US4398161A - Phase-shifting amplifier - Google Patents

Phase-shifting amplifier Download PDF

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Publication number
US4398161A
US4398161A US06253453 US25345381A US4398161A US 4398161 A US4398161 A US 4398161A US 06253453 US06253453 US 06253453 US 25345381 A US25345381 A US 25345381A US 4398161 A US4398161 A US 4398161A
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means
signal
amplifying means
phase
amplifying
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Expired - Fee Related
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US06253453
Inventor
Franklin D. Lamb
Steve Kiss, Jr.
Thomas K. Krueger
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US Air Force
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US Air Force
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01PWAVEGUIDES; RESONATORS, LINES, OR OTHER DEVICES OF THE WAVEGUIDE TYPE
    • H01P1/00Auxiliary devices
    • H01P1/18Phase-shifters

Abstract

A phase shifting circuit comprising a quadrature hybrid for splitting a source of signals into two paths, with an amplifier in each path and a summing hybrid for recombining the outputs from the amplifiers to produce a resultant signal. Phase shift adjustment is achieved by independently varying the gain control voltage of each amplifier.

Description

RIGHTS OF THE GOVERNMENT

The invention described herein may be manufactured and used by or for the Government of the United States for all governmental purposes without the payment of any royalty.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention

This invention relates to active phase shifting circuits and in particular to phase shifters whose shifting characteristics may be accurately controlled.

2. Description of Prior Art

One known type of adjustable phase shifter is described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,087,737. This phase shifter takes the form of an integrator circuit comprising an operational amplifier having a feedback capacitor connected between the amplifier output port and the amplifier inverting input port. A resistor is connected in series between an input terminal and the amplifier inverting input port. Adjustability of the phase shift is achieved by means of a parallel network, connected in shunt with the resistor. The network includes a first capacitor in one branch and a controllable gain amplifier and a second capacitor connected in series in a second branch.

Another phase shifting circuit but of a passive nature involves the use of step attenuators between two hybrids. In such a circuit, a variable loss is employed to generate the applicable phase shift.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

An object of the invention is to provide fine phase control for removing undesirable phase shifts or inserting desired phase shifts with low loss. The invention is capable of achieving phase shift over all frequency ranges limited only by the frequency capabilities of the device in the amplifying stage.

According to the present invention, an input signal is coupled to a hybrid network which splits the signal into separate signal paths differing in quadrature. The separate signal paths are each connected to a balanced amplifier having a variable gain control. The output from each amplifier is recombined in a final summing hybrid to produce a single output whose phase is responsive to the gain independently provided by each of the amplifiers.

An advantage of the circuit of the present invention is its capability of achieving phase shifting in the microwave frequency ranges, i.e. 2-20 GHZ, limited only by the frequency capability of the amplifying devices utilized.

Another advantage of the circuit of the present invention is its ability to provide an ultra or super high frequency response and at the same time provide very fine control over the phase shift adjustment and with extremely low loss.

An additional advantage of this invention is its ability to provide finely tuned variable phase shifting with very few external components and relatively few circuit elements.

One application for this invention would be a low cost technique that will compensate for phase errors in solid state transmit/receive modules making up an active phase array aperture. Both static and dynamic control is possible, thus, errors resulting from manufacturing process and the operating environment can be compensated.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING

FIG. 1 is a functional block diagram showing the invention;

FIG. 2 is a vector diagram showing the operation of the invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

FIG. 1 illustrates an adjustable phase shift circuit according to the preferred embodiment. Input signals from a source 10 are applied to a 3 db hybrid network 20 and split in quadrature. Each of the two resulting signals are separately connected to parallel balanced amplifiers 22 and 24. The amplifiers, preferably Field Effect Transistor (FET) amplifiers, are linear and have adjustable gain controlled by varying the gate or drain voltages by any suitable means such as, for example, a potentiometer. The output of each of the two FET amplifiers is then applied to separate ports of a final hybrid 30 which combines the signals, producing a final resultant source of signals 40. The operation of this invention can best be described by the following analysis in conjunction with FIG. 1.

The input signal (S1) is described as:

S.sub.1 =RE[Ae.sup.jωt ]

where RE[] means "the real part of", and A is the signal power.

Output signal S3 from hybrid network 20 has the same phase as input signal S1 reduced in power by a factor of 2 or ##EQU1## On the other leg of the hybrid network 20, output signal S4 is shifted in phase by 90° or ##EQU2## Signals S3 and S4 are amplified, respectively, by FET amplifiers 22 and 24. The output signals of the amplifiers, indicated as S5 and S6 may be described as ##EQU3## where G22 and G24 are the gains of the amplifiers.

For purposes of this analysis, it is assumed that the phase shift through each amplifier is the same. However, it is understood that the desired phase shift could be achieved even though the two amplifiers are not identical by selective variation of gain control voltages to the amplifiers.

Signals S5 and S6 are combined in hybrid 30, producing a resultant output signal S2 which is the sum of signals S5 and S6.

S.sub.2 =S.sub.5 +S.sub.6

This summation is performed by the parallelogram rule for addition of vectors as shown in FIG. 2, wherein ##EQU4## From the foregoing it will be apparent that the gains G22 and G24 can be used to control the phase shift with the amount of the shift given by tan-1 G24 /G22.

As an example, ##EQU5##

Output signal S2 would then be ##EQU6## Utilizing FET balanced amplifiers, the invention provides phase shift in the frequency range of 2 to 20 GHZ. Multiple numbers of phase shifting amplifiers according to the invention may be used as building blocks, for example, in a phased array antenna system to permit compensation for phase errors inherent in the system. In such an application, a microprocessor, along with digital to analog (D/A) converters, could be utilized to vary the gate or drain voltages of the amplifiers to produce the necessary gain values.

Thus, while preferred constructional features of the invention are embodied in the structure illustrated herein, it is to be understood that changes and variations may be made by the skilled in the art without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.

Claims (2)

What is claimed is:
1. A phased array antenna system, comprising:
a plurality of transmit/receive building block modules of electronic phase shifting circuits compensating for phase errors inherent in said system, said system including at least one microprocessor, and wherein each building block module has a source of input signals coupled to a signal splitting means;
said signal splitting means dividing said input signals into separate signal paths differing in quadrature;
amplifying means connected to said separate signal paths for amplifying the signal in each path;
said amplifying means having a control input for independently varying the gain of said amplifying means, said control means including both static anc dynamic control means;
said microprocessor being coupled via digital to analog converters to said control inputs for independently adjusting the gain of each of said amplifying means; and
signal combining means connected to said amplifying means for producing a resultant signal having a phase shift which is proportional to
tan.sup.-1 G.sub.24 /G.sub.22
where G24 and G22 are the gains for the respective amplifying means.
2. The phased array antenna system of claim 1, wherein said amplifying means includes Field Effect Transistor amplifiers.
US06253453 1981-04-13 1981-04-13 Phase-shifting amplifier Expired - Fee Related US4398161A (en)

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Cited By (22)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4458219A (en) * 1982-03-01 1984-07-03 Raytheon Company Variable phase shifter
US4549152A (en) * 1983-03-28 1985-10-22 Rca Corporation Broadband adjustable phase modulation circuit
DE3511762A1 (en) * 1984-05-22 1985-11-28 Bosch Gmbh Robert Active microwave phase shifter
US4580114A (en) * 1984-09-14 1986-04-01 Rca Corporation Active element microwave power coupler
US4612549A (en) * 1983-12-23 1986-09-16 General Electric Company Interference canceller loop having automatic nulling of the loop phase shift for use in a reception system
US4845422A (en) * 1986-12-24 1989-07-04 General Electric Company Microwave proximity sensor
US4956614A (en) * 1987-04-03 1990-09-11 Thomson-Csf Device including a radial combiner for electromagnetic waves
US4977382A (en) * 1988-08-23 1990-12-11 Pacific Monolithics Vector modulator phase shifter
US5019793A (en) * 1990-05-21 1991-05-28 Hughes Aircraft Company Digitally implemented variable phase shifter and amplitude weighting device
US5166648A (en) * 1988-01-29 1992-11-24 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Digital phase shifter apparatus
GB2274950A (en) * 1990-06-29 1994-08-10 American Nucleonics Corp Vector modulator
US5442327A (en) * 1994-06-21 1995-08-15 Motorola, Inc. MMIC tunable biphase modulator
US5451913A (en) * 1994-06-21 1995-09-19 Motorola, Inc. Compact MMIC tunable biphase modulator and method
US5481231A (en) * 1994-06-21 1996-01-02 Motorola, Inc. Lumped element four port coupler
US5585769A (en) * 1995-08-14 1996-12-17 Emc Technology, Inc. Passive temperature variable phase-shifter
US5705922A (en) * 1995-03-30 1998-01-06 The Whitaker Corporation Terminator with voltage regulator
US5924890A (en) * 1996-08-30 1999-07-20 The Whitaker Corporation Electrical connector having a virtual indicator
US6515541B2 (en) * 2001-06-13 2003-02-04 Skyworks Solutions, Inc. Multi-level power amplifier
US20070030922A1 (en) * 2003-09-11 2007-02-08 Takashi Kato Error correction signal generating device and orthogonal modulator equipped with the error correction signal generating device
EP2034550A1 (en) 2007-09-07 2009-03-11 Thales Integrated active phase shifter
US20110267141A1 (en) * 2009-01-09 2011-11-03 Mitsubishi Electric Corporation Multiport amplifier and wireless device using the same
US9667235B1 (en) * 2012-12-13 2017-05-30 Rockwell Collins, Inc. Ultra-precision linear phase shifter with gain control

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3323080A (en) * 1964-08-24 1967-05-30 Northern Electric Co Fine attenuator and phase shifter
US3419823A (en) * 1967-04-10 1968-12-31 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Phase-differential network
US3516024A (en) * 1968-12-30 1970-06-02 Texas Instruments Inc Interdigitated strip line coupler
US4161705A (en) * 1977-12-19 1979-07-17 International Telephone And Telegraph Corporation Low level controllable radio frequency phase shifter

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3323080A (en) * 1964-08-24 1967-05-30 Northern Electric Co Fine attenuator and phase shifter
US3419823A (en) * 1967-04-10 1968-12-31 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Phase-differential network
US3516024A (en) * 1968-12-30 1970-06-02 Texas Instruments Inc Interdigitated strip line coupler
US4161705A (en) * 1977-12-19 1979-07-17 International Telephone And Telegraph Corporation Low level controllable radio frequency phase shifter

Cited By (25)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4458219A (en) * 1982-03-01 1984-07-03 Raytheon Company Variable phase shifter
US4549152A (en) * 1983-03-28 1985-10-22 Rca Corporation Broadband adjustable phase modulation circuit
US4612549A (en) * 1983-12-23 1986-09-16 General Electric Company Interference canceller loop having automatic nulling of the loop phase shift for use in a reception system
DE3511762A1 (en) * 1984-05-22 1985-11-28 Bosch Gmbh Robert Active microwave phase shifter
US4580114A (en) * 1984-09-14 1986-04-01 Rca Corporation Active element microwave power coupler
US4845422A (en) * 1986-12-24 1989-07-04 General Electric Company Microwave proximity sensor
US4956614A (en) * 1987-04-03 1990-09-11 Thomson-Csf Device including a radial combiner for electromagnetic waves
US5166648A (en) * 1988-01-29 1992-11-24 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Digital phase shifter apparatus
US4977382A (en) * 1988-08-23 1990-12-11 Pacific Monolithics Vector modulator phase shifter
US5019793A (en) * 1990-05-21 1991-05-28 Hughes Aircraft Company Digitally implemented variable phase shifter and amplitude weighting device
GB2274950A (en) * 1990-06-29 1994-08-10 American Nucleonics Corp Vector modulator
GB2274950B (en) * 1990-06-29 1995-01-18 American Nucleonics Corp Vector modulator for an interference cancellation system
US5481231A (en) * 1994-06-21 1996-01-02 Motorola, Inc. Lumped element four port coupler
US5451913A (en) * 1994-06-21 1995-09-19 Motorola, Inc. Compact MMIC tunable biphase modulator and method
US5442327A (en) * 1994-06-21 1995-08-15 Motorola, Inc. MMIC tunable biphase modulator
US5705922A (en) * 1995-03-30 1998-01-06 The Whitaker Corporation Terminator with voltage regulator
US5585769A (en) * 1995-08-14 1996-12-17 Emc Technology, Inc. Passive temperature variable phase-shifter
US5924890A (en) * 1996-08-30 1999-07-20 The Whitaker Corporation Electrical connector having a virtual indicator
US6515541B2 (en) * 2001-06-13 2003-02-04 Skyworks Solutions, Inc. Multi-level power amplifier
US20070030922A1 (en) * 2003-09-11 2007-02-08 Takashi Kato Error correction signal generating device and orthogonal modulator equipped with the error correction signal generating device
US7701306B2 (en) 2003-09-11 2010-04-20 Advantest Corporation Error correction signal generating device and orthogonal modulator equipped with the error correction signal generating device
EP2034550A1 (en) 2007-09-07 2009-03-11 Thales Integrated active phase shifter
US20110267141A1 (en) * 2009-01-09 2011-11-03 Mitsubishi Electric Corporation Multiport amplifier and wireless device using the same
US8618878B2 (en) * 2009-01-09 2013-12-31 Mitsubishi Electric Corporation Multiport amplifier and wireless device using the same
US9667235B1 (en) * 2012-12-13 2017-05-30 Rockwell Collins, Inc. Ultra-precision linear phase shifter with gain control

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Owner name: UNIED STATES OF AMERICA AS REPRESENTED BY THE SECR

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNORS:LAMB FRANKLIN D.;KISS STEVE JR.;KRUEGER THOMAS K.;REEL/FRAME:003885/0197

Effective date: 19810401

REMI Maintenance fee reminder mailed
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FP Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee

Effective date: 19870809