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Synchronous machine having superconductive stator and rotor windings

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Publication number
US4816708A
US4816708A US07206390 US20639088A US4816708A US 4816708 A US4816708 A US 4816708A US 07206390 US07206390 US 07206390 US 20639088 A US20639088 A US 20639088A US 4816708 A US4816708 A US 4816708A
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Grant
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Prior art keywords
helium
rotor
windings
pressure
stator
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Fee Related
Application number
US07206390
Inventor
Yves Laumond
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Alstom Holdings SA
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Alstom Holdings SA
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Publication date
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02KDYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINES
    • H02K55/00Dynamo-electric machines having windings operating at cryogenic temperatures
    • H02K55/02Dynamo-electric machines having windings operating at cryogenic temperatures of the synchronous type
    • H02K55/04Dynamo-electric machines having windings operating at cryogenic temperatures of the synchronous type with rotating field windings
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GASES [GHG] EMISSION, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E40/00Technologies for an efficient electrical power generation, transmission or distribution
    • Y02E40/60Superconducting electric elements or equipment or power systems integrating superconducting elements or equipment
    • Y02E40/62Superconducting generators
    • Y02E40/622Superconducting synchronous generators
    • Y02E40/625Superconducting synchronous generators with a superconducting rotor

Abstract

A synchronous machine having a rotor fixed to a shaft carried by bearings (23), and having stator and rotor windings (1,2) which are superconducting and which are cooled by very low temperature helium, with each of the windings and the gap (5) therebetween being located in vacuum enclosure, the synchronous machine including the improvement whereby the stator windings are cooled by a bath of liquid helium (12), whereby the rotor windings are cooled by a flow of helium above its critical pressure (14, 15, 16), and whereby said flow of helium above its critical pressure and said liquid helium bath constitute parts of a circuit for cooling helium which is initially under high pressure, which is expanded (8) to a pressure slightly above its critical pressure, which is cooled in a heat exchanger (10) disposed in the liquid helium bath, which is heated by contact with the rotor windings, which is then liquified by further expansion (18), and which finally returned to the liquid helium bath (12).

Description

This application is a continuation-in-part application of application Ser. No. 925,011, now abandoned, filed Oct. 30, 1986, and identically entitled.

The present invention relates to a synchronous machine whose rotor is mounted on a shaft which is supported in bearings, the machine having superconducting stator and rotor windings which are cooled by very low temperature helium, and both of the windings and the gap therebetween are located in a vacuum enclosure.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Published French patent No. 2319233, corresponding to U.S. Pat. No. 4,101,793, in the name of ALSTHOM and Electricite de France describes cooling the superconductor of a cryoalternator by a flow of helium at a pressure higher than its critical pressure and at a temperature close to 4° K., said helium flowing round a circuit from a helium refrigerator, and with the helium being returned to the inlet side of the refrigerator after being partially heated by contact with the rotor.

The above patent does not describe a stator which is also superconducting, but under such circumstances it would be normal to provide a second parallel circuit for cooling the stator.

Such a cooling system is relatively complex and expensive, and requires a system of channels for conveying a flow of helium through the stator windings, which channels are of larger size than those used for the rotor.

The aim of the present invention is to provide a synchronous machine having superconductive stator and rotor windings and including a cooling system which is simpler and cheaper.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention provides a synchronous machine having a rotor fixed to a shaft carried by bearings, and having stator and rotor windings which are superconducting and which are cooled by very low temperature helium, with each of the windings and the gap therebetween being located in vacuum enclosures, the synchronous machine including the improvement whereby the stator windings are cooled by a bath of liquid helium, whereby the rotor windings are cooled by a flow of helium above its critical pressure, and whereby said flow of helium above its critical pressure and said liquid helium bath constitute parts of a circuit for cooling helium which is initially under high pressure, which is expanded to a pressure slightly above its critical pressure, which is cooled in a heat exchanger disposed in the liquid helium bath, which is heated by contact with the rotor windings, which is then liquefied by further expansion, and which finally returned to the liquid helium bath.

Preferably, the stator and rotor windings are disposed in respective sealed vacuum enclosures, and the gap is connected to a vacuum source and is separated from the bearings by vacuum-proof oil seals. The vacuums may be common, as described in French patent application No. 8515416 filed Oct. 17, 1985.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING

An embodiment of the invention is described by way of example with reference to the sole figure of the accompanying drawing, which is a partially cutaway diagrammatic elevation of a synchronous alternator in accordance with the invention.

MORE DETAILED DESCRIPTION

The alternator includes a stator indicated generally at 28 having a three-phase stator winding of superconducting material 1 fixed thereto at 30, and a rotor indicated generally at 29 having a rotor fixed mounted thereto at 31 a winding 2 which is also superconducting. Three phase conductors 3 leave the stator 28 for connection to a load. The rotor 29 is mounted on a shaft 4, and its periphery as delimited by a cylindrical partition 21 is separated from the stator by a gap 5.

On the other side of the gap 5, the stator is separated from the gap by a cylindrical partition 22. The stator is surrounded by a laminated magnetic circuit 6 for preventing magnetic flux from escaping from the machine.

The winding cooling circuit is as follows. A conventional helium refrigerator 7 compresses helium to a high pressure at a suitably low temperature. This helium is expelled via a duct 8 and passes through an expansion valve 9 where its pressure is dropped to 3 bars absolute, which is slightly higher than its critical pressure. It is supercooled in heat exchange tubes shown diagrammatically at 10 which are immersed in a bath of liquid helium 12 at a pressure very slightly above atmospheric pressure. Cooled in this way to about 4.2° K., it passes along a duct 11 having a rotary bayonet connection disposed in the shaft 4 of the rotor (for example as described in French patent No. 2319233 filed July 22nd, 1975, and in its certificate of addition No. 2371806 in the names of ALSTHOM and Electricite de France) for separating the flow of helium entering the rotor from the flow of heated helium leaving the rotor.

The rotary inlet connection and the rotary outlet connection which is concentric with the inlet connection are represented by a square referenced 13.

From the rotary connection 13, the helium flows along a duct 14 into the vacuum envelope 15 which surrounds the superconducting rotary windings. IT passes through the cooling ducts of the windings and cools them down to about 5° K. thereby heating the supercooled helium before returning via a duct 16 to the second rotary connection surrounding the inlet rotary connection and serving to separate the slightly heated return helium flow (4.5° K.) from the ambient temperature.

After passing through the return rotary connection, the helium passes along a duct 17 at a pressure greater than its critical pressure and then into an expansion valve 18 which reduces its pressure to close to atmospheric pressure, thereby substantially liquefying the helium before returning it to the bath of liquid helium 12. The vapor formed above the bath of liquid helium due to heat exchange with the stator windings and due to gaseous helium at a pressure greater than its critical pressure passing through the heat exchanger 10, is removed via a duct 19 and returned to the compressor of the helium refrigerator.

The stator and rotor assembly is contained in a common envelope 20 carrying bearings 23 for supporting the rotor shaft.

The gap 5 is connected to a vacuum source (not shown) and is separated from the ambient atmosphere by vacuum-resisting oil seals 24. The rotor windings are connected to an electricity feed via conductors 25 and 26. The periphery of the stator adjacent to the gap is provided with a temperature transition and couple transmission tube 27.

Claims (2)

What is claimed is:
1. In a synchronous machine having a rotor fixed to a shaft carried by bearings, and having a stator and rotor windings which are superconducting and which are cooled by very low temperature helium, a gap between the stator and rotor windings with each of the windings and the gap therebetween being located in vacuum enclosures, the improvement comprising a bath of liquid helium for cooling the stator windings and means for cooling the rotor windings by a flow of helium above its critical pressure, said rotor windings cooling means comprising a circuit including; cooling helium under high pressure, means for expanding said high pressure helium slightly above its critical pressure, a heat exchanger disposed in the liquid helium bath for supercooling said expanded helium, means for supplying said supercooled expanded helium to said vacuum enclosure within which said rotor windings are located, wherein said expanded, supercooled helium is heated by contact with the rotor windings, means for liquifying said rotor winding heated helium by further expansion, and means for returning said liquified, further expanded helium to the liquid helium bath.
2. A machine according to claim 1, wherein the stator and rotor windings are disposed in respective sealed vacuum enclosures, and wherein the gap is connected to a vacuum source and is separated from the bearings by vacuum-proof oil seals.
US07206390 1985-10-30 1988-06-14 Synchronous machine having superconductive stator and rotor windings Expired - Fee Related US4816708A (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
FR8516142 1985-10-30
FR8516142A FR2589646B1 (en) 1985-10-30 1985-10-30 synchronous machine stator windings and rotor superconductors

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US92501186 Continuation-In-Part 1986-10-30

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US4816708A true US4816708A (en) 1989-03-28

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ID=9324367

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US07206390 Expired - Fee Related US4816708A (en) 1985-10-30 1988-06-14 Synchronous machine having superconductive stator and rotor windings

Country Status (6)

Country Link
US (1) US4816708A (en)
JP (1) JPS62104473A (en)
DE (1) DE3671585D1 (en)
EP (1) EP0223107B1 (en)
ES (1) ES2014968B3 (en)
FR (1) FR2589646B1 (en)

Cited By (23)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5777420A (en) * 1996-07-16 1998-07-07 American Superconductor Corporation Superconducting synchronous motor construction
WO1999040670A1 (en) * 1998-02-03 1999-08-12 Frank Belitz Electric turbogenerator
WO2000013296A1 (en) * 1998-08-26 2000-03-09 American Superconductor Corporation Superconductor rotor cooling system
EP1261118A1 (en) * 2001-05-15 2002-11-27 General Electric Company Cryogenic cooling system for rotor having a high temperature super-conducting field winding
WO2003009454A2 (en) 2001-07-19 2003-01-30 American Superconductor Corporation Torque transmission assembly for use in superconducting rotating machines
US6532748B1 (en) 2000-11-20 2003-03-18 American Superconductor Corporation Cryogenic refrigerator
US6597082B1 (en) * 2000-08-04 2003-07-22 American Superconductor Corporation HTS superconducting rotating machine
US6725683B1 (en) 2003-03-12 2004-04-27 General Electric Company Cryogenic cooling system for rotor having a high temperature super-conducting field winding
US20080007132A1 (en) * 2006-07-05 2008-01-10 Weeber Konrad R Methods and apparatus for operating an electric machine
US20080136114A1 (en) * 2006-12-07 2008-06-12 Murtuza Lokhandwalla Vacuum seal for high speed generator
US20080197633A1 (en) * 2007-02-15 2008-08-21 General Electric Company Method and apparatus for a superconducting generator driven by wind turbine
US20080218008A1 (en) * 2007-03-08 2008-09-11 General Electric Company Rotor and Stator Assemblies that Utilize Magnetic Bearings for Use in Corrosive Environments
US20080219834A1 (en) * 2007-03-08 2008-09-11 General Electric Company Rotor Shaft Assembly for Magnetic Bearings for Use in Corrosive Environments
US20080218015A1 (en) * 2007-03-08 2008-09-11 General Electric Company Encapsulated stator assembly and process for making
US20090113999A1 (en) * 2007-03-08 2009-05-07 General Electric Company Method for Testing a Rotor and Stator Assembly
US20090229291A1 (en) * 2008-03-11 2009-09-17 American Superconductor Corporation Cooling System in a Rotating Reference Frame
US20110043063A1 (en) * 2007-03-08 2011-02-24 General Electric Company Encapsulated magnet assembly and process for making
US20110049109A1 (en) * 2007-03-08 2011-03-03 General Electric Company Encapsulated magnet assembly and process for making
US20120049531A1 (en) * 2011-06-30 2012-03-01 General Electric Company Method and apparatus for a superconducting direct current generator driven by a wind turbine
US20140020426A1 (en) * 2012-07-17 2014-01-23 General Electric Company System and method for using a chilled fluid to cool an electromechanical machine
WO2015169576A1 (en) * 2014-05-06 2015-11-12 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Cooling device for at least two components to be cooled, rail vehicle and method for cooling
US20160276906A1 (en) * 2015-03-18 2016-09-22 Darrell Morrison Superconducting electrical machine with rotor and stator having separate cryostats
US9559569B2 (en) 2012-02-13 2017-01-31 Ge Aviation Systems Llc Arrangement for cooling an electric machine with a layer of thermally conducting and electrically insulating material

Families Citing this family (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6438969B1 (en) * 2001-07-12 2002-08-27 General Electric Company Cryogenic cooling refrigeration system for rotor having a high temperature super-conducting field winding and method
GB0723149D0 (en) * 2007-11-27 2008-01-02 Rolls Royce Plc A superconducting electrical machine

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US3242418A (en) * 1962-08-31 1966-03-22 Dynatech Corp Low temperature electromechanical transducer
US3781578A (en) * 1972-08-09 1973-12-25 Massachusetts Inst Technology Stator structure for electrical machine
US3816780A (en) * 1972-08-18 1974-06-11 Massachusetts Inst Technology Rotor structure for supercooled field winding
FR2275053A1 (en) * 1974-06-17 1976-01-09 Fiz Energet Inst Synchronous compensator with cryogenic cooling
FR2308234A1 (en) * 1975-04-16 1976-11-12 Cem Comp Electro Mec Rotating machine with high power to weight ratio - includes two superconducting windings and one normal winding
FR2319233A1 (en) * 1975-07-22 1977-02-18 Alsthom Cgee A rotary machine using a cooling fluid fed by rotating joint
FR2371806A2 (en) * 1976-07-14 1978-06-16 Alsthom Atlantique Rotating joint cooling fluid supply system for superconducting motor - uses thermosiphoning effect to circulate coolant in closed circuit
US4176291A (en) * 1977-05-27 1979-11-27 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. Stored field superconducting electrical machine and method
US4236091A (en) * 1978-09-20 1980-11-25 Filippov Iosif F Electrical machine with cryogenic cooling
US4289985A (en) * 1978-12-22 1981-09-15 Popov Jury S Electrical machine with cryogenic cooling
US4309632A (en) * 1978-09-21 1982-01-05 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Electric machine with a rotor with a superconducting field winding
US4365479A (en) * 1979-11-26 1982-12-28 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Coolant replenishing system for superconducting field windings
DE3207061A1 (en) * 1982-02-26 1983-09-08 Siemens Ag Sealing device with a magnetisable sealing fluid
US4426592A (en) * 1982-01-18 1984-01-17 Berzin Evgeny K Electrical machine with superconducting inductor and gas cooling of normal-conductivity windings
US4578962A (en) * 1983-12-06 1986-04-01 Brown, Boveri & Cie Aktiengesellschaft Cooling system for indirectly cooled superconducting magnets
FR2589017A1 (en) * 1985-10-17 1987-04-24 Alsthom synchronous machine has superconducting windings

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JPS50122622A (en) * 1974-03-18 1975-09-26
JPS5925546A (en) * 1982-07-30 1984-02-09 Torao Suzaki Generator, stator-winding resistance thereof can be kept to approximately zero, and uninterruptible power system generator
JPS605769A (en) * 1983-06-20 1985-01-12 Toshiba Corp Superconductive generator

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3242418A (en) * 1962-08-31 1966-03-22 Dynatech Corp Low temperature electromechanical transducer
US3781578A (en) * 1972-08-09 1973-12-25 Massachusetts Inst Technology Stator structure for electrical machine
US3816780A (en) * 1972-08-18 1974-06-11 Massachusetts Inst Technology Rotor structure for supercooled field winding
FR2275053A1 (en) * 1974-06-17 1976-01-09 Fiz Energet Inst Synchronous compensator with cryogenic cooling
US3940643A (en) * 1974-06-17 1976-02-24 Zigurd Karlovich Sika Cryogen-cooled synchronous compensator
FR2308234A1 (en) * 1975-04-16 1976-11-12 Cem Comp Electro Mec Rotating machine with high power to weight ratio - includes two superconducting windings and one normal winding
FR2319233A1 (en) * 1975-07-22 1977-02-18 Alsthom Cgee A rotary machine using a cooling fluid fed by rotating joint
US4101793A (en) * 1975-07-22 1978-07-18 Societe Generale De Constructions Electriques Et Mecaniques Alsthom S.A. Rotating machine using a cooling fluid supplied by a rotating seal
FR2371806A2 (en) * 1976-07-14 1978-06-16 Alsthom Atlantique Rotating joint cooling fluid supply system for superconducting motor - uses thermosiphoning effect to circulate coolant in closed circuit
US4176291A (en) * 1977-05-27 1979-11-27 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. Stored field superconducting electrical machine and method
US4236091A (en) * 1978-09-20 1980-11-25 Filippov Iosif F Electrical machine with cryogenic cooling
US4309632A (en) * 1978-09-21 1982-01-05 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Electric machine with a rotor with a superconducting field winding
US4289985A (en) * 1978-12-22 1981-09-15 Popov Jury S Electrical machine with cryogenic cooling
US4365479A (en) * 1979-11-26 1982-12-28 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Coolant replenishing system for superconducting field windings
US4426592A (en) * 1982-01-18 1984-01-17 Berzin Evgeny K Electrical machine with superconducting inductor and gas cooling of normal-conductivity windings
DE3207061A1 (en) * 1982-02-26 1983-09-08 Siemens Ag Sealing device with a magnetisable sealing fluid
US4578962A (en) * 1983-12-06 1986-04-01 Brown, Boveri & Cie Aktiengesellschaft Cooling system for indirectly cooled superconducting magnets
FR2589017A1 (en) * 1985-10-17 1987-04-24 Alsthom synchronous machine has superconducting windings

Cited By (35)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5777420A (en) * 1996-07-16 1998-07-07 American Superconductor Corporation Superconducting synchronous motor construction
WO1999040670A1 (en) * 1998-02-03 1999-08-12 Frank Belitz Electric turbogenerator
US6812601B2 (en) * 1998-08-26 2004-11-02 American Superconductor Corporation Superconductor rotor cooling system
WO2000013296A1 (en) * 1998-08-26 2000-03-09 American Superconductor Corporation Superconductor rotor cooling system
US6376943B1 (en) * 1998-08-26 2002-04-23 American Superconductor Corporation Superconductor rotor cooling system
US6597082B1 (en) * 2000-08-04 2003-07-22 American Superconductor Corporation HTS superconducting rotating machine
US6532748B1 (en) 2000-11-20 2003-03-18 American Superconductor Corporation Cryogenic refrigerator
EP1261118A1 (en) * 2001-05-15 2002-11-27 General Electric Company Cryogenic cooling system for rotor having a high temperature super-conducting field winding
CN1307775C (en) * 2001-05-15 2007-03-28 通用电气公司 Cooling method for superconductive excitation winding coil of synchronous motor rotor
US6553773B2 (en) 2001-05-15 2003-04-29 General Electric Company Cryogenic cooling system for rotor having a high temperature super-conducting field winding
WO2003009454A2 (en) 2001-07-19 2003-01-30 American Superconductor Corporation Torque transmission assembly for use in superconducting rotating machines
KR100727773B1 (en) * 2001-07-19 2007-06-13 아메리칸 수퍼컨덕터 코포레이션 Torque transmission assembly for use in superconducting rotating machines
EP1407529B1 (en) * 2001-07-19 2011-04-20 American Superconductor Corporation Torque transmission assembly for use in superconducting rotating machines
US6725683B1 (en) 2003-03-12 2004-04-27 General Electric Company Cryogenic cooling system for rotor having a high temperature super-conducting field winding
US7466046B2 (en) * 2006-07-05 2008-12-16 General Electric Company Methods and apparatus for operating an electric machine
US20080007132A1 (en) * 2006-07-05 2008-01-10 Weeber Konrad R Methods and apparatus for operating an electric machine
US20080136114A1 (en) * 2006-12-07 2008-06-12 Murtuza Lokhandwalla Vacuum seal for high speed generator
US7821164B2 (en) 2007-02-15 2010-10-26 General Electric Company Method and apparatus for a superconducting generator driven by wind turbine
US20080197633A1 (en) * 2007-02-15 2008-08-21 General Electric Company Method and apparatus for a superconducting generator driven by wind turbine
US20080218015A1 (en) * 2007-03-08 2008-09-11 General Electric Company Encapsulated stator assembly and process for making
US20090113999A1 (en) * 2007-03-08 2009-05-07 General Electric Company Method for Testing a Rotor and Stator Assembly
US8875380B2 (en) 2007-03-08 2014-11-04 General Electric Company Process of forming an encapsulated magnet assembly
US20080218008A1 (en) * 2007-03-08 2008-09-11 General Electric Company Rotor and Stator Assemblies that Utilize Magnetic Bearings for Use in Corrosive Environments
US20110023288A1 (en) * 2007-03-08 2011-02-03 General Electric Company Encapsulated stator assembly and process for making
US20110043063A1 (en) * 2007-03-08 2011-02-24 General Electric Company Encapsulated magnet assembly and process for making
US20110049109A1 (en) * 2007-03-08 2011-03-03 General Electric Company Encapsulated magnet assembly and process for making
US20080219834A1 (en) * 2007-03-08 2008-09-11 General Electric Company Rotor Shaft Assembly for Magnetic Bearings for Use in Corrosive Environments
US8847450B2 (en) 2007-03-08 2014-09-30 General Electric Company Encapsulated magnet assembly and process for making
US20090229291A1 (en) * 2008-03-11 2009-09-17 American Superconductor Corporation Cooling System in a Rotating Reference Frame
US8338979B2 (en) * 2011-06-30 2012-12-25 General Electric Company Method and apparatus for a superconducting direct current generator driven by a wind turbine
US20120049531A1 (en) * 2011-06-30 2012-03-01 General Electric Company Method and apparatus for a superconducting direct current generator driven by a wind turbine
US9559569B2 (en) 2012-02-13 2017-01-31 Ge Aviation Systems Llc Arrangement for cooling an electric machine with a layer of thermally conducting and electrically insulating material
US20140020426A1 (en) * 2012-07-17 2014-01-23 General Electric Company System and method for using a chilled fluid to cool an electromechanical machine
WO2015169576A1 (en) * 2014-05-06 2015-11-12 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Cooling device for at least two components to be cooled, rail vehicle and method for cooling
US20160276906A1 (en) * 2015-03-18 2016-09-22 Darrell Morrison Superconducting electrical machine with rotor and stator having separate cryostats

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
JPS62104473A (en) 1987-05-14 application
EP0223107A1 (en) 1987-05-27 application
EP0223107B1 (en) 1990-05-23 grant
DE3671585D1 (en) 1990-06-28 grant
FR2589646A1 (en) 1987-05-07 application
ES2014968B3 (en) 1990-08-01 grant
FR2589646B1 (en) 1987-12-11 grant

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