US440601A - Musical instrument - Google Patents

Musical instrument Download PDF

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US440601A
US440601A US360398DA US440601A US 440601 A US440601 A US 440601A US 360398D A US360398D A US 360398DA US 440601 A US440601 A US 440601A
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strings
instrument
frame
bridges
tenor
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James A Mackenzie
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James A Mackenzie
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F3/00Input arrangements for transferring data to be processed into a form capable of being handled by the computer; Output arrangements for transferring data from processing unit to output unit, e.g. interface arrangements
    • G06F3/01Input arrangements or combined input and output arrangements for interaction between user and computer
    • G06F3/03Arrangements for converting the position or the displacement of a member into a coded form
    • G06F3/041Digitisers, e.g. for touch screens or touch pads, characterised by the transducing means
    • G06F3/042Digitisers, e.g. for touch screens or touch pads, characterised by the transducing means by opto-electronic means
    • G06F3/0421Digitisers, e.g. for touch screens or touch pads, characterised by the transducing means by opto-electronic means by interrupting or reflecting a light beam, e.g. optical touch-screen
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F2203/00Indexing scheme relating to G06F3/00 - G06F3/048
    • G06F2203/048Indexing scheme relating to G06F3/048
    • G06F2203/04808Several contacts: gestures triggering a specific function, e.g. scrolling, zooming, right-click, when the user establishes several contacts with the surface simultaneously; e.g. using several fingers or a combination of fingers and pen

Description

A'llil Patented Nov. 11, 1890.
oQoooOooo uooooo ou INVENTOR:
(No Model.)
ooooooooo W TNESSES; km@ g' I By LH l Y E Attorney.
Tw: cms verses en, Wmo-uma., wml-Immun, o. c.
iined in the claims.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
JAMES A..MACKENZIE, OF MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA.
MUSICAL INSTRUMENT.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 440,601, dated November 11, 1890. Application filed July 30, 1890. Serial No,` 360,398. (No model.)
To all whom t may concern:
Be it known that I, JAMES A. MACKENZIE, a citizen of the United States, residing at Minneapolis, in the county of Hennepin and State of Minnesota, have invented certain Improvements in Musical Instruments, of which the following is a specification.
My invention relates to stringed musical instruments of the class commonly known as dnlcimersg and the object is, in part, to improve the tone and power of the instrument and in part. to provide a rigid construction which will resist the tension put upon the strings.
My invention will be hereinafter fully described, and its novel features carefully de- In the accompanying drawings, which serve to illustrate my invention, Figure l is a plan of an instrument embodying my invention. Fig. 2 is a vertical longitudinal section of the same in the plane of the line 2 2 in Fig. l. Fig. 3 is a plan of the cast-metal frame of the instrument.
a is the box or casing of t-he instrument, and a is the cover or lid hinged thereto.
b is the cast-iron frame ot the instrument, which is arched longitudinally by preference, and c is the sounding-board mounted on said frame and bent to conform to its arched snrface. The frame b has two transverse br'aces b and b2 and two diagonal braces b3 and h4, and at its respective ends are transverse plates h5 and h, on or in which are set the pins for attaching the strings.
The lower side of the instrument, as seen in Fig. l, is the front or the side at which the player sits. At this side are situated the lower-toned registers of the instrument, the higher-toned registers being at the back. The lower side of the iron frame, as represented in Fig. 3, is the front thereof. The diagonal braces h3 and b4 extend from the rear bar of the iron frame to the respective end bars thereof, and the transverse braces b and b2, which extend obliquely across the frame, are alittle wider apart at the front or lower register side of the latter than at the rear or higher register side thereof.
I will now explain the arrangement of the strings of the instrument and their bridges.
The tenor-bridge cl rests on the soundingboard c at a point over the space between the transverse braces h and b2 of the frame below. The positions of these braces are indicated by dotted lines in Fig. l. The tenorstrings e pass over and rest on the main tenorbridge d and over the end bridges d. They are preferably double, the bi ght of each double string being looped over a pin f, (seen at the left-hand end of the instrument,) and having its free ends attached to pins g. (Seen at the ri ght-hand end.) These latter aretuning-pins, whereby the strings are put under proper tension. The bass-strings 71, pass through apertures in or under the main tenor-bridge d and over the two bass -bridges yz'. These latter bridges have arches or apertures in them through which the tenor-strings e pass on their way to the end bridges d. The bridgesft' stand nearly parallel with the respective diagonal braces in the iron frame below, the positions of these latter being designated by the dotted lines in Fig. l. The bridge cl is not quite parallel with the respective braces h and b2, the latter being wider apart at the front than at the back, ot' the instrument. The bassstrings 7L are mounted in the same manner as the tenor-strings, or substantially so, the bight of each double string 7L being looped over a pin j at the end of the iron frame and attached at its free ends to tuning-pins k at the opposite end of the frame. The pins f andj may be cast integrally with the iron frame or may be set iixedly therein, as preferred.
. It will be seen that the construction described causes the two sets ot strings e and /L tooross each other at each side ot' bridge d in such a manner that the tenor-strings c are raised above the bass-strings 7L at each side of the main tenor-bridge, and the bass-strings are raised above the tenor-strings at two points just inside ot the respective bass-bridges i. This arrangement permits the strings to be played upon at these elevated points. Where the strings pass through apertures in the bridges they are free to vibrate therein without contact with the latter. The vibrating portions of the bass-strings between the two bridges t' may be struck; with either the right or the left hand at the points near the bridges where they are accessible. The tenor-strings IOC may also be struck with either hand at either side of the main tenor-bridge (l. This latter bridge is situated somewhat to the left of the center of the instrument, its position being such that I am enabled to obtain a tone at each side of said bridge, that at the left side being just a fifth higher than that at the right side.
The respective arrangements 0f the braces in the cast-metal frame and the bridges upon the sounding-board, as herein set forth, is of importance. By making the bridges diverge laterally farther from their respective braces in the frame at the front of the instrument than at the back or higher register part I equalize the strength and fullness of the tone throughout the different registers or octaves. The greater the distance laterally from the bridge to the adjacent brace below the more vibration of the sounding-board there will be at that point and the less vibration of the string. This produces the effect of short or staccato tones, such as are produced in the pianoforte by dampers upon the strings. Thus I obtain at the fron-t of the instrument an increased vibration of the sounding-board and a deeper and fuller tone in the lower register, which is desired, and at the back of the instrument a firmer and shriller tone in the upper register.
By giving to the metal frame the arched form shown greater strength in proportion to its weight is imparted to said frame to enable it to resist the severe strain of the strings necessary to give a round fullness to the tone.
I prefer to make the frame b and its braces of cast-iron; but it may be made of other metals as well. Iron is the cheaper metal and it fully answers the purpose. The box ct and soundingboard c will usually be of wood.
My instrument may be called an improved dulcimer, butI have given it the new name of piano-harp. This name is more appropriate than dulcimer as delining the invention, because, first, it may be played with hammers, and when so played it yields the full, deep tones of the piano-forte, and not the thin wiry tones of the old dulcimer; secondly, having placed each group of strings (giving the different tones) one-third closer to each other than they are on the ordinary dulcimer, the'player is able to reach an octave of strings with the lingers, as upon the pia-no forte, so that when playing with the hammers (one in each hand) the fingers may be also brought into play in the same strain of music either alternately or wit-hout breaking the time, thus giving the results of both pianoand harp. My improvements are, however, applicable to all stringed instruments of this class by whatever name they may be called.
The pins j and k for the bass-strings are set at a higher level than the pins f and g for the tenor-strings. Thus all the strings in passing over their respective bridges bear thereon just firmly enough to form the necessary fret to give a clear sound when vibrated, and no more. Any further tension on the bridge, or, what is more, on the sounding-board, is in this way prevented, and the pull on the strings in tuning is brought more nearly into a direct line I have described the bridges d and t' as having apertures in them for the passage of the strings. In reality,however, the strings h pass under the bridge d and the strings e pass under the bridges t.
Having thus described my invention, I claim l. A stringed instrument having as a support for the sounding-board a metal frame b, in which the pins for the strings are set, said frame being provided with two transverse braces b and b2, extending from one side bar 85 of the 'frame to the other and being widest apart at the front or low-register side of the instrument, and two diagonal braces b3 and b4, extending' from the side bar of the frame at the back or high-register side of the instrument to the respective end bars of said frame, substantially as and for the purposes set forth.
2. A stringed instrument l'iaving as a support for the soundingboard alongitudinally- 95 arched metal frame b, in which the pins for the strings are set, said frame being provided with transverse braces b and b2 and diagonal braces h3 and b4, substantially as and for the purposes set forth.
S. The combination, in astringed musical instru ment, of the base-iframe provided with pins for the strings, the sounding-board thereon, the main apertured tenor-bridge d, the minor tenor-bridges d', the tenor-strings e, resting 105 on said bridges, the apertured bass-bridges 2, and the bass-strings resting on same, the bassstrings passing under the bridge d and the tenor-strings passing under the bass-bridges t', the two sets of strings crossing at points 11o between the bridge d and the bridges z', as set forth.
et. In a stringed musical instrument, the combination, with the metal frame h, having transverse braces b and b2 and diagonal 1 i 5 braces b3 and b4, arranged as described, of the sounding-board on said frame, the strings strained over said frame and board, and the bass and tenor bridges, the spaces between the bridges and the respective adjacent 12o braces in the frame below being wider at the front or low-register side of the instrument than at the high-register side, as set forth.
In wit-ness whereof I have hereunto signed my name in the presence of two subscribing 125 witnesses.
IOO
JAMES A. MACKENZIE. Witnesses:
ALEXANDER CAMPBELL, W. W. PRICE.
US360398D 1890-07-30 1890-07-30 Musical instrument Expired - Lifetime US440601A (en)

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20090081715A1 (en) * 2007-09-07 2009-03-26 Cobalt Technologies, Inc., A Delaware Corporation Engineered Light-Emitting Reporter Genes

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20090081715A1 (en) * 2007-09-07 2009-03-26 Cobalt Technologies, Inc., A Delaware Corporation Engineered Light-Emitting Reporter Genes

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