US480935A - Brick-kiln - Google Patents

Brick-kiln Download PDF

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US480935A
US480935A US480935DA US480935A US 480935 A US480935 A US 480935A US 480935D A US480935D A US 480935DA US 480935 A US480935 A US 480935A
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kiln
furnaces
updraft
bricks
brick
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F27FURNACES; KILNS; OVENS; RETORTS
    • F27BFURNACES, KILNS, OVENS, OR RETORTS IN GENERAL; OPEN SINTERING OR LIKE APPARATUS
    • F27B9/00Furnaces through which the charge is moved mechanically, e.g. of tunnel type; Similar furnaces in which the charge moves by gravity
    • F27B9/02Furnaces through which the charge is moved mechanically, e.g. of tunnel type; Similar furnaces in which the charge moves by gravity of multiple-track type; of multiple-chamber type; Combinations of furnaces
    • F27B9/021Furnaces through which the charge is moved mechanically, e.g. of tunnel type; Similar furnaces in which the charge moves by gravity of multiple-track type; of multiple-chamber type; Combinations of furnaces having two or more parallel tracks
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23CMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING FLUID FUEL OR SOLID FUEL SUSPENDED IN  A CARRIER GAS OR AIR 
    • F23C6/00Combustion apparatus characterised by the combination of two or more combustion chambers or combustion zones, e.g. for staged combustion
    • F23C6/04Combustion apparatus characterised by the combination of two or more combustion chambers or combustion zones, e.g. for staged combustion in series connection
    • F23C6/045Combustion apparatus characterised by the combination of two or more combustion chambers or combustion zones, e.g. for staged combustion in series connection with staged combustion in a single enclosure

Description

(N Model.) 4 Sheets-Sheet 1.
' J. W. PENPIELD.
BRICK KILN.
Patented Aug. 16, 1892.
M%%MO W. A. flaw,
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(No Model.) 4 Sheets-Sheet 2.
J. W. PENFIELD. BRICK KILN.
N0. 480,935. Patented Aug. 16, 1892.
.71; hum flew, N Man/n r UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
JAMES WV. PENFIELD, OF IVILLOUGHBY, OHIO.
BRICK-KILN.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 480,985, dated August 16, 1892. 1
Application filed May 10, 1890.
- of Ohio, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Brick-Kilns; and I do hereby declare the following to be a full, clear, and exact description of the invention, such as will enable others skilled in the art to which it appertains to make and use the same.
My invention relates to improvements in brick-kilns in which are provided two sets of furnaces, respectively, for the so-called updraft and for the so-called downdraft, together with chimneys, flues, dampers, and appliances for using successively the downdraft and the updraft and for distributing the heat to diflerent parts of the kiln, to the end that the bricks may be burned uniformly throughout the kiln. The primitive updraft-kiln burned the lower courses of bricks too much, while the upper courses were not burned enough, and even the intermediate courses of bricks were not burned evenly. Besides, this style of kiln was extremely wasteful in fuel. The more modern downdraft-kiln produces better results; but still the bricks are not burned so uniformly as desirable, the bricks in the upper section of the kiln being burned most, there being considerable difference in the color of the bricks from different portions of the kiln. In view of thesedifticulties I have devised a kiln wherein by using first the downdraft and then the updraft and by directing the heat to different parts of the kiln, as may be required, the bricks may be burned uniformly throughout the kiln.
In the accompanying drawings, Figure l is a plan. Fig. 2 is a horizontal section on line y y, Fig. 3, portions being broken away to show the construction below. Fig. 3 is an elevation in section on line w as, Fig. 2. Fig. 4 is an elevation in section on line a 2, Fig. 2.
A represents the outside walls of the kiln, B the furnaces for the updraft, and Othe furnaces for the downdraft. Furnaces B connect, respectively, with flues B, the latter extending the entire internal length of the kiln underneath the floor D. The difierent flues B are separated by partition-Walls b 17', substantially as shown in Fig. 2. The floor consists of tiles laid loosely, so that the heat can pass freely through the interstices thereof,
Serial No. 351,314. (No model.)
and the arches or covering of fines B are either made in sections separated the one from the other, as shown at 6 Fig. 2, or are constructed of open-work, as shown at b Fig. 4, for the passage of heat to and from these flues, according as the fines are used for the updraft or for the downdraft. Furnaces B also connect with chimneys E, and to save expense these furnaces are usually arranged in series of three, with flues E, (see dotted lines, Fig. 3) leading, respectively, from the different furnaces of a series, and discharging in common into a chimney E, each flue E having a damper e for closing the same. Each chimney E had better be provided on top with a tilting damper e, that by means of a rod or cord connected therewith may be operated from the ground, whereby a damper e may be opened or closed or partially opened or closed, as may be required.
The side Walls of the kiln are provided with doorways A ,usually located midway thereof longitudinally, and on either side of these doorways are arranged the furnaces 0, each of these furnaces connecting with an upright flue C, the latter discharging inside the furnace near the top Wall or dome of the furnace.
The inside walls of fines O are preferably breasted out from the main walls of the kiln, as shown at 0, so that these walls cover but little floor-space. The dome or arched top wall of the kiln is of the groined variety and is provided with a series of openings a, arranged, preferably, as shown in Fig.1. In constructing the dome tubular tiles are built into the wall where openings a occur, and these are closed, usually, by placing fiat tiles thereon. The central opening a is usually about a foot (more or less) in diameter, and the other openings a are somewhat smaller-say six or eight inches (more or less) in diameter. The different furnaces are provided in the usual manner with grates, ash-pit doors, and doors for firing.
The bricks to be burned having been set in the kiln from the floor thereof and extending upward to reach nearly to the dome, the method of burning is as follows: The doors of the furnace B are all closed and should be hermetically sealed with clay or other material and dampers e e are opened, after which a fire is made in each of the different furnaces C. The products of combustion from these furnaces pass up through flue C under the dome of the kiln, and, from thence pass down through the interstices of the brick and into flues B, and from thence to furnace B, and from thence through the difierent fines E to the different chimneys E. The fire in these downdraft-furnacesis continued forsome days, or until the upper portions of the bricks have been properly burned, or nearly so. Meantime the bricks at the difierent parts of the kiln are inspected from time to time by means of sight-holes left in the outside walls of the kiln, these sight-holes being usually closed by means of isinglass. If it is found that certain portions of the kiln are burning too fast or too slow, the heat is shut off from the parts that are burning too fast and, more heat is directed through the sections that are burning too slow. This is done in the following manner: Suppose it is found that the righthand side of the kiln,-as shown in Fig. 2, is burning faster than other portions of the kiln. In such case dampers e of the right-hand chimneys would be closed, which would shut off the heat from the three right-hand fines B, and would consequently direct such heat to other portions of the kiln. If this deflected more heat than was necessary, dampers e of the right-hand chimneys might be left open and dampers e of the right-hand flues E might be closed or partially closed. If the side of the kiln in the foreground, Fig. 2, were burning too fast, by closing or partially clos ing the damper at this end of the kiln the heat would of course be directed toward the other end of the kiln, or, supposing one corner of the kiln was burning too slowly, all the other dampers could be closed or partially closed to direct all or nearly all of the heat to this corner. It will be seen, therefore, that by manipulating dampers e e of the different chimneys E and fiues E the heat may be directed, as required, to burn the bricks in the kiln evenly in horizontal sections; but still the upper sections of the kiln would burn faster than the lower sections. When,therefore, the upper sections of the kiln are sufiiciently burned, or nearly so, the fires are withdrawn from or allowed to die outin furnaces C and these furnaces are closed. Dampers e e are closed and apertures a a are uncovered and furnaces B are then fired, the updraft being used for perhaps a day (more or less) for completing the burning. With the updraft from furnaces B the heat is the greatest at the lower section of the kiln, just where it is wanted to supplement the free burning from the downdraft. The direction of the updraft may be more or less controlled by covering or partially covering more or less of openings a at different parts of the kiln, and of course the fires in some of the furnaces B may be crowded or continued longer than the others, if need be.
Openings (1. may be uncovered in starting the fire in furnaces C and dampers e e may be opened in starting the fires in furnaces B to give a strong draft and to get rid of the smoke incident in starting fires; but after the fires have been once started in either set of furnaces apertures a and the different dampers are regulated as aforesaid.
I have reduced my invention to practice and find no difficulty in burning the bricks uniformly throughout the kiln, so that the produlct is of substantially the same shade of co or.
Heretofore (see United States Patent No. 307,327, of October 28, 1884) I attempted to construct and operate a kiln having an updraft and a downdraft from the same set of furnaces, but was unable to control the different drafts so as to give entire satisfaction. With the present construction hereinbefore described such difficulty is entirely overcome.
What I claim is In a brick'kiln, the combination of two series of furnaces, one series provided with flues discharging under the dome of the kiln and the dome having openings for regulating the updraft inside the kiln, the other series provided with flues leading under the floor of the kiln, said flues having chimneys with dampers for regulating the draft therein, whereby the latter or updraft-furnaces may be utili'zed in discharging the products of combustion from the downdraft-furnaces, substantially as set forth.
In testimony whereof I sign this specification, in the presence of two witnesses, this 8th day of March, 1890.
JAMES W. PENFIELD.
Witnesses:
J. H. WOODWORTH, J. M. PERMAR.
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