US4812607A - Compensation for improved continuous transformer and motor - Google Patents

Compensation for improved continuous transformer and motor Download PDF

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US4812607A
US4812607A US07/092,074 US9207487A US4812607A US 4812607 A US4812607 A US 4812607A US 9207487 A US9207487 A US 9207487A US 4812607 A US4812607 A US 4812607A
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winding
flux
source
compensating
voltage
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US07/092,074
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Jeffrey K. Cornell
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Amana Refrigeration Inc
MICROWAVE PRODUCTS OF AMERICA Inc
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MICROWAVE PRODUCTS OF AMERICA Inc
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Priority to US07/092,074 priority patent/US4812607A/en
Assigned to LITTON SYSTEMS, INC., 360 NORTH CRESCENT DRIVE, BEVERLY HILLS, CALIFORNIA 90210 A CORP. OF DE. reassignment LITTON SYSTEMS, INC., 360 NORTH CRESCENT DRIVE, BEVERLY HILLS, CALIFORNIA 90210 A CORP. OF DE. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST. Assignors: CORNELL, JEFFREY K.
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Assigned to AMANA REFRIGERATION INC. reassignment AMANA REFRIGERATION INC. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: LITTON SYSTEMS, INC., A CORP. OF DE AND ITS WHOLLY-OWNED DIRECT AND INDIRECT SUBSIDIARIES AMERICAN COOKING PRODUCTS INC. AND MENUMASTER, INC., MENUMASTER INC., A CORP OF NV
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B6/00Heating by electric, magnetic, or electromagnetic fields
    • H05B6/64Heating using microwaves
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01FMAGNETS; INDUCTANCES; TRANSFORMERS; SELECTION OF MATERIALS FOR THEIR MAGNETIC PROPERTIES
    • H01F30/00Fixed transformers not covered by group H01F19/00
    • H01F30/06Fixed transformers not covered by group H01F19/00 characterised by the structure
    • H01F30/10Single-phase transformers
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02KDYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINES
    • H02K17/00Asynchronous induction motors; Asynchronous induction generators
    • H02K17/02Asynchronous induction motors
    • H02K17/30Structural association of asynchronous induction motors with auxiliary electric devices influencing the characteristics of the motor or controlling the motor, e.g. with impedances or switches

Abstract

A combined transformer and motor is disclosed having a continuously energized primary winding producing a continuous output voltage from a transformer winding and a selectively enabled motor shaft rotational output which is selectively actuated by powering a further winding, along with compensation means to stabilize the continuous output voltage in view of the selective actuation of the further winding.

Description

This is a continuation-in-part of copending application Ser. No. 068,243 now U.S. Pat. No. 4,757,171, for an Improved Continuous Transformer and Motor filed June 30, 1987 which is a continuation-in-part of copending application Ser. No. 860,632 now pending for a Continuous Transformer and Motor, filed May 7, 1986.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to compensation for a combined motor and transformer structure which offers space and cost savings and other advantages over the use of separate step down transformers and conventional motors used in combination in certain applications. More particularly, it relates to compensation for a continuous stepped down voltage output for driving oven controls and displays from a combined transformer and switchable motor.

Conventional microwave ovens have traditionally utilized both conventional and separate step down transformers and conventional AC motors to provide a stepped down voltage and power for a fan. Because fairly large stacks of laminations and associated windings are necessary to accomplish their respective functions, the multiplicity of windings and laminations results in increased cost and weight in devices requiring both a motor and a continuous output transformer.

Although there have been combined motor and transformer structures in the prior art, none of the structures known permit the continuous supply of output voltage from the transformer independent of whether the motor is either running or stopped. In those structures, the transformer secondary winding was typically wound over the motor winding so that the secondary transformer winding would only carry a voltage at times when the motor was in operation.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

A primary object of the invention is to provide compensation for the continuous electrical output from a combined transformer and intermittently operable motor.

A further object of the invention is to provide a transmotor having a compensated output voltage proportional to an input voltage while providing a selectively driven rotatable shaft, the transmotor having a magnetic flux conducting structure with first and second flux conducting paths therethrough and also having a first winding operatively coupled to the first flux conducting path of the flux conducting structure and continuously connected to a source of input voltage for inducing flux in the first flux conducting path of the magnetic flux conducting structure. The transmotor also has a second winding operatively coupled to the second flux conducting path selectively connectable to the source of input voltage to induce flux therein, and third winding operatively coupled to receive flux from either the first or second flux conducting path to produce an output voltage. The transmotor further includes a motor rotor mounted on the flux conducting structure for receiving flux conducted in the first and second flux conducting paths, the rotor constructed and arranged for rotation when the second winding is connected to a source of input voltage and for remaining stationary when the second winding is not connected to a source of input voltage. The transmotor further has a compensation means operatively coupled to the flux conducting path providing flux to the third winding and arranged to reduce the effect of switching the second winding on the output voltage produced by the third winding.

A further object of the invention is to provide a transformer which includes a magnetic flux conducting structure having transformer and auxiliary flux conducting paths therethrough, a transformer primary winding operatively coupled to the transformer flux conducting path of the flux conducting structure and continuously connected to a source of input voltage for inducing flux in the transformer flux conducting path of the magnetic flux conducting structure. The transformer also includes a transformer secondary winding operatively coupled to the transformer flux conducting path to produce a continuous output voltage, and an electromechanical rotor mounted on the flux conducting structure for converting flux into mechanical motion when energized by flux in the transformer and the auxiliary flux conducting paths and for remaining passive when flux is received only from the transformer flux conducting path. The transformer also includes an auxiliary winding operatively coupled to the auxiliary flux conducting path and selectively connectable to a source of input voltage to thereby induce flux therein to energize the electromechanical means. The transformer also includes a compensating means coupled to the transformer flux conducting path of the flux conducting structure. The compensation means connected to the source of input voltage and is arranged to reduce variations in the output voltage of the secondary winding as the auxiliary winding is connected and disconnected to the source of input voltage.

Yet another object of the invention is to provide a motor comprising a stator having first and second flux conducting paths therein and including a first stator winding operatively coupled to the first flux conducting path and continuously connectable to a power source for inducing flux in the first flux conducting path. The motor also includes a second stator winding operatively coupled to the second flux conducting path of the stator means and selectively connectable to the power source for inducing flux in the second flux conducting path, and also includes secondary winding operatively coupled to one of the first and second flux conducting paths to produce a continuous output voltage. The motor rotor is operatively mounted for rotation relative to the stator and is constructed and arranged for receiving flux conducted in the first and second flux conducting paths, the motor rotor constructed and arranged for rotation when the second stator winding is connected to a power source and for remaining stationary when the second stator winding is not connected to the power source. The motor also includes a compensation means for controlling flux in that portion of the stator which carries flux through the secondary winding. In one embodiment, the compensating winding is continuously connected to the source of input voltage and adapted to reduce changes in the continuous output voltage of the secondary winding caused by connected and disconnecting the second stator winding.

A still further object of the invention is to provide in an oven including operating elements which are continuously energized from a transformer having a voltage proportional to the line voltage and a movable element operated only when the oven is operated, a combined actuator and transformer device. The device includes a magnetic flux conducting structure having first and second flux conducting paths therethrough, a first winding operatively coupled to the first flux conducting path of the flux conducting structure and continuously connected to a source of line voltage for inducing flux in the first flux conducting path of the magnetic flux conducting structure, a second winding operatively coupled to the second flux conducting path and selectively connectable to the source of input voltage to thereby induce flux therein, a third winding operatively coupled to the first flux conducting path to produce a continuous output voltage proportional to the magnitude of the line voltage, and a movable element mounted on the flux conducting structure for receiving flux conducted in the first and second flux conducting paths. The movable element is constructed and arranged for movement when the second winding is connected to a source of line voltage as the oven is operated and for remaining stationary when the second winding is not connected to a source of line voltage. The device also includes means for compensating the output voltage operatively connected to the first flux conducting path. In one embodiment a fourth winding is continuously connected to the source of input voltage to reduce variations in the output voltage of the third winding as the second winding is connected and disconnected. The device also includes a switch to selectively energize the second winding.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

In the drawings:

FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a transmotor according to the present invention;

FIG. 2 is a front elevation view of a microwave oven partially cut away to show a transmotor in its general position of use;

FIG. 3 is a top view of the transmotor of FIG. 1;

FIG. 4 is a view of the bobbin upon which two electrical windings may be wound;

FIG. 5 is a simplified schematic diagram of the electrical connections of the transmotor of FIG. 1 installed in the microwave oven shown in FIG. 2;

FIGS. 6 and 7 are a top view of an alternative embodiment of the transmotor utilizing a booster winding to improve output voltage regulation;

FIG. 8 is a top view of an alternative embodiment of the transmotor utilizing apertures in the laminations to improve voltage regulation;

FIG. 9 is a top view of an alternative embodiment of the transmotor utilizing modified shading pole positioning to improve voltage regulation;

FIG. 10 is a top view of an alternative embodiment of the transmotor utilizing a tapped winding as compensation to improve output voltage regulation;

FIG. 11 is a top view of an alternative embodiment of the transmotor utilizing slots in the laminations adjacent the rotor to improve output voltage regulation; and

FIG. 12 is a top view of an alternative embodiment of the transmotor utilizing shorting coils to link apertures through the laminations.

FIG. 13 is a top view of an alternative embodiment of the transmotor utilizing a bucking winding to improve output voltage regulation.

FIG. 14 is a top view of an alternative embodiment using a boosting compensating winding and having a switch, with the switch open, disabling mechanical motion.

FIG. 15 is a top view of the embodiment of FIG. 14 with the switch closed, enabling mechanical motion.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

Turning now to FIG. 1, a perspective view of a combined transformer and motor or transmotor 10 is shown. Transmotor 10 drives a movable element such as a fan blade 12. As can be seen in FIG. 1, fan blade 12 is mounted on the projecting shaft 13 from an electromechanical means or motor rotor 14 in a conventional manner.

Transmotor 10 includes a stack of iron laminations 16. The iron laminations 16 serve both as the magnetic flux carrying stator for the motor portions of transmotor 10 and also as the transformer flux conducting path for the transformer portions of transmotor 10 as will be discussed.

FIG. 2 shows an oven 20 in which transmotor 10 is shown installed in a normal position of use. By means of the movable element or rotor 14, transmotor 10 drives an air circulating fan 12 which is used to cool a microwave magnetron and to circulate air in the cooking cavity in a manner conventional to microwave ovens. In FIG. 2, operating elements such as displays 22 and switches 24 are shown. In many popular microwave ovens, these switches take the form of flexible switches which operate utilizing a reduced voltage. In order to avoid the necessity of providing a separate power switch to permit energization of the oven controls 24, the controls are continuously energized with a stepped down line voltage whenever the power plug 28 is connected into a source of line voltage.

In a microwave oven, it is not considered to be desirable to operate the air circulating and cooling fan 12 on a continuous basis. The constant consumption of power and the wear occasioned by continuous operation of the motor would both be considered to be detrimental. In addition to the reduced motor life occasioned by continuous operation, the sound of the fan operating on a continuous basis would be perceived by the consumer to be a detrimental factor. For all of these reasons, the fan is only operated when the oven is in operation. In order to provide for a motor that can be turned on and off and a constant source of stepped down voltage, conventional microwave ovens provide separate step down transformers and ventilation motors. The combined transformer and motor or transmotor 10 of the present invention combines both functions in a single and compact structure.

The physical constructional details of transmotor 10 are shown in FIG. 3. A primary winding 30 is wound about one leg 32 of a combined motor stator and transformer magnetic flux conducting structure 16. In order to facilitate the construction of the device, magnetic flux conducting structure 16 is formed into two main sections. A first section 34 is roughly E-shaped with a vertical section 35 as shown in FIG. 3 with leftwardly projecting legs 32, 38 at the top and bottom and a central leg 40 projecting through the middle of the first section and having a aperture 42 therein for receiving the motor rotor 14.

An interfitting cap or bridging piece 44 forms the left side of the flux conducting structure 16 as viewed in FIG. 3. The flux carrying structure 16 thus has a pair of magnetic flux conducting paths labeled A and B on FIG. 3. The flux conducting path A passes through leg 32 under a motor drive winding 70 along the upper portion of vertical section 35 of the flux conducting structure through the central leg 40 and back up along the top portion of the cap or bridging piece 44 and back again to leg 32. Other flux conducting path B follows the leftwardly projecting bottom leg portion 38 and thence upwardly along the lower portion of vertical section 35 of the first or E-shaped portion 34 of the lamination stack 16 and thence along the central leg 40 and then downwardly through the lower portion of the interfitting bridging piece 44 and back into the leftwardly projecting bottom leg. Of course, the direction of flux flow in the above description is arbitrary since it is realized that flux can move in either direction, depending upon the nature of the electrical field which excites the flux flow in the flux conducting path through the laminations.

It can be seen in FIG. 3 that both flux conducting paths A and B which pass through central leg 40, also will pass through the body of rotor 14 if it is of suitable permeability.

It will be recognized that the structure shown in FIG. 3 is suitable for driving rotor 14 as a shaded pole motor if shading coils 46 and 48 are provided as shown in FIG. 3 to delay the build-up of induced flux in their region of the stator structure of central leg 40 in order to produce a shifting flux in the air gap between central leg 40 and rotor 14. The flux in the air gap always shifts toward the shading coil.

As can be seen in FIG. 3, the flux in flux path B is established by winding 30 which is referred to herein as the first winding or the transformer primary winding or the first stator winding. If that is the only winding which is being driven by an AC voltage connected to leads 50 and 52, the flux has a third possible flux path, indicated as C on FIG. 3, through leg 38, vertical leg 35, top leg 32 and returning through the end piece 44. Because of the low permeability of the air gap between central leg 40 and rotor 14 and the low permeability due to the very narrow paths around rotor 14, most of the flux, when the primary winding 30 is the only energized winding, will be directed in the outer path C. The motor will, therefore, not rotate when only primary winding 30 is being driven.

In order to obtain a stepped down continuous output voltage, a transformer secondary winding 60 is wound about the leftwardly projecting bottom leg portion 38 of the lamination stack 16. It can be seen that, when primary winding 30 is continually energized by having voltage applied to conductors 50 and 52, the flux passing through the bottom leg portion 38 is continuous and will provide a constant voltage at terminals 62 and 64 of transformer secondary winding 60. As shown, a center tap 66 may also be brought out from transformer secondary winding 60.

Motor drive winding 70 is mounted on upper leg portion 32. When that winding is connected to the AC supply and oriented to induce flux in flux path A having an instantaneous orientation relative to the flux in flux path B as shown in FIG. 3, rotor 14 will operate as a motor. In accordance with my invention, transmotor 10 will not operate as a motor when winding 30 alone is energized because the flux through the motor rotor 14 is too small when only that winding is energized.

Leads 50, 52 and 115A, 115B are connected to the AC power supply such that the flux in paths A and B oppose each other in the outer flux path C and are added to each other in the path through rotor 14. It can also be seen that the relative amount of flux circulating in flux path B in projecting leg portion 38 remains generally constant whether primary winding 30 alone or primary winding 30 and winding 70 are both energized. Thus, the voltage on secondary transformer winding 60 is relatively unaffected by whether or not transmotor 10 is operating to drive fan 12 or not.

Although the embodiment of transmotor 10 shown in FIG. 3 is suitable for many applications, there will be some applications where it is desirable or necessary to maintain the output of the step down transformer more nearly constant whether or not the motor is being operated. In the embodiment shown in FIG. 3, there is a decrease in the amount of flux coupled to the transformer secondary winding when the motor is operated by energizing the further motor winding.

One technique which has been found to be suitable for increasing the regulation of the transformer for both conditions of motor operation is to wind a compensation winding 72 on the leg of the laminated structure upon which the transformer winding is mounted. The "booster" winding 72 is energized when the motor energizing winding 70 is operated to compensate for the reduced flux coupled to the transformer secondary 60 when the motor is being driven.

There are, of course, several alternatives available for actuating booster winding 72. In the arrangement shown in FIG. 6, the booster winding 72 is enabled by connecting it in parallel with the motor energizing winding 70 so that both windings are actuated at the same time by switch 71 only when it is desired to actuate the motor.

Another alternative method of energizing the booster winding is the relay switching structure illustrated in FIG. 7. One set of relay contacts 73 is used to enable the motor coil 70, while another set of contacts 75 energized by the same solenoid 77 is used to power booster coil 72 only when motor drive coil 70 is enabled by closing switch 78.

A further alternative for increasing the regulation of the transformer output for both conditions of operation of the motor is by lowering the amount of flux in the laminated structure when the device is operated solely as a transformer. One of the ways that this can be accomplished is by the addition of a number of holes 74 as shown in FIG. 8. The holes are drilled through the laminated structure 16 in the transformer portion thereof to improve the transformer regulation. Although additional switching circuitry is not required, as was the case with the embodiments in FIGS. 6 and 7, the power efficiency of the motor is reduced when the amount of iron in the transformer flux path is reduced.

A still further alternative embodiment is the provision of a modified shading coil geometry as shown in FIG. 9. Addition of further shading coils 81, which constrict the flow of flux through the motor rotor portion of the flux path, and the removal of shading coils 46 will increase the regulation of voltage on the transformer secondary 60. Alternatively, shading coils 46 can be left in their normal position and additional shorting coils 87 inserted in apertures 89 in the laminations 16 as shown in FIG. 12. Coils 87 reduce the relative flux in the transformer portion of the device without adversely affecting motor operation. Again, the increased regulation is obtained at the cost of increasing the amount of power required to drive the motor and transformer to produce a particular output.

In FIG. 10, transformer primary winding 30 is shown in a tapped configuration to provide compensation of the voltage on secondary winding 60 as motor 10 is operated. During periods when rotor 14 is not operated, relay 77 is in the condition shown in FIG. 10 and winding 30 is driven across its two end terminals 50 and 52. When switch 78 is closed, motor 10 is energized by applying power to winding 70 through contacts 73 and by switching the power to winding 30 from end terminal 52 to intermediate tap 83 by moving relay wiper 75. In one embodiment of the invention, winding 30 has 1800 turns of No. 39 wire with tap 83 at 200 turns. When the rotor is driven by energizing winding 70, the flux in path B is increased by increasing the number of ampere turns. In the embodiment, the number of ampere turns is actually increased by connecting the AC power across the 1600 turn coil by energizing tap 83, rather than the end terminal 52.

In the embodiment shown in FIG. 10, winding 30 has a high impedance when rotor 14 is not moving and the power drain and heat emission are reduced. Additionally, this configuration, because it has low flux in the transformer mode, has no torque through rotor 14 which would tend to allow the rotor to slowly rotate.

FIG. 11 shows still another embodiment of transmotor 10 where the amount of iron is reduced by providing slots or notches 88 in the laminations 16 in the vicinity of rotor 14.

It is also possible to energize winding 70 continuously while using winding 60 as the transformer secondary winding. In such an alternative embodiment, as shown in FIG. 5, all of the flux induced in leg 32 of the laminated structure does not flow in leg 38 because of the leakage through leg 40, and the transformer efficiency is therefore reduced.

In order to facilitate construction of the transmotor 10, the winding 70 is placed on a bobbin structure 80 which is then slid into place on leg 32 at the time of construction, while windings 30 and 60 which couple to flux in leg 38 are wound on a bobbin 90 which includes a central divider wall 92 to separate the windings 30 and 60 and facilitate their manufacture and the assembly of transmotor 10. After those windings are placed on bobbin 90, it can be slid over leg 38. After bobbins 80 and 90 are installed on E-shaped lamination portion 34, the cap portion 44 can be applied and the structure completed. The rear bearing supports for rotor 14 are conventional and held in place by a motor journal 96 which is bolted to lamination portion 34 utilizing bolts 98 and 100.

In the preferred embodiment shown, the E-shaped portion 34 of the laminated structure 16 has a projection 101 on central leg 40 in order to permit motor journal 96 to be mounted with both bolts 98 and 100 being affixed to the same lamination piece. By mounting motor rotor 14 on a unitary laminated structure 34, possible problems with the alignment of motor rotor 14 are eliminated. Other geometric arrangements of the laminations are, of course, possible while still providing the substantial operating advantage of mounting both sides of the rotor bearing support structure on the same piece of a two piece lamination structure. It would similarly not be suitable to utilize a lamination structure where the two pieces of the structure are joined together in the center leg 40 of the lamination structure because substantial undesired variations in the permeability of the path through that segment could occur through manufacturing variation.

Referring now to FIG. 13, a simplified view of the magnetic flux conducting structure 67 may be seen. It is to be understood that structure 67 corresponds to structure 16 and that certain mechanical and electrical details of structure 16 as have been previously described have been omitted from structure 67 only for clarity in depicting the magnetic operation. A fourth winding 68 is preferably wound in phase with the selectively connectable winding 69 such that flux induced in structure 67 by winding 68 is in aid of flux induced by winding 69. The flux induced by winding 68 is shown (in a greatly simplified form) as dot-dashed line 79. The flux induced by winding 69 is (in a greatly simplified form) as a dashed line 107. Dotted line 102 shows (in a greatly simplified form) the flux induced by first winding or primary winding or first stator winding 103 when switch 104 is open (and winding 69 is de-energized) and dashed line 105 illustrates (in a simplified form) the path of flux from winding 103 when winding 69 is energized from a source of voltage, preferably connected to lines 76, 108. The winding 111 continuously provides an output voltage and preferably may comprise more than one winding, one or more of which may be tapped in a conventional manner as is well known.

It is to be understood that winding 68 is preferably sized to provide as much flux as possible without causing mechanical movement of the motor rotor or other movable element. Winding 69 may then be sized to provide as little flux as is necessary to reliably cause the desired mechanical movement by "switching" or steering flux from path 102 to path 105. Winding 68 may be formed as a tapped connection with winding 69. A first end 82 and a tap connection 84 are continuously connected to a source of input voltage in series with winding 103. A second end 86 is selectively connected to the source of input voltage through switch 104.

Referring now to FIGS. 14 and 15, a still further alternative embodiment of transmotor 10 may be seen. This embodiment is similar to that of FIG. 13 but with first or transformer primary winding or first stator winding 103 wound on leg 38 of stator or magnetic flux conducting structure 67 in the opposite sense. Fourth or compensating winding 68 is preferably wound on leg 32 to encircle the portion of structure 67 encircled by second winding 69 and wound in a sense to provide magnetic flux of the opposite phase or polarity as winding 69. Winding 68 is connected to a source of in voltage, preferably in series through first winding 103. Fourth winding 68 is believed to compensate out the changes in the output voltage of third winding 121 which would otherwise occur in response to switching of winding 69 by holding the magnetic flux relatively stable in the portion 38 of structure 67 around which winding 121 is located. With switch 104 open as in FIG. 14, flux in path 122 bypasses rotor 14 and provides flux to transformer secondary winding 121; the fourth or compensating winding 68 aids or boosts flux in path 122 around movable electromechanical element 14. Auxiliary winding or second winding or second stator winding 69 is not energized with switch 104 open. Third or secondary or output winding 121 is continuously powered by first winding 103.

In this embodiment winding 68 is preferably made up of 135 turns of 30 AWG wire, winding 69 is made up of 1625 turns of 30 AWG wire and winding 103 is made up of 1750 turns of 31 AWG wire. It is to be understood that other turns ratios and wire sizes may be suitable for other applications within the scope of this invention.

In this embodiment, with the source of input voltage across lines 76, 108 at 120 VAC, 60 Hz, 133.5 V(RMS) has been observed across winding 103 with 6.5 V(RMS) across winding 68. Winding 69 is disconnected from the source of input voltage.

Referring now most particularly to FIG. 15, with switch 104 closed to connect winding 69 to the source of input voltage at lines 76, 108, flux in path 124 is provided by winding 69, overcoming that portion of flux in path 122 provided by winding 68 and opposing the flux provided by winding 103 which now is caused to follow path 126. With 120 VAC (RMS) across leads 76 and 108 and therefore winding 69, 128 V (RMS) has been observed across winding 103 an 8.7 V (RMS) has been observed to be induced across winding 68 by second winding 69 when energized. It is to be understood that in this embodiment the voltage across the fourth winding 68 reverses phase when the second winding 69 is connected and disconnected. Notwithstanding the flux paths shown in FIGS. 14 and 15, this embodiment has been found to provide improved voltage regulation at secondary win In FIGS. 14 and 15 there is a tap connection 129 in second winding 69 intermediate first end 129 and second end 131. In this embodiment, first end 129 is selectively connectable through switch 104 to the line voltage at line 108, while second end 131 is continuously connected to line voltage at line 108 through a series connection in winding 103. Tap connection 128 provides a common return for portions 68 and 69 of this winding.

FIG. 5 shows in simplified schematic form the various connections for utilizing one of the alternative embodiments of transmotor 10 in a typical microwave oven 20. The power plug 28 provides AC power to winding 70 as a primary winding for the motor and transformer 10. When only winding 70 is energized, fan 12 does not rotate because there is insufficient flux driving across the central leg 40 to drive rotor 14. The voltage from secondary winding 60 is used to drive the light for clock 22, as well as control panel 24 through conductors 62 and 64. Winding 30 can be energized from control panel 24 when the microwave oven 20 is in operation. Line voltage on conductors 115a, 115b provides a current phased to oppose the flux induced in the lower leg 38 by winding 30 and provides that flux from both windings 30 and 70 flows through the central structure 40 to provide the flux to drive shaded rotor 14 as a motor without substantially influencing the flux and hence the induced voltage.

This specification describes a preferred embodiment of my invention. The invention claimed in the claims as forth below is not to be taken as limited to all of the details described above. Modifications and variations of the structures shown may be made without departing from the spirit or scope of the invention. For example, the secondary winding 60 (or 111 or 121) may be placed on leg 32 instead of leg 38 if desired and if flux reversal upon switching winding 70 (or 69) is not of consequence. Furthermore, it may be desirable in some applications to emphasize the variation in voltage appearing across winding 111 (as in FIG. 13), for example, to provide a detectable but isolated voltage level change to indicate switching of winding 69.

In addition it is within the scope of this invention to "over compensate" the output of the secondary winding 121 in contemplation of a typical application where a microwave oven or other appliance is supplied from a power line having some voltage drop when the appliance or oven (and motor rotor 14) is turned on. In such a case the secondary output is preferably compensated or boosted more than if the line voltage were to remain constant between appliance off and on conditions.

Claims (45)

What is claimed is:
1. A transmotor for providing an output voltage proportional to an input voltage and for providing a selectively driven rotatable shaft, said transmotor comprising, in combination:
(a) a magnetic flux conducting structure having first and second flux conducting paths therethrough;
(b) a first winding operatively coupled to the first flux conducting path of the flux conducting structure and continuously connected to a source of input voltage for inducing flux in the first flux conducting path of the magnetic flux conducting structure;
(c) a second winding operatively coupled to the second flux conducting path and selectively connectable to the source of input voltage to thereby induce flux therein;
(d) a third winding operatively coupled to receive flux from either the first or the second flux conducting path to produce an output voltage;
(e) a motor rotor mounted on the flux conducting structure for receiving flux conducted in the first and second flux conducting paths, said rotor constructed and arranged for rotation when the second winding is connected to a source of input voltage and for remaining stationary when the second winding is not connected to a source of input voltage; and
(f) compensating winding means wound in a sense to provide flux opposite in polarity to the second winding for reducing changes in the flux in that portion of the flux conducting structure encircled by the third winding.
2. The transmotor of claim 1 wherein the compensating winding means comprises means for maintaining the flux relatively constant in the portion of the flux conducting structure encircled by the third winding.
3. The transmotor of claim 1 wherein the compensating winding means is connected continuously to a source of input voltage.
4. The transmotor of claim 1 wherein the compensating winding means is connected to a source of input voltage only when the second winding is connected to the source of input voltage.
5. The transmotor of claim 1 wherein the compensating winding means further comprises a tap connection to the second winding intermediate the first and second ends of the winding, the first end and tap connection selectively connectable to the source of input voltage for selectively controlling rotation of the motor rotor and the tap connection and second end of the winding continuously connected to a source of input voltage for compensating the output voltage across the third winding.
6. The transmotor of claim 1 wherein the compensating winding means comprises a tap connection to the first winding intermediate the first and second ends of the winding, the first and second ends of the winding connected to the source of input voltage when the motor rotor is not rotated and the tap connection and the first end of the winding connected to the source of input voltage when the second winding is connected to the source of input voltage.
7. The transmotor of claim 6 wherein the flux in the first flux conducting path is increased when the motor rotor is rotated.
8. The transmotor of claim 1 wherein the compensating winding means comprises a fourth winding
(i) encircling that portion of the magnetic flux conducting structure encircled by the second winding, and
(ii) connected to a source of input voltage.
9. The transmotor of claim 8 wherein the fourth winding is connected in series relationship with the first winding.
10. The transmotor of claim 8 wherein a voltage is induced in the fourth winding by the second winding when the second winding is energized.
11. The transmotor of claim 8 wherein the voltage across the fourth winding reverses phase when the second winding is connected and disconnected.
12. A transformer comprising:
(a) a magnetic flux conducting structure having transformer and auxiliary flux conducting paths therethrough;
(b) transformer primary winding means operatively coupled to the transformer flux conducting path of the flux conducting structure and continuously connected to a source of input voltage for inducing flux in the transformer flux conducting path of the magnetic flux conducting structure;
(c) transformer secondary winding means operatively coupled to the transformer flux conducting path to produce a continuous output voltage;
(d) electromechanical means mounted on the flux conducting structure for converting flux into mechanical motion when energized by flux in the transformer and the auxiliary flux conducting paths and for remaining quiescent when flux is present only in the transformer flux conducting path;
(e) auxiliary winding means operatively coupled to the auxiliary flux conducting path an selectively connectable to a source of input voltage to induce flux therein to energize the electromechanical means; and
(f) compensating winding means operatively coupled to the transformer flux conducting path of the flux conducting structure and connected to a source of input voltage for reducing changes in the output voltage of the transformer secondary means as the auxiliary winding means is connected and disconnected to a source of input voltage wherein the compensating means provides flux of opposite polarity to the flux provided by the auxiliary winding means.
13. The transformer of claim 12 wherein the compensating winding means comprises means for maintaining the flux relatively constant in the portion of the magnetic flux conducting structure passing through the transformer secondary winding means.
14. The transformer of claim 12 further comprising winding a series connection between the transformer primary winding means and the compensating means.
15. The transformer of claim 12 wherein the compensating winding means is connected continuously to the source of input voltage.
16. The transformer of claim 12 wherein the compensating winding means is connected to the source of input voltage only when the auxiliary winding means is connected to the source of input voltage.
17. The transformer of claim 12 wherein the compensating winding means comprises a tap connection to the transformer primary winding intermediate the first and second ends of the winding, the first and second ends of the winding connected to the source of input voltage when the electromechanical means is not moving and the tap connection and the first end of the winding connected to the source of input voltage when the auxiliary winding is energized.
18. The transformer of claim 12 wherein the compensating winding means further comprises a tap connection to the auxiliary winding intermediate the first and second ends of the winding, the first end and tap connection selectively connectable to a source of input voltage for selectively causing mechanical motion of the electromechanical means and the tap connection and the second end of the winding continuously connected to a source of input voltage.
19. A motor comprising:
(a) stator means having first and second flux conducting paths therein;
(b) first stator winding means operatively coupled to the first flux conducting path and continuously connected to a power source for inducing flux in the first flux conducting path;
(c) second stator winding means operatively coupled to the second flux conducting path of the stator means and selectively connectable to the power source for selectively inducing flux in the second flux conducting path;
(d) secondary winding means operatively coupled to one of the first and second flux conducting paths to produce a continuous output voltage;
(e) rotor means operatively mounted for rotation relative to the stator means and constructed and arranged for receiving flux conducted in the first and second flux conducting paths, said rotor means constructed and arranged for rotation when the second stator winding is connected to a power source and for remaining stationary when the second stator winding is not connected to the power source; and
(f) compensating winding means for reducing changes in the flux in that portion of the stator means carrying flux through the secondary winding means as the second stator winding means is connected and disconnected to the power source, and
wherein the flux provided by the compensating winding means is opposite in phase to the flux provided by the second stator winding means.
20. The motor of claim 19 wherein the compensating winding means comprises means for maintaining magnetic flux relatively constant in the portion of the stator means carrying flux through the secondary winding means.
21. The motor of claim 19 wherein the compensating winding means further comprises a compensation winding encircling the second flux conducting path and operatively coupled to the flux conducting path providing flux to the secondary winding.
22. The motor of claim 21 wherein the compensating winding means is connected to a power source through the first stator winding means.
23. The motor of claim 19 wherein the compensating winding means comprises a tap connection to the first stator winding means intermediate a first and a second end of the first stator winding, the first and second ends of the winding connected to a power source when the rotor means is not rotated and the tap connection and the first end of the winding connected to a power source when the second winding is connected to a power source to increase the flux induced by the first stator winding means when the rotor means is rotated.
24. The motor of claim 19 wherein the compensating winding means comprises a tap connection to the second stator winding means intermediate a first and a second end of the winding, the first end selectively connectable to a power source when the rotor means is not rotated and the second end of the winding connected to a power source when the first stator winding means is connected to a power source.
25. The motor of claim 24 wherein the tap connection comprises a common return to the power source from both the second stator winding means and the compensating winding means.
26. The motor of claim 19 wherein the compensating winding means comprises means for reducing changes in the voltage appearing across the secondary winding means as the second stator winding means is connected and disconnected.
27. The motor of claim 19 further comprising a series connection between the first stator winding means and the compensating winding means.
28. The motor of claim 19 wherein energization the second stator winding means induces a voltage in the compensating winding means opposite in phase to that appearing across the compensating means while the second stator winding means is de-energized.
29. The motor of claim 19 wherein the compensating winding means is continuously connected to the source of input voltage.
30. The motor of claim 19 wherein the compensating means is connected to the source of input voltage only when the second stator winding means is connected to the source of input voltage.
31. In a shaded pole electric motor having a magnetic flux conducting structure and a first winding wound on the structure to induce a flux in a first path in the magnetic flux conducting structure in accordance with the excitation thereof, and a rotor rotatably supported in the structure, the improvement comprising:
(a) a second path in the magnetic flux conducting structure;
(b) a second winding operatively coupled to the flux conducting structure and selectively connectable to a voltage source for inducing flux in the second path in the magnetic flux conducting structure;
(c) an output winding operatively coupled to the flux conducting structure to produce a voltage while the first winding is energized; and
(d) compensating winding means operatively coupled to the flux conducting structure and connected to a voltage source for reducing the changes in the voltage produced by the output winding as the second winding is selectively connected to the voltage source wherein the compensating winding means provides flux opposite in phase to the flux provided by the second winding and
wherein the rotor mounted on the flux conducting structure receives flux sufficient for rotation from the first and second paths only when the second winding is connected to the voltage source.
32. The improvement of claim 31 wherein the compensating winding means holds the magnetic flux relatively stable in the portion of the magnetic flux conducting structure around which the output winding is located.
33. The improvement of claim 31 wherein the compensating winding means is continuously connected to a voltage source.
34. The improvement of claim 31 wherein the compensating winding means is connected to a voltage source only when the second winding is connected to a voltage source.
35. The improvement of claim 31 wherein the compensating winding means further comprises a tap connection to the first winding intermediate first and second ends of the winding, the winding between the first and second ends of the first winding connected to a voltage source when the second winding is not connected to a voltage source and the winding portion between the tap connection and the first end of the first winding connected to a voltage source when the second winding is connected to a voltage source for increasing the flux provided by the first winding when the rotor is rotated.
36. The improvement of claim 31 wherein the compensating winding means further comprises a tap connection to the second winding intermediate first and second ends of the winding, the first end selectively connectable to a first side of a voltage source, the second end connected through the first winding to the first side of the voltage source and the tap connection providing a common connection from the second winding and the compensating winding to a second side of the voltage source.
37. The improvement of claim 31 wherein the compensating winding means is connected in series with the first winding.
38. In an oven including operating elements which are required to be continuously energized from a transformer having a voltage proportional to the line voltage and a movable element operated only when the oven is operated, a combination actuator and transformer comprising, in combination:
(a) a magnetic flux conducting structure having first and second flux conducting paths therethrough;
(b) a first winding operatively coupled to the first flux conducting path of the flux conducting structure and continuously connected to a source of line voltage for inducing flux in the first flux conducting path of the magnetic flux conducting structure;
(c) a second winding operatively coupled to the second flux conducting path and selectively connectable to the source of input voltage to induce flux therein;
(d) a third winding operatively coupled to the first flux conducting path to produce a continuous output voltage proportional to the magnitude of the line voltage;
(e) compensating winding means providing flux opposite in phase to flux induced by the second winding and operatively connected to the first flux conducting path and connected to as source of input voltage for reducing changes in the output voltage of the third winding as the second winding is connected and disconnected to the source of input voltage;
(f) a movable element mounted on the flux conducting structure for receiving flux conducted from the first and second flux conducting paths, said movable element constructed and arranged for movement when the second winding is connected to the source of input voltage and for remaining stationary when the second winding is not connected to the source of input voltage; and
(g) switch means connected to the second winding to selectively energize the second winding.
39. The combined actuator and transformer of claim 38 wherein the compensating means winding comprises means for maintaining the flux relatively constant in that portion of the magnetic flux conducting structure encircled by the third winding.
40. The combined actuator and transformer of claim 38 wherein the compensating winding means comprises a tap connection to the first winding intermediate the first and second ends of the first winding, the first and second ends of the winding connected to the source of line voltage when the movable element is stationary and the tap connection and the first end of the first winding connected to the source of line voltage when the movable element is operated such that the flux in the first flux conducting path is increased when the movable element is operated.
41. The combined actuator and transformer of claim 38 wherein the compensating winding means comprises a tap connection to the second winding intermediate first and second ends thereof, the winding portion between the first end and tap connection thereof selectively connectable to a source of line voltage for selectively causing movement of the movable element, the winding portion between the tap connection and second end thereof electrically energized when the first winding is electrically energized for substantially compensating out changes in the output voltage of the third winding which would otherwise occur in response to connection and disconnection of the second winding.
42. The combined actuator and transformer of claim 38 wherein the compensating winding means comprises a fourth winding connected in series with the first winding.
43. The combined actuator and transformer of claim 38 wherein the compensating winding means comprises a fourth winding continuously connected to the source of input voltage.
44. The combined actuator and transformer of claim 38 wherein the compensating winding means comprises a fourth winding connected to the source of input voltage only when the second winding is connected to the source of line voltage.
45. The combined actuator and transformer of claim 38 wherein the voltage across the compensating winding means reverses phase when the second winding is connected.
US07/092,074 1980-05-07 1987-09-02 Compensation for improved continuous transformer and motor Expired - Fee Related US4812607A (en)

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