US44991A - Improvement in breech-loading fire-arms - Google Patents

Improvement in breech-loading fire-arms Download PDF

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US44991A
US44991A US44991DA US44991A US 44991 A US44991 A US 44991A US 44991D A US44991D A US 44991DA US 44991 A US44991 A US 44991A
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breech
piece
barrel
hammer
cartridge
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41AFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS COMMON TO BOTH SMALLARMS AND ORDNANCE, e.g. CANNONS; MOUNTINGS FOR SMALLARMS OR ORDNANCE
    • F41A3/00Breech mechanisms, e.g. locks
    • F41A3/12Bolt action, i.e. the main breech opening movement being parallel to the barrel axis
    • F41A3/54Bolt locks of the unlocked type, i.e. being inertia operated
    • F41A3/56Bolt locks of the unlocked type, i.e. being inertia operated the bolt being provided with an additional slidable mass

Description

Patenped Nov. s, 1864.
E. WHITNEY. Breach-Loading Fire-Arm.
rarns i A.aiisrr Atric.
ELI IVHITNEY, OF NEV HAVEN, CONNECTICUT.
IMPROVNIENT IN BREECH-LO-ADING FIREHARMS.
Specification forming part of Letters Patent O. @4,991, dated Noveinbcr'S, 1864.
To all whom, t may concern:
Be it known that I, ELI WHITNEY, of New Haven, county of New Haven, State of Connecticut, have invented a new and Improved Breech-Loading Fire-Arm; and I do hereby declare that the following is a full, clear, and exact description thereof, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, making a part of this specification, in whichj Figure 1 is a side view of the main portion of my improved arm. Fig. 2 is a vertical longitudinal section through Fig. l. Fig. 3 is a top view, showing the breech-piece and the retractor in position for discharging the cartridge-case. Fig. 4L is a bottom view of the movable breech-piece. Fig. 5 is a sectional l view, showing the breechv of the barrel, re-
tractor, and the seat for the bead ofthe cartridge-case.
Similar letters of referenceY indicate corresponding parts in the several figures.
The main object of my invention is to so construct a breechloading fire-arm that the breech of the barrel can be exposedfor receiving the charge in it, and again tightly closed by giving a simple horizontal and lateral swinging movement to a breech-piece, as will be hereinafter described. A
Another object of my invention is to so construct a fire-arm that the breech-closer shall, when in position for closing the breech of the barrel, constitutean upper part of the neck of the gun-stock, as will be hereinafter describ ed.
Another object is to so'apply the lock of the gun as to practically operate in conjunction with a laterallyswinging breech-closer.
4,Another object is to withdraw the shell of the cartridge in the act of exposing the breech ofV the barrel to receive a charge when a laterallyswinging breech-closer is employed, as
will be hereinafter described.
Io enable others skilled in the art to make and use my invention, I will describe its construction and operation.
Before entering into a description of my invention I will state that I propose to employ the cartridges which have an annular bead or :flange formed on their rear ends for containing' percussion-powder and receiving the blow of the hammer when it is desired to discharge the load. A cartridge of this character is so as to extend over and break joint with the breech-piece C, when this latter piece is in the position represented in Figs. l and 2.- This lip not only gives a finish to the gun at this point, but it also closes the joint against the upward escape of gas. The rear end of the barrel is reamed out, so as to leave a'depression for receiving the bead on the cartridge, and also for receiving the crescent-shaped vertical portion of the cartridgeretractor, which partially encompassesthe cartridge forward of its bead, when it is in the position repre; sented in Fig. 2, so that when this retract-or is withdrawn from its seat the shell of the cartridge will be carried with it. The slide b of the retractor bis recessed into the ilat portion c of iframe A, so that the surface oi' b will be flush with that of a..
The vertical central slot through the frame A, which I have shown in Fig. 3, is adapted vfor receiving the trigger c and triggerspring c. The trigger c has an extension, c, formed above and in rear of the pivote, which extension strikes the hannnercheck d when the breech-piece is in the position represented in -Fig. 2, and releases the hammer, as will be further described. A hole is formed through the neck portion of the frame B for receiving avertical pin, f, which operates upon a' springlatch, e, that catches into a recess, f', in the breech-piece, and holds this piece in the posi- Ition for closingrthe breech of the barrel.
It will be seen by reference to Figs. l, 2, 3 that the breech-piece Gis of such form .as to constitute the upper portion of the neck ofthe gun-stock. The bottom, c, oi'this piece Gis flat, and adapted to t snugly on its corresponding supporting-surface, a, ofthe frame A. The fo'rword end, t', of breech-piece C is curved and adapted to t snugly i'n contact with the correof which is concentric to the aXis of motion of said breech-piece, as shown inFig. 3. The
l breech-piece is pivoted near its rear end to the frame B by means of a vertical pin, g, which allows the forward end of this piece to be moved off laterally, so as to expose the breech of the barrel, as represented in Fig. 2. The rear end of breech-piece C is curved; but this curve is not concentric to its axis of motion, as it is desired that when the breech-piece is closed the rear end will abut closely against the shoulder g', and thus sustain it against recoil. The eccentricity of the rear end of the breech-piece should not be such as to give a forward or longitudinal movement to this piece in the act of closing the breech of the barrel, as I intend by my invention tov avoid all end play, and close the breech of the barrel by a single swinging movement. The breech-piece C not only forms a part of the neck of the gun-stock, but when closed it also forms a continuation of the encompassing portion of the frame A, thus leaving` no unnecessary projections on the piece. This breech-piece has a vertical slot through it for the reception of the hammer h and check-lever d. The hammer and check springs 7c lc extend back and t in a suitable recess made for them, and are so arranged as to occupy very little space, and to be out of the way in operating the breechpiece. The check-lever is pivoted within the breech-piece in such relation to the tumbler of the hammer 7i and the trigger-extension as to hold the hammer at full and half cock, and release said hammer when the trigger is drawn back, as shown in Fig. 2. The bottom of the breech-piece has a curved slot, s, made in it, as shown in Figs. 3 and 4, and in this slot a vertical pin, y, enters, which pin is affixed to the slide bf ofthe retractor. The shape of slot s is such that when the breech-piece is moved to the position shown in black lines, Fig. 8, the retractor will be drawn back to its fullest extent to discharge the shell of the cartridge. Vhen the breech-piece is moved to the posiytion shown in red lines, Fig. 3, the retractor will return to its seat for the reception in the breech of the barrel of al new charge, after which the breech-piece is brought directly opposite and in a line with the barrel, and there caught and retained by the spring-latch e. The upper portion of the forward and solid end of the breech-.piece is notched, to allow the nose of the hammer h to strike the beadv on the cartridge, as shown in Fig. 2.
The slot s, which gives the required movements to the retractor, is shown clearly in Figs. 4 and 2. It is necessary in making this slot to insert a piece of metal, t, into the recess formed in the breech-piece, C, for receiving the hammer and check-springs lc It. By this means the recesses in the breech-piece can be readily made and the slot s carried across the longitudinal slot by the insertion of a small piece, as above shown 5 otherwise the recesses in the breech-piece would be very difficult to` make.
If desirable, the stock of the gun may be provided with a tube extending from its butt to the nose m, for containing cartridges, by having aspring arranged in any suitable manner in said tube, so as to act upon the carthat the breech of the barrel is opened and closed' by a simple lateral movement of a breech-piece, which piece forms a portion of the neck of the gun-stock. It will also be seen that the lock of the gun is divided, a portion being' located in the movable breech-piece and another portion in the frame A. It will be further seen that I combine a cartridgeshell retractor with said laterally-swinging breech-piece in such manner as not to interfere in any manner with the loading and ring of the piece, all of which is effected in a very Simple manner.
The operation of loading and firing is as follows: The forward end of the breech-piece is released by thrusting the thumb-pin d upward, after which this breech-piece is moved to one side of the barrel, as indicated in red lines, Fig. 3. The charge isnow inserted and the breech-piece returned to its position in a line with the barrel. The piece having been discharged, the forward end of the breechpiece is moved to the position indicated in Fig. 3 in black lines, so as to withdraw the shell of the cartridge, which was left in the barrel. The piece can then be reloaded, as before described.
It is desirable tohalf-co'ck the hammer in opening or closing the breech-piece, and for this purpose a double-inclined plane or doublebeveled surface is made at p, Figs. `5 and 6, against which the nose of the hammer abuts in opening or closing the breech-piece.
Having thus described my invention, what l claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is
1. So constructing a breech-loading fire-arm that the breech of the barrel shall be exposed for receiving the charge and again tightly closed by giving a horizontal (or nearly so) lateral` swinging movement to a pivoted breech-check which has no endwise play, substantially as described.
2. So applying a laterally-swinging breechcheck to a breech-loading gun that when closed it constitutes the upper portion of the neck of the stock, substantially as described.
3. In a breech-loading armhaving a hori-v Y operating substantially as described.
5. In a breechloading arm having a horizontal laterally-swinging breech-check, the slot s in said piece, in` combination With the slide b and retractor b, substantially as described.
6. In a breech-loading arm having a horizontal laterally-swinging breech-check, C, the employment of a springdatclnef, or its equivalent, for locking said check in place, subst-antially as described. v
7. Half-cooking the piece, both in the act of opening and closing the breech-piece C, by means of the double-beveled surface p, substantially as described.
ELI WHITNEY.
itnessesz i HENRY W. BARNETT, C. S. HUBBARD.
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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20050003070A1 (en) * 2003-07-03 2005-01-06 Foster David V. Shelf stable vitamin C in oatmeal products

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20050003070A1 (en) * 2003-07-03 2005-01-06 Foster David V. Shelf stable vitamin C in oatmeal products

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