US472404A - Brick kiln - Google Patents

Brick kiln Download PDF


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US472404A US472404DA US472404A US 472404 A US472404 A US 472404A US 472404D A US472404D A US 472404DA US 472404 A US472404 A US 472404A
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    • A21B1/00Bakers' ovens
    • A21B1/40Bakers' ovens characterised by the means for regulating the temperature
    • F23C3/00Combustion apparatus characterised by the shape of the combustion chamber
    • F23C3/002Combustion apparatus characterised by the shape of the combustion chamber the chamber having an elongated tubular form, e.g. for a radiant tube


(No Model.) A 3 Sheets-Sheet 1.
- W. S`E.RC01\[BE.`
BRIGK KILNL Patented Apr. 5, 1892.
3 Sheets-Sheet;` 2'.
(No Model.)
we naam Evans en., maro-umu.. wAsHmmeu, n. c.
(No Model.) l 3 Sheets-Sheet 3. W. SERCOMBE.
No. 472,404. Patented Apr. 5, 1892.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 472,404, dated April 5, 1892.
Application filed October 9, 1891. Serial No. 408,248. (No model.) Patented in England January 6, 1891l No. 238.
To all whom it mayconccrn:
Be it known that I, WILLIAM SEncoMBE, manager of brick-works, residing at Ham- Worthy, Poole, in the county of Dorset, England, have invented certain newand useful Improvements in Brick-Burning Kilns, (for which I have obtained provisional protection in Great Britain bearing date January 6,
1891, No. 238,) of which the following is aV specification. l
My invention relates to what are known as continuous or chamber kilns-such, for instance, as the Hoffman kiln-for burning bricks and other articles.
The chief objects of my invention are, first, to so equalize the heat of the chambers that the bricks therein will all be burned of equal hardness; secondly, to produce perfect combustion, and thereby to economize fuel and prevent sinoke from entering the chimney-shaft, and, thirdly, to utilize better than heretofore the waste heat escaping from the chambers which are cooling for drying green bricks in other chambers before tiring, and thus prevent the staining or discoloring of the same.
In the accompanying drawings, Figure 1 is a sectional plan of the brick-kiln embodying my invention. Fig. 2 is a front elevation, partly in section, on the line x00 in Fig. l. Fig. 3 is a vertical cross-section on the line y y in Fig. 1. Fig. 4 is a broken enlarged sectional View showing in detail one of the iiues in the top portion of the kiln and the covers controlling the flue-openings. Figs. 5 and 6 are a vertical section and plan, respectively, of the cover to the fuel-openings; and Fig. 7 is an enlarged detail sectional view showing the manner in which the bricks are packed in the chambers.
My improved kiln, which is of oblong or rectangular shape,is provided with two arches placed side by side and connected at their ends to form a continuous chamber or tun- These arches upon their minor or adjacent sides are supported upon the brickwork a, in which the flue b, connected to the chimney, is formed, the said iiue being preferably four feet six inches (4 6) in height and two feet four inches (2 4) in width. The arches of the kiln are inclosed in an outer shell or covering c, which, in order to avoid the use of an unnecessary number of to the number of chambers into which the kiln is adapted to be divided. As shown upon the drawings, the number is fourteen.
Each portion of the kiln designed to serve as a chamber is connected by a iiuef to the main flue b, the said flue, which is preferably one foot six inches (1 6) in height and one foot six inches (1 6) in width, extending in the opening in the wall of the arch through an arched passage outward, then downward foradepth of, say, four feet six inches, (4 6,) and then-beneath the floor of the kiln to the said tlue Z9. Each flue f is provided With a damper g, by means of which it may be closed, the said damper being arranged to slide in the arched passage, the mouth of which is closed, when desired, by means of a few loose brick, plastered over with clay.
In the upper part of the kiln is a flue h, which is connected with the several portions of the kilns designed to form chambers by means of passage 7l i, each of -which passages is provided with a damperj for shutting off communication between the kiln and the iiue h and with a cover k, the edge of which is adapted to tit into the trough Z, surrounding the opening in the crown of the arch through which the heat enters the passage I, the said cover being removed through the opening m, closed bya cover, all as clearly shown in Fig. 4. The flue h, it will be noticed, is placed between the arches, in order that the heat escapin gf rom one chamber shall pass as directly as possible to another chamber, and thereby suier as little loss as possible.
n n are holes extending from the top of the kiln to the interior of the chambers and serving for the introduction of fuel, the said holes being normally closed at thetop by covers o o, itting in seatsp p, as shown in Figs. 5 and 6.
q q indicate inner ribs in arches, up to which the bricks are built to form a separation between two chambers. For forming a division the upper part of the bricks--say the part above the dotted line r, Fig. 3-is plastered over with loamy clay, while the under parts are closed by a removable shutter,
formed in sections to enable it to be readily removed, this shutter only being removed when the chamber following it is filled and ready for sealing in a similar Way.
In packing the bricks into a chamber vertical passages S S are formed beneath the holes n n., so that the fuel shall fall among the bricks, and horizontal iiues are formed at certain intervals by placing some of the bricks across the others, as shown in Fig. 8, so as to leave spaces between through which the re can pass from chamber to chamber. In the vertical fiues I place bricks transversely at certain intervals, as at t, to prevent all the fuel from falling to the bottom of the passages S S. Transverse passages are also formed across the chambers opposite the opening in the outer Wall, connected with flue f, Fig. 3, crossing at right angles all the horizontal fin es shown in Fig. S.
The Working of the kiln Will be understood from the following: Assume that the chamber l is being emptied, that the bricks in chamber 2 have become cooled after burning, that the bricks in chambers 3 and 4 are cooling, that those in chamber have just had enough lire, that chamber 6 is in full re, the chamber 7 white-hot, the chambers S and 9 redhot, the chamber 10 black-hot, the chamber 11 quite dry, the chambers 12 and I3 steaming or dripping, and the chamber 14 setting. In this case the dampers GG of the chambers G and 7 are tightly closed,and thosein chambers S, 9, and l0 are more or less open and of 1l fully open, so that part of the products of combustion escaping from the chamber 6 will pass through the chambers 7, 8, 9, 10, and ll before escaping to the lue b; also, the dampers J .I of chambers 3, 4, and 5 and of chambers l2 and 13 are open, so that waste heat escaping from the cooling-chambers 3, 4, and 5 will pass into the chambers 12 and 13 to dry the bricks therein prior to the application of the fire, so that the said bricks will not be discolored by the direct action of the tire when applied.
Having now particularly described and ascertained the nature of my said invention and in what manner the same is to be performed, I declare that What I claim is The combination, With the nearly-parallel arches connected at the ends to form a continuous arch, the arch being also adapted to be divided into chambers, of a hot-air flue extending centrally between and above the arches, branch damper-controlled tlues eX- tending from the main iiue and above the several chambers of the arches, and vertical openings extending through the roof of the arches and intersecting the ends of the branch fines, the vertical openings having removable covers adapted to titin their lower ends and close the entrance to the arches, substantially as described.
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