US469961A - Tms nmris - Google Patents

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US469961A
US469961A US469961DA US469961A US 469961 A US469961 A US 469961A US 469961D A US469961D A US 469961DA US 469961 A US469961 A US 469961A
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tubes
sounding
notes
pressure
valves
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H03BASIC ELECTRONIC CIRCUITRY
    • H03MCODING; DECODING; CODE CONVERSION IN GENERAL
    • H03M1/00Analogue/digital conversion; Digital/analogue conversion
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B61RAILWAYS
    • B61LGUIDING RAILWAY TRAFFIC; ENSURING THE SAFETY OF RAILWAY TRAFFIC
    • B61L5/00Local operating mechanisms for points or track-mounted scotch-blocks; Visible or audible signals; Local operating mechanisms for visible or audible signals
    • B61L5/12Visible signals
    • B61L5/18Light signals; Mechanisms associated therewith, e.g. blinders
    • B61L5/1809Daylight signals
    • B61L5/1818Daylight signals using mobile coloured screen

Description

(No Model.) 5 Sheets-Sheet 2.
w. B. CHALMBRS. SIGNALING APPABATUS.
No. 4695961. Patented Mar.- 1, 1892.
I i u mlm" B lila m (No Model.) r 5Sheets-Sheet 3.
' I W.-B. CHALMERS.
SIGNALING APPARATUS. No. 169,961. Patented Mar. 1, 1892.
5- Sheets-'Sheet 4.
W. B. CHALMERS.
SIGNALING APPARATUS.
Patented Mar. 1, 1892.
Fct4
(No Model.)
(No Model.) 5 sneets-esheet 5.
- W; B. CHALMERS.
v SIGNALING APPARATUS.
No. 469,\961. Patented Mar. 1, 1892.
"I v FIG: 7.
'C bi I R I R UNITED STATES,
PATENT OFFICE.
WILLIAM B. CHALMERS, OF LONDON, ENGLAND.
'SIGNALING APPARATU'S.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 469,96l,dated March 1, 1892. Application filed August 24:, 1891. Serial No. 403.573. (No model. Patented in England Septemb r 2 1390 Nov To all whom it may cozce'n:
Be it known that I, WILLIAM BRYCE CHAL- MERS, a subject of the Queen of Great Britain,
residing at the city and county of London, England, have invented a new or improved Apparatus for Sgnaling at Sea or on Land, (for which a patent has been granted to me in Great Britain hearing date September 20, 1800` No. 14,889) of which the following is a specification.
My invention refers to a new or improved method of and apparatus therefor whereby signaling may be accomplished at sea or on land by means of musical notes' or tones, as hereinafter described.
In all civilized nations of the world musical notes or tones are primarily divided into eight parts or notes-viz., do, re, mi, fa, sol, la, si, do-and consequently the sounds of these respective notes are universally known and recognized by their names or initials, and for the purposes of my invention I`utilize this fact.
By my invention a complete system of signaling is produced available at all times at sea or on land, whether it be dark or light, or during foggy weather, and 011 land when the parties to communicate are not visible to one another. At sea, for example, the musical sounds or notes, or a particular combination thereof, Would indicate or could be made to do so from one ship to another the direction iu which each was proceeding, and the liability of collisions during foggy weather materially lessened thereby, and communications between them could be carried on uninterruptedly, (as is now attempted to be done by flags or semaphores or lights, all of which latter are practically invisible at night or (luring foggy weather,) while at the same time the communications could by my invention be made much more rapidly than heretofore.
In order that my invention may be fully understood and readily carried into effect, I will describe the same with reference to the accompanying drawings.
Figures land l show in vertical section an arrangement of apparatus constructed according to one modification of my invention. Fig. 2 is a vertical section according to another modification, and Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 are views of difierent parts in detail and hereinaf- 'ter referred to separately in this specification.
4 ber of them being regulatedaccording to the number of the different notes or tones required to be produced. A detached view of these tone-sounding tubes with the stand in which they are fixed is shown on a smaller scale than Figs. 1 and 2 at Fig. 3. The lower parts B' of the tubes are composed of a metal casting, say of gun-metal or brass. They are coned at their ends, as shown, and fit into apertures formed in the upper part or top of the wind-chest A' on the frane A, to which they are Secured by bolts or in any other convenient way. This lower part B' is shown, on a larger scale, in Vertical section at Fig. 4, and the upper part, on a still larger scale, is shown inverted bya perspective View at Fig. 5. Into the lower casting B' the cap B is screwed, which carries a tube B and a tongue B together forming a reed. The tube 13 is closed at the lower end and open at one side adjacent to the tongue B and is screwed through the top B for the sake of its easy and accurate adj ustment during the manutacture. When adjusted, the tube B and the tongue B are fixed in position by the wedge 13 The note is tuned by properly controlling the vibrations of the tongue B& and this is accomplished by means of a finger B the latter pressing 'against the tongue B and being mounted on a screw B passing through the cap 13 The finger B is thus capable of being vertically adjusted, when required, from the outside, the only tool necessary being a screw-driver.
3 is a set-screw for fixing the screw B' when adjnsted. By traversing the tongue downward the number of vibrations of the tongue is increased, and consequently the note is raised in pitch, and vice Versa. The tonesounding pipes proper B are screwed onto the top B at B and are or may be formed with bellonths, as. shown at rliliga 3, thelengtl and size of the tubes being varied according to the notes to be produced.
C, Fig. 3, is a hood for cover-ing and protectin g the tubes from the weather.
D D are Valves in the wind-chest A' for controlling the air-entrance to the sounding tubes. These valves are held up to their seats by springs, and the lower ends of the Valvespindles are each fixed to separate and distinct diaph ram, one of whichE is shown at Fig. 1^. The passage F under the diaphragm comnunicates with two other apertures, one leading to the wind-chest A' and the other or lower one to the atmosphere, the two latter apertures being controlled by a valve G, so that When one valve is shut the other is open. The spindle of the valve G acts or is acted on by a diaphragm H, working against a ball or abutment on the valve-spindle. This diaphragu H covers a passage formed in a chamber J, which passage leads to and is supplied with air-pressure through a pipe K, leading to the key board portion of the instrument.
For each sounding-tube there should be a series of parts just described and marked D E F G H J K. The air-pressure is supplied to the air-chest A' by the pipe A from any convenient source of supply, whether that be a bellows, air-pump, compressor, or other means. In the arrangement just described the air-pressure in the pipe K and air-chest A' is about equal; but if the air or other equivalent pressure in the chest A' is to be much greater than what I may call the actuating pressure supplied by the pipe K then a modification of the arrangement just described is required, and such as is shown with reference to Fig. 2 I have found to answer the purpose. i
D D are the valves in the Wind-chest A' controllingadmission of pressure to the sounding-tubes B. Here, however, instead of the diaphragm E there is a piston E', the under side of the piston being in communication with the passage F, the two entrances to which, as before, are controlled by the valve G. The spindle of 'this valye G ca'ries a piston H in a cylinder I-l'. The lower part of .the latter cylinder is formed With a port communicating with a chamber H having two apertures,
one at top and one at bottom, the upper conm unicating with the pressure-chest A' and the lower with the atmosphere. These apertures are controlled by a double-beat valve G', the spindle of which carries at its lower end a boss resting on the diaphragm corresponding with the diaphragm H, Fg. l, the latter diaph-agm being acted on by pressure from the pipes K. These tone-sunding tubes and the mechanisn connected therewith are operated by the keyboard apparatus or instrument, and which for the sake of clearness of description I may call key Verifying and testing mechanism, as well as for Operating the sounding mechanisn. These keyveriers or actuating and testing mechansm and the -sitions shown in Figs. 1,16, and'7.
,sounding mechanism may beplaced at any suitable distance from one another, and in the examples dealt with are connected by tubes K, which may be of any length and sutable material, through which ai r-pressure couveys the inpulses from one instrument to the otherthat is, from the keyboard and verfyng-nstrument to the sounding-instrument.
The keyboard and verifying apparatus s inclosed in a case L and contains an air-chest M, in which apressure is maintained bysutable means, the said pressure being introduced through the pipe M', (thepressure not being necessarily great.)
N is a double-beat Valve, the spindle N' of which is connected to one arm of a lever O of the first order, the other arn beingpivoted to a depending arm P.
P' is a guide-braclset for the arm.
P is anapertureinthe arm P, in whchthe finger of the operator may be inserted for Operating the lever O.
P isan aperture which, when the rod P s depressed, may be passed onto or slippedover a pin and the lever O will be 'etained `n;ts depressed position.
Q is a spring for holding and retainingsn position the valve N. There is a similar valve-and actuatin'g mechanism 'for ,every note that is to be governed and actualed R S are stops consisting of slides in which there are apertures. The slideR. when in one position closes the outlets to the tubesK,
which are the supply-tubes to the sounding apparatus, and when the slide R is in its other position the supply-tubes K are open. The slide S is arranged with a double series of apertures, as shown in the horizontal section, Fig.'6, and when in the position shown by the drawings the valve-N, when opened, will admit pressure through' the passage tR', slide S, passage R backthrough t e slide S, and upward through paSsage'R- in.` thelvertical side of the air-chest.
Fig. `7 is a partial back elevation wherein the passages R are shown by dotted lines, and
they lead to the verifying-tubes T, the number of which correspond in number and pitch with the sounding-tubes B.
U U are hand-levers for Operating the slides or stops R S. The signal sounding apparatus may be fitted to and nounted on a suitable turn-table for directing the soundingpipes in any desired .direction.
The action of the apparatus is asfollows: Supposing that any one note isto be sounded on the sounding-tubesandzit is desired, also, that the corresponding verifying-tube should also speak, the stops R S, would be in thelpo- The; op-
erator then depresses that one ottherods'iP which corresponds to the note it` is, required should sound. This action causes the Valvespindle N' to be raised and pressure to pass from the pressure-chest-M through the passages R' R R and into the pipe T, while sinnltaneously pressure passes through stop IIO R by the tube K, thus raising the diaphragm H and valve G, the latter elo'sing the upper aperture into the wind-chest 'A' and'openingthe passage F lo the atmosphere. The diaphragm E, being acted upon by internal pressure, is driven downward and opens the Valve D, allowingthe pressure to pass through the tone-sounding tube B and to produce the signal-note. It it is desired that the verifying-notes T should not speak, it is only necessary to move the slide S, Fig. 6, toward the right hand by the lever U, when the tubes B will act alone. Supposing the officer heard a note sounded from, say, an approaching Veswithin a reasonable distance by persons on' board the vessel' on which the instrument is Situated or other place.
The action of the arrangement shown at Fig. 2 varies somewhat from the previous arrangement by reason of the pressure in the chestA' beinggreater than the pressure at M. Thus pressure by the pipe K raises thevalve G' and allows pressure from A' to act on the V under side ot' pisten H, raises valve G, which closes the upper port, and opens the passage F to the atmosphere. -The pressure in A', acting on the upper area of the pisten E', opens the valve D and the tube B sounds; In the drawings the valves and tubes are shown duplicated--that is, there are two tubes shown which would sound at once-but this duplicate arrangement is not one I usuallyemploy, a single set of valves and a single tube* being generally found sufficient.
I prefer ten notes, because by using the `B below C with the C 'o1- o 'I can call attention, and by using or sounding the D above the octave I' can cut off com munication without intertering with the use of the whole of the eight notes in the octave. By using an indieator Ican signify that com'munication Will be made by the numeral code, when I require the ten notes to represent figures l to 0, and by another indicator I can signify that the Morse code ot' dots and dashes isto he employed.
lam aware that it has been proposel to employ as a signalinginstrument a whistle by which several notes may be produced, and I an also aware that it is not new to employ nusical notes for signaling purposes, as all bugle-calls eonsist of such;
In apparatus constructed according to ny inventon I employ a separate pipe for each note required, as for my invention itis essential that the iustruments employed by the various signaling parties should coincide-that forty, times per second, and the other tones should bein conj unet-ion or accord therewithand this result I attain in what I have found to be a successful manner and as herein described, whereas by the employnent of a whistle producing, say, 'several notes the said notes produced would depend on the original tone of the whistle, which latter tone is not in practice determinable with certainty during the manufacture; and, again, with my apparatus I gain a distinct advantage over single-sounding instruments in that there is a greatlsaving of time, as I am enabled to sound or changea note as readily as upon an organ or piano.
I claim- 1. Iu signaling apparatus,a series of sounding-tubes tuned to predetermined notes in the musical scale, iu combination with an airchest-and valves therein for admittingair to sound the tubes, keys eorrespondiugin number with the sounding-mbes, valves operated by said keys, airpassages from the respective valves, and mechanism operated by airpressure for actuating the valves of the ,sounding-mbes substantially in the manner and for the purposes set forth.
2. In signaling apparatus, a series of sounding-tubes tuned to predetermined notes in the musical scale, and mechanism, substantially as specified, for Operating 'such soundingtu'bes,` the notes in the various iustruments corresponding and the signals being given either singly or in groups, according to a predetermined code, by the different combiuatons of musical sounds, in combination with verifying sounding-tubes tuned to the predetermined notes in the musical scale, an airchest, Operating-keys corresponding in number with said verifying tubes, valves conneeted to and correspondiug in number with said keys, air-passages eorrespondiug in nu mber to the valves and oonnecting with passages to the verifying-tubes, whereby said verifying-tubes may be operated to give different musical sounds, substantially as set forth. t
3. In signaling apparatus, aseries of sounding-tubes tuned to predetermined notes in the musical scale, and a series of verifying sounding-tubes also tuned to the samenotes of the musical scale, iu combination with air-chests for admitting air underpressure to sound the various tubes, operatiugkeys agreeing in number with either set of sounding-tubes, valves connected to and agreeing in number with the Operating-k eys, air passage-ways controlled by said valves and passing to both sets of sounding-mbes, slides moving acrosssaid air-passages at opposite sides of the actuating-valves, and mechanism actuated by airpressure for sounding the notes of the main sounding-tubes, whereby the main soundingtubes and Verifying-tubes' may be operated together in unison or either set operated alone, substantially in the manner and for the purposes' set forth.
IOO
IIO
L In siguaiing apparatns, the combination,
uniting the tubes B and base-mbes B', the screw-mbes 13 passing through the caps B, the sounding-tongues 13 adjaeent to thetubes 13 the screws 13 and looking-screws B n the Caps B the engaging-fingers B at the base of the screws 13 and the wedges 13 whereby the 'egulation and adjustnent of the vb rating reeds are effeeted in tuning the soundngtubes to the notes of the musical seale, substantially as set fo'th.
W. B. CI-IALMERS. witnesses:
E. H. FORSTER, GRIFFITH BREWER.
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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20020004680A1 (en) * 1993-06-07 2002-01-10 Mark Plaia Anti-stenotic method and product for occluded and partially occluded arteries

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20020004680A1 (en) * 1993-06-07 2002-01-10 Mark Plaia Anti-stenotic method and product for occluded and partially occluded arteries

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