrasonic probe and ultrasonic transmitting and receiving apparatus using the same
US7207940B2 (en) * 2002-09-30 2007-04-24 Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd. Ultrasonic probe and ultrasonic transmitting and receiving apparatus using the same
US8088067B2 (en) 2002-12-23 2012-01-03 Insightec Ltd. Tissue aberration corrections in ultrasound therapy
US20040122323A1 (en) * 2002-12-23 2004-06-24 Insightec-Txsonics Ltd Tissue aberration corrections in ultrasound therapy
US6768455B1 (en) * 2003-05-20 2004-07-27 The Boeing Company Calibration probe motion detector
US8002706B2 (en) 2003-05-22 2011-08-23 Insightec Ltd. Acoustic beam forming in phased arrays including large numbers of transducer elements
US20100056962A1 (en) * 2003-05-22 2010-03-04 Kobi Vortman Acoustic Beam Forming in Phased Arrays Including Large Numbers of Transducer Elements
US20070197918A1 (en) * 2003-06-02 2007-08-23 Insightec - Image Guided Treatment Ltd. Endo-cavity focused ultrasound transducer
US7369458B2 (en) * 2004-05-10 2008-05-06 Airmar Technology Corporation Transducer identification
US20050259517A1 (en) * 2004-05-10 2005-11-24 Airmar Technology Corporation Transducer identification
US8409099B2 (en) 2004-08-26 2013-04-02 Insightec Ltd. Focused ultrasound system for surrounding a body tissue mass and treatment method
US9606227B2 (en) * 2005-06-16 2017-03-28 Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation Ultrasonic transmission/reception condition optimization method, ultrasonic transmission/reception condition optimization program, and ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus
US20070016048A1 (en) * 2005-06-16 2007-01-18 Tatsuro Baba Ultrasonic transmission/reception condition optimization method, ultrasonic transmission/reception condition optimization program, and ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus
US20100241036A1 (en) * 2005-06-21 2010-09-23 Insightec, Ltd Controlled, non-linear focused ultrasound treatment
US10130828B2 (en) 2005-06-21 2018-11-20 Insightec Ltd. Controlled, non-linear focused ultrasound treatment
US20070016039A1 (en) * 2005-06-21 2007-01-18 Insightec-Image Guided Treatment Ltd. Controlled, non-linear focused ultrasound treatment
US8608672B2 (en) 2005-11-23 2013-12-17 Insightec Ltd. Hierarchical switching in ultra-high density ultrasound array
US20070167781A1 (en) * 2005-11-23 2007-07-19 Insightec Ltd. Hierarchical Switching in Ultra-High Density Ultrasound Array
US9582876B2 (en) 2006-02-06 2017-02-28 Maui Imaging, Inc. Method and apparatus to visualize the coronary arteries using ultrasound
US9192355B2 (en) 2006-02-06 2015-11-24 Maui Imaging, Inc. Multiple aperture ultrasound array alignment fixture
US8235901B2 (en) 2006-04-26 2012-08-07 Insightec, Ltd. Focused ultrasound system with far field tail suppression
US20080082026A1 (en) * 2006-04-26 2008-04-03 Rita Schmidt Focused ultrasound system with far field tail suppression
US7535794B2 (en) * 2006-08-01 2009-05-19 Insightec, Ltd. Transducer surface mapping
US20080031090A1 (en) * 2006-08-01 2008-02-07 Insightec, Ltd Transducer surface mapping
US20100030076A1 (en) * 2006-08-01 2010-02-04 Kobi Vortman Systems and Methods for Simultaneously Treating Multiple Target Sites
US9146313B2 (en) 2006-09-14 2015-09-29 Maui Imaging, Inc. Point source transmission and speed-of-sound correction using multi-aperature ultrasound imaging
US20110201933A1 (en) * 2006-09-14 2011-08-18 Specht Donald F Point source transmission and speed-of-sound correction using multi-aperture ultrasound imaging
US9986975B2 (en) 2006-09-14 2018-06-05 Maui Imaging, Inc. Point source transmission and speed-of-sound correction using multi-aperture ultrasound imaging
US9526475B2 (en) 2006-09-14 2016-12-27 Maui Imaging, Inc. Point source transmission and speed-of-sound correction using multi-aperture ultrasound imaging
US9072495B2 (en) 2006-10-25 2015-07-07 Maui Imaging, Inc. Method and apparatus to produce ultrasonic images using multiple apertures
US8684936B2 (en) 2006-10-25 2014-04-01 Maui Imaging, Inc. Method and apparatus to produce ultrasonic images using multiple apertures
US9420994B2 (en) 2006-10-25 2016-08-23 Maui Imaging, Inc. Method and apparatus to produce ultrasonic images using multiple apertures
US10130333B2 (en) 2006-10-25 2018-11-20 Maui Imaging, Inc. Method and apparatus to produce ultrasonic images using multiple apertures
US8251908B2 (en) 2007-10-01 2012-08-28 Insightec Ltd. Motion compensated image-guided focused ultrasound therapy system
US9339256B2 (en) 2007-10-01 2016-05-17 Maui Imaging, Inc. Determining material stiffness using multiple aperture ultrasound
US8548561B2 (en) 2007-10-01 2013-10-01 Insightec Ltd. Motion compensated image-guided focused ultrasound therapy system
US20090088623A1 (en) * 2007-10-01 2009-04-02 Insightec, Ltd. Motion compensated image-guided focused ultrasound therapy system
US20100125193A1 (en) * 2008-11-19 2010-05-20 Eyal Zadicario Closed-Loop Clot Lysis
US8425424B2 (en) 2008-11-19 2013-04-23 Inightee Ltd. Closed-loop clot lysis
US20100179425A1 (en) * 2009-01-13 2010-07-15 Eyal Zadicario Systems and methods for controlling ultrasound energy transmitted through non-uniform tissue and cooling of same
US10206662B2 (en) 2009-04-14 2019-02-19 Maui Imaging, Inc. Calibration of ultrasound probes
US9282945B2 (en) 2009-04-14 2016-03-15 Maui Imaging, Inc. Calibration of ultrasound probes
US20100262013A1 (en) * 2009-04-14 2010-10-14 Smith David M Universal Multiple Aperture Medical Ultrasound Probe
US8617073B2 (en) 2009-04-17 2013-12-31 Insightec Ltd. Focusing ultrasound into the brain through the skull by utilizing both longitudinal and shear waves
US20100268088A1 (en) * 2009-04-17 2010-10-21 Oleg Prus Multimode ultrasound focusing for medical applications
US20100318002A1 (en) * 2009-06-10 2010-12-16 Oleg Prus Acoustic-Feedback Power Control During Focused Ultrasound Delivery
US20110034800A1 (en) * 2009-08-04 2011-02-10 Shuki Vitek Estimation of alignment parameters in magnetic-resonance-guided ultrasound focusing
US9623266B2 (en) 2009-08-04 2017-04-18 Insightec Ltd. Estimation of alignment parameters in magnetic-resonance-guided ultrasound focusing
US20110046472A1 (en) * 2009-08-19 2011-02-24 Rita Schmidt Techniques for temperature measurement and corrections in long-term magnetic resonance thermometry
US9289154B2 (en) 2009-08-19 2016-03-22 Insightec Ltd. Techniques for temperature measurement and corrections in long-term magnetic resonance thermometry
US20110046475A1 (en) * 2009-08-24 2011-02-24 Benny Assif Techniques for correcting temperature measurement in magnetic resonance thermometry
US9177543B2 (en) 2009-08-26 2015-11-03 Insightec Ltd. Asymmetric ultrasound phased-array transducer for dynamic beam steering to ablate tissues in MRI
US20110066032A1 (en) * 2009-08-26 2011-03-17 Shuki Vitek Asymmetric ultrasound phased-array transducer
US8661873B2 (en) 2009-10-14 2014-03-04 Insightec Ltd. Mapping ultrasound transducers
US9412357B2 (en) 2009-10-14 2016-08-09 Insightec Ltd. Mapping ultrasound transducers
US20110109309A1 (en) * 2009-11-10 2011-05-12 Insightec Ltd. Techniques for correcting measurement artifacts in magnetic resonance thermometry
US9541621B2 (en) 2009-11-10 2017-01-10 Insightec, Ltd. Techniques for correcting measurement artifacts in magnetic resonance thermometry
US8368401B2 (en) 2009-11-10 2013-02-05 Insightec Ltd. Techniques for correcting measurement artifacts in magnetic resonance thermometry
US9247926B2 (en) 2010-04-14 2016-02-02 Maui Imaging, Inc. Concave ultrasound transducers and 3D arrays
US9220478B2 (en) 2010-04-14 2015-12-29 Maui Imaging, Inc. Concave ultrasound transducers and 3D arrays
US9668714B2 (en) 2010-04-14 2017-06-06 Maui Imaging, Inc. Systems and methods for improving ultrasound image quality by applying weighting factors
US8932237B2 (en) 2010-04-28 2015-01-13 Insightec, Ltd. Efficient ultrasound focusing
US9852727B2 (en) 2010-04-28 2017-12-26 Insightec, Ltd. Multi-segment ultrasound transducers
US9788813B2 (en) 2010-10-13 2017-10-17 Maui Imaging, Inc. Multiple aperture probe internal apparatus and cable assemblies
US9981148B2 (en) 2010-10-22 2018-05-29 Insightec, Ltd. Adaptive active cooling during focused ultrasound treatment
US10226234B2 (en) 2011-12-01 2019-03-12 Maui Imaging, Inc. Motion detection using ping-based and multiple aperture doppler ultrasound
US9265484B2 (en) 2011-12-29 2016-02-23 Maui Imaging, Inc. M-mode ultrasound imaging of arbitrary paths
US10064605B2 (en) 2012-08-10 2018-09-04 Maui Imaging, Inc. Calibration of multiple aperture ultrasound probes
WO2014026185A1 (en) * 2012-08-10 2014-02-13 Maui Imaging, Inc. Calibration of multiple aperture ultrasound probes
US9572549B2 (en) 2012-08-10 2017-02-21 Maui Imaging, Inc. Calibration of multiple aperture ultrasound probes
US9986969B2 (en) 2012-08-21 2018-06-05 Maui Imaging, Inc. Ultrasound imaging system memory architecture
US9510806B2 (en) 2013-03-13 2016-12-06 Maui Imaging, Inc. Alignment of ultrasound transducer arrays and multiple aperture probe assembly
US10267913B2 (en) 2013-03-13 2019-04-23 Maui Imaging, Inc. Alignment of ultrasound transducer arrays and multiple aperture probe assembly
US9883848B2 (en) 2013-09-13 2018-02-06 Maui Imaging, Inc. Ultrasound imaging using apparent point-source transmit transducer
US10401493B2 (en) 2014-08-18 2019-09-03 Maui Imaging, Inc. Network-based ultrasound imaging system

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
GB2219089B (en) 1992-08-19
GB2219089A (en) 1989-11-29
DE3917003C2 (en) 1993-01-28
GB8912171D0 (en) 1989-07-12
JPH0235389A (en) 1990-02-05
DE3917003A1 (en) 1989-11-30

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US9772417B2 (en) Multi-function broadband phased-array software defined sonar system and method
US8672846B2 (en) Continuous transmit focusing method and apparatus for ultrasound imaging system
US20150157294A1 (en) Concave ultrasound transducers and 3d arrays
DE602004002523T2 (en) Diagnostic ultrasound imaging device with a 2D transducer with variable subarrays
EP0119019B1 (en) Ultrasonic diagnosis system
JP3401199B2 (en) Ultrasonic signal focusing method and apparatus for ultrasonic imaging system
US7972268B2 (en) Steered continuous wave doppler methods for two-dimensional ultrasound transducer arrays
US9134419B2 (en) Ultrasonic diagnosis apparatus
EP0810450B1 (en) Method and apparatus for ultrasound imaging
US5793701A (en) Method and apparatus for coherent image formation
US5667373A (en) Method and apparatus for coherent image formation
US4241611A (en) Ultrasonic diagnostic transducer assembly and system
EP2019626B1 (en) Incoherent retrospective dynamic transmit focusing
US6638227B2 (en) Ultrasound imaging method and apparatus using orthogonal Golay codes
US4604697A (en) Body imaging using vectorial addition of acoustic reflection to achieve effect of scanning beam continuously focused in range
US4694434A (en) Three-dimensional imaging system
DE4405504B4 (en) Method and apparatus for imaging an object with a 2-D ultrasound array
US4455872A (en) Rotating ultrasonic scanner
US5605154A (en) Two-dimensional phase correction using a deformable ultrasonic transducer array
US4241610A (en) Ultrasonic imaging system utilizing dynamic and pseudo-dynamic focusing
DE10314183B4 (en) Ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus
US6705994B2 (en) Tissue inhomogeneity correction in ultrasound imaging
US4084582A (en) Ultrasonic imaging system
US5123415A (en) Ultrasonic imaging by radial scan of trapezoidal sector
US6736779B1 (en) Ultrasonic probe and ultrasonic diagnostic device comprising the same

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY, A NEW YORK CORP.

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:MAGRANE, MARK G.;REEL/FRAME:004912/0597

Effective date: 19880517

Owner name: GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:MAGRANE, MARK G.;REEL/FRAME:004912/0597

Effective date: 19880517

CC Certificate of correction
CC Certificate of correction
FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 4

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 8

REMI Maintenance fee reminder mailed
LAPS Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees
STCH Information on status: patent discontinuation

Free format text: PATENT EXPIRED DUE TO NONPAYMENT OF MAINTENANCE FEES UNDER 37 CFR 1.362

FP Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee

Effective date: 20020109