US4621827A - Light weight bicycle with improved chainstay structure and method - Google Patents

Light weight bicycle with improved chainstay structure and method Download PDF

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US4621827A
US4621827A US06/576,437 US57643784A US4621827A US 4621827 A US4621827 A US 4621827A US 57643784 A US57643784 A US 57643784A US 4621827 A US4621827 A US 4621827A
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tube
chainstay
bicycle
tubes
bottom bracket
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US06/576,437
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Gary G. Klein
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Trek Bicycle Corp
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Klein Gary G
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Priority to US05/849,141 priority Critical patent/US4500103A/en
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Assigned to TREK BICYCLE, CORP. reassignment TREK BICYCLE, CORP. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: KLEIN, GARY G.
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B62LAND VEHICLES FOR TRAVELLING OTHERWISE THAN ON RAILS
    • B62KCYCLES; CYCLE FRAMES; CYCLE STEERING DEVICES; RIDER-OPERATED TERMINAL CONTROLS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR CYCLES; CYCLE AXLE SUSPENSIONS; CYCLE SIDE-CARS, FORECARS, OR THE LIKE
    • B62K19/00Cycle frames
    • B62K19/02Cycle frames characterised by material or cross-section of frame members
    • B62K19/04Cycle frames characterised by material or cross-section of frame members the material being wholly or mainly metallic, e.g. of high elasticity
    • B62K19/06Cycle frames characterised by material or cross-section of frame members the material being wholly or mainly metallic, e.g. of high elasticity tubular

Abstract

The two chainstay tubes of a bicycle are made of tubing of unequal rigidity, specifically the chainstay tube on the chain or drive side is made heavier, while, in the preferred embodiment, the other chainstay tube is lightened, in order to increase power train efficiency by reducing the magnitude of frame deflection caused by chain stress. In the preferred embodiment, the metal that is added to the chain side chainstay tube is taken from the non-drive side so that there is no net addition of weight.

Description

This application is a continuation-in-part of my application Ser. No. 849,141, filed Nov. 7, 1977, now U.S. Pat. No. 4,500,103 for "HIGH EFFICIENCY BICYCLE FRAME" incorporated herein by reference; and a continuation-in-part of my application Ser. No. 658,620, filed Feb. 7, 1976, now abandoned.

BACKGROUND AND BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates generally to bicycle frames and more particularly, to the chainstay structure of bicycle frames.

In prior art frames, higher than normal rigidity achieved a harsh undesirable ride, while lower than normal rigidity caused significant power train deflection and energy loss. Prior art frames thus fell within a narrow rigidity range. This is a continuation or improvement upon the high efficiency bicycle frame as disclosed in the above referenced applications, which are incorporated herein by reference. In my above-identified applications, I disclose a high rigidity, light weight bicycle frame that exhibits improved ride, comfort and power efficiency. In subsequent testing, I have discovered that the bicycle's magnitude of deflection under pedalling load is substantially different depending on whether load is applied to the right or left hand pedal. I also discovered that material can be removed from the left chainstay and added to the right chainstay and the overall performance of the bicycle could be noticably improved, with no net addition of weight.

The objects of this invention are: First, improve the chainstay structure of bicycles and to increase the power train efficiency by reducing frame deflection losses. Second, to achieve good handling and comfortable ride characteristics in this more efficient frame. Third, to improve the mechanical strength of the frame. Fourth, to decrease the mass of the frame. Fifth, to improve the overall performance of a light weight bicycle with no net addition of weight. Sixth, to improve the fatigue durability of bicycle frames by increasing the durability of the highly stressed right hand chainstay.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The above and other objects, advantages and features of the invention will become clear when considered with the following specification and accompanying drawings wherein:

FIG. 1 is a side isometric view of a bicycle incorporating the invention,

FIG. 2a is a sectional view of a chainstay tube pair dimension as disclosed in my above-identified applications,

FIG. 2b is a sectional view of the chainstay tube pair incorporating the invention, and

FIG. 3 is a top plan view of the chainstays and drive assembly (front sprocket and pedal cranks, chain and rear derailleures) incorporating the invention.

Referring to the drawings, FIG. 1 shows a light weight bicycle frame F incorporating the invention. The frame including a head tube 10, top tube 12 secured (as by welding) at the forward end to head tube 10, a down tube 13 secured at its forward end to head tube 10, a seat tube 14 secured at its upper end to the trailing end of tope tube 12, a bottom bracket shell 5 secured to the lower ends of the down tube 13 and seat tube 4, respectively, two chainstay tubes 16L and 16R secured at their forward ends to bottom bracket shell 5, two seatstay tubes 17L and 17R secured at their upper ends to seat tube 14 and at their lower ends to two rear fork ends or drop outs 18L and 18R, and a seatstay bridge 19 above the wheel (not shown). FIG. 2a shows tube cross sections of chainstay tubes 16L and 16R as disclosed in my above application having wall thickness T1, T2 both about 0.058 inch for small frames and about 0.102 inch for large frames and exterior diameters D1-D2, about 1 inch for all sizes.

FIG. 3 shows the chainstay assembly where the improvement in the present invention resides.

The various parts of the frame F are attached in a suitable manner so as not to lose strength or rigidity at the joints J. The preferred configuration utilizes welded or brazed joints with subsequent heat treatment where applicable but lugs or other joining devices or means can be applied.

The frame F is a critical member of the bicycle power train. When reciprocating pedalling force is applied to bicycle part of it is wasted in deflecting the frame. Bicycles behave like linear springs when deflected. As the frame is distorted energy is stored in it. The amount of energy stored is proportional to the deflection squared. If the frame is resisted as it returns to an unloaded condition work is done on the resisting force, i.e. the rider's legs. If the return is not resisted, and the frame is allowed to spring back freely, the work is lost as heat. Unfortunately, muscles can not reabsorb energy, so work put into the rider's legs is also lost as heat.

The two main types of frame deflection are: First, twisting of the frame between the head tube 10 and the bottom bracket shell 15 around an axis A as in FIG. 1 caused by the torque exerted through the handlebars (not shown) and cranks CR and CL (FIG. 3) during hard pedalling. Second, side (lateral) deflection of the bottom bracket shell 15 out of the main plane of the frame caused by the off center force applied during hard pedalling.

In general, it is relatively easy to twist a light tube, more difficult to bend it and very difficult to stretch or compress it. In my U.S. Pat. No. 4,500,103, as in standard bicycle frames, most attention is devoted to the forces exerted by the bicyclist and the ground. In that patent, very large diameter frame tubing is used to resist the relatively large torsional and bending forces. The compressive properties of the seatstays are also examined for their suspension properties. In use, this approach has proven to be very effective and accurate. However, subsequent testing has revealed a new area to look at. The chain side chainstay, although a rather beefy piece of tubing, with a high degree of compressive rigidity and strength, is nevertheless an important member to look at in the compressive mode. The force exerted by the cyclist on the pedals is multiplied by leverage in the driving chain. Strong racers have been known to snap normal bicycle chains, which have a tensile strength of close to 2,000 poundsforce. This chain tension primarily results in a compressive force in the chain side chainstay. Because of this large amount of compressive force on the one chainstay, the deflection in compressive mode is significant.

In the earlier patent application, it was stated that "there is little movement of the bottom bracket shell 15 toward or away from the rear cog" and "the bottom bracket shell 15 rigidly resists movement toward or away from the rear cog in the plane of the chainstay tubes". These statements were made considering the forces which a rider applies, but did not consider or take into account the large chain force. The present invention takes into account the large chain force by increasing the rigidity of the chain side chainstay tube by thickening the wall thickness of that tube and to maintain the weight the same, metal is removed from the non-chain side chainstay by reducing the wall thickness on that side approximately proportionate in amount in terms of weight e.g. the weight added to the chain side tube is removed from the non-chain side tube.

The relative amounts which each of the two types of deflection lateral bending rigidity and bottom bracket torsion rigidity contribute to the total power train deflection varies with frame geometry and also depends on how the rider applies force. Some bicycle racers lean the bicycle into the powering leg as much as fifteen degrees in sprinting of hill climbing. This increases the importance of lateral bending stiffness. Some bicycle racers will not lean the bicycle as severely. As a result, a total rigidity of the power train can not be objectively calculated. However, given the two stiffness data, frame geometry and bike lean a total rigidity of the power train can be objectively calculated. On the average the lateral bending deflection accounts for approximately 60 percent of the total power train deflection due to the frame. The torsional deflection accounts for the remainder.

Steel racing type bicycle frames have Bottom Torsion Test deflections between 0.072 inches and 0.095 inches and Lateral Bending Stiffness Test deflections between 0.026 inches and 0.04 inches. This results in a bottom bracket torsion rigidity of between 42 and 53 poundsforce feet per degree and lateral bending rigidity of between 62 and 75 poundsforce per inch. Racing type bicycle frames constructed and more exotic material such as titanium, carbon fiber composites of aluminum alloy have had Bottom Bracket Torsion Test deflection between 0.089 inches and 0.122 inches and Lateral Bending Stiffness Test deflections between 0.04 inches and 0.049 inches resulting in a bottom bracket torsion rigidity of between 33 and 45 poundsforce feet per degree and lateral bending rigidity of between 61 and 75 poundsforce per inch. The exotic type material bicycle frames have not enjoyed much competition use as they do not have sufficient power train rigidity.

Two main types of power train deflection are mostly the result of torsional and bending movements of the individual frame tubes. Accordingly, the torsional and bending rigidity of each frame tube has been increased where appropriate to increase the power train rigidity.

The top tube has bending force applied to it both when the bottom bracket twists and when the frame bends laterally so the tube diameter and wall thickness of the tubing are selected to to increase the bending rigidity. The down tube has both bending and torsion forces applied to it both when the bottom bracket twists and when the frame bends laterally so the diameter and wall thickness of the tubing is selected to increase the bending rigidity. As disclosed in my above applications, the chainstay tubes have torsional force applied to them when the bottom bracket twists and bending force applied to them when the frame bends laterally so the diameter and wall thickness of the tubing is selected to increase the torsional and bending rigidity. According to this invention, however, the metal is added to the chain or drive side of tube 16R by thickening the tube wall or increasing the diameter, or both and a corresponding amount of metal is removed from the nonchain or nondrive side tube 16L. The seatstay tubes have bending force applied to them when the frame bends laterally so increased bending rigidity is provided by increased diameter seatstay tubes with wall thickness from about 0.035 inch for small frames to about 0.049 inch for large frames. Table I (below) sets out preferred tubing diameters and wall thickness for a small size frame (46 cm) and a large size frame (70 cm). Table II sets out the typical frame specifications for racing type frames and touring type frames.

              TABLE I______________________________________Typical Tube Diameters and Wall Thickness46 cm (small frame)              70 cm (large frame)HEAD TUBE 1.42" OD, ID 1.180" (about 1" each end), .065"for center     wall thicknesssection     OD     THICKNESS    OD   THICKNESS______________________________________TOP TUBE  1.50"  .035"        15/8"                              .049"DOWN TUBE 15/8"  .049"        13/4"                              .065"SEAT TUBE 1.25"  .083"        1.25"                              .083"SEATSTAY  7/8"   .035"        7/8" .049"CHAINSTAY  D3    D4    T3    T4   D3  D4   T3   T4      1"    1"    .065" .049"                             1"  1"   .12" .083"______________________________________BOTTOM BRACKET 15/8" .12" wall thickness______________________________________

In about the mid-size range of frames, for example, a 62 cm frame T3 is about 0.065 inch and T4 is about 0.095 inch.

                                  TABLE II__________________________________________________________________________TYPICAL FRAME SPECIFICATIONSGeneral Purpose Road Racingand Light Touring       Longer Road Races and all Types of__________________________________________________________________________                   TouringFrame Size(cm)  51 54 57 59 61 64 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70(inches) 20.1"    21.3"       22.4"          23.2"             24.0"                25.2"                   18.1"                      18.9"                         19.7"                            20.5"                               21.3"                                  22.1"                                     22.8"                                        23.6"                                           24.4"                                              25.2"                                                 26.0"                                                    26.8"                                                    27.6"Top Tube 29.7    31.0       32.3          33.2             33.9                35.1                   27.0                      28.0                         29.0                            30.1                               31.0                                  31.8                                     32.7                                        33.6                                           34.4                                              35.2                                                 36.1                                                    36.8                                                    37.0HeightFromGround(inches)Typical Ri- 5'4"    5'7"       5'10"          6'0"             6'2"                6'5"                   4'11"                      5'1"                         5'3"                            5'5"                               5'7"                                  5'9"                                     5'11"                                        6'1"                                           6'3"                                              6'8"                                                 6'7"                                                    6'9"                                                    6'11"der HeightTypical 165    170       172.5          175             177.5                180                   150                      155                         160                            165                               167.5                                  170                                     172.5                                        175                                           177.5                                              180                                                 180                                                    180 180CrankLength(mm)Top Tube 52.8    54.4       55.9          56.9             57.7                59.2                   51.2                      52.2                         53.2                            54.2                               55.2                                  56.2                                     57.2                                        58.2                                           59.2                                              60.2                                                 61.2                                                    62.2                                                    63.2Length(cm)Head  72.3°    73°       73.6°          74°             74.2°                74.4°                   72°                      72°                         72°                            72°                               72°                                  72.5°                                     72.5°                                        72.5°                                           72.5°                                              72.5°                                                 72.5°                                                    72.5°                                                    72.5°AngleFork Rake 1.5    1.5       1.5          1.5             1.5                1.5                   1.5                      1.5                         1.5                            1.75                               1.75                                  1.5                                     1.5                                        1.5                                           1.5                                              1.5                                                 1.5                                                    1.5 1.5(inches)Seat Angle 72.5°    72.5°       72.5°          72.5°             72.5°                72.5°                   74°                      74°                         74°                            74°                               74°                                  74°                                     74°                                        74°                                           74°                                              74°                                                 74.5°                                                    74.5°                                                    74.5°Bottom 10.6    10.7       10.9          11.0             11.0                11.1                   9.6                      9.8                         10.0                            10.2                               10.3                                  10.4                                     10.5                                        10.6                                           10.7                                              10.8                                                 10.8                                                    10.8                                                    10.8BracketHeight(inches)Chainstay 16.3    16.3       16.3          16.3             16.3                16.3                   16.5                      16.5                         16.5                            18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18  18Length(inches)Wheel Base 37.4    37.9       38.3          38.6             38.8                39.1                   38.2                      38.7                         39.2                            40.7                               41.1                                  41.2                                     41.6                                        42.2                                           42.6                                              43.0                                                 43.6                                                    44.1                                                    44.5(inches)__________________________________________________________________________

Thus, the improvement according to the present invention with the top, down, seat, chainstay, and seatstay tubes having the diameter wall-thickness ratios of less than 50 and the preferred diameter and wall-thickness of the frame tubing as given hereinabove, has a lateral bending rigidity of at least 120 poundforce per inch and a bottom bracket torsion rigidity of at lest 67 poundforce per degree (as defined and derived in U.S. Pat. No. 4,500,103). This high degree of stiffness coacting with the light weight produces a bicycle frame which has surprisingly high power train efficiency, good handling and riding characteristics heretofore unachievable in light weight bicycle frames of the character herein disclosed.

The riding comfort or "ride" of a frame is influenced by many factors. Among these are frame weight, frame geometry and the frame rigidity in suspension modes.

Light mass is desireable in a bicycle. A light bicycle requires relatively low energy to accelerate and maneuver. It makes hills easier to climb. Also, a large portion of the suspension of the total mass of the bicycle and rider occurs in the rider's arms, legs and seat. These are particularly effective as low frequency, large movement suspension members. Thus, light bicycle mass effectively increases the traction and road holding ability of the bicycle. The relative weight a typical frame tube can be described by M×(D2 -(D-2T)2 which is designated as WT (M=density). The preferred configuration results in a frame weight saving of 25 percent over the best prior (best prior art defined as prior art which is generally accepted as best).

The frame geometry is constrained by three factors: First, the rider must be in a low wind resistance high power output position. Second, the handling characteristics are influenced by the frame geometry and must be designed for. Third, the components of the bicycle must be correctly aligned to fit and function properly. Within these constraints frame geometries can be designed which will exhibit small but important differences in handling and "ride". The preferred configuration results in the angle H between the head tube 10 and the ground surface ranging between 73 and 75 degrees and the angle 5 between the seat tube 14 and the ground surface ranging between 73 and 74 degrees. See Table II above for specific angles. The ground surface is positioned as it will be when appropriate wheels and front fork (not shown) are installed.

The main suspension modes of the frame result in tension, compression and bending of the frame tubes. The most important suspension members are the seat stay tubes. The relative stiffness of a frame tube along its axis can be described by Er ×(D-2T)2 which is designated as SRT. The preferred configuration of seatstay tube utilizes diameter and wall thickness of an aluminum alloy tubing to decreases the suspension mode stiffness about one-third resulting in a smoother ride.

The combined effect of the described factors produce a bicycle frame which achieves both high power train rigidity and good handling and riding characteristics.

Bicycle frames must be of sufficient strength to endure the high stresses placed upon them. Prior art racing type bicycle frames when they do fail usually fail by causing the frame tubes to bend. The relative yield strength of a typical frame tube in bending can be described by Ty×(D3 -(T-2D)3 which is designated as YST. This type of failure is usually the result of a crash or collision which unfortunately are not rare occurances, especially in competition conditions. The most common failures occur in the top tube and the down tube. The preferred configuration increases the yield strength of the frame.

Less frequent, but significant are fatigue failures. Here too, the most critical is the bending strength, particularly in the down tube 13. The relative fatigue strength of a typical frame tube in bending can be described by Tf ×(D3 -(D-2T)3 which is designated as FST. The preferred configuration increases the fatigue strength of the frame.

The invention is a product of two separate developments. The first was the ability to create higher rigidity and strength in a frame while reducing the weight. In steel frames, the tubes are so made as to have larger wall thicknesses at the brazed joints to reinforce the portions of the tube which lose part of their temper during brazing.

The preferred configuration uses an aluminum alloy such as 6061 T6. It has properties such as Modulus of Elasticity Et of 10,000,000 psi, a Modulus of Rigidity Es of 3,800,000 psi, a density of D of 0.098 poundsforce per cubic inch, a tensile yield strength of 40,000 psi, and a tensile fatigue strength of 14,000 psi. By heat treating the frames after welding, essentially full strength is restored. At a casual glance it is lighter, but it is not as stiff or as strong as steel. The higher rigidity of the invention comes from the special configuration of tubing chosen in conjunction with the natural properties. However, as noted above, the invention is not limited to heat treating of welded frames, since some light weight alloys can be welded to without significant loss of strength and with lugged frames, welding is not needed.

While it might seem that the same results could be achieved by using larger diameters with thinner walls in steel, it is not practical to use tubing with a diameter/wall thickness of over 50. At this point tubes become prone to crippling failure and the strengths described above no longer apply. The lighter guages of steel down tubes are already near this engineering ratio, in fact, some are slightly in excess of it. Thus, there is a limit to how far the diameter of the tube can be increased with a given material within a given weight.

The preferred configuration uses aluminum alloy because it is less dense than steel and can be utilized in larger diameters without an increase in weight and remain within the diameter/wall thickness engineering limit. It also has the advantages of low cost, availability, established welding techniques, corrosion resistance, good machineability, and it is not brittle. However, the invention is not limited to aluminum alloy but could be constructed of other materials such as beryllium alloys, titanium alloys, magnesium alloys, or composites of other materials including such materials as glass fibers, carbon fibers, high strength plastic fibers, boron fibers, aluminum oxide fibers, or silicon carbide fibers.

Boron fiber reinforcements have been used heretofore on chainstays, seatstays, and fork blades. They serve two important functions. First, the fiber pattern is oriented to stiffen these tubes against lateral deflection. This is most beneficial on the stays and fork blades where lateral stiffness is critical (typically weak points in overall frame side to side stiffness). The second advantage is that boron composites absorb high frequency shock many times better than conventional structural materials. Consequently, it effectively helps the forks and stays dampen road shock for an exceptionally smooth ride and thus, boron reinforced aluminum tubing can be used to advantage in the present invention.

The second development has the realization of desirable "ride" and handling properties with a very stiff power train. Previously, power train rigidity had been equated with harsh ride. In Top Tubes by Reynolds Tube Co., Ltd. of Birmingham, England, they write "If your frame is too rigid, it will transmit every vibration, every bump, from the road into your poor aching body; it will fight you on every bend of the way; it will drag you back on every hill." The invention, through a combination of light frame weight, improved suspension characteristics, and increased power train rigidity has achieved a combination of "ride", handling and power train efficiency that is a breakthrough in frame design.

As shown in FIG. 3, the chainstay assembly per se includes bottom bracket shell 15, right chainstay tube 16R, a left chainstay tube 16L, a chain 22, left and right bicycle cranks CR and CL and bottom bracket assembly BB in bottom bracket shell 15. A force vector Fc represents the chain tension, force vector FR represents the right side chainstay compression and force vector FL represents the left chainstay tension.

As shown in FIG. 2a, a conventional bicycle frame, the left chainstay 16L and the right chainstay 16R are of equal diameter B and wall thickness T and have equal axial rigidity and weight, although the right chainstay may have additional dents or crimps in it in order to clear the bicycle sprocket S, crank CR, and/or tire. If this is the case, the only effect is that the axial rigidity may be slightly lower than otherwise expected. The drive chain 22 is also typically on the right hand side as shown and will be presumed to be the chain or drive side for illustration purposes. The invention would also apply to a left hand drive bicycle. Chain 22 may be controlled on rear drive sprocket and hub assembly 30 by a derailleur (not shown).

My above referenced applications utilize large diameter light weight tubing to increase overall frame bending and torsion rigidity, increase frame strength, reduce frame weight and reduce the axial rigidity of at least some of the tubes, in order to improve the ride comfort. However, I have found that by increasing the rigidity of the right hand (chain or "drive" side) chainstay, at the expense of the left hand (or nondrive side) chainstay, the total amount of frame deflection due to applied pedal loads can be significantly reduced with no loss of other beneficial aspects of this frame design. The overall light weight, comfortable ride, frame strength and power train rigidity are either unimpaired or improved. Specifically, the frame strength and power efficiency are improved.

Referring to FIG. 3, for a peak chain tension of 800 pounds force, the balancing tension in the left chainstay 16L is 400 pounds force, and the compressive load in the right chainstay 16R is 1200 pounds force. The total angular deflection of the bottom bracket shell 15 will be the sum of the axial deflections of both chainstays. Let the total amount of material in both chainstays equal 100. This will also be the case for their effective rigidities. In a standard bicycle, each chainstay would have a spring constant of 50. So the total deflection will be 1200/50 plus 400/50 for 32 total deflection. If each chainstay is made proportionately rigid to the applied load, the right chainstay will have a spring constant of 75 and the left chainstay will have a spring constant of 25. In this case the total deflection will be 1200/75 plus 400/25 for 32 total deflection. There is no improvement. Neither of these cases are optimal. If the right chainstay is made with a spring constant of 63 and the left is 37, the total deflection will be 1200/63 plus 400/37 for 29.86 total deflection. This represents a 7.2 percent increase in power train rigidity with no weight penalty! The preferred configuration uses a right hand (chain side) chainstay with about a 50 percent heavier wall thickness and a resulting 50 percent larger axial rigidity than the left chainstay. Even a small difference in the two chainstays will improve the bicycle frame somewhat. As an example, an 8.3 percent difference in right and left chainstays will result from a right chainstay of 52 rigidity, and a left of 48. The total deflection will be 1200/52 plus 400/48 for 31.41 total deflection. This is a 1.9 percent improvement over the standard bicycle. This is significant for only an 8.3 percent difference in the chainstays. Again, this improvement is achieved with no net increase in weight.

Obviously, the right hand chainstay, on account of the chain loading, is under greater stress than the left chainstay. A slightly stronger right chainstay with a slightly reduced left chainstay will improve the overall durability of the bicycle by evening out the stress levels in the frame material. In other words, the very high stress levels in the right chainstay can be reduced with only a small increase in the low stress level present in the left chainstay. This should act to increase the fatigue durability of the bicycle frame, by increasing the durability of the highly stressed right hand chainstay.

In general, a 7 percent improvement is pretty good considering the state of evolution of the bicycle frame. This is not 7 percent improvement in the entire frame, but 7 percent in the area of the chainstay assembly. Also, the straight tension and compression forces used in the present case are probably a simplification of the actual bike. Those chainstays are also in bending and torsion, not just tension and compression. The generalization given above also ignores that the stays are spread at an angle, so the force vectors are not quite right. However, this discussion captures the heart of the problem, however, with the simplified analysis. Also, the chainstay compression force is rarely, if at all mentioned in the literature.

The invention further comprises the balance of the bicycle (not shown) which is of conventional form and which comprises a fork, head set, wheels, pedals, pedal cranks connecting the pedals to the crank axle, handlebars, and drive chain drivingly connected between the crank axle and rear wheel, all of conventional form (also not shown).

It will now be apparent to those skilled in the art that other variations may be made within the scope of the invention. It is therefore intended that the above disclosure shall read as illustrative.

Claims (6)

What is claimed is:
1. In a bicycle having a bottom bracket and a chainside chainstay and a non-chainside chainstay tubes, each secured to and extending rearwardly from said bottom bracket, pedals, crank and front drive sprocket carried in said bottom bracket a rear drive sprocket and hub assembly carried at the rear ends of said chainstay tubes and a drive chain trained over said front and rear drive sprockets, the improvement wherein the chainside chainstay tube has at least 10 percent more axial rigidity than the non-chainside chainstay tube.
2. In a light weight bicycle frame having a chainside chainstay tube and a non-chainside chainstay tube, the improvement wherein, said tube chainstay has a wall thickness at least 10 percent greater than the non-chainside chainstay tube.
3. In a bicycle frame having a top tube, a down tube, a head tube secured at its upper end to the forward end of said top tube end at its lower end to the upper end of said down tube, a bottom bracket shell, a seat tube secured at its upper end to the rear end of said top tube and at its bottom end to said bottom bracket shell, the lower end of said down tube being secured to said bottom bracket shell, rear wheel dropouts, a bridged pair of seatstays secured at the upper ends to said seat tube and at their respective lower ends to said rear dropouts, respectively, and a pair of chainstay tubes secured at their forward ends to said bottom bracket shell and at their respective rear ends to said pair of rear wheel dropouts, respectively, said bicycle frame having a chain drive side, the improvement wherein the chainstay tube on said chain drive side of said bicycle is constructed of tubing which has a thicker wall than the chainstay tube on the non chainside of the bicycle.
4. A light weight bicycle frame under about 5 pounds having a pair of chainstay tubes, a pair of bridged seatstay tubes, a bottom bracket shell secured to the forward ends of said pair of chainstay tubes, a seat tube secured at its upper end to said seat stay tubes and at its lower end to said bottom bracket, a head tube, a top tube secured at its forward end to the upper end of said head tube and at its rearward end to the upper end of said seat tube, and a down tube secured at its upper and forward end to the lower end of said head tube and at its lower and rear end to said bottom bracket, the head tube being at a ground angle of between 60 to 80 degrees and the seat tube to ground angle is between 58 and 85 degrees when the appropriate front fork and wheel are attached and rest on the ground, the mass of the frame without fork or other equipment is less than 5 pounds, said top, down, seat, chainstay tubes and seat stay tubes have diameter to wall thickness ratios of less than 50, and are of a diameter and wall thickness such that said frame has a torsional rigidity between the said head tube and bottom bracket of at least 67 poundsforce feet per degree of deflection with the said torque being applied to the bottom bracket along an axis normal to the axis of the said seat tube and normal to the axis of the said bottom bracket, and a lateral bending rigidity of at least 120 poundsforce per inch of deflection measured at the said rear fork ends of the bicycle frame with an axle installed, with the said head tube clamped immovably in a horizontal position and the said bottom bracket supported but not otherwise restrained, said force being applied and deflection measured in a direction normal to the plane of the bicycle frame and along the axis of the rear axle, the chainstay tube of said pair of chainstay tubes on the chain side of said bicycle to which the front and rear sprocket and chain assemblies are to be located being of a greater thickness tubing than the other chainstay tube of said pair of chainstay tubes to increase the lateral bending rigidity and fatigue strength of said bicycle.
5. The light weight bicycle defined in claim 4, wherein the weight of metal in the other of said chainstay tubes is lower than the weight of said chainstay tube on said chainside and the metal weight of the chainstay tube of a greater thickness tubing is proportionally greater whereby the sum of weight of the two chainstay tubes having differential weight equals the sum of the weight of the two chainstay tubes of equal dimension would have had for the same bicycle.
6. In a method of increasing rigidity and fatigue strength of a light weight bicycle frame having a pair of chainstay tubes of equal outside dimensions, comprising one chainstay tube on the chain drive side of said bicycle and one chainstay tube on the non-chain driving side, comprising,
making the tube wall thickness of the chainstay tube on the driving side of said bicycle thicker than the tube wall thickness of the chainstay tube on the non-driving chainstay side such that the drive side chainstay tube has at least 10 percent greater axial rigidity than the chainstay tube on the non-driving side.
US06/576,437 1976-02-17 1984-02-02 Light weight bicycle with improved chainstay structure and method Expired - Lifetime US4621827A (en)

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US05/849,141 US4500103A (en) 1976-02-17 1977-11-07 High efficiency bicycle frame
US06/576,437 US4621827A (en) 1977-11-07 1984-02-02 Light weight bicycle with improved chainstay structure and method

Applications Claiming Priority (6)

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US06/576,437 US4621827A (en) 1977-11-07 1984-02-02 Light weight bicycle with improved chainstay structure and method
EP19850900926 EP0170684A1 (en) 1984-02-02 1985-01-30 Light weight bicycle with improved chainstay structure and method
AU38882/85A AU3888285A (en) 1984-02-02 1985-01-30 Light weight bicycle with improved chainstay structure and method
PCT/US1985/000146 WO1985003484A1 (en) 1984-02-02 1985-01-30 Light weight bicycle with improved chainstay structure and method
CA000473427A CA1245686A (en) 1984-02-02 1985-02-01 Light weight bicycle with improved chainstay structure and method
US06/922,284 US5018758A (en) 1976-02-17 1986-10-23 High efficiency bicycle frame

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US65862076A Continuation-In-Part 1976-02-17 1976-02-17
US05/849,141 Continuation-In-Part US4500103A (en) 1976-02-17 1977-11-07 High efficiency bicycle frame

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US06/922,284 Continuation US5018758A (en) 1976-02-17 1986-10-23 High efficiency bicycle frame

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US4621827A true US4621827A (en) 1986-11-11

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EP (1) EP0170684A1 (en)
AU (1) AU3888285A (en)
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WO (1) WO1985003484A1 (en)

Cited By (15)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4813696A (en) * 1987-04-15 1989-03-21 Alex Moulton Limited Bicycle frame construction
US4995627A (en) * 1988-09-13 1991-02-26 Yun Jae S Bicycle utilizing the vector system
US5002297A (en) * 1989-09-27 1991-03-26 Klein Gary G Large diameter rigid lightweight fork and steering assembly for bicycles
US5018758A (en) * 1976-02-17 1991-05-28 Klein Gary G High efficiency bicycle frame
US5098114A (en) * 1990-09-18 1992-03-24 Jones Gwyndaf M Pivotless human-powered vehicle suspension system
US5116071A (en) * 1989-03-09 1992-05-26 Calfee Craig D Composite bicycle frame
US6024413A (en) * 1997-09-04 2000-02-15 Spencer Technology, Inc. Bicycle wheel and rim
US6497427B1 (en) * 2000-06-09 2002-12-24 Cannondale Corporation Bicycle frame
DE10154611A1 (en) * 2001-11-07 2003-05-22 Bayerische Motoren Werke Ag Front wheel guide for motor cycle has support element extending from centre area of cycle into front fork area and set asymmetrical relative to vertical central longitudinal plane
US20030151226A1 (en) * 2000-08-25 2003-08-14 Amos Jeffrey Ernest Bicycle frame
US20030160422A1 (en) * 2002-02-25 2003-08-28 Cage John Michael Process of altering bicycle frame head tube angle by cutting a slot in bottom bracket and bending frame here
US20040160036A1 (en) * 2003-02-14 2004-08-19 Ricardo Perez Bicycle frame with rear passive suspension
US8820764B2 (en) 2012-03-13 2014-09-02 Robert M Deily Bicycle frame
US10029756B2 (en) 2015-07-14 2018-07-24 Duncan Bayard STOTHERS Impact absorbing support for a wheel
US10220911B2 (en) * 2016-03-03 2019-03-05 Steven Ascher Drive assembly for a human-powered machine

Families Citing this family (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0960806A1 (en) * 1998-05-29 1999-12-01 Vela International Limited Bicycle frame
KR101471049B1 (en) * 2014-05-27 2014-12-08 윈엔윈(주) Body frame for bikes

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Cited By (20)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5018758A (en) * 1976-02-17 1991-05-28 Klein Gary G High efficiency bicycle frame
US4813696A (en) * 1987-04-15 1989-03-21 Alex Moulton Limited Bicycle frame construction
US4995627A (en) * 1988-09-13 1991-02-26 Yun Jae S Bicycle utilizing the vector system
US5116071A (en) * 1989-03-09 1992-05-26 Calfee Craig D Composite bicycle frame
USRE35335E (en) * 1989-03-09 1996-09-24 Calfee; Craig D. Composite bicycle frame
US5002297A (en) * 1989-09-27 1991-03-26 Klein Gary G Large diameter rigid lightweight fork and steering assembly for bicycles
WO1991013795A1 (en) * 1990-03-09 1991-09-19 Jae Shin Yun Bicycle utilizing the vector system
US5098114A (en) * 1990-09-18 1992-03-24 Jones Gwyndaf M Pivotless human-powered vehicle suspension system
US6024413A (en) * 1997-09-04 2000-02-15 Spencer Technology, Inc. Bicycle wheel and rim
US6497427B1 (en) * 2000-06-09 2002-12-24 Cannondale Corporation Bicycle frame
US6837506B2 (en) * 2000-08-25 2005-01-04 Jeffrey Ernest Amos Bicycle frame
US20030151226A1 (en) * 2000-08-25 2003-08-14 Amos Jeffrey Ernest Bicycle frame
DE10154611A1 (en) * 2001-11-07 2003-05-22 Bayerische Motoren Werke Ag Front wheel guide for motor cycle has support element extending from centre area of cycle into front fork area and set asymmetrical relative to vertical central longitudinal plane
US20030160422A1 (en) * 2002-02-25 2003-08-28 Cage John Michael Process of altering bicycle frame head tube angle by cutting a slot in bottom bracket and bending frame here
US6913275B2 (en) * 2002-02-25 2005-07-05 John Cage Process of altering bicycle frame head tube angle by cutting a slot in bottom bracket and bending frame here
US20040160036A1 (en) * 2003-02-14 2004-08-19 Ricardo Perez Bicycle frame with rear passive suspension
US6932371B2 (en) 2003-02-14 2005-08-23 Ricardo Perez Bicycle frame with rear passive suspension
US8820764B2 (en) 2012-03-13 2014-09-02 Robert M Deily Bicycle frame
US10029756B2 (en) 2015-07-14 2018-07-24 Duncan Bayard STOTHERS Impact absorbing support for a wheel
US10220911B2 (en) * 2016-03-03 2019-03-05 Steven Ascher Drive assembly for a human-powered machine

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
WO1985003484A1 (en) 1985-08-15
CA1245686A1 (en)
EP0170684A1 (en) 1986-02-12
AU3888285A (en) 1985-08-27
CA1245686A (en) 1988-11-29

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